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TRANSMISSION LINE MANUAL
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Publication No. 268

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Editors C.V.J. Varma P.K. Lal

CBI&P Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines P.M. Ahluwalia Chairman

CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATION AND POWER
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021

STANDING PANEL OF EXPERTS ON TRANSMISSION LINES
Chairman P.M. Ahluwalia Ex-Member, CEA

Members
1. V.N. Rikh Ex-Chairman, UPSEB V.D. Anand Ex -Chief Engineer, CEA M.L. Sachdeva Ex-Chief Engineer, CEA Chief EngineerlDirector (Trans. Design), CEA Umesh Chandra D. Chowdhury AGM DGM Power Grid Corpn. of India Ltd. S.N. MandaI, Chief Design Engineer NTPC/K. Mohan Das, Addl. Chief Design Engineer, NTPC Convenor P.K. Lal Director (E) Central Board of Irrigation and Power 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Executi ve Director/Chief Engineer (Trans. Design), UPSEB Executive Director/Chief Engineer Transmission Designs, MPEB Executi ve Director/Chief Engineer Transmission Design, GEB Director Bureau of Indian Standards Vice-President (Engineering)/General Manager Engineering, KECIL-RPG Transmission Vice-President (Technical) EMC

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AUTHORS
Chaper 1 Introduction P.M. Ahluwalia V.N. Rikh V.D. Anand Tower Types and Shapes Tower Geometry M.L. Sachdeva H.S. Sehra Electrical Clearances M.L. Sachdeva Design Parameters Loadings Umesh Chandra D. Choudhury Design of Towers Testing of Towers S.D. Dand L. Khubchandani

ASSOCIATED TRAN,SRAlL STRUCTURES lTD.

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(An Associate Co, of Gammon Group)

Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6

GAMMON HOUSE, 2nd FLOOR, VEER SAVARKAR MARG, PRABHADEVI, MUMBAI·400 025. TEL:5661400~1 ::xtn: 4086/4043

Chapter 7 Chapter 8

Chapter 9 : Tower Materials, Fabrication, Galvanisation, Inspection and Storage B.N. Pai Chapter 10: Design of Foundation S.M. Takalkar D. Choudhury Construction of Transmission Lines M.V. Subbarayudu

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Each Chapter was finalised after Intense input by Shri P.M. Ahluwalia, Chairman of the Panel Covering Detailed Review, Modifications and Supplements followed by final Discussion and Acceptance by the Panel of Experts.

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KEC International L. Khubchandani S.D. Dand G.D. Rathod B.N. Pai M.V. Subbarayudu M.N. Dedhia P.L. Sehgal

The regional grids are all in operation now and Power Grid Corporation of India is engaged in the task of establishment of National Power Grid. Testing Stations. This Panel of Transmission Experts further set up in March 1992 a Steering Committee and also a Working Group to consider and make suitable recommendations on the implications of the proposed draft amendment to the Indian National Standard IS:802-1977 "Code for use of Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission Line Towers" issued in 1991 based on the 1987 draft on the report oflEC 826 of Intemational Electro-technical Commission. Ex-Member.).D. The various chapters contained in the publication were authored by groups of eminent practising experts and were thoroughly discussed in the meeting of panel at the time of finalisation. Faculty Members and Students of Engineering Institutes in India and overseas. Shri V. .M. There have been considerable technological developments in the field of transmission engineering and the HVDC transmission and 800 kV transmission are going to play an important role in the National Power Grid. There have been many important developments since publication of the manual in 1977. It was. The outcome of efforts made by Steering Committee led to adoption of the probabilistic method of design as contained in "Guide for New Code of Transmission Line" published by CBIP in 1993. CEA took it upon himself to go through the final manuscript meticoulously and correcting the same. Anand. New Delhi to take up this important work. Ahluwalia. Design and practising engineers of power utilities and Transmission Line Companies. Keeping this in view the Central Board of Irrigation and Power constituted a panel consisting of eminent transmission lines experts from all over the country in 1988-89 under the chairmanship of Shri P.M. felt necessary not only to revise the manual published earlier but also to make it a comprehensive one to include not only towers but also other aspects of transmission lines incorporating latest technological developments. This publication will be immensely useful to Managers.J. therefore. Chief Engineer (Retd. CEA. (C. Special thanks are due to Shri P. The Central Board of Irrigation and power wishes to acknowledge its grateful thanks to the authors of the different chapters for their expert contribution. Researchers. The central sector generating companies like National Thermal Power Corporation and National Hydro Power Corporation made considerable impact on the generation scenario as also on EHV systems required for evacuation of power from the generating stations and also on inter-connection between various states for integrated system operation within the region. These recommendations were adopted in Part-I of IS-802 published in 1995. The present document "Manual on Transmission Lines" is outcome of the ceaseless efforts made and voluminous work done by the Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines. Chairman of the panel for the tremendous input and direction given for finalising the manual.The Central Board of Irrigation and Power brought out a manual on "Design of Transmission Line Towers" in 1977. Ahluwalia. It is hoped that this publication will be well received by the engineering fraternity. The Board is also thankful to the members of the Committee for their valuable contribution.V. The publication proved immensely popular and had to be reprinted twice because of its usefulness to utility engineers and manufacturers of transmission line towers. VARMA) Member Secretary Central Board of Irrigation and Power Vll .

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Chapter 3. In India. Tower Testing Stations. lowe limitless gratitude and personal thanks to them for their co-operation and kindness in this great technical endeavour. Varma. Temperature. Snow and Lightning. of the Present Document deal with this subject. Research Institutes and Transmission Line Manufacturing and Construction Companies. Other subjects dealt with in the Document are: Tower Types and Shapes . CIGRE and IEC worked on the Probabilistic Method of Design for Overhead Lines. Overcoming all these adversities Transmission Line has to deliver to the consumer power at minimum cost and with maximum reliability. The mass of technological work could be accomplished by the untiring labours of the authors. Changing Hostile Terrains. Environment. Uncertainties of Wind. Tower Materials. Electrical Clearances . Member Secretary and Shri P. members of the Panel of Experts and their organisations who worked behind the scene. For almost a decade since 1980.V. Section 1 "Materials and Loads has been amended and published in 1995. It had to be reprinted two times in 1988-89. Advisor and other officers and staff of the CBIP. CBI&P set up a Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines to review the Document considering the latest technological developments.Funds. Transmission Line is the vehicle for optimum utilisation of power produced at power projects. The CBIP Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines examined the subject with speed and in depth through Steering Committee of top-most Transmission Experts.Power projects are highly capital intensive. Proximity of Objects. Special attention was given towards simplicity. CBI&P published in 1977 "Manual on Transmission Line Towers". culminating in the publication of the Recommendatory Report IEC 826:1991. CBI&P Management.06 sent a Questionnaire to various countries of the World.Chapter 8.J.Chapter 4. In accordance with the CBI&P Guide. The Document has full acceptability as the Panel comprised managerial experts from Central Electricity Authority. That document became very popular in India and Overseas with Power Utilities and Tower Manufacturers. Chapters 5 . Indian Standard IS:802" Code of Practice. Tower Geometry .Design Parameters -6 -Loadings. Central Government Power Corporations. Lal. Design of Foundations . Bureau of Indian Standards. IX . Fabrication Galvanising Inspection and Storage . Testing"of Towers . Right of Way. Shri C. Ecology. Each one of the Chapters was authored by eminent practising Experts incorporating latest technological advancements and practices and reviewed in depth by the members of the Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines before adoption. based on which CIGRE Working Group 22. and Construction of Transmission Lines . Forests.Chapter 11. State Electricity Boards.Chapter 10. As a result India was one of the first countries in the world to adopt the Probabilistic Method of Design as contained in the sister Publication of CBI&P "Guide for New Code for Design of Transmission Lines in India" -1993. and 7 -"Design of Tower Members. Security and Safety. They worked ceaselessly for almost 9 years. Transmission Line suffers from limitless insurmountable handicaps . for Use of Structural Steel in Overhead Line Towers" Part 1. IS:8021977 Code of Practice for Use of Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission Line Towers. including India.Chapter 2. clarity and completeness to make each chapter self-contained in all respects giving practical examples of calculation to facilitate practical application without hinderance.K. and above all requirements of Reliability. Towers were designed following Deterministic Method of Design as per Indian Standard. Tower is the most critical component of Transmission Line.Chapter 9.

AHLUWALIA Chairman CBIP Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines .Power utilities. It will be of great reference value to the Management and Practising engineers of Power Utilities and Transmission Line Companies. P. Researchers. Faculty Members and students of engineering Institutes in India and Overseas. Manufacture and Construction of Transmission Lines.M. Transmission Line companies and their engineers located in the far-flung corners of India were always faced with the dearth of a single unified document on Design. This Manual will fill that void. Testing Stations.

Tower Types and Shapes 2.3 Tower Shapes 2.1 3.2 1.5 3.4 Tower DeSignation 2. Transposition Towers 2.9 Scope Tower Anatomy Bracing System Tower Extensions Tower Outline Tower Height Tower Width Cross-arm Spread Typical lengths of Insulator Strings on Transmission Lines in India 4.4 .1 1.4.1 Introduction 4.Foreword Preface ~: Introduction 1.5 Air Clearances . 4.2 Minimum Ground Clearance 4.3 1.5 1.3 Conventional Guyed Towers 2.8 3.7 3.2 Types of Towers 2.4.2.5 Special Towers 3.2 3.4.2.6 1.General Consideration 4.6 3.6 Clearances and Swing Angles on Transmission Lines in India 4.1 Scope 2.3 Minimum Clearance above RiverslLakes 4.2 Suspension Towers 2.7 Conductor Metal Air Clearances XI .4 Chainette Guyed Towers 2.4.4 3.3 Tension Towers 2.Impact on Transmission Systems in India Philosophies in Design of Transmission lines New Concepts in Transmission Line Design Resume of Topics Covered In the Manual \_ 2.3· 3. Tower Geometry 3. Electrical Clearances 4.4 Environmental Criteria for 800 kV line .4 1.2 Self-SupportingTowers 2.2.7 Preamble Development of Power Systems in India Environmental and EcologicalAwakening Privatisation Wave .

9 6.11 6.10 6. Introduction Requirements of Loads on Transmission Lines Nature of Loads Loading Criteria Transverse Loads (TR) .0 5. Brokel1wite Condition Broken Limb Condition for 'V' Insulator String Design of Tower Members 7.Analysis by CIGRE .4 6.4.1 Technical Parameters .3 6.11 4.9 4.4 5.8 6.17 7.Investigation Studies on Clearances and Swing Angles for Indian Power System I .5 5.Safety Condition Longitudinal Loads (LR) -Reliability Condition Longitudinal Loads (LS) . Security and Safety Conditions Anti-cascading Checks .14 6.16 6.'Swing Angle for 800 kV Anpara . Vertical Loads during Construction and Maintenance (VM) .5~ Design Parameters 5.15 6.3 5.1 5. Loadings 6.13 _6.Condition Vertical Loads (VS) Security Condition .1 General 7.8 4.Security Condition Longitudinal Loads during Construction and Maintenance (LM) • Safety Condition Loading Compinations under Reliability.Security Condition Transverse Load (TM) during Construction and Maintenance .1.6 6.Reliability Condition (Normal Condition) Transverse Loads (TS) .10 4.Safety Condition Vertical Loads (VR) .Unnao Line for Insulator Strings and Jumper APPENDIX .7 5. Conductor Earth Wire Insulator Strings Span 6.1 6. Phase-to-Phase Air Clearances Clearance between Conductor & Groundwire Effect of Span Length on Clearances Clearances at Power Line CrOSSings Recommendation r ANNEXURES Annexure I .12 6.:13 Air Clearance .12 4.2 5.7 6.8 Abstract Transmission Voltage Number of Circuits Climatic Ocndhions Environmental and Ecological Consideration .Reliability .Spacing between Conductors Annexure II .6 5.2 6.5 6.

9 7.8 7.2.6 8.4.7 7.2.4.2 Reduction due to bIt Ratio Selection of Members 7.2 8.6 7.V) 1989 UR Consideration for Bracing System ·in a Transmission Tower Permissible Axial Stress in Compression Reference Table for Maximum Permissible Length of Redundant Members Dimensions for Hexagon Bolts for Steel Structures V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV 8. 2-Dimensional Analysis 7.4.7 8.1 8.Truss Method.1 Curve-1 to Curve-6 7.4 Grades of Steel Slenderness Ratio Limitations (KUR) Computation of UR for Different Bracing Systems Permissible Stresses in Tower Members 7.Truss Method or.4 Computer-Aided Analysis 7.8.2.8 8.1 Plane .4.2.6 Combination of Forces to determine Maximum Stress in each member Member Selection Selection of Material 7.4 8.5 8.3. Selection of Members in Compression 7.7.7.4 7.8. Analytical Method 7.2.5 Comparison of Various Methods of Stress Analysis 7.2 Selection of Members in Tension 7. or 3-Dimensional Analysis 7.9 Introduction Testing Requirements Description of a Tower Testing Station Calibration Assembly of Prototype Tower Rigging Arrangements and Location of the Loadcells Test Procedure Testing of Prototype Tower Special Requirements XIII .2 Space .1 .4.3 Redundant Members Bolts and Nuts Annexures Conductor Details I II III IV Earthwire Design Loads Graphical Diagram Method Analytical Method Computer Aided Analysis Input for 3D Analysis Output Giving Summary of Critical Stresses Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild Steel Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of High Tensile Steel Section List Equal Section Commonly Used for Towers & As Per IS:808 (~art .3 8.7.3 7.1 Use of hot rolled angle steel sections 7.3 Minimum Thickness of Members 7.4.2 Minimum Flange Width 7.2.2 Graphical Diagram Method 7.5 7.2.8. Testing of Towers 8.

Company Standards " VIII. 8.Erection/Proto-type Tower Assembly Galvanising Inspection Packing and Storage I Annexures II III IV V VI VII Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild Steel Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of High Tensile Steel " (a) Properties of Equal Angle Sections as per IS : 808 (Part V) .'.10 Acceptance of Test Results 8.A Sampling Plan for Incoming Material a.1989 (c) Properties of Channel Sections Unit Weight of Plates Dlmenslons of Hexagon Bolts for Steel Structures Ultimate Strength of Bolts Properties of Anchor Bolts.2 " Material Quality Control 9. Fabrication. Inspection and Storage 9.6 9. Quality Policy IV. • ". Quality Assurance Plan I.Q"nnri fnr "\ Rnlt~lNuts. Nuts and Spring Washers c. Sampling Plan for Physical Properties"of Bolts.S 9. Inspection and Testing of Finished (Galvanised) Material XIV.!. Packaging and Handling Enclosures . Design and Drawings VII. "Quality Planning VI. In-Process Inspection XIII.. Accessories and Bought out Items b. Quality Objective" III.7 9. Organisation of Quality Control Department V.9 Tolerances Shop . Material Management X. Format for Report on Testing of Physical Properties . Incoming Material Inspection XI.. Sampling Plan for Galvanising"Test for Threaded"Fasteners " d. Sections..11 Material Testing 8.(QCD-2) . Formats for Inspection Report for Steel StackinglPreliminary-(QCD-I) e. Format for Report on Bend Test f.1 Scope 9.12 Presentation of Test Results 9._ --.. Control on Inspection-EquipmentsIToolsiGauges IX. Material. Metric Screw Threads as per IS : 4218 (Part-3)-1976 with ISO Appendices Appendix I .4 Operations in Fabrication 9.1989 (b) Properties of Unequal Angle Sections as per I~ : 808 (Part V) . Introduction II. " Storage.:_.-. Galvani$ing.8 9.3 Specific Requirements of Fabrication 9. Pre-production XII.

17 Investigation of Foundation of a Tower Line in Service 10.(QCD-5) Plan for In-process Material Procedure Format for Quantity Control Report Format for Loading Report of Crates Format for Inspection and Loading Report of Fabrication Shop Format for Inspection and Loading Report of.2 Types of Loads on Foundations 10.18 Repairs of Foundations of a Tower Line in Service 10.4 Soil Parameters 10.13 Skin Friction Tests ·10.III .Fabricating Workshop Appendix III : Workshop Chart Appendix IV : Process Flow Chart for Fabrication of Tower 10.(QCD-4) .5 Soil Investigation 10.' Format for Inspection Report for Steel Test Tower . Annexure Annexure Annexure -I .16 Investigation of Foundation of Towers 10.8 Revetment on Foundation 10. Sampling (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) G} (k) (I) Appendix II: List of Machines required for a well-equipped Tower .9 Soil Resistances for Designing Foundation 10.' - .12 Pull-out Tests on Tower Foundation 10.. B.7 Types of Foundations 10.. Model Assembly Format for Inspection and Loading Report of Model Shop Format for Out-right Rejection Slip Format for Rectifiable Rejection Slip Format for Weekly Records of ShiftWise Acid Strengths Format for Galvanising Process Inspection Report Format for Galvanising Inspection Report Format for Testing Concentration of Prefluxing and Degreasing Solutions .1 General 10.II .14Scale Down Models of Foundation 10.6 Types of Soil and Rock 10. k.3 Basic Design Requirements 10.10 Design Procedure for Foundation 10. Design of Foundations 10.11 Concrete Technology for Tower Foundation Designs 10.15 Tests'on Submerged Soils 10. Format for Inspection Report for Accessories . I.IV xv .19 Foundation Defects and their Repairs Annexures Annexure .

8 11.2 11.VI Illustration • VII Illustration .VIII Illustration • 'IX Illustration . Annexures ~ I .I Illustration • II Illustration .III Illustration • IV Illustration • V Illustration . lines Protection of Tower Footings Testing and Commissioning References .. Typical Illustrations Tower Foundation Design Calculation Illustration .V. Railway Tracks. Construction of Transmission Lines 11.13 Survey Manpower.6 11.5 11.3 11. Telecommunication Lines. Power Lines.9 11.12 11.7 11. etc.1 11. Surveying Methods Foundations Erection of Super Structure and Fixing of Tower Accessories Earthing Stringing of Conductors Hot-Line Stringing of E.H.4 11.X 11.10 11.11 11. Tools and Plants and Transport Facilities EnvironmentalConsideration Statutory Regulation for Crossing of Roads.

Transmission Line Manual Chapter 1 Introduction .

'.1 PREAMBLE 1.2 DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SYSTEMS IN INDIA 2 2 2 3 3 i· 1.IMPACT ON TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS IN INDIA 1.l I 'd I \11 \.4 PRIVATISATION WAVE . .7 RESUME OF TOPICS COVERED IN THE MANUAL '3 " I ( .CONTENTS Page 1. '.C . ca 11 .5 PHILOSOPHIES IN DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1. 1 I ( I ' ( ~ I ..6 NEW CONCEPTS IN TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN 1. f( \ " . I e d 1 s C \ . 1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL AWAKENING 1. i. I 1 S1 . I ] 1: C '.

On the basis of experience and designing skill.1. environmental and economic considerations involved in siting and development of power generation projects required for meeting the demand for electrical energy are gradually resulting in longer transmission distances and introduction of higher and higher transmission voltages. transmission and utilisation of the same in ever increasing quantities as economically as the latest technological advancements permit. Therefore optimisation of designs of towers can bring about significant economy in the cost of transmission lines . are receiving great attention. proper soil investigations. The transmission line towers constitute about 28 to 42 percent of the cost a transmission line. detailing of connections. typ. development of structural arrangement of tower numbers. a tower designer can produce tower designs conforming to the governing specifications and bring about optimum reduction in tower weight without sacrificing stability and reliability features of the finished tower which are very important for structural reliability of a transmission line. 1. is finding the maximum usage the world over for development and growth of economy and therefore generation. as these performs the important functions of supporting the power conductors and overhead ground wires at the requisite distances above ground level and maintaining appropriate inter -conductor spacings within permissible limits under all operating conditions. 1. Guyed Towers This Manual covers all aspects of designs of self supporting comprehensive manner.1. use of foundations according to soil conditions at sites of tower installation.1. All these systems owe there reliable performanee to a great extent to dependable transmission lines.3 The weight of a tower required for any specific applications is influenced to a great extent by the selection of tower configuration.2 With increase in transmission voltage levels.1. and 400 kVae.4 Depending on the manner in which the towers are supported these fall in the following two broad categories :. Tower constitute a very vital component of transmission lines. towers and their foundations in a . 1.1 Electrical energy.: It is therefore imperative that transmissionline towers are designed so as to make use of materials and workmanship most effectively and efficiently. and ± 500 kV dc systems are already in service and 800 kV ac systems are in the process of implementation. The technical. and use of high voltage direct current transmission systems. accuracy in fabrication. 230/220 kV. being the most convenient and cleanest form of energy. 1.1 PREAMBLE 1. choice of steel structurals for tower numbers. Thus transmission systems with voltages of 800 kV ae and t 600 kV de are already in operation in some of the countries and those with 1000/1100 kV ac and ± 750 kV dc have also been introduced 'n some countries. Self supporting Towers 2. 66 kV. accuracy and adequate care in tower erection and proper maintenance of the erected towers. the heights as well as weights of towers have also increased and so has their cost.e of tower.TRANSMISSION liNE MANUAL INTRODUCfION 1. quality of steel structural. In India. These depend not only on the designs of tower and its foundation but also on the type of tower. types of connections etc. 132/110kV.

audio noise (AN) and electrostatic fields radiated by the transmission lines are within safe limits and ecology is affected the least. television interference (TVI). capacity has risen from a mere 2301 MW in 1950-51 to 85940 MW on 31st March.200 Circuit Krns). 76400 Circuit Km of 220 kV lines. development of power over the years has been phenomenal. For privatisation in Power Sector to take momentum. induction of Private Sector in the development of generation as well as T&D systems is engaging the attention of the Govt. With privatisation coming through for this sector also.' " ·f .l.2 Development of power systems being highly capital intensive but essential for overall growth of economy. However. Unless a Private Sector Company has the facility to make returns from the power project. 32200 Circuit Km of 400 kV lines. 1.4.000 crores for the 9th Plan period.3 Need-based funds for development of transmission and distribution system during the 9th Plan period are of the order of about Rs. In 1950-51 there were only about 2700 Circuit KM of 132 kV lines and 7500 Circuit Km of 66/78 kV lines. This has resulted in lopsided development of T&D systems leading to most of the chronic problems faced by the consumers. 1997. it is imperative for privatisation to take place in transmission and distribution.~ ~ 1. transmission Systems have also grown. International comparisons with other countries are given in Exhibits 1. 110 thousand crores. National Grid at 800 kV and 400 kV is in the process of coming up spear-headed by Power Grid Corporation of India. of India. It shows that against the norm of at least 50% of the total allocated funds being utilised for Transmission and Distribution.2. the transmission system will get impatus for faster development. 1.9. Many IPPs have sponsored power generation projects which are actually not coming up physically. These have grown to about liOO Circuit Km of 500 kV of HYDC lines.1 Exhibit No.4.4.1 In India.3. Highlights of the power systems in India are given in Exhibits Ll to 1. The main bottle-neck is transmission and distribution. 97200 Circuit Km of 132 kV lines and 37700 Circuit Km of 66 kV lines (total 245. . 1. Regional Grids interconnecting State Transmission Grids have been built facilitating uninterrupted transfer of power within the region. the same has yet to take place for the T&D sector. In order to ensure that these fields least affect the way of life and ecology.7. 160. availability of more sophisticated facilities has made it possible to investigate into the effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with transmission lines and understand and better appreciate the possible adverse effects of the above fields. The installed generating. the conductor configuration. '-. not limiting to power generation only. It may not be physically possible for the country to make available funds of this order in the Pu blic Sector. Privatisation of generation projects is already underway. These are over and above the funds required for generation projects which are about Rs. the average availability of funds for Transmission and Distribution over the years 1951 to 1997 has been 32% only. . 1.8 and 1.1 Environmental and ecological considerations were not given so much importance in the past in the designs of transmission lines and their routing. their interest in actual execution will be limited. Matching with the installed generating capacity. 1. Some headway has been made as regards generation projects.~ DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SYSTEMS IN INDIA 1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOWGICAL AWAKENING 1.4 PRIVATISATION WAVE· IMpACf ON TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS IN INDIA i. However.lO gives an idea of the sector wise utilisation of funds as well as the total funds allocated for Power from 1951 to 1992 and the outlay for the 8th Five year Plan period. tower shapes and transmission line corridors are so chosen that the magnitudes of radio interference (RI). Strong interconnected transmission networks have been developed by each Electricity Board within the State boundaries.

1 This chapter covers the requirements regarding the minimum electrical clearances to be maintained at tower and at mid-span between live parts of transmission line and from live parts to tower members for the various types of over voltages to which transmission lines of different voltage levels are subjected in service. t .1 'This chapter describes the various portions of towers and details the factors which determine tower height. THE MANUAL . sin ~..7..2 Chapter 2 .: 1.Ie heir n. P wer .mg. 1. It r 'r 1.7. Use of Reliability levels in transmission lines design. Consequent to consideration of the approach outlined in IEC " 826. and gives details of their composition. Tower Geometry 1."n eets :: \ 1. (v) Use of six basic wind speeds converted to 10-minutes average speeds corresponding to 10-meter height over mean retarding surface as the basis for wind loads on transmission lines instead of three wind zones corresponding to 3D-meter height over mean retarding surface in use earlier.• (11v 1. (vi) Consideration of the effects of terrain category and topography of transmission line corridors in the design wind speeds. values of angles of swing and corresponding electrical clearances for insulator strings and jumpers for transmission lines already in service in India.7. typical details of 66 kV.7 RESUME OF TOPICS COVERED IN. and (vii) Carrying out anticascading checks on all angle towers 1.' 132 kV.4Cliapter 4 .1995 code of practice for use of structural steel in overhead line Towers has been recast accordingly . It also describes the various types of bracing systems. It also deals with the minimum ground clearances.Towers types and shapes 1. 1.~ Before IEC:826 ."Report on Loading and strength of overhead lines' came out in 1985.t.nes (iv) Use of Co-ordination in strength of line components.7. t~~ (ii) (iii) Use of probablistic method of Design. tower shapes and designation of towers and brings out the essential differences between the various types of towers and the factors for preference of a particular type of tower to other types for some specific considerations. insulator stings.3Chapter 3 . effect of span length on clearances and 3 .7.1 The topics covered in chapters 2 to 11 of this Manual are briefly described below.7.2. 220 kV and 400 kV insulator strings. analytical calculations of electrical clearances on transmission lines etc. the design of transmission lines in India as also in several other countries was made as p. I r to Y \ .7.nds tAt ilnd 1[0 s' f 1. r .5 PHIWSOPHIES IN DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION UNES out ?~" :uit ta.3.J . 1987 and 1991. Electrical Clearances f: :t ired .:.1 This chapter describes fully the types of towers.er design philosophy based on deterministic concept of Loadings and strengths with specified factors of safety {or the different operating conditions. has .6 NEW CONCEPTS IN TRANSMISSION UNE DESIGN The new concepts in transmission line design philosophy include the followi 19 major changes in the design method(i) Design based on limit load concept. h of ung 1.4. design philosophy based on probablistic concept with provisions relevant to Indian experience has been finalised for Transmission Line design and the existing 15:802 (Part I/Section 1) . tower width at various levels and the spread of cross-arms.

conductor creap allowance etc.climatic loading under normal condition security requirements .up. and the tests conducted on fabricated members.7.Tower Materials.Failure containment under broken wire condition. It deals with the effects of shielding by the wind-ward conductors of bundle conductors. . classification ui soils and excavations types of foundations and their application areas.7.9.1 This chapter describes the methods of analysis of stresses in plane trusses and space frames. 9 . shop Drawings and bill of materials. use. deals with the Reliability Requirements .1 This chapter defines the various types of loads.6Chapter covers the electrical. Bolts/Nuts. lakes etc.1 This chapter deals with Material quality control. sequence of test loading cases. permissible stress vahu ': (. cutting )i.9Chapter . span terminologies and theirdesign. operations in Fabrication such as straightening.5. Inspection & Storage 1.10 Chapter 10· Design of Fuundations 1. The chapter highlights the significance of planing as it has great bearing on optimum utilisation of material and limiting the wastage.7.7 .7 . cutting. 1. details of Galvanising Plant. reinforcement bar details and procedure for testing of foundations. permissible stresses in tower members and bolts.Design Parameters of power lines crossing over tele-communication .II concrete. channels. shearing. Method of Galvanising.1 This chapters deals with design requirements for various types of foundations for self . procedure for their dC$igr. acceptance of test results and testing of tower material. .7. of high tensile steel and mild steel sections.7.7.7. locations of load cells in the test set. railway tracks rivers.7 .d' J. The chapter contains data on permissible Edge Security and Bolt Gauges. rigging arrangements. shop erection (horizontal or vertical). Application of Ih~<::jl" Methods is . Plates.the requirements regarding electrical clearances circuits. safety requirements loadings under construction and Maintenance and Anticascading Requirements 1. Properties of Equal! Unequal Angles. Machinery. or saucing). chemical and mechanical properties of Mild and High tensile steels. describes a typical tower testing station.e cropping.7. 6 . Inspection as per quality assurances plan. specific requirements of Fabrication covering preparation of structural assembly Drawings.7 Chapter 7 .I 01 •• 1. list of Tower Fabricating. drilling and marking tolerances. 1. .8 Chapter 8 .7.10.7. punching. gives methods for their estimation for snow-free regions. Fabrication. binding. 1.1 This chapter considerations which of lee-ward conductors significance in tower 1. and deals with selection of grades and sizes of steel structurals for tower members. The chapter contains the permissible values of soil bearing capacities.s etc. It brings out the importance of soil investigations and testing.B.supporting towers.Design of tower-members 1.1 This chapter deals with the purpose of testing of towers.Testing of Towers 1. built-up members.5Chapter 5 . 1.loadings tit el . packaging of finished members and their storage. slenderness ratio limits for members with calculated and uncalculated stresses. climatic and geological environmental and ecological influence the designs of transmission lines. testing procedure. celebration of load cells. Galvanization. it also contains a sample QAP. and Anchor Bolts.6. cutting means. design of tower members and member connections. 1.

clamping in.! L. live line stringing of EHV lines.11.1/ r' k. . : uf y'.7. ir· E' 1 ~el 109 I.( t of t1 :. methods of tower erection.e and 5 Is is 5 . It deals with statutory regulations. It also covers the tests to be conducted before line energisation. jumpering. he cnapter describes methods for investigating foundations and carrying out their repairs during construction 'stage and on lines in service. final sagging.7.11 Chapter 11 • Construction of Transmission Lines 1. protection of tower footings etc. 11 b 1. spacer Ivibration damper/spacer damper instaJIation.1 This chapter covers all the stages from reconnaissance survey up to commissioning of lines. ~of . line corridor selection from environmental angle.(.". paying out of conductors under uncontrolled and controlled tension.demonstrated by typical detailed calculations of designs for aifferent types of Foundations.

1 Plan Outlays for Power Sector (Rs.000 asoroc I I t r O+------y----~r-----~~--~- .10. Crores) For Plan First Plan (1951·56) Second Plan (195&-61) 310 116 321 Generation- T&D Total Z83 110 393 426 1020 Fourth Plan (1968-74) Fifth Plan (1975--80) 699 1725 722 5413 9185..EXHIBIT 1.85) 13851 25087 57291 Seventh Plan (198~90) Eighth Plan (1992-97) 22280 NinthPlan '(1997-2002) 1.40. 2447 19264 34272 79571 Sixth Plan (l98Q.000 1.

~ 8J287 85019 r:.97 2005 222S ")')') ..X') 20(1:') 63636 66086 6906S 50749 54370 58110 60086 61149 723jli 76754 80944 20DS 20379 20829 20976 21fi45 19~'4-~5 1995-% 19Y6.t~1 19848::.9:{ 1!193-94 1565 IS/iS 1. ...) <:OOX> soeoo '7(XXX} 60000 ~ ~ mx> ~ J(XXX) ro'XJ I~~I 1%0-61' 1~71 19'7S-19 I~ ~90 1mg1 1991-92 ~93 1993-94 1~ 1m-96 1996-97 y- . Hydro S5~ Thermal Tolal 2Wl 4653 J. 2!)i31i 4:L~S 14460 18307 18753 19194 19576 27030 43764 45768 48086 1989-90 19<j{~91 19~192 199:L.'.1 1~!71l71 Capacity (MW) Nuclear 0 I. li·lll ItllJ:l 1~J7X.. .2 Installed Generating Year 1~F)!) S I 1<11)01.EXHIBIT 1.tfil3 1742 2736 7810 15207 1917 6J83 10883 421.

92 1992·93 1993-94 1994·95 1995-96 1996-97 72760 69870 70460 82511 72383 6730 5400 ~ 7s.3 Electricity Generation (LW~L \1l:) Year 1950 .. { ~ 301360 324050 3S6i'l54 }l 5646 7923 299470 317158 :179776 9024 68618 394800 "-'0000 ..EXHIBIT 1.. ·11 }-i''! (O1) 5f:i548 lli2S23 1568[)9 1978-79 i584 . 5 8 1989-90 2770 4715~J 9883€i 4075· 4625 6140 5530 178697 186550 208740 224760 24819() 267891"" 245438 264330 287030 2:i1). 71640 ~!i98 !iIOO 29961 i.Q)OO) 3~ :i JOOOOO • Nudear ~ :: ~ .» ~ 0 Year . ElThemul lnm 1000.. l~ll 1990-91 1991 .a \'. ~ DlOOO 21 1III(~dro "" .51 1960-61 1970-71 Nuclear 0 0 1339 Hydro Thermal Total 5~58 lti937 2860 7837 25248 52594 53948 62116 .

----------------------------------------------.C (Ol) ltiJI) lii67 1&57 tV 11111 Z340 3BM 7952 47XI)~ .m71 1~81 1985-86 1990-91 199'2-93 1995-96 1996-97 9 . v I II Ill/II0".__~ __~ ItXXXlO B HVDC &400 kV .5226 \xooo.1 &'1186 TOlal 11)139 83140 120214 162!:140 20H521 218447 2.' iii '78166144 kV l~H 1960-61 t. '\ .jh]4 1321111) kV 4(11)1) 59nx X:4h.4 It'ngth of Transmission Lines (CK\1) Transrnlssiun 1950-51 lYtifl-61 1970-71 1980-tH 1..\1 r .985-86 1991l-91 1992-93 1995·9h lY9ti-97 VI) It(ijll' HVl. EXHIHIT 1.. o ZJOIZlO k.

5 All India power Requirement Past Trend Year Energy Requirement (MkWh) Peak Load (MW) 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 199&-97 206331 228662 246722 259000 282739 324417 349346 376679 413490 :B551 36327 38986 41674 43636 54707 58904 63490 63853 19'~'9 1'~90 199G-91 1991·92 1992·91 1~94 1994-93 199'.96 1996-97 Var .EXHIBIT 1.

6 AllIndia Power Requirement Forecast for 9th. l Oth.. 11th Plan Year Energy Requirement Peak Load (MW) (MkWh) 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2006-07 2011-12 436258 469057 502254 734~8 7R936 84466 90093 535903 569650 781863 1058440 95757 130944 176647 Source: 15th Electric Power Survey uf India D FMrO'R ..EXHIBIT 1. dre_nt • Puillold Yell' 11 .

04·1)5 05-06 Total Source: The India Infrastructure ""r ~a Ch £g dJl 10000 11000 12125 78125 Report Published .. Billion) Year Capacity Addition (MW) Generation T&D Total 97·98 9H-99 99·1)1) 6000 6500 7000 210 227 245 271 297 324 350 385 424 2733 126 137 336 364 392 434 476 518 560 616 679 4375 '- 147 163 179 194 210 231 255 1642 1)1)·01 7750 8500 9250 01·1)2 02-03 03·()4. Year U~ SOL - m'~4l Yu. I Swedl U.:~ '>' . r J' q 1~ J~r'la ! L\\\\\"IT&D I'll4l. by Ministry of Finance Govt of India HUI Ind IOOT-----------------------------------------~l~ Iud...EXHIBIT 1.f' ..7 Revised Fund Requirement Generation 1&D (Rs.Ca c' Additioo K.K.I Kon Mex ~.h P' '1li PrJ'Jl Sri 1. s .(\ Gcucrab:o -+.

878 59435 4700i 7732 211324 440317 618000 37100 45i36 64532 816 60645 249016 1639771 740926 26024 393713 389000 34126 27463 264300 29810 53200 28410 190327 757595 53500 114277 108836 37999 ~5249 128201 3150 139515 298496 2807058 1652800 83033 Source: Power Development in India 1995-96 13 . Mexico Norway Pakistan Phi11ipines Poland Sri Lanka Sweden U.8 International Comparison (If Installed Capacity and Generation r· .K.EXHIBIT 1. 'Q 21851 28393 615 1465 5580 319 2 350 17686 23657 J048 6607 656 765 6316 94 36702 186534 66721 2402 . Billion) Installed Capacity (M\\) Generation (GWH) 1980 1990 1960 1970 1980 19~1! Country /Yrar 1960 1970 Argetina Bangladesh Brazil Canada China Egypt Finland France ) 3474 4800 6091 11233 42825 240180 4357 4312 36219 47540 .. 33293 81999 67000 3583 10422 62711 82585 5324 4842 31247 2786 5300 1200 46824 143698 5500 16985 20238 2518 4632 24723 422 27416 73643 630111 266757 14030 17128 2520 52892 104140· 98600 11738 13220 103410 99750 8508 6603 75995 11480 17554 9000 56548 194763 9500 29274 27195 9137 6869 30703 1289 34189 73059 775396 333100 16470 10459 22865 114378 59400 2639 8628 72118 118986 2271 7617 20123 1400 852 56240 115498 9139 10813 31121 26 2731 29307 302 34740 136970 844188 292274 8928 2172i 45460 204723 115900 7591 21185 146966 242605 9820 14541 61212 2300 6758 2750 117423 359539 16500 28707 57606 8727 8666 396i6 2&53 139485 377518 300620 16910 38710 246415 368770 22652 23876 112820 6981 17150 8000 185741 577521 35000 66954 84099 15277 18032 121871 1668 96695 284937 2354384 1293. 2488 2477 16271 907 2191 680 30408 68262 3400 7318 12910 2334 5176 13710' 281 15307 62060 360327 166150 6972 11988 990 23035 1167 2834 Germany Greece Hungary India Indonesia Iran Iraq Italy Japan Korea (DPR) . USA USSR Yugoslavia .

1st Quarter 1995 341 490 93 700 600 SIX) -1400 11.0 It 1300 200 I 100 0 1 110 >.B oJ 'a I g ] ~ ·2 CAuIdry .. India Source: Report on Energy Prices & Taxes .International Comparison of Electricity Prices (Indian Paise) sxmarr 1. e ~ i ~ "II :I E t j ~ . Spain OBCD United Kingdom Denmark Luxembourg Ireland Netherlands Belgium Greece France.9 Country Portugal Germany Italy Industrial 397 339 316 268 258 227 221 221 215 202 197 197 184 211 Cost per Kwh Domestic 591 647 528 582 378 406 666 384 432 415 5tH SI T. It . s i M ~ .

Annual Plan (1991-92) 12. Plan (1961-66) 4. 1st F. Total Funds utilised for Power Sector wise Utilisation Generation Amount 1. Plan (1969-74) 5th F.Y. Plan (192·97) Outlay 10 15 . 3rd F. 8th F. . 3. Plan (1956-61) --'. Transmission & Distribution % Others Amount 23 95 174 2S6 658 1058 324 2091 3794 1092 870 8102 %' Amount 132 115 301 291 768 2016 720 4706 9847 2375 2661 22432 % 260 460 1252 1223 2931 7541 2473 18913 38169 10470 13904 79730 105 250 777 676 1505 4467 1429 12116 24528 7003 10373 49196 40 54 62 S5 51 S9 58 64 64 67 75 62 51 ·25 24 24 26 27 29 25 26 23 19 28 s 21 14 21 23 14 13 11 HI 10 6 2nd F.10 Sector-wise Utilisation of Funds for Power ~tl (Figurt's Rs. Period No.Y. Plan (1980-85) 7th F. Annual F. Annual Plan (1990-91) 11. Plan (1966-69) 5.Y. Plan (1951·56) 2. 9.Y.Y. 8.Y. 6.EXHIBIT 1.Y. Plan (1974·79) 6th F. 4th F. Plan (1985-90) 7. erores) SI. Annual Plan (1979-80) 10.Y.Y.

.

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~SANGAM '~STRUCTURALS TOWER DIVISION ~eM. 100x50 & 125x75 Beam : . UPSIDC Industrial Area. Naini. Microwave Towers. Kharsara (Karchana) Allahabad . Kharsara (Karch ana) Allahabad . 695065 Fax: (0532) 697994 . Phone: (0532) 696641. 695137. P. P. Naini. 125x75 & 150x70 ~ot· Works: TOWER DIVISION B-10. UPSIDC Industrial Area. STEEL DIVISION A-28 A. Sub-Station Structures. Angle: 40x40x5 to 1OOx1OOx10 Channel : 75x40.O. OHE Structures for Railway Electrification STEEL DIVISION' M~S.~ LIMITED Transmission Line Towers. 696642.O.

Transmission Line Manual Chapter 2 Tower Types and Shapes .

5 Special Tower .2.4 Tower Shapes Tower Designation 1 7 7 7 8 8 8 2.2 Scope Types of Towers 2.3 Conventional Guyed Tower 2.CONTENTS Page 2.3 Tension Towers 2.4.1 2.Transposition Towers 2.2.2.4 Chainette Guyed Tower 2.4.4.3 2.4 .2 Suspension Towers 2.2 Self-Supporting Towers 2.4.

3 Conventional Guyed Tower Self-Supporting Towers Conventional Guyed Towers Chainette Guyed Towers These are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. 11l.1 The types of towers based on their constructional features. Austria. The phases are arranged in such. Self-supporting towers as compared to guyed towers have higher steel consumption. 2. etc. audible noise level. transmission line tower designers have been endeavouring to develop towers with such shapes which blend with the environment. interference.3. 2.2. for fabrication of towers. 2.2 Compact guyed towers are used on compact lines. The guys may be internal or external. Some of the countries such as . Other factors responsible for changes in shapes of towers are the need for the use of higher transmission voltages. some of the countries namely Russia. The conventional guyed towers 1 .~angement of phases. With conservation environmentalists attracting the highest attention and the public becoming more and more conscious of the detrimental effects of transmission line towers on the environment and occupation of land. ~.Page 1 1 CHAPTER 2 TOWER TYPES AND SHAPES 2. Self-supporting towers e covered under Indian Standard (IS : 802) and other' ational and International Standards. This type \oftower has been in use in India from the beginning of this century for EHV transmission lines.2 TYPES OF TOWERS 2.T.1.2. cage and groundwire peak. France. The phases can be placed in different configurations and are insulated from the supports. Brazil. Selfsupporting towers usually have square/rectangular base and four separate footings. waste land. Self-supporting towers are shown in Figures 1 & 2. sing tested quality mild steel structurals or a combination f tested quality mild steel and High tensile steel structurals onforming to IS:2062 and IS:8500 respectively. etc. apan. These are fabricated. Self supporting to\Ve~~~sed_~r compactline design.1 2. bush tracts in Canada. 2. fitted with insulated cross-arms. Sweden. Compact tower may comprise fabricated steel body. steel conforming to IS: 8500 is not readily available in the country. limitation of right-of-way availability. Compact towers iUiVereOtiCed dimensions and require sm3iier right-of-way and are suitable for use in congested areas and for upgrading the voltage of the existing Transmission Lines also. The guyed tower including guy anchors occupy much larger land as compared to self-supporting towers arid as such this type of construction finds application in long unoccupied. aluminium sections.2 Selt-Supporting Towers Self-supporting broad based/narrow based latticed steeltowers are used in India and other countries.2. electrostatic field aspects. steel conforming to BS 4360 Gd 50B/ASTM A 572IJ1SNDE or any other InternationallNationai standards can be used. a way that the phases are not interspersed by grounded metal parts of Tower. Qmwa~tion is also achi~ye~. The types and shapes of Transmission Line Towers used in India and in other countries are discussed in this chapter. ~ll~ingV insulator strings. Canada. France._Ey__.1 SCOPE 1 1 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 The tower of various shapes had been used in the past without considering detrimental influence on the environment.. In the case of heavy angle and long span crossing towers. 2.. HoweveN'wer voltage narrow-based towers having combined monoblock footings may be used depending upon overall economy.V. which are in use on the power transmission line are ~ven below: I.3.1 These towers comprise portal structures fabricated in "Y' and "V' shapes and have been used in some of the countries for EHV transmission lines upto 735 kV. tubular sections. etc. are using single phase self-supporting towers. Norway. USSR etc. radio and T. etc.2. As H. have explored use of other material such as steel formed angle sections. etc. USSR.

l ~ ~« ~ "'l S~ (.J ~ [I.l :c ~ e . z f-o ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ oJ r..j ~ ~ -e .l [I...2 Tower Types and ~ '-l ~ -• • -.l r.l .' ..j r. ~ '-l ~ f-o :z: ~ « "..l 0 f-o 0 r. <: ...l r..) ~ :J f-o f-o' .: f-o [I.l ~ r.l ..I '-l :Il 0 • ~ ~ -e ~ r..) r. c ~ '-l III . .l 0 .. ~ ~ rr.l 0 o != [I.j f-o 0 < :c f-o < (.j ~ ~ 0 " ~ r. " Z :r.) S f-o f-o 0 oJ Q .J ~ ~ ~ < f-o oJ 0 cC .'~ ~ "'l ~ 0 r.J (..l . ~ f-o .l "'l .l .

I NSUI.ATED 'FABRICATED TOWER BODY COMPACT TOWER MULTICIRCUIT TOWERS FIGURE 2 .

4 .

2. tower shapes at (i) and (ii) are used for single circuit line whereas tower shape at (i) has been used for double circuit and multi-circuit lines. In other countries al the above shapes have been used. 2.4 2..and compact guyed towers are shown in Figure 3. Typical chainette guyed towers for suspension and angle location are shown in Figure 4. narrow based mast is supported with the help of two main guys. These towers shapes are shown in Figures 1 & 2. Tower shape at (i) is structurally more stable and ideally suitable for multi-circuit lines. In India. the practice is to use three separate narrow based masts each for carrying one set of hundle conductors or ~lse self-supporting towers. TOWER DESIGNATION Guyed towers will be covered in a separate I ~anual TOWER SHAPES 2. towers are designated as under: Suspension Tower Tension Tower Tower shapes in use are as follows: Verticallbarrel Type (0 (ii) (i) DOUBLE TENSIONi SUSPENSION :INSULATOR STRING FIGURE 6 : ARRANGEMENT OF INSPAN TRANSPOSITION .5 2.3 . whereas tower shape at (ii) offer better performance from the consideration of audible noise.' For angle towers. Each .4 Chainette Guyed Tower (ii) (iii) (iv) Horizontal/Wasp Waist Type Delta/Cat Head H-Structure Type Chainette guyed tower is also known as cross rope suspension tower. electrostatic potential gradient at ground level and at the edge of the right-of-way. radio and television interference i.1 Broadly.4. 2. and consists of two masts each of which is supported by two guys and a cross rope which is connected to the tops of two masts and supports the insulator 'strings and conductor bundles in horizontal formation.2.

4. The section tower is introduced in the line after 15 suspension towers to avoid Cil<icadefailure. Conductor on sUspelisioh towers may be sUpported by means of I-Strings.30°. cf crossings. The balance work oomplises PJacem~ . One of the classes of angle towers .1 . multiple tension insulator strings are connected bad back through a strain ·plate.Jumpers.4.4.cade failure. . 30°·60 IDead end towers and are used according to the angle of deviation of line. conductors in three sections in such a way that each! by rotation occupies each of the three phase positiO£ circuit. A typical transposition tower is shown in Figl These towers are used on the lines for straight run or for small angle of deviation UPIO2° or 5°. of inSUlator discs and air gap distan~ Suspended.depending on the site conditions is also deSignated as Section Tower. 0 In another transposition arrangement called 'i~ transposition' (Figure 6) the transposition is carri near a tension tower due to greater ground cle aVailable near the tower than in the mid span.(iii) (iv) 2. 2.4. R 1 F F . or a combination of I & V Strings.4 Transposition Towers Tower Types and SI TranspoSition lOWers are used to transpose the.3 Tension Towers Trar~r EMC-l Tension towers also known as angle towers are used at locations where the angle of deviation exceeds that permissible on suspension towers and/or where the towers are subject to upliti loads. 15°.. The design of such towers is checked for adequacy both for angle location requirernellts as well as for arresting cac.5 Special Tower These towers are used allocations Such as ~' involving long span river and valley crossings. a Single suspension insulator string having alf double the No.~ EMC's Cert a Gov-rr statio conlpE pro II custor 2. pOwer line crossings etc. 1 : EMC d! Engi' 11 prov'd Comrlli: turn: r factorie line cc orgc. falling on the line r~.2 Transposition Tower Special Tower SUspensionTowers 2. turrl'E Plain~ Lit))c:I EM Exper (±b0( de JI rarl(. These towers are further classified as 2°/SO-15°. V·Strings. III the central phase ~ plate.

~~~i~~~~~ 'in span 11tXi out "I 'ranee 1.700 085 Phone: 3505112/3501221 Fax: 3506539/3501222 E-Mail: emcltd@giascl01. LTD."ure5. strain : almost . EMC have built transmission lines on turnkey basis in Himalayan Region and Plains in India and deserts in UAE and Libya.net..-_""_ ~~r-" " phase . EMC's Research and Development Centre at Calcutta.~ck-to.h phase :.. PRINCIPALOFFICE: 51 Canal East Road. Experienceof building lines upto 1000 t<N (:t500 KV) with constant research and development has put EMC in the front rank of Transmission Line technology. _"~CI .. Calcutta . Two . Ice is nent of as those : creek ie route. EMC's Capability on A to Z of Transmission Lines EMC are the only Transmission Line Engineering Company fully equipped to provide from Consultancy to' Commissioning Transmission systemon turnkey basis. Calcutta .1 in a ~.in .. recognised by the Government of India and its tower testing station provide continuous fillip to competitiveness and improvement in product development and service to the customers at home and abroad.. It is backed by own factories manufacturing all transmission line components and a construction organisation with ISO 9001 registration.. OFFICE: 136 Jessore Road.700 055 Phone: 5518224 Fax: 551 6467 co..._'" - ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURING REGD.vsnl..

M.POWER CONSULTANCY CORPORATION · GOT PROBLEMS OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION? WE HAVE THE· SOLUTIONS P. AHLUWALIA. NEW DELHI-110044 PHONE : 91-(0)11·6947311 FAX: 91-(0)11-6947311 . CHAIRMAN J-252. SARITA VIHAR.

" • • Transmission Line Manual Chapter 3 Tower Geometry .

1 ··3.2 .2 3. 6 6 3.1 3.8 3. 23 26 28 3.2.9 Scope Tower Anatomy Bracing System Tower Extensions Tower Outline Tower Height Tower Width Cross-arm Spread Typical Lengths of Insulator String on Transmission Lines in India 3 5 1 3.2.3 3.3.1 3.1.1 3.'1 .CONTENTS Page 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.7 3.2'0-.6 3.

. The function of the peak is to support the groundwire in suspension clamp and tension clamp at suspension and angle tower locations respectively.3 Cage 3. At large angle of line deviation.3.2.2 Peak 3. The cross-arm for ground wires consists of fabricated steel work and that for conductor may be insulated type or consist of fabricated steel work. 3.. 3. type and configuration of insulator string.2. The number of cross arms depend upon number of circuits.1 The portion between peak and tower body in vertical configuration towers is called Cage.2. The selection of an optimum outline together with right type of bracing system contribute to a large extent in developing an economical design of transmission line tower.2. . The height of the peak depends upon specified angle of shield and mid span clearance.1 TOWER ANATOMY A tower is constituted of the following components as shown in Figure-1 Peak Cross Arm Boom Cage Tower Body Body Extension Leg Extension Stub/Anchor Bolts and Base Plate Assembly A brief description of each component of the tower is given as under: S 3 5 ~ 3. The lower members of the cross -arm are called main members and the upper members as tie members/compression members depending upon direction of vertical loads. The geometry of a tower has also a bearing on aesthetic values.2 3.2.2. The tower anatomy and tower outline are discussed below: 3 5 r ) 3. rectangular/trapezc1idal cross-arm with pilot string on outer side are used to maintain live conductor to grounded metal clearance.1 The function of a cross-arm in case of vertical configuration tower is to support conductor/ground wire.••a"". minimum framing angle from the requirement of mechanical stress distribution etc. The dimension of a cross-arm depends upon the line voltage.4 Cross-Arm 3..4. v TOWER GEOMETRY 1 SCOPE The Chapter describes anatomy of tower and factors involved in determining the outlines of the towers.1 It is the portion of tower above the top cross arm in case of vertical configuration tower and above the boom in case of horizontal configuration tower.2.". tower configuration and conductor/groundwire arrangement. The cross-section of cage is generally square and it may be uniform or tapered throughout its height depending upon loads.2. It comprises tower legs interconnected by bracings are used in the panel of cage where cross-arms are connected to the cage or where slope changes for proper distribution of torsion.

2 3.~.3 3...3.2.2. 3.3." .3 n 1 Concrete level 'Horizontal/Wasp Waist .3.t 't3.Type Tower Figure 1: Tower Anatomy 3.2 3.1 Single Circuit Tower Double Circuit Tower 3.3. Vertical/Barrel Type Towers Boom level 3.3.E ~"T-_ Bracing Tower body Body extension 3.

main leg members and (both bracing and leg member) shall not be less than 15° Bracing patterns are single web system.3.2. comprises legs. Diamond Bracing system.2. i. diamond or portal system of bracing is generally more suitable from the consideration of rigidity.1 Shear is carried entirely by one of the diagonal members under tension. Pratt System.2. body extension.3. guyed etc.6.3.e.2. bracings and redundants. In diagonal and strut system. The bracing and redundants are provided for inter-connecting the legs as also to afford desired slenderness ratio for economical tower design. The diagonal bracings are connected at their cross points. a tower body comprises two columns connected on one of their ends to the foundations and on the other ends to the boom to which conductors are attached through the insulator strings. This system is particularly used for narrow base towers. Each of the bracking system. This system can be used with advantage for 66 kV single circuit line towers.2 3. Shear is equally distributed between the two diagonals. In lower one or two panels in case of wide base towers.1 BRACING SYSTEM Peak.5.3 Double Web or Warren System 3. in cross-arm griders and for portal type towers. This system is used for both large and small towers and can be economically adopted through out the cage and body of suspension and small angle towers and also in wide base large towers.4. 3.2.1 It is generally a rectangular beam of uniform cross-section in the middle. It comprises tower legs inter-connected by bracings and redundant members. and reduces the unsupported length of bracings which results in lighter sizes of bracings members.4 Pratt System 3. double web or warren system.1 It comprises a system either of diagonals and struts or of diagonals only. cage. leg extension.) The boom is attached to the tower body and it supports power conductors.3. Both diagonals are designed for tension and compressive loads in order to permit reversal of externally applied shears. 3.3.3. Single web system has little application for wide base HV and EHV towers. Other diagonal is assumed to be carrying no stress Struts. Single Web System 3.horizontal member in compression are necessary at every panel . struts are designed in compression while diagonals in tension. The Framing Angle between bracings. The tension diagonal gives an effective support to the compression diagonal at the point of their connections.3.1 This system is made up with diagonal cross-bracings. Portal System. and multiple bracing system. 3. It is generally square in shape. whereas in a system with all diagonals the members are designed both for tension and compressive loads to permit reversal of the applied external shear.3.5 Boom 3. 3.6 Tower Body ge Waist lev 3.1 Tower body is the main portion of the tower to connecting cagelboom to the tower foundation or body extension or leg extension. It is preferable to keep the four faces identical in case of 66 kv single circuit tower using single web system as it results in lighter leg member sizes. one in compression and other in tension.3. shown in Figure 2. is described below. etc. tower body. These bracings result in better distribution of loads in legs and footings. In another arrangement..3 3. but tapered in the end sections and form part of horizontal configuration towers (self supporting.

4 .: ..: (e) View 2-2 Hip Bracing Diamond Bracing System Portal System .I . J I I I I I I . .._./ . -:I.'i ..__Strut I .. View 1-1 3. ~._. .+.4 (g) (h) Multiple Bracing System (Heavier Tower) Multiple Bracing System (Lighter Tower) .4 Tower Geometry ~. . ' ..r=r>: ' '\ (bl ta) Single Web System Warren System Pratt System 3.. "..

.5 m can be used and thus form a part of standard tower.. For body extensions having greater heights say 25 m. to provme connnuny 10 me nracmq system. This type of bracings result in large deflection of tower under heavy loadings. although the active tension member can very well take the tension loads.1 The EHV towers where the torsional loads are of high magnitude.4.5 m height in steps of 2.5. a portion of the tower body is truncated. 3.. Body extensions upto 7. Practice in the tower industry is also to specify negative body extension i. this arrangement has the advantage that the horizontal members carry no primary loads and are designed as redundant supports. The bracings on the transverse and longitudinal faces may be staggered as reduction in tower weight is achieved by staggering the bracings.3.1 TOWER EXTENSIONS Body Extension Body extension is used to increase the height of tower with a view to obtaining the required minimum ground clearance over road crossings. the in-active diagonal will fail incompression due to large deflection in the panel.. If hill side or comer extensions are anticipated.1 Somewhat similar to the Warren system. because the tension members are slender in cross-section than compression members for similar loading.3. 3. This system of bracing impart torsional stresses in leg members of the square based tower and also result in unequal shears at the top of four stubs for the design. 3.3. It has been found advantageous to use the portal system for bottom panels.3.e. negative body extension can be used in tension towers from consideration of economy. The advantage of this system in addition to reduction in forces in the bracings is that the unsupported lengths of leg members and bracings are reduced substantially thereby increasing their strength and reducing the member sizes. ground obstacles etc. one half of the horizontal members is in compression and the other half in tension.L. the portal panel is particularly attractive due to its versatility of application. for such tower. Although there is an increase in the number of bolts. in order to have more rigidity. In heavy angle and dead end towers. Aovamage or nus system IS mal me sizes or olagonal members would be small because these are designed for high slenderness ratio in order to make them in tension. the cage width is kept large to resist the torsional loads. The horizontal members are supported at mid-length by the diagonals. . give longer unsupported lengths of legs and bracings which increases the weight of tower disproportionately.1 The diagonals and horizontal members are designed for both tension and compression forces. As for each of these systems.. this bracing arrangement can also be derived from the Portal system by inverting every second panel.nber ~ \ . multiple system of bracings is used. For lines transversing in hilly terrain. bracing on transfers and longitudinal faces should not be staggered.7 Multiple Bracing System 3.4 3. river crossings. Standard Warren system. The system is preferable only for suspension and medium angle towers. yet the above system gives overall reduction in weight and cost of steel. Applicable to panel of approximately the same size as the pratt and portal systems. all diagonals are designed for tension and compression..3. 3. 3. The portal system is used for approximately the same size of panels as that for Pratt System of bracings in conjunction with warren system of bracings. extensions and heavy river crossings towers when rigidity is a prime consideration.5 Portal System (Shear Divided 50:50 between Diagonals K·System) nactive l. If such a tower is over-loaded. if used.6 Diamond Bracing System 3.3.7.6. fabrication and erection cost. the suitability of the standard tower is checked by reducing the span length and angle of deviation.

Tower outline is defined in terms of the following parameters: 3. bolts and base plate assembly connect the tower body/body extension including leg extension to the foundations.1.5. 3.5.3 Stubs/Anchor Bolts and Base Plate Assembly 3.4.3 Cross Arm Spread Type of insulator string assembly Suspension.1 TOWER HEIGHT Minimum Ground Clearance '\ .1 Tower Heights Minimum ground clearance Maximum sag including creep effect of conductor Length of suspension insulator string assembly Vertical spacing between power conductors Location qf ground wire Angle of shield Minimum mid span clearance Tension insulator Drop 3.4.1. Tension Pilot Swing angle Suspension String Assembly Conductor jumper Phase to phase horizontal spacing Each of the above parameters is discussed in the subsequent paragraphs 3.2 Leg Extensions Tower Geometry 3.6..1 Stubs/anchor.5 3. electrical clearances etc.6 3. Installation of leg extension calls for high degree of expertise in tower erection.1 . Cleats are provided with the stub to offer resistance against uprooting 0f the stub. I-string or V-string.4.5.2· Tower Width At Base or Ground level At Waist level At Cross-arm/Boom level 3. The alignment of leg extension is done with the first section of a tower.5. A stub set consists of four members whereas the number of anchor bolts depends upon uplift and shear on the bolts.1 TOWER OUTLINE Tower Outline is fixed from the requirement of minimum ground clearance.3. Leg extensions are generally used in hilly regions to reduce benching or cutting.4. 3.1 Leg extensions are used either with anyone leg or any pair of legs at locations ~here footings of the towers are at different levels.1. right of way limitation.. terrain type.2.6 3.

arms in case of verticallbarrel type tower..snow)and span length determined the conductor sag.6. with that of power conductor and values of mid span clearances and angle of shield are dealt with in Chapters 4 and 5.. The effect of creep in galvanised stranded steel groundwire being negligible is not taken in account while deciding the s. SIL. AACSR). The maximum sag of a conductor occurs at maximum temperature and still wind condition.6. of the l'l"hing . 3.6.J leg rooting Il:!upon 3. attitude humidity). The depth of the jumper is affected by phase to grounded metal clearance which its.2 Creep in a conductor is defined as permanent set in the conductor. climatic conditions(wind. 3.4. f leg 3.temp. The rate of creep is higher initially but decreases with time since in service. power frequency voltage (service voltage dynamic over voltage) and service conditions (Pollution. Maximum Sag including Effect of Conductor Creep I: .3 Maximum Sag of Groundwire/Minimum Mid Span ClearanceS/Angie of Shield The function of groundwire is to provide protection to the power conductors against direct lightning stroke and to conduct the lightning current to the nearest earthed point when contacted by a lightning stroke. ..1 The size and type of conductor (AAC._ Crossing on Railway Tracks-1987 laid down by Indian Railways and other applicable regulations laid down by different National Agencies like Indian Road Congress.. ACAR. alumeweld. The length of an insulator string is a function of insulation 'level (BIL and SIL). The values of clearances required for lines of different voltage ratings are given in Chapter 4 of this manual. _ .4 Length of Insulator String Assembly· unations 3. It is a continuous process and takes place throughout its life.. Single groundwire has been used in India for transmission line towers upto 220 kV having verticallbarrel type configuration and two groundwires for horizontal/wasp waist type towers of all voltages and 400 kV verticallbarrel type towers.6.2 laid down by Power Telecommunication \.. mid span cfearance and coordination of groundwire sag with that of conductor. ncyulaLlvlI~ 'U' • v . ACAR.iO-Oralnallon vUlIlIlllll~~.6.elf is determined from BIL. ACSR.2. Creep compensation is provided by either of the following methods :(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Pretensioning of conductor before stringing Over tensioning of the conductor in the form of temperature correction By providing extra ground clearance By a combination of partly over tensioning of conductor and partly providing extra Ground clearance. ACSR. The detailed procedure for coordination of groundwire sag. In snowy region. AACSR) depends upon the criteria for sag coordination and extent of mutual coupling. The maximum sag is considered in fixing the height of a line support.. The material and size of groundwire (galvanized stranded steel. 3.6. Ministry of Surface Transports etc.1 The length of suspension insulator string in combination with minimum ground clearance and maximum conductor sag determine the height of (i) lowest crossarm in case of verticallbarrel/Delta type suspension tower and (ii)boom in case of horizontal wasp waist type suspension tower whereas the length of suspension insulated string in conjunction with phase to grounded metal clearance determines the spacing between cross. the maximum sag may occur at 0° and nil wind for ice coated conductors.. way neters: The procedure for determining sag and creep compensation in respect of conductor is dealt with in Chapter 5 of this manual. The location of groundwire (s) determine the height of groundwire peak.ag. The above functions are performed by the ground wire (s) based on selection of angle of shield. AAAC.2. AAC.

The length of V string for the purpose of determining the height of tower is the vertical distance between the lower main member of cross arm and .6. The dynamic over voltage/service. per String) ±500 kV DC "vn Suspension Insulator Strings for Four ACSR Bersimis (35. The number and size of discs. • • ~ .5.1 The vertical spacing between power conductors and between power conductor and groundwire is controlled by mechanical considerations (galloping/clashing and electrical consideration) (phase to phase and phase to grounded metal clearance requirements. voltage.1 mm Dia) ± 500 kV DC Quadruple Tension Insulator String Four ACSR Bersimis Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 3.5 Vertical Spacing between Power Conductors/Minimum Minimum Phase to Grounded Metal Clearances Vertical Phase to Phase Clearances/ 3. For determining electrical clearances. humidity etc.8 Tower Geometry service voltage. altitude. For lines voltages as are 300 kV. humidity and temperature also. the minimum phase to phase and phase to grounded metal clearance are based on switching impulse level. For preparing clearance diagram the nearest live part from the grounded metal has to be considered. length of single and double suspension and tension string for various system voltages are given in Chapter 4 of this manual. the length of the suspension insulator string is defined as the distance between the centre line of conductor and the point of contact of ball hook/anchor shackle with the hanger/U-bolt whereas the length of tension insulator string is defined as the distance between the point of attachment of the string to the strain plate at cross arm upto the jumper take off point of tension clamp.1 6) Quadruple Deadend Assembly for 400 kV AC ACSR Bersimis 800 kV Single V-Suspension Insulator String for Quad "Moose" Bundle 300 KN x 2(31 pcs. short circuit level.centre of lowest conductor. Typical arrangements of Insulator Strings are shown in Figures as indicated below: Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure Figure Figure Figure 9 10 11 12 Typical Insulator String Arrangement for 220 kV AC Transmission Line Single Suspension Insulator String for 400 kV AC Transmission Lines Typical Arrangement of Single Suspension String for 400 kV Lines with Twin Bundled Conductor Typical Arrangement of Double Suspension String (For 400 kV Lines with Twin Bundled Conductor) Single Tension Insulator String for 400 kV Transmission Lines Typical Arrangement of Double Tension String for 400 kV Lines with Twin Bundled Conductor 400 kV AC "V" Suspension with AGS Clamp for Twin Moose 400 kV AC Quadruple V Suspension Set for ACSR Bersimis (35. The minimum phase to grounded metal clearance is affected by power frequency. The minimum phase to phase and phase grounded metal clearances for different I. per String) 800 kV Single V-Suspension Insulator String for Quad "Moose" Bundle 400 KN x 2(29 pcs. humidity and temperature also.. The minimum phase to grounded metal clearance is ascertained from the lightning impulse level for lines upto 300 kV and switching impulse level for lines voltages above 300 kV as also power frequency dynamic over voltagel service voltage considering altitude. The minimum phase to phase and phase to grounded metal clearances are generally determined on the basis of lightning impulse levels for lines of voltages upto 300 kV. altitude. per String) 800 kV Double V-Suspension Insulator String for Quad "Moose" Bundle 300 KN x _ 2(31 pcs.6.

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7 3. vvnerever eievauon omerence oetween rwo aojacent tower is considerable. the vertical clearances betWeen phases at the tension tower is determined by phase to phase switching/lightning impulse clearance between the highest point of the shielding ring/atoning horn of the tension insulator string of the lower phase and the lowest point of the jumper of the upper phase.6.7.35 to 2.93 is an average value.6. There is a particular base width which gives the best compromise and for which total cost of the tower and foundations is minimum. 3. 3.1 3. The width depends upon the magnitude of the physical loads imposed upon the towers (calculated from the size. The determination of the correct value of the constant for suspension and angle towers because of such a wide range suggested.5 and 1.2. the design is optimized with the maximum permissible base width. With a view to arriving at a simpler relationship. While drawing the clearance diagram it is necessary to check the clearance of jumper for both minimum and maximum drop conditions of insulator string.2 for typical towers of all voltage classes both single and double circuits. type of conductors and wind loads) and also depends upon the height of the application of external loads from ground level. 3. Base Width 3. Towers with larger base width result in low footing cost and lighter main leg members at the expense of longer bracing members.t attachment point of tension string at strain plate. may lead to differing results. in kg-m A constant The value of K varies from 1. The base width of the tower is determined from the formula as given below: B B M K = = = = k~M Base width of tower at ground level in centimeters Overturning moment.2 In case of considerable difference in the elevations of adjacent towers. It is seen that the base width generally varies between 1/4 to 1/6 of the overall height of the tower upto concrete level. base width at concrete level is the distance from the centre of gravity of the corner leg angle to that of the adjacentcorner leg angle.7. waist and cross-arm/boom level.6. The drop is maximum under maximum sag condition and is lowest at minimum sag condition.1 The spacing between the tower footings i. Where the way leave is a problem.6. Figures relating to total weight of tower and their base widths are tabulated in Table 3. Under such cases.1 The tension string/assumes position along the line of catenary of the conductor and therefore its inclination with respect to horizontal varies with change in sag. the jumper may be modified to obtain the appropriate clearance.lVYV~1 I~ ylv~" "I rlyUJ~:S I qC1J C1IIU I qUJ.7. certain empirical relations have also been developed which are good guide in determining the base width. 1/5 for medium angle towers and 1/4 for heavy angle towers. . the jumper leg and of insulator string of the tower at lower elevation may go up due to null point lying outside the span and the insulator drop maybe negative leading to insufficient live conductor to grounded metal clearance between the jumper and the cross-arm.the values may be 1/6 for suspension tower.6.e.r. Through experience covering over a number of years.2 TOWER WIDTH The width of the tower is specified at base.6 Tension Insulator Drop 3. The Tension Insulator Drop is the vertical displacement of the jumper leg point w.

H=(x2+B+C)-S or (x2+B+C) .+B+C)+Sin oc (S+x2+B+C) Cos oc h=(a+off set) tan oc a= S Sin 9. +B+C) Cos 1j"- whichever is . should be limited to oc for determini. x2 a = = = = = = = Swing angle of the suspension string. +B+C) Cos «: b=S CO~r' +(x.. tForO. +(x. Lenoth of suspension insulator string. +B+C) Sin oc or = (S+x2 +B+C) sin oc Value of 'a' should correspond to greater value of 'b' b h Notes: 92 B C x. <'cr< B2 Cos 92 b = (S+x. S .S Cos 9. The minimum value of string length shall be used 9.24 Tower Geometry Figure17(a):Vertical Spacing Between Two Adjacent Cross-arms Power Conductors in Case of Suspension Tower or Two 9. +B+C) . Flange width of the nearest projecting angle section Distance of centre of gravity of the main angle section Electrical clearances corresponding to BIUSIL Electrical clearances corresponding to dynamic over voltage/power frequency voltage.minimum vertical spacing Vertical spacing = Height of hanger (li) = (Considering from upper x-arm main member) IFora:<OJ H+b+h H+b+h (x. Maximum swing angle of the suspension string. [ \ h = (a +off set) tan oc a = b tan oc ' a = (S2+x.S Cos 9.nO.

+BtC) Cos oc or (D+X2+B+C) Cos oc (a+St Sin 41/2+off set) tan oc D Sin 93 +(x. +B+C) Sin oc or a = D sin 9.:. Vertical spacing = Y+b+h Y+b+h Depth of jumper terminal point below cross-arm level D= 1.. h= a= a= .10 x Maximum electrical clearance corresponding to Bil or Sil D Cos 93 + (x. +B+C) Cos oc or Whichever is greater D Cos 9. +B+C) Sin oc or (D+X2+B+C) Sinoc b=D Cos 93+(x. Y' = Sag of the minimum span specified This value may -be worked out for maximum sag as well as minimum sag and a relevant value is adopted. + (x2+B+C) Cos oc h = (a+St Sin ./ )' Figure 17Ibl: Vertical SpiKing Bet"'een two Adjacent Cross.arms . +(x2+B+C) Sin oc Sag of minimum span excluding twice length of tension insulator string ./2+offset) tan oc a = D Sin 93 + (x.. or two Power Conductors in Case of Tension Towers oc > 9.

angle of swings of suspension string in case of suspension tower and that of jumper in case of tension tower.26 Tower Geometry In medium and heavy angle towers..8.arm in case of barrel type tower. These parameters are described in Chapter 4 of the Manual. Typical slopes of bottom most leg member with vertical for various voltage rating tower are given in Table 3.3 Width at Waist Level 3. 3.1 Width at the waist level is defined as the width at waist line in case of horizontal/wasp waist towers. configuration of insulator strings.7. This reduces the forces in bracings to a large extent and a stronger and more stable tower emerges. For horizontal configuration. Length of Cross-arm for Suspension Towers ~I E "..1 Typi. "'II II IIIc ~o ! II~ b 3. phase to phase spacing etc.cal Slopes of Tower Legs for Various Voltages Voltage Rating Upto 220 kV Type of Towers Suspension angle dead end Suspension angle dead end Slope of Leg 4°_9° 70-11 ° 8°-13° 8° -12° 10° .2.15° iQ I.4.1 Table 3.7.. The larger width reduces torsional forces transmitted to the bracings below that level and thus helps in reducing the forces in bracings of the tower body.5 to 1/2. : ~I '~f ~IL III . the width at-the waist level is found to vary from 1/1.2 3. for the bracings to carry minimum possible loads.8. it is suggested that the base width and the slopes of the leg members may be adjusted in such a manner that the legs when extended may preferably meet at the line of action of the resultant loads.17° 11° . 400 kV and above 3.1 Alternative-I: Insulator String-I Configuration The length of the cross-arm is determined corresponding to nil swing and two swing anales and the II :.4 Width of Cross-Arm Level 3.1 CROSS-ARM SPREAD The cross arm spread of a suspension and a tension tower is a function of Basic Impulse Level/ Switching Impulse Level and power frequency over voltage. This width is mainly decided by torsion loading.1 Width at cross-arm level is defined as the width of the tower at the level of lower cross.7. 3.5 of base width depending upon the slope of the 199.3. The torsional stresses are evenly distributed on the four faces of the square configuration tower.8 3.8.7. The cage width is decided in a manner that the angle between lower main member and the tie member of the same cross-arm and that between bracings and belts is not less than 15° in line with the general structural engineering practices as an angle less than 15° may introduce bending stresses in the members. .

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.9.9 3.2 Alternative-ll: Suspension Insulator String-V Configuration I The length of the cross-arm is determined corresponding to electrical clearances(BIUSIL) and the angle of the V-insulator string. The electrical clearance diagram of a tension tower is given in Figure 19. the length of cross-arm is determined corresponding to Nil swing and swing angles specified for the jumper and the corresponding electrical air clearances (BIUSIL Power frequency voltage).3 and 3. rectangular/ trapezoidal cross-arm and use of pilot Insulators Strings and links may be considered where necessary for determining the cross-arm length. c~ .!lr§ince corresponds to power frequency dynamic over voltage/rated voltage. jumper swing angle. 3.8. 3.4. 3. The length of cross-arm is also determined with jumper swing limited to 15° with the use of pilot string and the corresponding electrical air clearance (BIUSIL).8.3 The electrical clearance diagrams considering length and configuration of string and electrical air clearances (Ref. Typical Swing Angles and Electrical Clearances for Tension String (Single/Double) Jumper adopted in India are given in Table 3.1 On tension tower without the pilot string. Chapter 4) are drawn to determine the length of cross arm and the same is checked against galloping/clashing depending upon the exposure of the lines to such conditions.' .angle of deviation of the line are drawn and cross arm length is arrived at. The analytical calculations for electrical clearances are given in Annexure-l where reference is to be made to Figure 20.2 The electrical clearance diagrams considering length of tension string.2.4.string is given in Figure 18. At nil and medium swing angle the electrical air clearance corresponds to lightning impulse level for lines having voltages upto 300 kV and to switching impulse level for lines having voltages upto 300 kV and to switching impulse level for lines having voltages above 300 kV voltage and at maximum swing angle the electrical air cle.4 Length of Cross-arm for Tension Towers 3.2.\1 ~: 3.5. The analytical calculation for electrical clearance is given in Annexure-I where reference is to be made to Figure 21.1 TYPICAL LENGTHS OF INSULATOR STRING ON TRANSMISSION LINES IN INDIA Typical details of insulator strings (suspension and tension) and swing and clearance of suspension insulator strings and jumpers for existing lines in India are given in Tables 3. provision of unequal cross-arms. .8. 3.28 Tower Geometry load (maximum) and vertical load and transverl~ load (average) and vertical load.4. The criteria for determining electrical clearances in case of lines upto 300 kV and those exceeding 300 kV is same as applicable in case of I-Insulator string. For large angle towers (60°)/ and dead end towers.8. electrical air clearances. No r b 9 b2 v . The electrical clearance diagrams for suspension tower with I and V .8.

ent Figure 18: Electrical Tower Notes: C B S 81 82 X1 X2 ~2 = = = = = = = = = Distance of centre of gravity of the main angle sections Flange Width of the nearest projecting angle sections connected to main angle members. I _ String Airangement v -s ti.ng Clearance Diagram Suspension Ari~rlgerr. Length of suspension string Swing angle of the suspension string Maximum swing angle of the suspension string Electrical clearance corresponding to BIUSIL Electrical clearance corresponding to dynamic over voltage power frequency voltage Maximum swing angle of String 1/2 of the inc!uded angle of V String I-String S Sin 91+X1+B+C or S Sin 92 + X2 +B+C V-String Length of X-arm • .I.

30 Tower Geometry D = Depth of Jumper Length of cross arm = = 1.L-J Isef ~St.10 x Maximum electrical clearance corresponding to BIL or SIL St Sin _1_ + D Sin 93 +Xl+B+C 2 or = St Sin <!> + 0 Sin 94 +X2+B+C ""2 $ = Angle of line deviation 83 = Jumper swing and corresponding clearance XI 84 = Maximum jumper swing and corresponding clearance X2 I9.1 Sin~ ") .

I Xt. T (.>- " IJ ~.I I tJ~ .)mt p 14---1----- LM ------1 wb ~--~----LB---------~~ Figure 20: Electrical Clearance Diagram-Suspension (Annexure-I: Analytical Calculations) Tower .

. Geometry Tal - .32 Towe...1 r Ia I\1 .. B lZ > ~~ I101mt I 101m L. . II \1 - II I I _--xtl __.... ~l K I I I I \ I I r t wb 14-----+---LB----- .

S & C towers) and quad tension string. Size of discs for suspension and tension strings for 400 kv voltage is 280x145 mml255x145 mm and 280x170 mm respectively. 66 . Line Voltage (kV) Assumed Value of Swing of Suspension String from Vertical (degrees) 150 300 450 600 Minimum Clearances Specified (mm) 915 760 610 610 1.opted . In case of UPSES.14 & 15 Types No. TABLE 3. 16 Note: (i) (ii) (iii) Size of discs for insulator strings upto and including 220 kV Voltages is 255x145 mm. in India on Transmission Lines at 66 kV to 800 AC and ± 500 kV HVDC SI. the size of disc is 320x195 mm of 300 KN both for suspension and tension strings.TABLE 3.4 Typical Swing Angles and Electrical Clearances for Suspension Insulator Strings ad.3 Typical Details of the Insulator Strings Adopted in India on Transmission Lines at 66 kV to 800 kV AC and ± 500 kV HVDC Line Voltage (kV) Suspension String Tension String Type No. No. Size of discs for 800 kV system of POWERGRID are 255x145 mm of 120 KN discs for DIS and SIS (Pilot D&E towers) and V (Pilot for D&E towers) and 280x170 mm 01210 KN for V (A. of Discs 5 2x5 9 2x9 14 2x14 23 2x38 2x40 2x35 4x35 1x40 2x40 2x29 2x31 Length (mm) 965 1255 1630 1915 2340 2640 3850 7120 7000 7550 7800 7000 7250 See Fig. of discs 6 2x6 10 2x10 15 2x~5 2x23 4x38 4x35 Length (mm) 1070 1575 1820 2175 2915 3345 5450 8450 9800 66 132 220 400 SIS DIS SIS DIS SIS DIS SIS VIS DIS V(A Towers) V(S&C Towers) SIS (Pilot D&E Towers) V (Pilot D&E Towers) V SIT DIT SIT DIT SIT OIT DIT QuadlT QuadlT ± 500 DC 800 POWER GRID UPSES QuadlT 2x31 See Fig.

line Voltage (kV) 66 Assumed Value of Swing of Jumper from Vertical (Degrees) 10° 20° 30° 10° 20° 30° 10° 20° 20° 40° Power Grid 15°/20° 25°/30° 40°/45° Minimum Clearances Specified (mm) 915 610 610 1530 1070 1070 2130 1675 3050 1860 2.4 Contd. SI. No. ± 800 5600 4400 5000 . 400 I-String 800 I-String ) c 5.34 (Table 3. 132 3. 5600 4400 1300 5100/5600 5000/5500 I c y V-String Power Grid UPSEB " .1 TABLE 3.. • '. 1. 220 ( C \ 4. 400 5.. 220 4.5 Typical Swing Angles and Electrical Clearances for Tension String (Single/Double) Jumper adopted in India on Transmission Lines at 66 kV to 800 kV and ±500 kV HVDC w vV . 132 15° 30° 45° 60° 15° 30° 45° 22° 44° Power Grid 20° 25° 41° 55°/64° 105° to 115° V=90° 1530 1370 1220 1070 2130 1830 1675 3050 1860 Tower Geometry 3.) 2.

middle and bottom cross-arms. Vertical distance from underneath the cross-arm to the farthest tip of corona control ring from centre line of tower corresponding to 91 & 92. Vertical distance from underneath the cross-arm to nearest tip of corona control ring from centre line of tower corresponding to 91 & 92. Distance of centre of gravity of main angle section Angle between main and inclined tie members of top.LM. Horizontal distance from centre line of tower to nearest tip of corona control ring corresponding to 01 & 92. middle. Horizontal distance from centre line of tower to the farthest tip of corona control ring corresponding to 91 & 92.ANNEXURE-I Analytical Calculation for Electrical Clearances on Transmission Lines (Refer Figures 20 and 21) 1. middle and bottom cross arms Angle of deviation of line Jumper depth B = = B C ocococ= T' M' y~. X!2' . Height of top.WI2 = W'1'W:? = ~. Flange width of the nearest projecting angle sections connected to main and tie angle members. bottom cross arm from centre line of tower body. Spacing between the conductors of bundle or jumpers.Y = M = LT. Slopes of legs Height of Corona control ring Length of top.Y2 = W1 = W!1.hb = = D = = .0 NOTATIONS H S = = Height of hanger Overall length of suspension insulator string upto the lower tip of corona control ring. Swing angles of suspension insulator string Specified electrical clearances to be maintained at swing angles corresponding to 91 & 92 respectively. Half width of tower body at top cross arm level Half width of tower body at level corresponding to ~'1' ~12 Half width of tower body at level corresponding to XI1.LB= Z 4> h"hm.

3 2 H + S.36 2. p tan aml Cos Urn· (B+C) ..1 Underneath the Cross-arm Electrical clearance Ayailable Tower Geometry At Angle of Swing 6. Horizontal Clearance V1 = H + S.e~1 n Similar check shall be made for 8 . W" = X" = W. Cos 92 + N Sin 92 _ (B+C) 2 Electrical Clearance from Lower Cross-ARMTie (Inclined) Member L. _ N Cos 8. If oem < 9. + V. _ = H +(8-M) 62 2... _ - N Cosa. and less than 92.2 K2 N .) Cos B ~ X. • (B+C) ~ X" i = [V IV Y.0 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE ON SUSPENSION STRINGS 2.. + ~ Sin 9. Sin 62 _ N Cos 92 _ (B+C) = tan oem (Lower X-arm) = hm Perpendicular distance to Tie member from the line point' is shortest.1Cos 0. K. . Sin 9. _ S. Clearance available = rJ=-l H+5 COs9. + V 2 tan ~ X12 = V2 = 2. _ (B+C) 2 (X12 W 12)Cos ~ ~ X2 _ W12 = W. Sin 9. _ (B+C) X.) - P tan u. _ (B + C) Cos 6. Sin 6. tan B ~ _ S. 2 = V 2 _ (B + C) H +(s·_ M) Cos 92 _ N Sin 92 _ 2 Electrical Clearance from Tower Body = (B+C) X2 Horizontal Clearance = (XI1_ W. 2 _ (B+C) 9. then clearance is required to be computed at swing angle of string corresponding to If oem > 9. then the clearance is minimum when angle of swing is 9. = V. + N Sin 9. Distance from lower tip of corona control ring to lower cross-arm tip p oem vi =P = (Lm _ ~ ) + S. Cos 9.

) 2 2 .0 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES ON TENSION STRINGS 3.2 Clearance from Tower Body· SWING ANGLE 9. Sin ~ + 0 Sin 9. ( Wt1 = Clearance available from tower body 3.3 = (Xt - Wt) Cos ~ (B+C) ~ X1 Clearance from Low Cross-Arm Tie (Inclined) Member tan « m =---L -W m Y .(B+C) ~ X2 2 Projected length of Tension Insulator String upto Jumper connection for angle of = = Cross-arm Length L. Xt1 = Angle of Swing = t + 0 Cos 9 = t + 0 Cos 8 1 - 2 - Z Sin 91 . tan oc m oc Clearance available from middle X-arm = AE = AI Cos m- (B+C) ~ X1 . Shift deviation. + Z Cos 9. KG tan oc = AG-GI = AG = BH JH m = BH - KH .1 Electrical Clearance with Reference to Underneath of Cross-arm Electrical Clearance Clearance Clearance 3. BH mt AG KH KG AI BJ =V= (Lm- = AG - Z Sin 91 Z Cos 91 2 Lt) + Shift + 0 Sin 91 - = KH + Z Cos 9. - (Shift + 0 Sin 91 + Z Cos 91) 2 (S.3.(B+C) ~ X1 2 Z Sin 92 .

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Transmission Line Manual Chapter 4 Electrical Clearances .

13 Recommendation 7 7 8 ANNEXURES Annexure I .Spacing between Conductor 11 12 1 Annexure II .CONTENTS Page 4.3 4.Unnao Line for Insulator Strings and Jumper APPENDIX .12 Clearance at Power Line Crossings 4.7 4.Investigation Studies on Clearance and Swing Angles for Indian Power System a 16 4 r 11 .General Consideration Clearance and Swing Angles on Transmission Lines in India Conductor Metal Air Clearances Air Clearance-Analysis by CIGRE Phase-to-Phase Air Clearances 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 4.Swing Angle for 800 kV Anpara .2 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.9 Introduction Minimum Ground Clearance Minimum Clearance above RiverslLakes Environmental Criteria for 800 kV Line Air Clearance .11 Effect of Span Length on Clearance 4.8 4.10 Clearance between Conductor & Groundwire 4.1 4.

In this chapter. the power frequency and switching impulse voltages are the governing criteria The other factors which affect the electrical insulation are climatic conditions . and its clearance. For system upto and including "3b9kV voltage rating. The various factors and statutory regulations which affect the electrical design of a tower are discussed as hereunder. infact.ile and possible sagging error.. relative.-fault occurrence. the aspects leading to electrical design of·a tower are. The electrical insulation of a tower is a function of steady state operating . The electrical deslgnoUower. whereas loadings and mechanical design of a tower are discussed in Chapters 6 & 7 'of the Manual.altitude. mtg rod insulators etc.floodJeveHmm)· 72 145 245 420 800 ±500 3650 4300 5100 6400 9:400 6750 .Chapter 4 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES 4.voltage of the system and various events that occur in the system (energisation. etc. .2 7 8 Minimum Ground Clearance The minimum clearance above ground as per sub rule 4 of Rule 77 of I.§cus~d in Chapter-V.2 above. The parameters which affect the design of a tower are di. The extemallnsulation comprises self restoring air and solid insulation in the form of insulator strings consisting of disc insulators.as for system above300 kV rating. the tower insulation is determined from the power frequency voltage and lightning impulse requirement where. lightning strokes etc.Rules 1956 (latest revision) for AC system and for ± 500 kV HVDC system as adopted in India are as under: Vrltage (kV) Nominal Highest (System) 66 72 5500 132 145 6100..the minimum clearance above frozen riversnakes should be equal to the minimum ground clearance given in 4. ) 4. e' 4. pollution. therefore discussed.3 Minimum Clearance above Rivers/Lakes In case of accessible frozen r'iversnakes. The minimum clearance of Power Conductor over the highest flood level in case ·ofncn navig~ble rivers shall be as foliows: System Voltage (kV) Minimum clearance above higtlest. re-energisation. 220 245 7000 400 420 8800 800 12400 -- ±500 12500 -- Minimum ground clearance (mm) To the above clearance.E. ·(The maximum height of an obleet over the highest flood level of non-navigable rlverllu:onsldCll'ed:al·3000mm) 1 . .). humidity.involves fixation of external insulation against different electrical phenomena.lectricat'design. an additional clearance of 150 mm is added to provide for uneven ground prof.1 Introduction The design of a transmission line tower is distinctly classified into mechanical design and e. .

induced resonance from coupled circuits. phase to grounded metal clearance. phase to phase clearance. 4. sudden change of loads. The switching impulse voltage originates from line energisation.5 Air Clearances . back flashover from tower to power conductors. The air gap clearances tor phase to phase lightning impulse withstand voltages are the same as those for phase to ground lightning impuls~ withstand voltages. railway tracks. clearance between power lines crossing each other. resonant ferro resonant circuits and secondary switching. 4. linear resonance. open conductor. etc. the minimum signal to noise ratio should be 30 dB. switching of inductive currents (current chopping effect) including transformer magnetising currents and reactor switching. roads etc.6 Clearances and Swing Angles on Transmission Lines In India Conductor metal clearances generally adopted in the country for transmission lines 66 kV and above are given as under: . line reclosing. Audible noise should be less than 55 dB (A). To comply with the above environmental requirements minimum ground clearance of about 15000 mm has been adopted in India for 800 kV lines. switching off capacitive current (restriking effect) including line dropping and capacitor bank switching. A line is subjected to lightning impulses due to shielding failure (direct stroke to power conductor). clearance between power conductor and groundwire. For Television Interference. clearances are fixed in relation to the tallest mast in consultation with the concerned navigationaVport authorities. 4. special switching operations including series capacitors.ferroresonance. The power frequency voltage is expressed in terms of service voltage or service voltage modified by events such as faults.4 Environmental Criteria for 800 kV Line The Standing EHV committee of CEA (Working Group 9: Interference) have laid down the iollowing environmental criteria for 800 kV lines: Radio Interference should not exceed 50 dB for 80% of time duration during the year. The phase to grounded metal clearances is a function of power frequency voltage and lightning impulse vottage in case of the transmission lines of voltage rating upto and including 245 kV and power frequency vottage and switching impulse voltage for lines above 245 kV voltage rating. fault occurrence and clearing.General Consideration The air clearances applicable to transmission lines are categorised as minimum ground clearance.For navigable rivers. ferranti effect. Electrost~tic field at 2 m above ground below the outer most phase should be equal to or less than 10 kV/m and equal to or less than 2 kV/m at the edge of right of way. power lines crossing telecommunication lines. vottage induction from nearby objects etc.

0 1.0 1. .0.0 8.05.7.0 2."".2 <-------------.0 3D 61.0HVDe Rlhand-Dadri line are given as under. .0 I -------> 4.0AC 45 6.0.0 Nil 2.0 ·V-Strings have been adopted.1 Conductor Metal Air Clearances System VoHage The air clearances for AC system given in document 11 (secretariat 48) of IEC referred in CiGRE document "Tower Top Geometry .05..07. For road crossings.0 65.0 213. VI'U.0 213.0 <-------Nil* Discussed in the Appendix 375.0 153.06" issued in June "1995 and for DC system on the basis of values adopted by Power Grid for their ± 5.7 4.0 4.0 186.0 12.WIG 22 .0 186.0 1675 1.0 <------------- ±5DD 19..0. 4.0 kV HVDC Rihand-Dadri line are given below: System VoHage (kV) Air Clearance (mm) 4.0 Nil 15 3D 45 6.0 LIghtning and Switching Over-voltage The air clearances corresponding to lightning impulse and switching over-voltages for AC system as per IEC 71-2 (1996) and for DC system as adopted by Power Grid for their ± 5.0 153.0 1.0 198.0 3.. (ii) The details of insulator string adopted in the country for transmission lines 66 kV and above voltage are given in Chapter SP..05.07.0 61.07. tension towers should be adopted.0 3D 153.0 I 16.0 1560 DC -------------> 115.0 122.0 61.0 -- -- 1675 -- --- 22 44 8DDAC ±5DD DC 3.0 1.0 Nil 15 3D 45 6. Notes: (i) Electrical clearance for suspension towers should be based on !single suspension strings.0 3.1 ""'.0 -- 61() -- Nil 153.0 Nil 76.AC --------------> "72 145 245 42.0 -- Nil 2.0 137.0.0 39.7.0 183.~:"V Qlllijll:l cuspensicn msuiatcr ~tnng Jumper Swing from vertical (degree) Nil Minimum clearance (mm) 915 915 (kV) 72AC Swing from vertical (degree) Nil 15 Minimum clearance (mm) 915 915 3D 145 AC 245 AC 42.0.0 2..0 213.0 -- 1.0 3.05..

1 As a sequel to adoption of structural design based on reliability concept. Impulse withstand VoHage (kVp) I Air Clearances (mm) "Ligtilning': Switching \ ' Ufghtning Impluse Level .•.. air clearances.. 4. 3250 3900 -----850 950 1050 950 1050 1175 . 630 1100 1300 1900 2100 2600 2850 3900 4200 2. _. 2800 3250 2800. _-. Rod Structure 5. ---- --- -- --- -- ----2200 2600 4200 4900 --- -- -- 1700 1900 2400 2600 3800 3900 -- 420AC 800AC ±500DC 4. 400 420 500 525 Values recommended for adoption are given separately.WG06 had taken up study on tower top geometery to ascertain the swing angles of the insulator strings.1970 2180 2430 . 5.-_. 123 245 Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage (kV) 3._ . etc.. Rod structure 7.condition/small swing angle in Document "Tower Top Geometry" .. .I t I Switching lmpluse Level Conductor Structure 6. 940 1130 1760 . 450 550 850 950 ' 1050 1175 1300 1425 1300 1425 1550 Switching Impulse Withstand Voltage (kV) 4.8 1300 1425 ... The WG based on CIGRE Publication 72 had interalia worked out air clearances corresponding to lightning and switching surges understill air.. (kV) .1950 2100 1800 .8. . for the meteorological data used for determining the structural strength. 950 1050 1425 1550 1000 2900 3400 5600 6400 3750 -- -- Air Clearance· Analysis by CIGRE 4.. Minimum Phaseto-Earth Air Clearance (mm) . Conductor Structure 1." System VoltagQ . --. 72AC 145AC 245AC . . CIGRE SC-22. 110 230 Highest Voltage for Equipment urn(kV) 2. 325 ' 550 650 950 1050 '" 3. Nominal VoHage uR (kV) 1.•.June 1995 as given below.

'1hese'WfAd:pressures:corre'$pontf'JtolllHrll' •• :characterisedbyretum .COrresJi)OnCfing'to· iRdhmlrvllsVVItCfifrlrtover 'voRages incase 'of I.as'given:inGiTiH21(t99B) are 'reproduced 'below: ..~~~.and'maximum ~angle:ofiSWin.r-· . A .period:df:2·to '5'years .00 . :l?aJr~he·lretJuced'a:ngle':df·sWI.separation'betwsenipower:Conductors:df1ttresame~ or'different circuits omhe same tower will be.estabIiShed1lY1:Onductormetal:t!teanrlT088l1SCU8sed tnParas4:7& 4:8.1 4:9.'0'0 :3300 3600 3"9'00 ..4i8:3 --.1 J J I CIGRE Docot June 95 adopted In ·other·'countries.other.lightning Impulse withstand voltage (kVp) 325 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1175 1300 ·1425 1550 1675 1800 1950 2100 Mlnlmum~Alr Clearance'(mrtI) Rod Structure 630 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2350 2600 2850 3100 3350· 3600 3900 4200 ..2600 r i ~2900 :311.I :4:9 4:9..arnHightnlnglswltchingsurgest!'loaseof V.pressuTe·s. :Further. .are. ~( ..1.. __ 1 The 'correlation between wlnd.wind 'speed 'Is ':speclfied}'.suspenslon·or pllot:suspension·:string.andi". However minimum clearances'betweenphases.given Tables .. Conductor:Structme .mmaaad1~ . ~--..uspension 'strings(bdth 'r&V):adopted in..._ ._ 16"00 1700 19'00 22'0'0 :24. .1 Ughtning 'Impulse . 'Standard .. .countries:indicateS1h1lnhese:..againstfJOwer!frequency'Ndlt..to 70%. 1Phase-lO-.Phase-to~phase·vertical.. - -.ofUHimate wind:pressure.a characteristic . Ie 9 ~ hi )s la ~ ..andhorizontal·.--------_" "'..2...gsJdf.1.Phase tArrClearances '.:strings.pressure(speed) '. 'occasionally.famtn1th8~jJfJO/o .

is given as under: . .500 6.i 66 72 2440 132 145 2750 220 245 3050 400 420 4480 800 7900 '~I "(1' 4. Voltage (kV) Nominal 66 132 220 400 Highest Minimum Ciearance (mm) Above Rail Track 14.1 Recommendation Air clearances and swing angles for various system voltage ratings are recommended as under: ~ .12. the minimum clearance for line passing over the' road shall be corresponding to field gradient of 10 kV/m.13 4. .12.000 Over Crane 2.100 14. It should not permit a short circuit current more than 5 rnA through an individual when touching a vehicle standing below the line.400 17.E. as per "Code 'of Practice for Protection of Telecommunication Lines of Crossings with Overhead Power Lines" should be -. v.500 3. Rules 1956 provided the requirement stipulated in Sub·Rule " (4) of Rule 77 of IE Rules 1956 is met.1987" shall be as follows: The minimum vertical clearance above rail track as also highest working point of the jtb when crane is deployed and the lowest point of any conductor of crossing including ground wire under condition of maximum sag .12.4. ~ As per electrostatic field effect of EHV transmission lines.1 m as per Rules 77 of I.2 Power Lines Crossing Communication Lines The minimum clearance to' be maintained between a power line and a communication line.50Q 72 145 245 420 800 4.":' " Nominal Voltage (kV) Highest Minimum clearance between power conductor crossing telecommunication line (mm) . the road shall be 6.4 Power Lines Running Along or Across the Roads The minimum clearance above ground for 66 kV and above voltage power lines running along or across '.3 Power Line Crossing "" Railway Tracks The minimum vertical clearance between the lowest conductor of a power line crossing the railway track as per "Regulations for Power Line Crossings of Railway Tracks.600 15. 4.900 22. as follows: ".000 9. System voltage (kV) Single suspenston Insulator String Swing from vertical (degree) 15 30 45 60 Minimum clearance (mm) 915 760 610 610 1530 Jumper Swing from vertical (degree) 10 20 30 145 AC Nil Nil 1530 .13.000 2.

30 45 60 245 AC Nil 15 30 45 60 Nil 1370 1220 1070 2130 1980 1830 1675 20 30 1070 1070 Nil 10 20 2130 2130 1675 400 AC 22 44 800 AC Zones 1& II Nil 22 45 Nil 3050 3050 1860 Nil 20 40 3050 3050 1860 5600/5100 4400 1300 5600/5100 4400 1300 Nil 15 30 Nil 20 40 Nil 22 45 5100 4400 1300 5100 4400 1300 5100 4400 1300 Zones III &IV 27 55 Zones V & VI Nil 5600/5100 4400 ' 1300 30 60 4.s +--i~- + V T5U - Horizontal Clearance (m) Where = = = Sag at 75" C Length of Insulator String in metres.13..75 Vf. Line Vo~age in kV .long spans shall be established from the following formulae: Vertical Clearance ("1) 0.2 The spacing between conductors for.

o o 0 0 0 Where...~ 50 ~ en L.. E QI -i VI I //0 L: I I ~I / NominalVoltage : 500 kV "2Conductor : ACSR 410mm x4 Insulator Strings: 320mm x 26pc s.. double strain Depth of Jumper: 5.60 . 30 I I I I I I Without reinforcement With reinforcement wire ----And reinforcement spacer _. 30 ::J .---.50 - 10 20 40 Mean wind speed during 10minutes [m/sec] Figure I : Swing characteristics of jumper conductor based on test carried out in Japan.. r:nn c.. 01 1----. F:LXSin~12 r-=.---- ~ 40 . Length of insulator strings Line deviation angle e..000 mm Catenary Angle : OCI I I o ~ g' 20 10 ~----o o l/ -Ii v- j_ /1 I I I I I I + oc2: 5° .. \ . (a) Suspension Insulator Strings L. (b) Jumper (wi thout pilot SuspensionInsulator C:..-.

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