A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences Our Lady of Fatima University Under the class of Prof. Irene P. Villareal

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Nursing

BY: Mariejo Jornal - leader James Brian Dimagiba – assistant leader Members: Viktor Henry Daria Robert Kenneth Vitug Rafael Carlo Tuazon Karen Bayos Allan Vigilia

March 2009

February 2, 2009 Dr. Nelia Capulong, RN MAN Dean College of Nursing Our Lady of Fatima University #1 Esperanza St. Hilltop Mansion Heights, Lagro Quezon, City Dear Madam: We, the students of 3HI, seek your approval to conduct a research titled “The Common Perception of Nursing Students to Faculty Members Handling NCM Subjects.” Objectives of the study are as follows: 1. To determine the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. 2. To determine the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. 3. To come up with compromises that will work both for the students and the faculty. We hope for your favorable action. Thank you. Respectfully yours, MARIEJO JORNAL Group Leader Noted: IRENE P. VILLAREAL Research Adviser CLEDANTE NAVALTA Statistician PATRICIO J. GALO, JR. Librarian MERIGEN CAFINO Editor Approved: NELIA CAPULONG, RN MAN Dean-College of Nursing


INTRODUCTION The education process is a cooperative enterprise of the administrators, the faculty and the students. Their mutual and coordinated efforts are necessary to achieve the desired educational goal. The common adherence to the fundamental objectives that promote academic, moral and personal developments is imperative for the proper function and service of Fatima Medical Science Foundation and Our Lady of Fatima University, your Alma Mater.

Many college and university faculty members begin their teaching careers with the tacit beliefs that all their students have career goals, enthusiasm for the discipline and study or learning habits similar to the teacher’s own. Overcoming that predilection has always been an important step on the path to becoming a food teacher for undergraduates who are not destined for graduate school or majoring in the teacher’s field. With the increasing numbers and

variety of backgrounds of undergraduate students, this step becomes even more important. And so does a faculty member’s acceptance of responsibility for guiding student’s efforts to learn in a course. The teaching strategies are most successful when they are implemented in a system that encourages collaboration among staff and students, and in which each is a part of a well-planned whole system. In some of the most successful sites, teachers themselves have become in-house experts in specific practices that they share with their colleagues. It is important to recognize that while these strategies are useful, little will be accomplished in implementing them unless there is ongoing documentation of their results. There must also be efficient methods of feeding that information back into the system so that there will be continuing progress in teaching and learning. It is also certain that these strategies are most effective when they are applied in positive, supportive environments where there is recognition of the emotional, social and physical needs of students and where individual strengths are recognized, nurtured, and developed

Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in

The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application. Course content cases can come from a variety of sources.the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. Many faculties have transformed current events or problems reported through print or broadcast media into critical learning experiences that illuminate the complexity of finding solutions to critical social problems. . It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a format for role-playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios. The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role-playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives.

4 Educational Attainment 1.6 Socio-economic Status 1.3 Civil Status 1. Is there any significance of the common perceptions of nursing .5 Religion 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following? 1.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study aims to determine the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. It seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What are the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects? 3.7 Occupation 2.1 Gender 1. What are the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects? 4.2 Age 1.

To come up with compromises that will work both for the students and the faculty. 2. To determine the most common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. How may the findings of this research be utilized to improve the teaching strategies of the faculty members handling NCM subjects? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To determine the least common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. The result can be utilized as a basis for further study on the different perceptions of nursing students regarding on the lecture made by the faculty members.students to faculty members handling NCM subjects? 5. 3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study will give contribution to nursing education. The following get the benefits of this study: The Nursing Students The output of the study may help the nursing students to understand the different teaching strategies of the faculty members .

The .handling NCM subjects. The Future Researchers The result can be utilized as a basis for further study on the different perceptions of nursing students regarding on the lecture made by the faculty members. The Faculty Members handling NCM subjects The positive result of the study may help them to understand the perception of the nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. On the other hand. they will learn on the responses of the respondents so that they could teach in a different approach to further enhance the learning of their students. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The scope of the study is all about the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. NULL HYPOTHESIS There is no significance of the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects.

researcher chooses Our Lady of Fatima University nursing students and the faculty members handling NCM subjects as their representative respondents. Their primary reason is to learn and identify the common perceptions of nursing students to faculty members handling NCM subjects. The researchers believed that this number of respondents is enough to assess the validity and reliability of the study. . The researchers will get only 50 respondents so that the result will be easy to measure.

Others. But professors can help. Some faculties believe they can help students develop these strategies through their teaching. say it's never too late to . PhD. and others. along with University of Texas strategic-learning advocate Claire Ellen Weinstein. They. however. BY BRIDGET MURRAY Monitor staff It's no secret that students learn best when they self-regulate--set their own academic goals. PhD. Besides. pointing to the load of content they already must teach in one semester.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES FOREIGN LITERATURE Teaching students how to learn College students often struggle to find effective learning strategies. PhD. High-achieving students know what needs to be learned and how to learn it. an educational psychology professor at the Graduate School and University Center at the City University of New York (CUNY). But while making those kinds of self-assessments may sound simple--and something most college students could do--many psychology professors find their students aren't self-aware enough to conduct them. don't think it's their place to do so. isn't college too late to teach students how to learn? Not according to self-regulation researchers Paul Pintrich. educational psychology studies increasingly show. and Barry Zimmerman. cofounder of a "learning how to learn" course at the University of Michigan. some ask. develop strategies to meet them and reflect on their academic performance.

using mnemonics and outlining course content. Taking charge At the core of self-regulation are strategies to manage cognition. challenging but attainable academic goals. "Schedules are more open and classes much larger. the higher their grade-point averages (GPAs) and graduation rates. finds that the more students use learning strategies. they believe that if faculty weaves selfregulation strategies into their teaching. mnemonic aids and other such learning devices. And Pintrich believes college students need instruction in using these strategies because university life lacks the structure high school offers. founder of a learning-to-learn course at Texas. ultimately saving faculty time. * Self-reflection. Students evaluate how effectively their strategies help them meet their academic goals and adjust strategies accordingly. "In college.teach students how to learn. Zimmerman has developed one of the best-known models and uses it to coach remedial students at CUNY. Researchers propose a variety of models for activating skill and will. * Performance. In fact. such as scheduling study time." Among the ways professors can help students structure their time and learning better is setting clear learning objectives for courses. Students adopt "powerful" learning strategies. Students set short-term. Weinstein. "You need the 'will' as well as the 'skill.'" he says. He says it's helpful to think of self-regulation in three phases: * Forethought. Though well aware of the time constraints on professors. students more quickly absorb course material. but motivation to use those strategies is also a key. making regular assignments and emphasizing outlines. They also estimate their ability--also called selfefficacy--to reach those goals." says Pintrich. says Pintrich. . you see problems arise where students don't have as much day-to-day interaction with instructors as in high school.

others use them inconsistently across different subjects and situations. For example. "Because students exert more self-regulation in certain situations. PhD. But she also found that lower achievers tended to self-regulate more if they were motivated to learn course material. based on predictions from previous grades and scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. you can train for it. Zimmer-man finds. Build in plenty of examples to explain each concept and relate new ideas to previously covered . in a study of 320 college students. Las Vegas. that when students set goals and monitor their self-efficacy they can boost their achievement potential by 30 percent. of the University of Nevada. Other research findings suggest that high-achieving students tend to self-regulate more automatically than low-achieving students. Spell out what students should learn across the course and for each test. psychologist Carol VanZile-Tamsen. Spurring students along Faculty can incite students' motivation to self-regulate by organizing their courses to emphasize reflective learning and goal setting. educational psychologist Eunsook Hong. of the State University of West Georgia. * Emphasize concept relevance." she says. PhD. They suggest that faculty: * Identify course objectives up front.Studies show that such monitoring yields considerable payoffs. for example. either out of interest or for their major. In other research. Ask students to monitor their efficacy in meeting test objectives. suggests Zimmerman. found that while some students always use self-monitoring strategies. say VanZile-Tamsen and Zimmerman. found that those with the lowest GPAs reported using less self-regulation than their peers. This helps them determine what to study.

and study logs or diaries to manage their time." he says. Faculty can also encourage students to use specific learning strategies. * Model and encourage self-reflection. Give them regular assignments and tests so they can tell how well they're learning material. that you need to ask a colleague. says Pintrich. such as time. research-ers say. Pintrich says this helps students see that it's best to identify one's weaknesses to compensate for them." says VanZile-Tamsen.html . Tell students about mnemonic aids. * Impart learning devices." reference:www. This "postmortem" analysis helps students see what they should restudy. needed to complete them. "One of the hallmarks of an expert is knowing what you don't know. Delineate what's called for in homework assignments and the resources. Some ways of doing this are to: * Help students define tasks before Students come a long way when they realize that. you might point out that you don't know much about the statistical technique used. "When looking at a study. says Zimmerman. "Think out loud" when analyzing a theory or problem. says Zimmerman. "After all." says Pintrich. they might not score poorly on the final later.apa. so students will follow suit. "Students will be more motivated to self-regulate if they see the relevance. If they realize what they're missing today. encourage students to use outlines and other graphic organizers for writing.ones. Frame comments on tests and homework assignments in terms of how well students' answers match course objectives and their self-efficacy judgments. * Tie feedback to key concepts. * Quiz students frequently. Also. such as knowledge trees that categorize information in branches. study materials and research databases.

As well as working to improve skills at lecturing. and interested. remarkable. The speaker can convey personal enthusiasm in a way that no book or other media can. Lecturing is probably the oldest teaching method and remains the most common form of instruction to be found in United States colleges and universities. 2. the instructor might also determine if the lecture approach is the best method of teaching for the achievement of the instructional goals of the class. Strengths of the Lecture Approach 2. Enthusiasm stimulates interest. including . How to Plan an Effective Lecture 4. Lecture: the Introduction 5.Lectures in university settings can provide students with role models of scholars in action. in many ways. especially if not combined with some alternative style of teaching. The professor's way of approaching knowledge can be demonstrated for students to emulate.Lectures can convey material otherwise unavailable. Lecturing is very appropriate for some goals and very inappropriate for others. despite the fact that some research has shown that lecturing is ineffective.Lectures can communicate the intrinsic interest of the subject matter.EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES Excerpts from the Chapter 4 of the online Graduate Handbook at Michigan State University LECTURING 1. Strengths of the Lecture Approach 1. The Conclusion of the Lecture The survival of the basic lecture-a method of teaching by discourse rather than conversation or seminar-in this age of technology and electronic media is. 3. The Body of the Lecture 6. Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach 3. stimulated people tend to learn more. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach I.

which wanes very quickly . gesturing.Lectures permit maximum teacher control. analysis. 3.Lectures emphasize learning by listening. 9.Lectures do not sustain student attention.Lectures can speak to many listeners at the same time. an advantage for students who learn well this way. 2. 7. They are not required to do anything. thinking. which they may prefer.original research or recent developments that have not yet made it to publication. 7.Lectures can convey large amounts of factual material. 8. 5. whether to answer questions." II. Lectures are particularly useful for students who read poorly or who are unable to organize print material. detailed.As Eble (1976) noted. and synthesis. and pace of delivery.Lectures can organize material in a special way.Lectures present minimum threat to students. Passivity can hinder learning. in general. or abstract material. The instructor chooses what material to cover. They encourage one-way communication. feeling humans. 6.The lecture puts students in a passive rather than an active role. Weaknesses of the Lecture Approach 1.Lectures require an effective speaker who can vary tone.Lectures assume that all students are learning at the same pace and at the same level of understanding. a skill that is not stressed nor learned in many PhD programs and is.Lectures place the burden of organizing and synthesizing content solely on the lecturer.Lectures are not well suited to complex. Lecturers must be verbally fluent. 10. distributed unevenly among people. "Face-to face confrontations with other talking. which is hardly ever true. 5. lecturing beats textbooks or video in that it offers. They may provide a faster. 6. 4. 4.Lectures lack feedback to both the instructor and the student about the students' learning. and other courses of action. pitch. simpler method of presenting information to an audience with its own special needs. They are not well suited to higher levels of learning such as application.

Analyze the occasion. How to Plan an Effective Lecture Instructors might remember that the learners' minds are not blank slates. 2. and the organization of the lecture must take into account the students' existing knowledge and expectations as well as the structure of the subject matter. 4.Analyze the class.Select a topic. Once the topic is chosen. . This will probably be drawn from whatever is on the syllabus for that day's class. answering a variety of questions along the way: l to 25 minutes. coordinator of Ohio State's public speaking team. 8. The lecturer's first decision should be on the overall subject matter of the lecture. Possible questions might be: Is my aim to make students understand this difficult concept? What are the key facts I want my students to remember? Do I want to advocate a particular idea or behavior? Is one of my purposes to entertain? Is preparation for an examination the main point of the lecture? 3.Decide on the purpose. Long class periods may be especially suited to an interactive lecture. A class early in the morning. has suggested that a good way to approach the preparation of a lecture is to follow this progression of steps. so lecturers need to analyze their class.Lectures tend to be forgotten quickly. It is useful to determine: What is the level of students in this class? How mature are they as learners? What is their prior relationship (if any) with this subject matter? By exploring the population of the class. Phil Martin. it is also helpful to analyze the occasion before preparing each lecture. Just as performers need to know their audience. for example. L. III. in order to wake the students up. it may also be possible to predict what learning styles this group of students will prefer. Dee Fink (1989) has pointed out that the most intellectually alive and exciting lecturers tend to be those who view knowledge as a dynamic process rather than a static product. the next stage is to decide why it is being taught (this is not as obvious as it may first appear). In addition to studying the composition of the class. might require the lecturer to be more extroverted.

the next step is to gather the materials to be used in the preparation of the lecture. effective lectures "hook" their listeners' attention from the start. is to capture the interest of the listener. 5. After all this analysis. may help them create realistic expectations about what they are supposed to learn from the lecture. in short. cassette tape. audiotape). but it is certainly desirable for lecturers to have done sufficiently detailed preparation to be entirely comfortable with the content of the lecture.g. it is a good idea to practice the lecture.Gather materials. Some discussion of what form of lecture notes is most appropriate follows.Prepare the lecture. The aim. whether to a living audience or an inanimate object (e. It is a good idea to bring everything together before sitting down to write. Finally. Example: By the end of the hour you should be able to answer the question "Are lectures better than discussions" . 7. 6. As with a good drama.. This will help phrasing and delivery and will perhaps provide some advance feedback. After the materials are together. especially if the lecturer is inexperienced. Suggestion: Raising a question to be answered by the end of the hour. Here are some further suggestions for the contents of an effective lecture. the next step is to actually write the lecture itself.Students at the beginning of the semester may be more enthusiastic than during the last week of classes. and such awareness will usually improve the effectiveness of the lecture. so that the instructor has all the necessary sources immediately at hand.Practice the lecture. IV. Lecture: the Introduction It is advisable to plan an introduction that might point to a gap in the students' knowledge or challenge or raise a question about something in the students' minds in order to arouse curiosity. and enable them to allocate their information-processing capability much more effectively. These issues can be predicted in advance. Good introductions also may help students to discriminate between more and less important features of lectures.

we'll be looking at film history. be well organized. . as an effective lecture uses varied pacing to help students to make some critical discrimination between important concepts and trivia. V. providing an overview of the lecture. Example: One can demonstrate how the continual revolutionary movements of the late 1700s affected British politics at the turn of the century. you'll be asked to apply the model as you discuss the Brown vs. the most appropriate will depend on the subject itself as well as the lecturer's personal approach. a topic in macroeconomics that should help you understand the recent discussions in Congress related to inflation. Some other ways to start a lecture include: telling a personal anecdote or telling a relevant funny story or joke. Example: Today. Example: For the past week we've been occupied with the history of the live theater. I'll offer a specific model of evaluation and illustrate its application in several different kinds of settings. the real world. and giving the lecture an intriguing title. Today.Suggestion: Explaining the relationship of the lecture content to professional career interests. Instructors should not feel pressed to cover everything. instructors can allow for some flexibility in the amount of content to be presented in order to respond to students' questions and comments. Organizing the lecture can be done in a number of different ways. When you meet in your discussion groups later this week. and not to present nuances and minute detail to the extent that students lose sight of the main idea. The Body of the Lecture In the body. the Board of Education decision. Example: Today's lecture is about the cost of living indices. and we'll spend the rest of the week comparing the two forms. Many researchers suggest that the individual lecture should cover only four or five main points that are made explicit to the students. etc. Here are some examples: Cause and effect: Events are cited and explained by reference to their origins. The body of the lecture must. Suggestion: Relating lecture content to previous class material. It is imperative for the lecturer to determine the key points to be developed during the class session. of course. Suggestion: Telling students how they are expected to use the lecture material.

Example: If lecturing about the steps in a clinical suspension model. These are good times for anecdotes. asking for the main points. Illustrations or examples will work best if they include some of the following qualities: precision (fit the idea well). arrange lecture topics according to their importance. Almost all writers agree that illustrations help people to understand things. He also notes that encouraging students to formulate questions by asking questions one can facilitate memory and understanding. 6. talk about the initial step to be taken. and the like. Examples should be included in the lecture. or offer a twosided "compare and contrast" presentation. relevance (fit the context well). it is a good idea to put them on a handout or write them on a board or an overhead projector. and so forth.Time sequential: Lecture ideas are arranged chronologically. The body of the lecture can help the students understand the way in which the points are organized. interest. The prospect of unanswered questions to be treated in future lectures creates anticipation of the future. The Conclusion of the Lecture McKeachie (1986) says that in the conclusion of the lecture one has the opportunity to make up for any lapses in the body of the lecture. or complexity. uses a variety of illustrations. Complex points are easier to explain if the instructor: uses an appropriate vocabulary level. humor. There are many other organizational possibilities. Using an organizational idea to structure the lecture. Lecturers might try to provide a break in the information output every 10 minutes or so to maintain attention. and scholarship. Asking a student to summarize the lecture's key ideas. and restates points after illustrations. Other possibilities include: Restating the main points by using a new example. One can state a problem and then offer alternative solutions. novelty. Restating what students are expected to have gained from the lectures. and showing where the class is now. includes essential content before "nice to know" content. familiarity. humor. questions. Instructors can stimulate discussion and increase interaction after . Example: Today we'll view all these methods from a perspective of validity. After stating major points verbally. ingenuity. visuals. the second step.

presenting a lecture or large amount of content by pairing up students and giving them two to three minutes to react. which can be accomplished in a variety of ways such as posing a question. or moving around) into cutting the lecture short! Herr (1984) suggests that instructors make "a remark designed to refocus student attention: (With a smile) "You have four more minutes for which you have paid. .) who may not be getting much "airtime." A final point: Lecturers should not let students pressure them (by packing bags. women students. etc. talking. the gathering of papers. They can ask for volunteers to report out what were the issues or questions raised in their dyads. etc." Another trick for the end of class is the creation of suspense. which will cause students to lose attention. Another option for broadening the circle of discussions is to call on pairs that include individual members of social groups (e. so just wait to grab your back packs. One should make sure that there is no consistent verbal or nonverbal cue signaling the end of class.g. and I shall end promptly. respond and raise questions or issues about the material just presented. students of color. Such a cue might be the return to the podium.

learning experiences or methodology. There are many other curriculum designs. and this means that students enrolled in the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEEd) and the Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd) at all year levels will be taking courses under the new curriculum. Competency-based curriculum approach (CBCA). It should be remembered that different approaches have different applications. It is a performance-based design anchored on the learner’s ability to demonstrate attainment or mastery of skills performed under certain conditions to specific standards (the skills then become competencies). There are still some issues in the new curriculum that CHED is currently addressing. and evaluation. Vicencio. The competency-based curriculum approach is the preferred design by curriculum developers who believe that objectives and evaluation are the most important elements of the curriculum. will be fully implemented in school year 20082009. especially in the delivery of instruction. what curriculum is without imperfection? What to deliver. Miriam College Teacher Institute THE new Undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum. these are just some of the most common approaches in designing curriculum. project-centered design. those who think content is the most important use the subject-centered curriculum design. G. and it poses challenges and possibilities those teachers and educators can explore. content or subject matter.LOCAL LITERATURE Instruction in teacher education programs Evelina M.O. After all.D Executive Director. The new teacher education curriculum uses the competency-based approach. There are four basic elements of curriculum design: Goals and objectives. or activity curriculum. those who believe learning activities are most important use the experience-centered design. problem-centered design.U. It . It is a curriculum in progress.R. which is why objectives and evaluation are the foci. Whichever element the curriculum developers consider the most important influences the design of the curriculum. Ph. which was first offered in 2005 to incoming freshmen.

educational assessment. the functions and responsibilities for each role. and support materials. models. action research. and research skills. and the competencies needed for each responsibility in terms of knowledge. and skills (these are stated as objectives). for example. creative thinking. CHED CMO No. DEVELOP assessment tools. Unless CBCA materials and strategies are designed. attitude. Curriculum development following CBCA follows these steps. materials development. critical characterized by hands on/active learning and since it is outcome and assessment-oriented. which may take the form of a term paper. teaching process skills. Time is devoted to learners individually and in small groups. and to evaluating the learners’ ability to perform work-related skills. The Teaching Process Skills are curriculum development. the course will not truly be CBCA. . and practices. Research skills should result in the development of new theories. or other forms of research/scholarship as may be appropriate. scope and sequence. problem solving and decision-making. learning experiences. books and handouts. case study. It is only as effective as the process used to identify the competencies. The competency-based curriculum approach likewise has limitations. herein simplified by the author: ANALYZE roles of a model or outstanding teacher. The Life Skills refer to effective communication skills. CBCA focuses on the mastery of competencies or skills. It should be remembered that the development of critical and creative thinking is explicitly stated in the Philippine Constitution. All courses in the teacher education curriculum should have a research requirement. and teaching approaches. 30 on The Revised Policies and Standards for Undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum identifies competency standards for teachers as well as the varied skills that they should master: life skills. programs. lesson planning. it uses multiple assessment tools CBCA is advantageous to the learners because they achieve competencies and develop confidence.

but with preference for learner-centered strategies. the concepts have evolved and have taken on new meanings. Feb. 2007). there have been changes in the concept of integration. and Health or MAPEH. Through the years. The traditional concept looks at integration as a combination of subjects (like Science and Health and Music. methodological." Integration is a curricular design that pertains to how curricular components are organized. peace education. with the teacher’s . and environmental education). whereas andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults. Both approaches are used in teaching college students. pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children. Arts. 11. the curriculum emphasizes the interweaving of foundational. CMO#30 states: "The teacher-education curriculum is also designed so that the curricular components are integrated. indigenization and localization. theoretical. integration that happens within the learner. The two types of delivery identify the main characters in the teaching-learning process: the teacher and the learner or pedagogy and andragogy. Physical Education. and experiential knowledge in the various learning experiences in the curriculum. The manner of delivering instruction focuses on the teaching-learning process. HOW to Deliver. integration of skills and processes. The modern concept sees integration of skills and learning strategies (like critical thinking skills in all learning areas) including addition of topics and subjects not recognized as unique disciplines (e. The word andragogy was coined by a German high school teacher who used different strategies in teaching adults. a famous adult educator. whereas competency-based curricular design pertains to the emphasis given to curricular components. integration of concepts or content.Integrated curriculum.g. Literally. That is. HIV and AIDS. hence the modern educational meaning of andragogy as learner-centered strategies and pedagogy as teacher-centered strategies. The different modes and forms of integration have been classified by this author as follows: integration of subjects or learning areas. Learner-centered approaches include instruction in which learners. and integration of strategies (Manila Bulletin. Through the years. Andragogy became popular in Europe and was introduced in the United States by Alfred Knowles.

In like manner. Jose Rizal. but rather. Teacher-training institutions can try the distance learning mode of delivering instruction. The revision of policies and standards of the teacher education programs by CHED was inevitable. above all. and emphasizes performance instead of understanding. As far as strategies are concerned. These explanations give the teacher the knowledge of the greatest possible number of methods. that is. More commonly. teacher-centered instruction can be very effective. in the open air. the delivery of the teacher-education curriculum does not confine itself to the classroom but extends the learning environment off-campus and encourages institutions to explore alternative learning systems. teaches everywhere. The teacher is a facilitator of learning. Plato in the gardens of the Academy. WHO To Deliver. even Christ among the mountains and lakes. It is wise to heed what Leo Tolstoy said. Our national hero. The effectiveness of any approach depends on the ability of the teacher to adapt it to the learning needs of students. curriculum change is both inevitable and desirable. In conclusion. It is now everybody’s concern to make it . that the best teacher will be he who has at his tongue’s end the explanation of what it is that is bothering the student. not blind adherence to one method. not a method. When conducted by expert teachers. focuses on low-level objectives. however. but an art and talent. the conviction that all methods are one-sided and that the best method is the one which would answer best to all the possible difficulties incurred by a student. there is no one best strategy in teaching. and. Critics of teacher-centered instruction argue that it is based on a behavioral view of learning. teacher-centered instruction isn’t properly implemented. are made responsible for constructing their own understanding. especially through the use of Information Communication Technology or ICT. The teacher is — as someone very memorably put it — a guide at the side.guidance. once said that the person who wishes to teach. not a sage on the stage. Socrates taught in the public street. WHERE to Deliver. the ability of inventing new methods.

ph . reference: It is still an emerging curriculum that can benefit from the experiences and balanced views of teacher training institution specialists.desirable.

These changes are most appropriately described as efforts to restructure science teaching with the overall goal of improving student learning. have laid the foundation for many of the recent changes that have occurred in science instruction. Recently. or gradual . Lev Vygotsky. This approach to learning emphasizes the personal construction of human knowledge as opposed to the transmission of knowledge from one person to the next. well known for his work studying children." The very great importance he attached to the education of children made him declare in 1934 in his role as Director of the International Bureau of Education that ‘only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse." Cognitivists do not require an outward exhibition of learning but focus more on the internal processes and connections that take place during learning. along with the ideas of others. One underlying theme that often appears throughout the restructuring effort is the idea of constructivism. Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss philosopher and scientist. The contributions of these three researchers. and David Ausubel. The main assumption of cognitive psychology is that there are cognitive processes that take place and influence the way things are learned. The current view of constructivism has a strong basis in the cognitive approach to learning and draws heavily upon the research of learning experts like Jean Piaget. Explanations for how cognitive processes work are known as information processing theories or models. whether violent. several changes in educational thinking have greatly affected the manner in which science curriculum is presented in today's schools. his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called "genetic epistemology.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Cognitive Theories of Learning Assumption: you can't force someone to learn Cognitive theory defines learning as "a semi-permanent change in mental processes or associations.

One important idea is that any given group of students can display a wide variety of cognitive abilities. Teachers must therefore be aware of the cognitive abilities of their students and plan instruction accordingly. Each stage is characterized by a general cognitive structure that affects all of the child's thinking (a structuralist view influenced by philosopher Immanuel Kant) Each stage represents the child's understanding of reality during that period. and (4) adolescence. concrete operational. This theory stresses the importance of students developing their own internal structures as they learn. Development from one stage to the next is thus caused by the accumulation of errors in the child's understanding of the environment. (3) childhood. It also emphasizes interactions with objects and events as students attempt to construct their own understandings of scientific concepts. Students at the concrete operational stage have the ability to think logically and concretely about objects and events. The final two stages are of particular importance to middle and secondary science educators because most middle and secondary students operate at one of these two stages. The stages of cognitive development Piaget's 'Four levels of development' are (1) infancy. Another aspect of Piaget's research that has been especially important to constructivism is his theory of cognitive structures and logical mathematical operations. and formal operational. preoperational. To accommodate these ideas into science instruction. This theory describes four levels of intellectual growth that humans progress through including sensory motor. Students at the formal operational stage have the ability to think more abstractly and hypothetically about complex concepts and ideas. There are several implications of Piaget's research that have helped to bring about change in science instruction. (2) preschool. educators have promoted more concrete experiences in the classroom and have encouraged students to search for meaning and relationships when confronted with apparently contradictory or difficult information. and each but the last is an inadequate approximation of reality.Jean Piaget's major contribution to the cognitive learning approach was his theory of cognitive development. this accumulation eventually causes such a degree of cognitive disequilibrium that thought structures require reorganizing. .

During this stage they shift to symbolic thinking. and curiosity. At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body. meaning they cannot perceive the world from others viewpoints and explore using senses. (5) tertiary circular reactions. They can now combine and recombine schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach something)." [4] Simple reflexes is from birth to 1 month old. Children cannot conserve or use logical thinking. Preoperational stage: from ages 2 to 5 (magical thinking predominates. They also understand object permanence during this stage.The four development stages are described in Piaget's theory as: 1. During this stage they can do things intentionally. Children experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to explore the world). The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: "(1) simple reflexes. During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric. secondary circular reactions. they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can't see them. and (6) internalization of schemes. 2. That is. During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects. The fifth stage occurs from 12 months old to 18 months old. During the last stage they are 18 to 24 months old. . The third stage. (2) first habits and primary circular reactions. Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2. (3) secondary circular reactions. First habits and primary circular reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old. novelty. At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction. A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb). At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking. they try different things to get different results. occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old. they are more objects oriented. Acquisition of motor skills) Egocentricism begins strongly and then weakens. During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme (habit and circular reactions). (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is from 8 months to 12 months old.

The zone of proximal development describes the level between the teacher's knowledge and the learner's capabilities where instruction is most beneficial. Vygotsky's emphasis was on the learner's environment and the learner's interactions with other people through the use of language. the realization that social interaction is a vital part of learning has put less emphasis on . Private speech involves a learner's internal thought processes used to regulate problem-solving skills. Two important features of Vygotsky's research are private speech and the zone of proximal development. 4. Vygotsky's research also closely relates to the modern ideas of constructivism.3. learners must receive information and guidance from others. They are no longer egocentric. Concrete operational stage: from ages 5 to 11 (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking) Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. Also. Like Piaget's theories. According to Vygotsky. These two concepts work together when a teacher assists a student to solve a problem by providing him or her with structure and encouragement and then gradually backing off to allow the student to rely on his or her own private speech to complete the task. Formal operational stage: after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning). Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind Lev Vygotsky's major contribution to the cognitive approach to learning was his description of the influence of social interaction on cognitive development. in order for cognitive development to occur. The zone of proximal development underscores the important roles of peers and adults in promoting the construction of knowledge in the minds of students. The idea that learners rely on human interaction to construct their own knowledge has resulted in greater emphasis on cooperative learning activities that allow students to benefit from the insight of others in order to acquire new concepts.

Ausubel's idea of reception learning holds a vital part in the learning of science. He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation. David Ausubel's contribution to the cognitive approach to learning focused on the conceptual rather than the operative forms of knowledge. This may occur when individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world. Whereas Piaget and Vygotsky placed emphasis on learners' personal construction of knowledge. Ausubel emphasized the importance of reception learning that is based on the idea that most of what is learned is acquired through the transmission of ideas and not through discovery. Constructivist theory Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally attributed to Jean Piaget. This recognition of reception learning as an effective teaching method has placed less emphasis on rote discovery learning as the only way for students to construct personal meaning. Ausubel's emphasis on reception learning has affected the way in which science teachers approach certain scientific concepts. When individuals assimilate.students' personal discovery of scientific concepts and more emphasis on collaboration and interaction among learners of science. they incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework. but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty . Ausubel believed that reception learning was an important means of acquiring certain discipline-based concepts as long as that learning made meaningful connections between the new information and the learner's preexisting cognitive structures. Since students are not expected to discover all-important scientific ideas on their own. individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. who articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners. Many educators recognize the significance of allowing students to learn from information that has been organized by others as long as it has meaning to the students' own internal cognitive structures.

for example. Vygotsky. Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the world operates in one way and it violates our expectations. regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to understand a lecture or following the instructions for building a model airplane. It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. Constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learning. In both cases. The current view of the importance of constructivism in teaching science is based on the research of cognitive psychologists and learning theorists such as Piaget. In fact. In contrast. According to the theory. the theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. or others' failure. they may not notice events. constructivism is a theory describing how learning happens. accommodation is the process of reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences. they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal representations. when individuals' experiences contradict their internal representations. we often fail. but by accommodating this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works. Though there are several different theoretical bases for educational reform in today's society. the restructuring of science teaching appears to be focused on the idea of constructivism. Their contributions have helped to define the roles of cognitive learning theory and constructivist thought in science education. The constructivism idea has provided educators with particularly interesting insights on the effective teaching and learning of science. or learning by doing. or may decide that an event is a fluke and is therefore unimportant as information about the world.understanding. . However. we learn from the experience of failure. may misunderstand input from others. and Ausubel.

Time allotment Faculty members start and end the class in a punctual way. Strategy Faculty members use teaching strategies effectively 5. The Research paradigm showing the variables under study. Delivery 3. Interactive skill 4.RESEARCH PARADIGM INDEPENDENT VARIABLE LECTURE DEPENDENT VARIABLE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION 1. Figure 1. Faculty members interact efficiently with their students 2. . Knowledge on the subject matter Faculty members teach the assigned subject and not irrelevant matter Faculty members are effective in their way of delivering their lectures.

and classifications are discussed and illustrated in considerable detail. It also show the type of statistical treatment that applied in order to analyze and interpret the data gathered information. Research Design The descriptive method was used in this study. analysis. (1:46) elaborated that the profile of the descriptive technique is to tell “what exist” or “what is” about a certain educational phenomenon. This is the most appropriate method on inquiry about the present status and condition of a particular phenomenon. Manuel and Medel. Concepts and procedures of general description.CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the type of method used in the research. It may likewise include a study on factors or current conditions about the nature of a group of individuals or a . the respondents and sampling method and the research instruments that have been used. This method tends to both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of inquiry such as the present investigation.

Hillway. analysis. (4:187) pointed out that the descriptive method is effective in obtaining accurate facts and figures about prevailing conditions. things or phenomena. the researcher’s interpretations and description on prevailing comments that is to show that there is significance in the common perceptions of common perceptions of nursing students to . enumeration.class of events which may involve induction. Further. or measurement. (2:150) described the method as a powerful technique when one aims to describe the current or prevailing status of events. they said: …the descriptive method or research is a useful tool for scientific investigation which aims to describe the existing status of events or phenomena. It tries to describe the situations from which the status of any kind of phenomena being studied may be learned and whenever possible to formulate valid conclusions from the data gathered. classification. Sevilla et al. The results of studies employing the descriptive method of research can be used to advantage of the researchers in all areas of human endeavor.

thesis. previous study. The researchers read articles. DESCRIPTION OF THE RESPONDENTS The representative respondents come from the 3rd year nursing students of Our Lady of Fatima University who are currently taking up NCM 101 and 102 as of school year 2008-2009 2nd semesters. LOCALE AND POPULATION OF THE STUDY The locale of the study is in Our Lady of Fatima University. and books in the library related to the study. DATA GATHERING In order for the researcher’s to gather important data needed for the completion of the research. Sampling Technique .faculty members handling NCM subjects. Quezon City which is suited for our respondents. the researchers used instruments like survey forms. letters to the respondents noted by the adviser and the dean.

Part II deals with the common perceptions of the 3rd year nursing students on faculty members handling NCM subjects. . researchers distribute carefully designed questionnaires to the respondents. This consisted on different parts and specific purposes. ensuring that this information is in a form that can be objectively analyzed in order to elicit the needed data that pertained to the topic under study. researchers used the following instruments: 1. The researchers are confident that these respondents could honestly and categorically assess the common perceptions of the students on the faculty members handling NCM subjects. Instrumentation and Try-out Phase To gather the data needed for the research. Questionnaire For data gathering.The researchers employed purposive sampling. Part I Collecting data on the respondents profile. They had specifically chosen the respondents who are using memory enhancers.

it also gave opportunity for the respondents to clarify questions concerning the survey. Interviews Interview was used by the researchers to the respondents to supplement primary source of data. They continuously reviewed their draft making reference to their statement of the . Further. Construction of the Instrument After some readings of related studies and literature. it gave flexibility to give follow up questions or discuss issues concerning the topic of study that was not clearly expounded by the questionnaire. Observational findings are considered strong in validity because the researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior.2. the researchers started to formulate their draft questionnaire to be used for their study. 3. Based on these ideas. the researchers planned and framed the topic problems for this research together with the conceptual framework and the statement of the problem. Observations The observation was also been an excellent source of data.

1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution Percentage was used to find the ratio of frequency of response to the total number of respondents by applying this formula: f P = _______ x 100 N Where: P f = percentage = frequency . The questionnaire was finally revised after some corrections and suggestions by their adviser.problem and conceptual framework. they were able to present to their adviser a copy of the questionnaire. the following techniques were used. STATISTICAL TREATMENT USED To establish solutions to the problem. After some revisions. numerical presentation and analysis of the data gathered for this study. For in depth analysis and interpretation of data.

N = no. of respondents LIKERT SCALE Likert scale is used to indicate the extent to which the respondents agree or disagree with each statement by checking members from 1 to 5 where 5 is the highest corresponds to strongly agree and 1 is the lowest corresponds to strongly disagree. 5 (strongly agree) 4 (agree) 3 (neutral) 2 (disagree) 1 (strongly disagree) . A person being tested would be asked to respond to each statement in the list by checking on of the following categories.

the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information. 1990). Nearly 80% of all college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture method to teach students (Cashin. to integrate technology into the learning experience. economic.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political. contact the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning. For many years. Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined today. the . social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. to make learning environments more interactive. For more information about the use of these and other pedagogical approaches. Some of the more prominent strategies are outlined below. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less. Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies. and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate. the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms.

assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension. In the sciences and mathematics. For this reason. Students making the shift from classical to modern physics. Even though students may have no experience in class or field. What is required is a true transformation of students' existing knowledge. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students.traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. Instructors from all fields face this challenge. it is common for students to have learned an oversimplified definition or approach in high school. presenting new information is not enough to guarantee optimal learning. Students must recognize the limitations of their current knowledge and perspectives. for example. they enter the classroom with a long history of academic training and life experience. This means that instructor cannot simply unload your knowledge on students. cannot simply . The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students. and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten.

This new approach must replace the approach that students have learned. be asked to develop original interpretations of texts or to consider conflicting interpretations of texts instead of seeking the one. for the first time. In all these cases. .layer new information onto old understanding. students' previous knowledge must be completely revised. and been rewarded for. In the humanities. instructors often have the difficult job of helping students unlearn common sense beliefs that may be common but unjustified. practiced. not merely augmented. instructor-approved. In the social sciences. "correct" interpretation. students may.

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