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Thus if we want to develop Pakistan then development of rural area has to be considered at all cost.GEEKS 2 INTRODUCTION Rural development is a complex phenomenon and despite a long history of efforts claimed by a number of government or related agencies. roads. scope. In Pakistan attempts at rural development have been going on for the last three decades. population. their role is significant even economically as they help the men in farm activities. The aim of rural development is to frame projects of local importance and tocomplete them with the help of the surplus labour available in the villages. Over four-fifths of the population of Pakistan lives in rural areas. wide gap in the income distribution and non-adopting trend for modern technology. because this should be something substantially more than only improving their present role in the house-hold economy. agriculture system in rural development etc. Women are already playing a vital role in the family. The rural sector contains a predominant proportion of our total population which is deprived of basic necessities of life as health. transportation and communication facilities healthy drinking water and electricity etc. improving pathways. increase in agricultural production neglect of various social services. The people were living in the scattered and interior villages with low subsistence level. Their per capita income is much lower than those who live in urban areas. The purpose of this report is to point out the functions of rural development. Such projects can be accomplished in rural areas because surplus labour power is available there. to improve suppy for irrigation and for drinking to construct small bridges and agriculture. But there is shortage of capital in the country and development has to be through those projects. and village streets to build the village school and the common meeting place. The problem of reviving of rural life came into picture due to mass poverty. problems. The main factor is that women deserve to be attented for their participation in rural development process. visible changes in the rural areas. The projects usually consist of building village. Pakistan after gaining independence during 1947 inherited a vicious cycle of poverty. which need a smaller proportion of capital and more labour. better a higher education. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . In the rural families. objectives. The availability of these facilities vary significantly resulting economic base of labour specially rural youth in productive manner. particularly during the less busy seasons.

jujubes and dates. They cultivated six-row barley. stored their grain in granaries." ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . is environmentally non-degrading. wheat. and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations . including agriculture development. which eventually led to more planned settlements making use of drainage and sewers. primarily sheep and goat was visible in rural areas. Earlier residents lived in mud brick houses. seed production. forestry and fisheries sectors conserves land. water. Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley Civilization. and lined their large basket containers. including tanning.GEEKS 3 RURAL BACKGROUND The domestication of cattle. Sophisticated irrigation and water storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization. goats and cattle. Residents of the later period put much effort into crafts. plant and animal genetic resources. economically viable and socially acceptable. The size and prosperity of the Indus civilization grew as a result of this innovation. DEFINITION In the research on sustainable rural development it is used the following definition for the Food and Agricultural Organization in Pakistan: Defined as: Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the natural resources base. and metal working. and herded sheep. technically appropriate. Such sustainable development in the agriculture. fashioned tools with local copper ore.

To increases per capita income. it was realized that the majority of the rural population was still poor and illiterate. To improve the rural economy and the living conditions in the villages. drainage. Based on the lessons and mininial impact on the rural economy of the previous national rural development programme. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . ensure food security. improve crops and livestock productivity and promote sustainable development. To provide better education system. It needs to be done to fill the blanks in rural areas in pakistan. write and learn skills. indudtries. health sanitation. irrigation and proper heigenic environment. To provide the community essential services which an urban is enjoying.GEEKS 4 OBJECTIVE OF RURAL DEVELOPMANT There are some objectives that must cover the core factors of rural development. Rural Development The main objective of agriculture development is to achieve self reliance in agriculture commodities. Some are as follows: Objectives y y y y y y y y y y To improve the quality of life of rural people. To improve the roads and the pathways and streets to be get paved. besides 50 per cent of our children dropout of the school system. To provide human rights to women in villages where women being cruelt. The high rate of population growth over weighs our gains. Although efforts were made since independence (1947) to improve the educational standard. To provide neccessities and the modern tehnology for the development of agriculture. pure drinking water and job facilities. by the time they reach Class V. To develop pakistan as a nation. This will reduce the wide gap of literacy and illiteracy. The masses are required to be taught to read. To increase in the exporting efficiency of the country.

It is observed in rural societies of Sindh that family cohesion plays an important role in personality development. Plant protection equipment. 95% of the costs involved are engineering in nature and only trained engineers wo uld be able to handle the job. There are. Following are a few examples of important fields. fisheries. Environmental engineering as applied to rural areas. dairy industry and food preservation. circulation f air. Drying and storing of grains and crops and ventilation. Farm electrification. This is not being given sufficient thought and presently some silos having concrete structure have been constructed. The civil engineers designing such structures have idea of the exact requirements of the agricultural produce to be stored and maintenance of silos with regard totemperature. fungus etc. food processing. cold storage for food products etc. The agriculture development and the crops includes the following fields: y y y y y y y Tractors and implements. STORAGE OF GRAINS It is another important agriculture engineering technology. Farm buildings structures and silos. humidity control and protection against insects pests. So these are the main objectives of the rural development report. dairy industry. with a view to transforming rural economy. animal feed. however. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . special economic problems of rural areas of Punjab which need immediate attention. AGRICULTURE The agriculture engineering not only applies to agriculture but also to animal husbandry. In any of these fields and specially in fish farming. meat processing.GEEKS 5 The Allama lqbal Open University is determined to reach and teach the rural people living in 45000 villages through the cooperation and coordination of field workers of various departments and agencies. RURAL DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS The important branches of agriculture engineering are as follows: The agricultural engineering includes a large number of subjects besides simple farm power and farm machinery. Farm waste management engineering.

Fish play a major role in low cost fish farming as the energy conversion rates are high and the feeds are easily available at low cost. Poultry housing and equipment. treatment and conservation. Forage harvesting. It is included in the basic factors of development of rural area. handling and transport. Horticultural engineering. Farmer's Contribution The farmer should be responsible for the cost of: y y y Pond construction Manure Labor IRRIGATION Pakistan's agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation. The extension personnel should try to motivate the farmers by distributing simple articles or pamphlets on fish culture as well as through audiovisual media. Refrigeration and cold storage as applied to agricultural produce preservation. handling. with gross commanded area of 16 million hectares. irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. This type of farming is generally integrated with animal husbandry and horticulture which provide the wastage needed for fish production readily and economically. Agro -industry. in adapting developing low cost fish farming. Agricultural engineering instrumentation and control. the introduction of zooplankton feeding fish is very important.GEEKS 6 y y y y y y y y y Livestock equipment and structures. Therefore. Food and feed processing engineering. Extension services should be developed in order to make the rural farmers aware of the potential of fish culture. Aqua cultural environment management and structures. Present-scale production is very small compared to market demand. FISHING Fish is also a part of rural areas. Harvesting and marketing activities of demonstration pond production should be carried out by the Directorate of Fisheries. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN .

The maintenance of existing canals and watercourses. some thirty such projects had been started that when completed would irrigate nearly 6. Nor did it stop the decline in the total number of family farms. But electric power alone was not enough to stop the transformation of farm communities. little attention was paid to the growing water logging and salinity problems.GEEKS 7 The annual agricultural growth rate of 6 percent has been estimated to reverse the trend of deficits in food. leaving aside ditch and furrow irrigation? It would save water from something like 40% to 80% by proper irrigation techniques. branch canal or minor canal. The field irrigation which play important role has never come up in Pakistan and is little understood. precision irrigation. on farm improvements on the farms themselves including some land leveling to conserve water. How about sprinkler irrigation. drip irrigation. To enhance crop production and productivity through a considerable change in production system by putting irrigation system on sustainable development path. The irrigation Department's responsibility ends as soon as water is supplied at the head of water course from a canal. Private farmers. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Rural electrification was based on the belief that affordable electricity would improve the standard of living and the economic competitiveness of the family farm. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . had installed over 200. Considerable time and money are needed to realize the full potential of the irrigation system and bring it up to modern standards. fiber and edible oils. The intention is gradually to raise water charges to cover operation and maintenance costs. In 1959 a salinity control and reclamation project was started in a limited area. using groundwater for irrigation. trickle irrigation. to draw down the water table and leach out accumulated salts near the surface. By the early 1980s. however.000 tube wells. mainly for irrigation purposes but also to lower the water table. WATER SUPPLY Although some drainage was installed. based on public tube wells. and on drainage and salinity in priority areas was done. Rural electrification did not halt the continuing migration of rural people from the country to the city. By 1993 the government had installed around 15.3 million hectares. Lining of watercourses is just one simple application of field irrigation.000 mostly small tube wells. Private Wells probably pumped more than five times as water as public wells.

Productivity on about 42. Pakistan has the best irrigation system but the modern technology is still lacking. has geared up the work for building the power transmission line. and water logging and Stalinization of the soil lowers crop yields. The urban area developed because the roads are maintained and streets are paved.5 percent of this land area or 6. Water availability for the future has been estimated at 108. The basic need of the modern technology that can help Pakistan prevent from the problems and issues occur in the development of rural areas. the government policies are now also focusing on the rural development and the roads to the very edge of the town are developed since 2003. The rural area is developing now by its roads. Basha and Dassu are constructed) in years 2000. a subsidiary of the Wapda. PROBLEMS IN THIS SECTOR The environmental problems being faced by country with the stage of development. and agro-chemicals.6 (if 3 dams namely Kalabagh. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN .00 million hectares of irrigated land in Pakistan. Water pollution damages fisheries. Without requisite water supply. No substantial increase in the water supply is possible in the short run by year 2000 because no dam can be built even if there are no political or other bottlenecks. the structure of the economy and the environmental policies.GEEKS 8 A number of electric power generation projects are also being carried out in rural area and in its surroundings.3 and 126. 2013 and 2025 respectively. ROADS The roads are the major factors in the development of any area. These forms of environmental degradation are associated primarily with surface of irrigated agriculture affect the physical. There are over 16.9 million has declined significantly due to salinity and water logging. the sources of pollution include saline drainage effluent. In Pakistan. chemical and biological components of the economic system. It is expected to be completed soon. sewage.7. food and fiber deficits would be irrecoverable. 107. industrial waste. The Quetta Electric Supply Company.

and only 1 percent in Baluchistan.GEEKS 9 PAKISTAN LAND DISTRIBUTION Land use Pakistan's total land area is about 803. include part of this area as agricultural land on the basis that it would support some livestock activity even though it is poor land. mountain slopes. and urban settlements.9 million hectares were cultivated. Government officials listed only 3 million hectares. About 48 million hectares. is often classified as unusable for forestry or agriculture consists mostly of deserts. Around 70 percent of the cropped area was in Punjab. Some authorities. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . followed by perhaps 20 percent in Sind. however. estimates of grazing land vary between 10 percent and 70 percent of the total area. About 21. Thus.940 square kilometers. less than 10 percent in the North-West Frontier Province. or 60 percent. largely in the north were forested.

Bahawalpur recruited a one year diploma-holder in civil engineering for drilling operations. There were certain activities of the agriculture department in which agriculture engineers could have played a better role from the beginning but this was denied to them due to lack of foresight. tractors were idle. for example plant protection equipment was introduced in Sind. as they had the maximum amount of field equipment in terms of crawler machinery and recruited only qualified mechanical engineers. SINDH Sind followed the example of Bombay. The Punjab had used some wheel type tractors received from Australia under Colombo Plan for plough. Baluchistan and Frontier had done the same but all of them showed poor results as tractors were needed only during the two plough seasons. Bahawalpur had been copying the Punjab had been using the example of Sind for soil conservation with the help of bulldozers. BALOCHISTAN Baluchistan had been using the example of Sind for soil conservation with the help of bulldozers. Bahawalpur.GEEKS 10 PUNJAB Situation in the Punjab was more scope for development of sweet ground water. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . very strictly. which were limited to about six weeks each and during the rest of the nine months of year. The Agricultural Engineering section in the Punjab therefore was tube-well oriented. NWFP The NWFP agriculture engineering section was virtually nonexistent except one officer to run some wheel type tractors.

79 48. Headcount by province and region using poverty line official 748.92 22.07 42.27 48.4 and 17.6 million individuals were located in rural and urban areas.71 38. Incidence of rural poverty was far greater than the urban poverty. respectively.07 ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN .73 34.04 Rural 39. Although rural poverty in Punjab was the lowest among the provinces in terms of ranking but the headcount was still considered to be substantial at 39% in 2001-02.00 42. The results suggest that 42.21 28.72 38.GEEKS 11 RURAL POVERTY Poverty in Pakistan for 2001-02.98 39.97 Overall 35.04% population in urban areas were poor in 2001-02.79 percent followed by NWFP at 48 percent and Baluchistan at 42 percent.56 per adult in 2001-02 Urban Punjab Sind NWFP Baluchistan Pakistan 26.57 26. This implies that 55 million individuals out of 145 million were poor in Pakistan and 37.97% population in rural areas and 26.63 45. Poverty estimates at the province level suggest the highest incidence of rural poverty in Sind at 48. the results indicates that absolute poverty in Pakistan implied by the official poverty which is 38.07 percent in 2001-02.

The performance of each unit may be monitored on monthly basis. The additional water reservoirs may therefore be started immediately. The Export Promotion Bureau in collaboration with Agriculture Department and Banking System may: y y y Provide better and improved quality of plants to farmers. additional water has to be provided. Develop cold storages at the farms. The commercial banks may be encouraged to provide credit to small farmers in addition to Zarai Tarqauati Bank. It is therefore proposed that land reforms may immediately be introduced and the maximum land holding may be fixed at 20 hectares. Train farmers to have maximum output. keeping in view the productivity of equipment. The agriculture research has to be demand driven. Develop appropriate international packing facilities. The productivity of the farmers having more than 20 hectares of land is less than those having less than 20 hectares of land. Exports and maintenance Pakistan has a great potential in export of fruits. In order to increase production to meet food requirements of the growing population. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . markets and airports through Bank financing by the private sector. Scientists must develop new cotton and tobacco varieties to improve productivity.GEEKS 12 AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN The following are described to achieve the objectives. The water storage capacity is decreasing due to sedimentation. Each provincial government may fix annual targets in respect of each agriculture extension unit. Introduce sprinkle irrigation in orchards. The certified seed based on research may be made available to farmers without passing through bureau tic channels.

the government introduced agriculture assistance policies.184. real growth in the agricultural sector averaged 5. including increased support prices for many agricultural commodities and expanded availability of agricultural credit. wheat. second-largest apricot and ghee market and third-largest cotton. 707 million in 2005 thus registering over 41% growth since 2000. including increased wheat and oilseed production. while minor crop yields were valued at Rs. The country is Asia's largest camel market.504.7% but has since declined to about 4%. fish. Export Promotion Bureau may facilitate participation of exporters in trade fairs abroad. cotton. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . cotton.GEEKS 13 The exporters may be encouraged to advertise in international magazines and electronic media to market Pakistani fruit in the world market. The economic importance of agriculture has declined since independence. except in occasional years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. From 1993 to 1997. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued major crop yields at Rs. Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is utilized by the country's growing processed-food industry. and vegetables and imports vegetable oil. Pakistan exports rice. pulses and consumer foods. onion and milk market. Following the poor harvest of 1993. 868 million in 2005 thus registering over 55% growth since 2000. AGRICULTURE GROWTH Pakistan is a net food exporter. when its share of GDP was around 53%. fruits (especially Oranges and Mangoes). play a central role in the government's economic reform package. The value of processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000. Agricultural reforms.

pesticides. excluding deep sea fishing. MCB gives top priority to small & medium size farmers. streamlining the institutional credit and increasing income generating capacity of the farming community. Development Loans Improvement of agricultural land. The restructuring of former ADBP is being carried out with the aim to uplift the agriculture and rural sector by raising farm productivity. etc. water charges. decided by the State Bank Of Pakistan. 2002 through repeal of ADB Ordinance of 1961. farm and non-farm loans. fertilizers. MCB caters to the financing requirement of the farming community spread throughout the country and facilitates in achieving increased productivity. ADBP The Bank. orchards. extends short. and cattle).GEEKS 14 AGRICULTURE FINANCE MCB is financing agriculture sector since 1973. Defined as follows: Farm Loans Production loans Inputs like seeds. y Construction of Goo downs ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . floriculture. Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). medium and long term depending upon farmer s choice and the nature of finance. vegetables. medium and long term. labor charges. Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) is the premier financial institution geared towards the development of agriculture sector through provision of financial services and technical knowhow. sheep. Non-farm credits are allowed for livestock (goats. All types of financing are available for short. poultry and factories including social forestry and fisheries island and marine. Due to large branch network and specialized staff posted in the branches. under the Agricultural Financing Scheme. The farm loans are extended for production inputs and development purposes. etc. herbicides. ZTBL was incorporated as a Public Limited Company on 14th December.

It had recovered Rs120 million so far. Machinery & other equipments Tube wells Farm Transportation Non-Farm loans y y y Livestock Poultry Fisheries ADBP Real life example TOBA TEK SINGH. However. it was expected that the bank would achieve the recovery target within a fortnight and then loans would be issued for the purchase of tractors and setting up of farms. This was complained by a large number of farmers who have been visiting various bank branches for the purpose. From this recovered sum. he added. 10 per cent should be sent to the head office and the remaining amount should be disbursed as loans for the purchase of seeds and fertilizer.GEEKS 15 y y y Tractors. Loans for other schemes have been stopped on the instructions of the federal government. no fresh loans would be issued. He said the ADBP had issued Rs150 million farm loans under one-window scheme from July to September 2001. An ADBP source said on Wednesday farm loans for the purchase of seeds and fertilizer were being issued under one-window operation. he said. Unless the remaining outstanding amount was recovered. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . Nov 14: The Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) has not been issuing loans for purchasing tractors and developing dairy and livestock farms for the last two months. He said the federal government has directed to speed up recovery of the remaining amount.

Vegetables. herbs etc. By Qamar Zaman Rana. Apple. Consulting & Turnkey Projects and Agriculture cultivation.GEEKS 16 COMPANIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURE Pacific Exporters Exporters of rice. Faisal Rice Processing Mills Faisal Rice Processing Mills is one of the oldest rice processing mills of Pakistan. It has years of experience in this field and only provide quality products at reasonable prices. and Pomegranate. We want to extend our business to all over the world. The company has well established its name. Kin now. Rice co Industries Rice co Industries an experienced miller and exporters of full range of excellent quality Rice from Pakistan. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . they make sure that their customers are satisfying either. They supply their quality products to worldwide at very competitive prices. Today Rice co is well recognized locally and internationally as quality producers and distributors providing highest value to its customers globally. Potato. Its main business activities like distributing. Mango. Spices. marketing Agro produces. Their brands are considered to be a quality symbol and have a heavy demand in European. Mandarin. Contracts cultivation for Organic farming. Fennel Seeds. Pulses. Dry Dates etc. Fenugreek seeds. Cumin Seeds. Mr . With years of experience in the field of rice processing and exporting. Malka Food and Oil Mills Malk Food deals in agriculture. we have been working for since 1998 in this field. Prime Products are Onion. Imtiaz Enterprises Imtiaz Enterprises are one of the leading Exporters of Fresh Fruits & Vegetables from Pakistan. Asian and American markets. Grapes. Red Chili. grain items and various varieties of oils.Qamar Zaman Aamir Zaman Fertilizer Dealers Company profile It s a family owned Business.

Leather Items. Wine Bags.GEEKS 17 Al Baasit Technology Group Al Baasit is the local Business Partner of Avaya Communications USA in Pakistan. Stationary. Terry Products. and Aprons. Promotional Items. Software & Services. They provide the Equipment. Coin Bags. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN .g. Decent Exports It deals in much kind of several Products e.

Institutional credit is viewed as a necessary adjunct to efforts of increasing agricultural production on the assumptions that farmers need credit to take advantage of technology and it will be adopted if credit is received in Pakistan agriculture continues to be the major labor absorbed and accounts for 54. possibility for creating self employment opportunities based on cottage industry and Small Enterprises based on On-Farm income generating activities needs to be explored and envisaged in a most strategic way. For creating the rural development. The support price of different commodities may be announced on yearly basis at the time of its sowing and the small farmers may be given priority in purchase of crops.5 lacks on yearly basis. This may be widely circulated through electronic and print media. ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN . The top ten agricultural officers from each province based on their performance may be awarded certificates along with a cash award of Rs.GEEKS 18 RECOMMENDATIONS Agricultural Land in Pakistan Provincial Agriculture Department may guide the farmers in adoption of alternate farming in view of water shortage. All the revenue record is computerized to get rid from the existing colonized system. The production of vegetables and flowers may be encouraged to improve the farmer s income. appropriate quantity of fertilizer and pesticides. The farmers may be encouraged through credit and seed. The Allama lqbal Open University is determined to reach and teach the rural people living in 45000 villages through the cooperation and coordination of field workers of various departments and agencies. Exploit livestock potential trough education of farmers to adopt scientific practices and provision of health care facilities at the farmer s doorsteps. Each agriculture officer may be given target of area under each crop. Technology should be available to the majority of the rural community and should be understood and controlled by the users. Technology has generally been thought of as a measure of increasing production through new or improved physical inputs.0 per of the total employment.

Hammad. Muhhammad Afzal.com/ ECONOMIC OF PAKISTAN .adbp.Talat. Mirza B. Absolute Poverty in Pakistan.org/ http://www. WEB SEARCH y y y y http://www. Panhwar.fao. Pakistan Development Review. government of Pakistan Islamabad. M. Structural Adjustment and Poverty: The Case of Pakistan.aghakhandevelopmentnetwork. Landlessness and Rural Poverty in Pakistan Asian development bank.GEEKS 19 REFERRENCES PROPER JOURNALS AND ARTICLES y y y y y y y y y y y M. Economic review. H. Managing water resources for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture in Lahore. Boluchistan Fisheries development project. Human Condition Report 2002. Applied Economics Research Centre. Pakistan Development Review. Anwar. Rural Development in Pakistan: From Vision to Action Kruik and Leeuwen (1985). Sarfraz K.wikipedia. Ercelawn.com/ http://www. (1996). Islamabad. 2007 A. Baig & Nowshad Khan. Sind Ministry of food. July 1998. Centre for Research on Poverty Reduction and Income Distribution (CRPRID). Qureshi and A. Musarat. CRPRID (2002). T. Development of Agriculture engineering in Pakistan. Mimeo. agriculture and livestock.pk/ http://www. Changes in Poverty in Pakistan. Karachi. Aly (1990).

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