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**About t he FLUENT Tut orials
**

What is FLUENT?

How t o use t hese t ut orials

Syst em requirement s

Convent ions used

Please send us feedback

List of Tutorials

These t ut orials progress from simple t o more complex. I f you are unfamiliar

wit h FLUENT, please begin wit h t he first module.

I nt roduct ion t o CFD Basics

Laminar Pipe Flow

Turbulent Pipe Flow

Compressible Flow in a Nozzle

Flow over an airfoil

Forced Convect ion over a Flat

Plat e

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (1 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

FLUENT TUTORIALS - Cornell University

About the FLUENT Tutorials

This FLUENT short course consist s of a set of t ut orials on using FLUENT t o solve

problems in fluid mechanics. The t ut orials lead t he user t hrough t he st eps

involved in solving a select ed set of problems using GAMBI T ( t he preprocessor)

and FLUENT. We not only provide t he solut ion st eps but also t he rat ionale

behind t hem. I t is wort hwhile for t he user t o underst and t he underlying

concept s as she goes t hrough t he t ut orials in order t o be able t o correct ly apply

FLUENT t o ot her problems. The user would be ill- served by clicking t hrough t he

t ut orials in zombie- mode. Each t ut orial is followed by problems which are

geared t owards st rengt hening and reinforcing t he knowledge and

underst anding gained in t he t ut orials. Working t hrough t he problem set s is an

int rinsic part of t he learning process and shouldn' t be skipped.

These t ut orials have been developed by t he Swanson Engineering Simulat ion

Program in t he Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at

Cornell Universit y. The Swanson Engineering Simulat ion Program has been

est ablished wit h t he goal of int egrat ing comput er- based simulat ions int o t he

mechanical engineering curriculum. The development of t hese t ut orials is being

support ed by a Facult y I nnovat ion in Teaching award from Cornell Universit y.

What i s FLUENT

FLUENT is a comput at ional fluid dynamics ( CFD) soft ware package t o simulat e

fluid flow problems. I t uses t he finit e- volume met hod t o solve t he governing

equat ions for a fluid. I t provides t he capabilit y t o use different physical models

such as incompressible or compressible, inviscid or viscous, laminar or

t urbulent , et c. Geomet ry and grid generat ion is done using GAMBI T which is t he

preprocessor bundled wit h FLUENT.

How t o use t hese t ut or i al s

These t ut orials are designed t o be used online and run side- by- side wit h t he

FLUENT soft ware. Aft er you launch t he web t ut orials and FLUENT, you will have

t o drag t he browser window t o t he widt h of t he largest image ( about 350

pixels) . To make best use of screen real est at e, move t he windows around and

resize t hem so t hat you approximat e t his screen arrangement .

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (2 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

FLUENT TUTORIALS - Cornell University

Sy st em and sof t w ar e r equi r ement s

q Syst em: Any syst em t hat can run GAMBI T, FLUENT, and a web browser.

q Screen: Resolut ion should be at least 1280 x 1024 pixels for opt imal

viewing. A 17" monit or or larger is recommended.

q GAMBI T version 2. 0. These t ut orials were creat ed using GAMBI T 2. 0.

q FLUENT version 6. 0. These t ut orials were creat ed using FLUENT 6. 0.

q Web Browser: These t ut orials work best in 5. 0 or higher versions of

I nt ernet Explorer and Net scape because st yle sheet support is needed.

These t ut orials can be used wit h Net scape 4. x but may not render

correct ly.

Choose a t ut orial by select ing from t he list at t he t op of t his page

Conv ent i ons used

Each t ut orial begins wit h a problem specificat ion. A solut ion can be obt ained by

following t hese nine st eps:

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Set Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

These st eps appear at t he t op of each page of t he t ut orial wit h t he current st ep

highlight ed in red.

GAMBI T and FLUENT uses cascading menus which are represent ed as follows:

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

This means t hat in t he Main Menu, click on File. Then, in t he File menu t hat

comes up, click on Export and so on.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

FLUENT TUTORIALS - Cornell University

Names of windows are in it alics.

I t ems and opt ions appearing wit hin menus and dialog boxes are pur pl e, i t al i c,

and bol d.

Text and numbers t hat need t o be ent ered are indicat ed in Courier font.

Addit ional explanat ions and relat ed discussions are enclosed in a box.

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Feedback .

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (4 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Introduction to CFD Basics

I nt r oduct i on t o CFD Basi cs

Aut hor: Raj esh Bhaskaran

E- mail: rb88@cornell. edu

Introduction to CFD Basics

You can download t he following t ut orials in PDF format . You will need Adobe

Acrobat t o read t hese files.

I nt roduct ion t o CFD Basics

Problem set on CFD Basics

Back t o: FLUENT Home Page

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/cfd/index.htm11/7/2005 6:11:18 PM

Introduction to CFD Basics

Rajesh Bhaskaran

Lance Collins

Jan. 2003

This is a quick introduction to the basic concepts underlying CFD. The concepts are

illustrated by applying them to a simple 1D example. We discuss the following topics brieﬂy:

1. The Need for CFD

2. Applications of CFD

3. The Strategy of CFD

4. Discretization Using the Finite-Diﬀerence Method

5. Discretization Using The Finite-Volume Method

6. Assembly of Discrete System and Application of Boundary Conditions

7. Solution of Discrete System

8. Grid Convergence

9. Dealing with Nonlinearity

10. Direct and Iterative Solvers

11. Iterative Convergence

12. Numerical Stability

1

Applications of CFD

CFD is useful in a wide variety of applications and here we note a few to give you an idea of

its use in industry. The simulations shown below have been performed using the FLUENT

software.

CFD can be used to simulate the ﬂow over a vehicle. For instance, it can be used to study

the interaction of propellers or rotors with the aircraft fuselage The following ﬁgure shows

the prediction of the pressure ﬁeld induced by the interaction of the rotor with a helicopter

fuselage in forward ﬂight. Rotors and propellers can be represented with models of varying

complexity.

The temperature distribution obtained from a CFD analysis of a mixing manifold is shown

below. This mixing manifold is part of the passenger cabin ventilation system on the Boeing

767. The CFD analysis showed the eﬀectiveness of a simpler manifold design without the

need for ﬁeld testing.

Bio-medical engineering is a rapidly growing ﬁeld and uses CFD to study the circulatory and

respiratory systems. The following ﬁgure shows pressure contours and a cutaway view that

reveals velocity vectors in a blood pump that assumes the role of heart in open-heart surgery.

CFD is attractive to industry since it is more cost-eﬀective than physical testing. However,

one must note that complex ﬂow simulations are challenging and error-prone and it takes a

lot of engineering expertise to obtain validated solutions.

2

The Strategy of CFD

Broadly, the strategy of CFD is to replace the continuous problem domain with a discrete

domain using a grid. In the continuous domain, each ﬂow variable is deﬁned at every point

in the domain. For instance, the pressure p in the continuous 1D domain shown in the ﬁgure

below would be given as

p = p(x), 0 < x < 1

In the discrete domain, each ﬂow variable is deﬁned only at the grid points. So, in the

discrete domain shown below, the pressure would be deﬁned only at the N grid points.

p

i

= p(x

i

), i = 1, 2, . . . , N

Continuous Domain Discrete Domain

x=0

x=1

x

1

x

i

x

N

0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x = x

1

, x

2

, …,x

N

Grid point

Coupled PDEs + boundary

conditions in continuous

variables

Coupled algebraic eqs. in

discrete variables

In a CFD solution, one would directly solve for the relevant ﬂow variables only at the grid

points. The values at other locations are determined by interpolating the values at the grid

points.

The governing partial diﬀerential equations and boundary conditions are deﬁned in terms

of the continuous variables p,

V etc. One can approximate these in the discrete domain in

terms of the discrete variables p

i

,

V

i

etc. The discrete system is a large set of coupled,

algebraic equations in the discrete variables. Setting up the discrete system and solving it

(which is a matrix inversion problem) involves a very large number of repetitive calculations

and is done by the digital computer.

This idea can be extended to any general problem domain. The following ﬁgure shows

the grid used for solving the ﬂow over an airfoil.

3

Discretization Using the Finite-Diﬀerence Method

To keep the details simple, we will illustrate the fundamental ideas underlying CFD by

applying them to the following simple 1D equation:

du

dx

+ u

m

= 0; 0 ≤ x ≤ 1; u(0) = 1 (1)

We’ll ﬁrst consider the case where m = 1 when the equation is linear. We’ll later consider

the m = 2 case when the equation is nonlinear.

We’ll derive a discrete representation of the above equation with m = 1 on the following

grid:

x

1

=0 x

2

=1/3 x

3

=2/3 x

4

=1

∆x=1/3

This grid has four equally-spaced grid points with ∆x being the spacing between successive

points. Since the governing equation is valid at any grid point, we have

du

dx

i

+ u

i

= 0 (2)

where the subscript i represents the value at grid point x

i

. In order to get an expression for

(du/dx)

i

in terms of u at the grid points, we expand u

i−1

in a Taylor’s series:

u

i−1

= u

i

−∆x

du

dx

i

+ O(∆x

2

)

Rearranging gives

du

dx

i

=

u

i

−u

i−1

∆x

+ O(∆x) (3)

The error in (du/dx)

i

due to the neglected terms in the Taylor’s series is called the truncation

error. Since the truncation error above is O(∆x), this discrete representation is termed ﬁrst-

order accurate.

Since the error in (du/dx)

i

due to the neglected terms in the Taylor’s series is of O(∆x),

this representation is termed as ﬁrst-order accurate. Using (3) in (2) and excluding higher-

order terms in the Taylor’s series, we get the following discrete equation:

u

i

−u

i−1

∆x

+ u

i

= 0 (4)

Note that we have gone from a diﬀerential equation to an algebraic equation!

This method of deriving the discrete equation using Taylor’s series expansions is called

the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method. However, most commercial CFD codes use the ﬁnite-volume or

ﬁnite-element methods which are better suited for modeling ﬂow past complex geometries.

For example, the FLUENT code uses the ﬁnite-volume method whereas ANSYS uses the

ﬁnite-element method. We’ll brieﬂy indicate the philosophy of the ﬁnite-volume method

next but will keep using the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approach to illustrate the underlying concepts

since they are very similar between the diﬀerent approaches with the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method

being easier to understand.

4

Discretization Using The Finite-Volume Method

If you look closely at the airfoil grid shown earlier, you’ll see that it consists of quadrilaterals.

In the ﬁnite-volume method, such a quadrilateral is commonly referred to as a “cell” and a

grid point as a “node”. In 2D, one could also have triangular cells. In 3D, cells are usually

hexahedrals, tetrahedrals, or prisms. In the ﬁnite-volume approach, the integral form of the

conservation equations are applied to the control volume deﬁned by a cell to get the discrete

equations for the cell. For example, the integral form of the continuity equation was given

earlier. For steady, incompressible ﬂow, this equation reduces to

S

V· ˆ ndS = 0 (5)

The integration is over the surface S of the control volume and ˆ n is the outward normal

at the surface. Physically, this equation means that the net volume ﬂow into the control

volume is zero.

Consider the rectangular cell shown below.

face 1

(u

1

,v

1

)

face 2

face 3

face 4

(u

2

,v

2

)

(u

3

,v

3

)

(u

4

,v

4

)

Cell center

∆x

x

y

∆y

The velocity at face i is taken to be

V

i

= u

i

ˆ

i + v

i

ˆ

j. Applying the mass conservation

equation (5) to the control volume deﬁned by the cell gives

−u

1

∆y −v

2

∆x + u

3

∆y + v

4

∆x = 0

This is the discrete form of the continuity equation for the cell. It is equivalent to summing

up the net mass ﬂow into the control volume and setting it to zero. So it ensures that the net

mass ﬂow into the cell is zero i.e. that mass is conserved for the cell. Usually the values at

the cell centers are stored. The face values u

1

, v

2

, etc. are obtained by suitably interpolating

the cell-center values for adjacent cells.

Similarly, one can obtain discrete equations for the conservation of momentum and energy

for the cell. One can readily extend these ideas to any general cell shape in 2D or 3D and any

conservation equation. Take a few minutes to contrast the discretization in the ﬁnite-volume

approach to that in the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method discussed earlier.

Look back at the airfoil grid. When you are using FLUENT or another ﬁnite-volume code,

it’s useful to remind yourself that the code is ﬁnding a solution such that mass, momentum,

energy and other relevant quantities are being conserved for each cell.

5

Assembly of Discrete System and Application of Boundary Condi-

tions

Recall that the discrete equation that we obtained using the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method was

u

i

−u

i−1

∆x

+ u

i

= 0

Rearranging, we get

−u

i−1

+ (1 + ∆x)u

i

= 0

Applying this equation to the 1D grid shown earlier at grid points i = 2, 3, 4 gives

−u

1

+ (1 + ∆x) u

2

= 0 (i = 2) (6)

−u

2

+ (1 + ∆x) u

3

= 0 (i = 3) (7)

−u

3

+ (1 + ∆x) u

4

= 0 (i = 4) (8)

The discrete equation cannot be applied at the left boundary (i=1) since u

i−1

is not deﬁned

here. Instead, we use the boundary condition to get

u

1

= 1 (9)

Equations (6)-(9) form a system of four simultaneous algebraic equations in the four

unknowns u

1

, u

2

, u

3

and u

4

. It’s convenient to write this system in matrix form:

1 0 0 0

−1 1 + ∆x 0 0

0 −1 1 + ∆x 0

0 0 −1 1 + ∆x

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

1

u

2

u

3

u

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

1

0

0

0

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(10)

In a general situation, one would apply the discrete equations to the grid points (or cells

in the ﬁnite-volume method) in the interior of the domain. For grid points (or cells) at or

near the boundary, one would apply a combination of the discrete equations and boundary

conditions. In the end, one would obtain a system of simultaneous algebraic equations with

the number of equations being equal to the number of independent discrete variables. The

process is essentially the same as above with the details being much more complex.

FLUENT, like other commercial CFD codes, oﬀers a variety of boundary condition op-

tions such as velocity inlet, pressure inlet, pressure outlet, etc. It is very important that

you specify the proper boundary conditions in order to have a well-deﬁned problem. Also,

read through the documentation for a boundary condition option to understand what it

does before you use it (it might not be doing what you expect). A single wrong boundary

condition can give you a totally wrong result.

6

Solution of Discrete System

The discrete system (10) for our own humble 1D example can be easily inverted to obtain

the unknowns at the grid points. Solving for u

1

, u

2

, u

3

and u

4

in turn and using ∆x = 1/3,

we get

u

1

= 1 u

2

= 3/4 u

3

= 9/16 u

4

= 27/64

The exact solution for the 1D example is easily calculated to be

u

exact

= exp(−x)

The ﬁgure below shows the comparison of the discrete solution obtained on the four-point

grid with the exact solution. The error is largest at the right boundary where it is equal to

14.7%.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

x

u

Numerical solution

Exact solution

In a practical CFD application, one would have thousands to millions of unknowns in the

discrete system and if one uses, say, a Gaussian elimination procedure naively to invert the

matrix, it would be take the computer forever to perform the calculation. So a lot of work

goes into optimizing the matrix inversion in order to minimize the CPU time and memory

required. The matrix to be inverted is sparse i.e. most of the entries in it are zeros since the

discrete equation at a grid point or cell will contain only quantities from the neighboring

points or cells. A CFD code would store only the non-zero values to minimize memory

usage. It would also generally use an iterative procedure to invert the matrix; the longer one

iterates, the closer one gets to the true solution for the matrix inversion.

7

Grid Convergence

While developing the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation for the 1D example, we saw that the

truncation error in our discrete system is O(∆x). So one expects that as the number of grid

points is increased and ∆x is reduced, the error in the numerical solution would decrease

and the agreement between the numerical and exact solutions would get better.

Let’s consider the eﬀect of increasing the number of grid points N on the numerical

solution of the 1D problem. We’ll consider N = 8 and N = 16 in addition to the N = 4

case solved previously. We can easily repeat the assembly and solution steps for the discrete

system on each of these additional grids. The following ﬁgure compares the results obtained

on the three grids with the exact solution. As expected, the numerical error decreases as the

number of grid points is increased.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

x

u

N=4

N=8

N=16

Exact solution

When the numerical solutions obtained on diﬀerent grids agree to within a level of tolerance

speciﬁed by the user, they are referred to as “grid converged” solutions. The concept of

grid convergence applies to the ﬁnite-volume approach also where the numerical solution, if

correct, becomes independent of the grid as the cell size is reduced. It is very important

that you investigate the eﬀect of grid resolution on the solution in every CFD problem you

solve. Never trust a CFD solution unless you have convinced yourself that the solution is

grid converged to an acceptance level of tolerance (which would be problem dependent).

8

Dealing with Nonlinearity

The momentum conservation equation for a ﬂuid is nonlinear due to the convection term

(

V · ∇)

**V . Phenomena such as turbulence and chemical reaction introduce additional non-
**

linearities. The highly nonlinear nature of the governing equations for a ﬂuid makes it

challenging to obtain accurate numerical solutions for complex ﬂows of practical interest.

We will demonstrate the eﬀect of nonlinearity by setting m = 2 in our simple 1D exam-

ple (1):

du

dx

+ u

2

= 0; 0 ≤ x ≤ 1; u(0) = 1

A ﬁrst-order ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation to this equation, analogous to that in (4) for

m = 1, is

u

i

−u

i−1

∆x

+ u

2

i

= 0 (11)

This is a nonlinear algebraic equation with the u

2

i

term being the source of the nonlinearity.

The strategy that is adopted to deal with nonlinearity is to linearize the equations about

a guess value of the solution and to iterate until the guess agrees with the solution to a

speciﬁed tolerance level. We’ll illustrate this on the above example. Let u

g

i

be the guess for

u

i

. Deﬁne

∆u

i

= u

i

−u

g

i

Rearranging and squaring this equation gives

u

2

i

= u

2

g

i

+ 2u

g

i

∆u

i

+ (∆u

i

)

2

Assuming that ∆u

i

u

g

i

, we can neglect the ∆u

2

i

term to get

u

2

i

u

2

g

i

+ 2u

g

i

∆u

i

= u

2

g

i

+ 2u

g

i

(u

i

−u

g

i

)

Thus,

u

2

i

2u

g

i

u

i

−u

2

g

i

The ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (11) after linearization becomes

u

i

−u

i−1

∆x

+ 2u

g

i

u

i

−u

2

g

i

= 0 (12)

Since the error due to linearization is O(∆u

2

), it tends to zero as u

g

→u.

In order to calculate the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (12), we need guess values u

g

at

the grid points. We start with an initial guess value in the ﬁrst iteration. For each subsequent

iteration, the u value obtained in the previous iteration is used as the guess value.

Iteration 1: u

(1)

g

= Initial guess

Iteration 2: u

(2)

g

= u

(1)

.

.

.

Iteration l: u

(l)

g

= u

(l−1)

The superscript indicates the iteration level. We continue the iterations until they converge.

We’ll defer the discussion on how to evaluate convergence until a little later.

This is essentially the process used in CFD codes to linearize the nonlinear terms in the

conservations equations, with the details varying depending on the code. The important

points to remember are that the linearization is performed about a guess and that it is

necessary to iterate through successive approximations until the iterations converge.

9

Direct and Iterative Solvers

We saw that we need to perform iterations to deal with the nonlinear terms in the governing

equations. We next discuss another factor that makes it necessary to carry out iterations in

practical CFD problems.

Verify that the discrete equation system resulting from the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approxima-

tion (12) on our four-point grid is

1 0 0 0

−1 1 + 2∆xu

g

2

0 0

0 −1 1 + 2∆xu

g

3

0

0 0 −1 1 + 2∆xu

g

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

1

u

2

u

3

u

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

1

∆xu

2

g

2

∆xu

2

g

3

∆xu

2

g

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(13)

In a practical problem, one would usually have millions of grid points or cells so that each

dimension of the above matrix would be of the order of a million (with most of the elements

being zeros). Inverting such a matrix directly would take a prohibitively large amount of

memory. So instead, the matrix is inverted using an iterative scheme as discussed below.

Rearrange the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (12) at grid point i so that u

i

is expressed

in terms of the values at the neighboring grid points and the guess values:

u

i

=

u

i−1

+ ∆xu

2

g

i

1 + 2 ∆xu

g

i

If a neighboring value at the current iteration level is not available, we use the guess value

for it. Let’s say that we sweep from right to left on our grid i.e. we update u

4

, then u

3

and

ﬁnally u

2

in each iteration. In the m

th

iteration, u

(l)

i−1

is not available while updating u

m

i

and

so we use the guess value u

(l)

g

i−1

for it instead:

u

(l)

i

=

u

(l)

g

i−1

+ ∆xu

(l)

2

g

i

1 + 2 ∆xu

(l)

g

i

(14)

Since we are using the guess values at neighboring points, we are eﬀectively obtaining only

an approximate solution for the matrix inversion in (13) during each iteration but in the

process have greatly reduced the memory required for the inversion. This tradeoﬀ is good

strategy since it doesn’t make sense to expend a great deal of resources to do an exact matrix

inversion when the matrix elements depend on guess values which are continuously being

reﬁned. In an act of cleverness, we have combined the iteration to handle nonlinear terms

with the iteration for matrix inversion into a single iteration process. Most importantly, as

the iterations converge and u

g

→u, the approximate solution for the matrix inversion tends

towards the exact solution for the inversion since the error introduced by using u

g

instead

of u in (14) also tends to zero.

Thus, iteration serves two purposes:

1. It allows for eﬃcient matrix inversion with greatly reduced memory requirements.

2. It is necessary to solve nonlinear equations.

In steady problems, a common and eﬀective strategy used in CFD codes is to solve the

unsteady form of the governing equations and “march” the solution in time until the solution

converges to a steady value. In this case, each time step is eﬀectively an iteration, with the

the guess value at any time level being given by the solution at the previous time level.

10

Iterative Convergence

Recall that as u

g

→ u, the linearization and matrix inversion errors tends to zero. So we

continue the iteration process until some selected measure of the diﬀerence between u

g

and

u, refered to as the residual, is “small enough”. We could, for instance, deﬁne the residual

R as the RMS value of the diﬀerence between u and u

g

on the grid:

R ≡

N

¸

i=1

(u

i

−u

g

i

)

2

N

It’s useful to scale this residual with the average value of u in the domain. An unscaled

residual of, say, 0.01 would be relatively small if the average value of u in the domain is 5000

but would be relatively large if the average value is 0.1. Scaling ensures that the residual is

a relative rather than an absolute measure. Scaling the above residual by dividing by the

average value of u gives

R =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

N

¸

i=1

(u

i

−u

g

i

)

2

N

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

N

N

¸

i=1

u

i

¸

=

N

N

¸

i=1

(u

i

−u

g

i

)

2

N

¸

i=1

u

i

(15)

For the nonlinear 1D example, we’ll take the initial guess at all grid points to be equal

to the value at the left boundary i.e. u

(1)

g

= 1. In each iteration, we update u

g

, sweep

from right to left on the grid updating, in turn, u

4

, u

3

and u

2

using (14) and calculate

the residual using (15). We’ll terminate the iterations when the residual falls below 10

−9

(which is referred to as the convergence criterion). Take a few minutes to implement this

procedure in MATLAB which will help you gain some familiarity with the mechanics of the

implementation. The variation of the residual with iterations obtained from MATLAB is

shown below. Note that logarithmic scale is used for the ordinate. The iterative process

converges to a level smaller than 10

−9

in just 6 iterations. In more complex problems, a lot

more iterations would be necessary for achieving convergence.

1 2 3 4 5 6

10

−10

10

−8

10

−6

10

−4

10

−2

10

0

Iteration number

R

e

s

i

d

u

a

l

11

The solution after 2,4 and 6 iterations and the exact solution are shown below in the

right ﬁgure. It can easily be veriﬁed that the exact solution is given by

u

exact

=

1

x + 1

The solutions for iterations 4 and 6 are indistinguishable on the graph. This is another

indication that the solution has converged. The converged solution doesn’t agree well with

the exact solution because we are using a coarse grid for which the truncation error is

relatively large. The iterative convergence error, which is of order 10

−9

, is swamped out

by the truncation error of order 10

−1

. So driving the residual down to 10

−9

when the

truncation error is of order 10

−1

is a waste of computing resources. In a good calculation,

both errors would be of comparable level and less than a tolerance level chosen by the user.

The agreement between the numerical and exact solutions should get much better on reﬁning

the grid as was the case for m = 1.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

x

u

Iteration 2

Iteration 4

Iteration 6

Exact

Some points to note:

1. Diﬀerent codes use slightly diﬀerent deﬁnitions for the residual. Read the documenta-

tion to understand how the residual is calculated.

2. In the FLUENT code, residuals are reported for each conservation equation. A discrete

conservation equation at any cell can be written in the form LHS = 0. For any iteration,

if one uses the current solution to compute the LHS, it won’t be exactly equal to

zero, with the deviation from zero being a mesaure of how far one is from achieving

convergence. So FLUENT calculates the residual as the (scaled) mean of the absolute

value of the LHS over all cells.

3. The convergence criterion you choose for each conservation equation is problem- and

code-dependent. It’s a good idea to start with the default values in the code. One may

then have to tweak these values.

12

Numerical Stability

In our previous 1D example, the iterations converged very rapidly with the residual falling

below the convergence criterion of 10

−9

in just 6 iterations. In more complex problems, the

iterations converge more slowly and in some instances, may even diverge. One would like

to know a priori the conditions under which a given numerical scheme converges. This is

determined by performing a stability analysis of the numerical scheme. A numerical method

is referred to as being stable when the iterative process converges and as being unstable

when it diverges. It is not possible to carry out an exact stability analysis for the Euler or

Navier-Stokes equations. But a stability analysis of simpler, model equations provides useful

insight and approximate conditions for stability. As mentioned earlier, a common strategy

used in CFD codes for steady problems is to solve the unsteady equations and march in time

until the solution converges to a steady state. A stability analysis is usually performed in

the context of time-marching.

While using time-marching to a steady state, we are only interested in accurately obtain-

ing the asymptotic behavior at large times. So we would like to take as large a time-step

∆t as possible to reach the steady state in the least number of time-steps. There is usually

a maximum allowable time-step ∆t

max

beyond which the numerical scheme is unstable. If

∆t > ∆t

max

, the numerical errors will grow exponentially in time causing the solution to

diverge from the steady-state result. The value of ∆t

max

depends on the numerical dis-

cretization scheme used. There are two classes of numerical shemes, explicit and implicit,

with very diﬀerent stability characteristics which we’ll brieﬂy discuss next.

Explicit and Implicit Schemes

The diﬀerence between explicit and implicit schemes can be most easily illustrated by ap-

plying them to the wave equation

∂u

∂t

+ c

∂u

∂x

= 0

where c is the wavespeed. One possible way to discretize this equation at grid point i and

time-level n is

u

n

i

−u

n−1

i

∆t

+ c

u

n−1

i

−u

n−1

i−1

∆x

= O(∆t, ∆x) (16)

The crucial thing to note here is that the spatial derivative is evaluated at the n−1 time-level.

Solving for u

n

i

gives

u

n

i

=

¸

1 −

c∆t

∆x

u

n−1

i

+

c∆t

∆x

u

n−1

i−1

(17)

This is an explicit expression i.e. the value of u

n

i

at any grid point can be calculated directly

from this expression without the need for any matrix inversion. The scheme in (16) is known

as an explicit scheme. Since u

n

i

at each grid point can be updated independently, these

schemes are easy to implement on the computer. On the downside, it turns out that this

scheme is stable only when

C ≡

c∆t

∆x

≤ 1

where C is called the Courant number. This condition is refered to as the Courant-Friedrichs-

Lewy or CFL condition. While a detailed derivation of the CFL condition through stability

analysis is outside the scope of the current discussion, it can seen that the coeﬃcient of u

n−1

i

13

in (17) changes sign depending on whether C > 1 or C < 1 leading to very diﬀerent behavior

in the two cases. The CFL condition places a rather severe limitation on ∆t

max

.

In an implicit scheme, the spatial derivative term is evaluated at the n time-level:

u

n

i

−u

n−1

i

∆t

+ c

u

n

i

−u

n

i−1

∆x

= O(∆t, ∆x)

In this case, we can’t update u

n

i

at each grid point independently. We instead need to solve a

system of algebraic equations in order to calculate the values at all grid points simultaneously.

It can be shown that this scheme is unconditionally stable so that the numerical errors will

be damped out irrespective of how large the time-step is.

The stability limits discussed above apply speciﬁcally to the wave equation. In general,

explicit schemes applied to the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations have the same restriction

that the Courant number needs to be less than or equal to one. Implicit schemes are not

unconditonally stable for the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations since the nonlinearities in

the governing equations often limit stability. However, they allow a much larger Courant

number than explicit schemes. The speciﬁc value of the maximum allowable Courant number

is problem dependent.

Some points to note:

1. CFD codes will allow you to set the Courant number (which is also referred to as

the CFL number) when using time-stepping. Taking larger time-steps leads to faster

convergence to the steady state, so it is advantageous to set the Courant number as

large as possible within the limits of stability.

2. You may ﬁnd that a lower Courant number is required during startup when changes

in the solution are highly nonlinear but it can be increased as the solution progresses.

3. Under-relaxation for non-timestepping

14

Turbulence Modeling

There are two radically diﬀerent states of ﬂows that are easily identiﬁed and distinguished:

laminar ﬂow and turbulent ﬂow. Laminar ﬂows are characterized by smoothly varying ve-

locity ﬁelds in space and time in which individual “laminae” (sheets) move past one another

without generating cross currents. These ﬂows arise when the ﬂuid viscosity is suﬃciently

large to damp out any perturbations to the ﬂow that may occur due to boundary imper-

fections or other irregularities. These ﬂows occur when at low-to-moderate values of the

Reynolds number. In contrast, turbulent ﬂows are characterized by large, nearly random

ﬂuctuations in velocity and pressure in both space and time. These ﬂuctuations arise from

instabilities that grow until nonlinear interactions cause them to break down into ﬁner and

ﬁner whirls that eventually are dissipated (into heat) by the action of viscosity. Turbulent

ﬂows occur in the opposite limit of high Reynolds numbers.

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.7

y

l

a

b

e

l

100 80 60 40 20 0

xlabel

(a)

PSfrag replacements

u

t

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

y

l

a

b

e

l

100 80 60 40 20 0

xlabel

(b)

PSfrag replacements

u

t

u

t

0.12

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

y

l

a

b

e

l

100 80 60 40 20 0

xlabel

(c)

PSfrag replacements

u

2

t

Figure 1: Example of a time history of a component of a ﬂuctuating velocity at a point in

a turbulent ﬂow. (a) Shows the velocity, (b) shows the ﬂuctuating component of velocity

u

**≡ u −u and (c) shows the square of the ﬂuctuating velocity. Dashed lines in (a) and (c)
**

indicate the time averages.

A typical time history of the ﬂow variable u at a ﬁxed point in space is shown in Fig. 1(a).

The dashed line through the curve indicates the “average” velocity. We can deﬁne three types

of averages:

1. Time average

15

2. Volume average

3. Ensemble average

The most mathematically general average is the ensemble average, in which you repeat a

given experiment a large number of times and average the quantity of interest (say velocity)

at the same position and time in each experiment. For practical reasons, this is rarely done.

Instead, a time or volume average (or combination of the two) is made with the assumption

that they are equivalent to the ensemble average. For the sake of this discussion, let us deﬁne

the time average for a stationary ﬂow

1

as

u(y) ≡ lim

τ→∞

1

2τ

τ

−τ

u(y, t)dt (18)

The deviation of the velocity from the mean value is called the ﬂuctuation and is usually

deﬁned as

u

≡ u −u (19)

Note that by deﬁnition u

**= 0 (the average of the ﬂuctuation is zero). Consequently, a
**

better measure of the strength of the ﬂuctuation is the average of the square of a ﬂuctuating

variable. Figures 1(b) and 1(c) show the time evolution of the velocity ﬂuctuation, u

, and

the square of that quantity, u

2

. Notice that the latter quantity is always greater than zero

as is its average.

The equations governing a turbulent ﬂow are precisely the same as for a laminar ﬂow;

however, the solution is clearly much more complicated in this regime. The approaches to

solving the ﬂow equations for a turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld can be roughly divided into two classes.

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) use the speed of modern computers to numerically

integrate the Navier Stokes equations, resolving all of the spatial and temporal ﬂuctuations,

without resorting to modeling. In essence, the solution procedure is the same as for laminar

ﬂow, except the numerics must contend with resolving all of the ﬂuctuations in the velocity

and pressure. DNS remains limited to very simple geometries (e.g., channel ﬂows, jets and

boundary layers) and is extremely expensive to run.

2

The alternative to DNS found in

most CFD packages (including FLUENT) is to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes

(RANS) equations. RANS equations govern the mean velocity and pressure. Because these

quantities vary smoothly in space and time, they are much easier to solve; however, as will

be shown below, they require modeling to “close” the equations and these models introduce

signiﬁcant error into the calculation.

To demonstrate the closure problem, we consider fully developed turbulent ﬂow in a

channel of height 2H. Recall that with RANS we are interested in solving for the mean

velocity u(y) only. If we formally average the Navier Stokes equations and simplify for this

geometry we arrive at the following

du

v

dy

+

1

ρ

dp

dx

= ν

d

2

u(y)

dy

2

(20)

1

A stationary ﬂow is deﬁned as one whose statistics are not changing in time. An example of a stationary

ﬂow is steady ﬂow in a channel or pipe.

2

The largest DNS to date was recently published by Kaneda et al., Phys. Fluids 15(2):L21–L24 (2003);

they used 4096

3

grid point, which corresponds roughly to 0.5 terabytes of memory per variable!

16

subject to the boundary conditions

y = 0

du

dy

= 0 , (21)

y = H u = 0 , (22)

The quantity u

v

**, known as the Reynolds stress,
**

3

is a higher-order moment that must

be modeled in terms of the knowns (i.e., u(y) and its derivatives). This is referred to as

the “closure” approximation. The quality of the modeling of this term will determine the

reliability of the computations.

4

Turbulence modeling is a rather broad discipline and an in-depth discussion is beyond

the scope of this introduction. Here we simply note that the Reynolds stress is modeled in

terms of two turbulence parameters, the turbulent kinetic energy k and the turbulent energy

dissipation rate deﬁned below

k ≡

1

2

u

2

+ v

2

+ w

2

(23)

≡ ν

∂u

∂x

2

+

∂u

∂y

2

+

∂u

∂z

2

+

∂v

∂x

2

+

∂v

∂y

2

+

∂v

∂z

2

+

∂w

∂x

2

+

∂w

∂y

2

+

∂w

∂z

2

¸

¸

(24)

where (u

, v

, w

**) is the ﬂuctuating velocity vector. The kinetic energy is zero for laminar
**

ﬂow and can be as large as 5% of the kinetic energy of the mean ﬂow in a highly turbulent

case. The family of models is generally known as k– and they form the basis of most CFD

packages (including FLUENT). We will revisit turbulence modeling towards the end of the

semester.

3

Name after the same Osborne Reynolds from which we get the Reynolds number.

4

Notice that if we neglect the Reynolds stress the equations reduce to the equations for laminar ﬂow;

thus, the Reynolds stress is solely responsible for the diﬀerence in the mean proﬁle for laminar (parabolic)

and turbulent (blunted) ﬂows.

17

Problem Set for “Intro to CFD” Notes

Consider the following diﬀerential equation

d

2

u

dx

2

− 2 u

3

= 0; 0 ≤ x ≤ 9; u(0) = 1, u(9) = 0.1

• Apply the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method to this equation to get a linearized diﬀerence equa-

tion at grid point i away from the boundary. Note that a second-order diﬀerence

approximation for the second-derivative is

d

2

u

dx

2

i

=

u

i−1

− 2u

i

+ u

i+1

∆x

2

+O

∆x

2

**• Assemble the discrete system of equations for a four-point grid into a matrix system
**

of the form

[A]{u} = {b}

where

{u} = {u

1

u

2

u

3

u

4

}

T

• Develop a MATLAB program to solve the ﬁnite-diﬀerence equations on a grid with N

points. Apply this code to obtain the solution on a 4-point grid (∆x = 3). For the

initial guess, use a linear variation between the two boundary values. Converge your

solution until the residual is below 10

−6

. Plot the residuals vs. iteration number.

Hint: In MATLAB, initialize all elements of [A] to zero. For row i of [A] when

2 ≤ i ≤ N − 1, you need to set only the elements A

i,i−1

, A

i,i

and A

i,i+1

.

• Plot the ﬁnite-diﬀerence solution obtained on the 4-point grid and compare it with the

exact solution

u

exact

=

1

x + 1

• Use your MATLAB program to obtain the solution on a 7-point grid (∆x = 1.5).

Plot the solution and compare it with the solution for the 4-point grid and the exact

solution.

1

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Aut hor: Raj esh Bhaskaran

E- mail: rb88@cornell. edu

Pr obl em Speci f i cat i on

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Problem Specification

Consider fluid flowing t hrough a circular pipe of cont ant cross- sect ion. The pipe

diamet er D= 0. 2 m and lengt h L= 8 m. The inlet velocit y V

in

= 1 m/ s. Consider t he

velocit y t o be const ant over t he inlet cross- sect ion. The fluid exhaust s int o t he

ambient at mosphere which is at a pressure of 1 at m. Take densit y ρ= 1 kg/ m

3

and coefficient of viscosit y µ= 2 x 10

- 3

kg/ ( ms) . The Reynolds number Re based

on t he pipe diamet er is

where Vavg is t he average velocit y at t he inlet , which is 1m/ s in t his case.

Solve t his problem using FLUENT. Plot t he cent erline velocit y, wall skin- frict ion

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/index.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:32:02 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow

coefficient , and velocit y profile at t he out let . Validat e your result s.

Not e: The values used for t he inlet velocit y and flow propert ies are chosen for

convenience rat her t han t o reflect realit y. The key paramet er value t o focus on is

t he Reynolds no.

Preliminary Analysis

We expect t he viscous boundary layer t o grow along t he pipe st art ing at t he

inlet . I t will event ually grow t o fill t he pipe complet ely ( provided t hat t he pipe is

long enough) . When t his happens, t he flow becomes fully- developed and t here is

no variat ion of t he velocit y profile in t he axial direct ion, x ( see figure below) . One

can obt ain a closed- form solut ion t o t he governing equat ions in t he fully-

developed region. You should have seen t his in t he I nt roduct ion t o Fluid

Mechanics course. We will compare t he numerical result s in t he fully- developed

region wit h t he corresponding analyt ical result s. So it ' s a good idea for you t o go

back t o your t ext book in t he I nt ro course and review t he fully- developed flow

analysis. What are t he values of cent erline velocit y and frict ion fact or you expect

in t he fully- developed region based on t he analyt ical solut ion? What is t he

solut ion for t he velocit y profile?

We' ll creat e t he geomet ry and mesh in GAMBI T which is t he preprocessor for

FLUENT, and t hen read t he mesh int o FLUENT and solve for t he flow solut ion.

Go t o St ep 1: Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Cr eat e Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT

I f you would prefer t o skip t he mesh generat ion st eps, you can creat e a

working direct ory ( see below) , download t he mesh from here ( right click and

save as pipe. msh) int o t he working direct ory and go st raight t o st ep 4.

St r at egy f or Cr eat i ng Geomet r y

I n order t o creat e t he rect angle, we will first creat e t he vert ices at t he four

corners. We' ll t hen j oin adj acent vert ices by st raight lines t o form t he "edges" of

t he rect angle. Last ly, we' ll creat e a "face" corresponding t o t he area enclosed by

t he edges. I n St ep 2, we' ll mesh t he face i. e. t he rect angle. Not e t hat in 3D

problems, you' ll have t o form a "volume" from faces. So t he hierarchy of

geomet ric obj ect s in GAMBI T is vert ices - > edges - > faces - > volumes.

Cr eat e a Wor k i ng Di r ect or y

Creat e a folder called pipe in a convenient locat ion. We' ll use t his as t he working

folder in which files creat ed during t he session will be st ored.

Not e f or ACCEL comput er l ab user s: Each user get s his/ her own 100 MB of

disk space under S: at ACCEL. You can put your files in S: and it ' ll be accessible

from any comput er. This is where you should put files t hat you want t o keep and

access lat er on.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1

St ar t GAMBI T

St art your command prompt .

St a r t > Ru n

I n Windows NT/ 2000/ XP: Type cmd and press ent er.

I n Windows 95/ 98/ ME: Type command and press ent er.

Navigat e your way t o your working folder. For example, if you creat ed a folder

named fluent on drive S: in Windows, t ype cd S:\fluent at t he command

prompt and press Ent er .

St art GAMBI T by t yping gambit -id pipe at t he command prompt and pressing

Ent er .

I f t his doesn' t work, t ry t yping t he full pat hname t o t he GAMBI T execut able:

c:\fluent.inc\ntbin\ntx86\gambit -id pipe

This brings up t he GAMBI T int erface and t ells GAMBI T t o use pipe as t he default

prefix for all files creat ed during t he session. I n Windows, t he Exceed X- server

st art s up before t he GAMBI T int erface comes up. Exceed is a t hird- part y

applicat ion needed t o render t he int erface in Windows ( GAMBI T was originally

developed under Unix) . To make best use of screen real est at e, move t he

windows and resize t hem so t hat you approximat e t his screen arrangement . This

way you can read inst ruct ions in t he browser window and implement t hem in

GAMBI T.

You can resize t he t ext in t he browser window t o your t ast e and comfort :

I n I nt ernet Explorer: Men u ba r > View > Text Size, t hen choose t he appropriat e

font size.

I n Net scape: Men u ba r > View > I n cr ea s e Fon t or Men u ba r > View > Decr ea s e

Fon t .

The GAMBI T I nt erface consist s of t he following:

q Main Menu Bar:

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1.htm (2 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1

Not e t hat t he j ob name pipe appears aft er I D: in t he t it le bar of t he Ut ilit y

Menu.

q Operat ion Toolpad:

We' ll more or less work our way across t he Operat ion Toolpad as we go

t hrough t he solut ion st eps. Not ice t hat as each of t he t op but t ons is

select ed, a different "sub- pad" appears. The Geomet ry sub- pad is shown in

t he above snaphot .

q Global Cont rol Toolpad:

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1

The Global Cont rol Toolpad has opt ions such as Fi t t o Scr een and

Undo t hat are very handy during t he course of geomet ry and mesh

creat ion.

q GAMBI T Graphics:

This is t he window where t he graphical result s of operat ions are displayed.

q GAMBI T Descript ion Panel:

The Descript ion Panel cont ains descript ions of but t ons or obj ect s t hat t he

mouse is point ing t o. Move your mouse over some but t ons and not ice t he

corresponding t ext in t he Descript ion Panel.

q GAMBI T Transcript Window:

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1.htm (4 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1

This is t he window t o which out put from GAMBI T commands is writ t en and

which provides feedback on t he act ions t aken by GAMBI T as you perform

operat ions. I f, at some point , you are not sure you clicked t he right but t on

or ent ered a value correct ly, t his is where t o look t o figure out what you

j ust did. You can click on t he arrow but t on in t he upper right hand corner t o

make t he Transcript window full- sized. You can click on t he arrow again t o

ret urn t he window t o it s original size. Go ahead, give t his a t ry.

Sel ect Sol ver

Specify t hat t he mesh t o be creat ed is for use wit h FLUENT 6. 0:

Ma in Men u > Solver > FLUENT 5/ 6

Verify t his has been done by looking in t he Transcript Window where you should

see:

The boundary t ypes t hat you' ll be able t o select in t he t hird st ep depends on

t he solver select ed.

We can assume t hat t he flow is axisymmet ric. The problem domain is:

where r and x are t he radial and axial coordinat es, respect ively.

St r at egy f or cr eat i ng geomet r y

We will put t he origin of t he coordinat e syst em at t he lower left corner of t he

rect angle. The coordinat es of t he corners are shown in t he figure below:

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We will first creat e four vert ices at t he four corners and j oin adj acent vert ices t o

get t he edges of t he rect angle. We will t hen form a face t hat covers t he area of

t he rect angle.

Cr eat e Ver t i ces

Find t he but t ons described below by point ing t he mouse at each of t he but t ons

and reading t he Descript ion Window.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ver t ex Com m a n d

Bu t t on > Cr ea t e Ver t ex

Not ice t hat t he Creat e Vert ex but t on has already been select ed by default .

Aft er you select a but t on under a sub- pad, it becomes t he default when you

go t o a different sub- pad and t hen come back t o t he sub- pad.

Creat e t he vert ex at t he lower- left corner of t he rect angle:

Next t o x : , ent er value 0. Next t o y : , ent er value 0. Next t o z: , ent er value 0

( t hese values should be default s) . Click Appl y . This creat es t he vert ex ( 0, 0, 0)

which is displayed in t he graphics window.

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I n t he Transcript window, GAMBI T report s t hat it "Creat ed vert ex: vert ex. 1".

The vert ices are numbered vert ex. 1, vert ex. 2 et c. in t he order in which t hey

are creat ed.

Repeat t his process t o creat e t hree more vert ices:

Vert ex 2: ( 0, 0. 1, 0)

Vert ex 3: ( 8, 0. 1, 0)

Vert ex 4: ( 8, 0, 0)

Not e t hat for a 2D problem, t he z- coordinat e can always be left t o t he default

value of 0.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Globa l Con t r ol > Fit t o Win d ow Bu t t on

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This fit s t he four vert ices of t he rect angle we have creat ed t o t he size of t he

Graphics Window.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Cr eat e Edges

We' ll now connect appropriat e pairs of vert ices t o form edges. To select any

ent it y in GAMBI T, hold down t he Shi f t key and click on t he ent it y.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Cr ea t e Ed ge

Select t wo vert ices t hat make up an edge of t his rect angle by holding down t he

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Shi f t but t on and clicking on t he corresponding vert ices. As each vert ex is picked,

it will appear red in t he Graphics Window. Then let go of t he Shi f t but t on. We

can check t he select ed vert ices by clicking on t he up- arrow next t o Ver t i ces: .

This will bring up a window cont aining t he vert ices t hat have been select ed.

Vert ices can be moved from t he Avai l abl e and Pi ck ed list s by select ing t hem

and t hen pressing t he left or right arrow but t ons.

Aft er t he correct vert ices have been select ed, click Cl ose, t hen click Appl y in t he

Creat e St raight Edge window.

Repeat t his process t o creat e a rect angle.

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( Click pict ure for larger image)

Cr eat e Face

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on

> For m Fa ce

To form a face out of t he area enclosed by t he four lines, we need t o select t he

four ledges t hat enclose t his area. This can be done by holding down t he Shi f t

key, clicking on each line ( not ice t hat t he current ly select ed line appears red) ,

and t hen releasing t he Shi f t key aft er all four lines have been select ed.

Alt ernat ively, an easier way t o do t his would be t o click on t he up arrow next t o

edges:

This will bring up t he Edge List window. Click on Al l - > t o select all of t he edges

at once. Click Cl ose.

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Click Appl y t o creat e t he face.

Go t o St ep 2: Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #2

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT

We' ll now creat e a mesh on t he rect angular face wit h 100 divisions in t he axial

direct ion and 5 divisions in t he radial direct ion. We' ll first mesh t he four edges

and t hen t he face. The desired grid spacing is specified t hrough t he edge mesh.

Mesh Edges

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Ed ges

Shi f t - cl i ck or bring up t he Edge List window and select bot h t he vert ical lines. I f

t his is difficult , one can zoom in on an edge by holding down t he Ct r l but t on,

clicking and dragging t he mouse t o specify an area t o zoom in on, and releasing

t he Ct r l but t on. To ret urn t o t he main view, click on t he Globa l Con t r ol Toolp a d

> Fit t o Win d ow Bu t t on again.

Once a vert ical edge has been select ed, select I nt er val Count from t he drop

down box t hat says I nt er val Si ze in t he Mesh Edges Window. Then, in t he box

t o t he left of t his combo box, ent er 5 for t he int erval count .

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Click Appl y . Nodes appear on t he edges showing t hat t hey are divided int o 5.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Repeat t he same process for t he horizont al edges, but wit h an int erval count of

100.

Now t hat t he edges are meshed, we are ready t o creat e a 2- D mesh for t he face.

Mesh Face

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Fa ces

Shi f t l ef t - cl i ck on t he face or use t he up arrow next t o Faces t o select t he face.

Click Appl y .

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( Click pict ure for larger image)

Go t o St ep 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #3

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Speci f y Boundar y Ty pes i n GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

Cr eat e Boundar y Ty pes

We' ll next set t he boundary t ypes in GAMBI T. The left edge is t he inlet of t he

pipe, t he right edge t he out let , t he t op edge t he wall, and t he bot t om edge t he

axis.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Zon es Com m a n d Bu t t on > Sp ecify Bou n d a r y Typ es

Com m a n d Bu t t on

This will bring up t he Specify Boundary Types window on t he Operat ion Panel.

We will first specify t hat t he left edge is t he inlet . Under Ent i t y : , pick Edges so

t hat GAMBI T knows we want t o pick an edge ( face is default ) .

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Now select t he left edge by Shi f t - cl i ck i ng on it . The select ed edge should

appear in t he yellow box next t o t he Edges box you j ust worked wit h as well as

t he Label / Ty pe list right under t he Edges box.

Next t o Name: , ent er inlet.

For Ty pe: , select VELOCI TY_I NLET.

Click Appl y . You should see t he new ent ry appear under Name/ Ty pe box near

t he t op of t he window.

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Repeat t his process for t he ot her t hree edges according t o t he following t able:

Edge

Position

Name Type

Left inlet VELOCITY_INLET

Right outlet PRESSURE_OUTLET

Top wall WALL

Bottom centerline AXIS

You should have t he following edges in t he Name/ Ty pe list when finished:

Sav e and Ex por t

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

Type in pipe.msh for t he Fi l e Name: . Select Ex por t 2d Mesh since t his is a 2

dimensional mesh. Click Accept .

Check pipe.msh has been creat ed in your working direct ory.

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Go t o St ep 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Pr obl em i n FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Launch Fl uent 6.0

St a r t > Pr ogr a m s > Flu en t I n c > FLUENT 6. 0

Select 2ddp from t he list of opt ions and click Run.

The "2ddp" opt ion is used t o select t he 2- dimensional, double- precision

solver. I n t he double- precision solver, each float ing point number is

represent ed using 64 bit s in cont rast t o t he single- precision solver which uses

32 bit s. The ext ra bit s increase not only t he precision but also t he range of

magnit udes t hat can be represent ed. The downside of using double precision

is t hat it requires more memory.

I mpor t Gr i d

Ma in Men u > File > Rea d > Ca s e. . .

Navigat e t o t he working direct ory and select t he pipe. msh file. This is t he mesh

file t hat was creat ed using t he preprocessor GAMBI T in t he previous st ep.

FLUENT report s t he mesh st at ist ics as it reads in t he mesh:

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Check t he number of nodes, faces ( of different t ypes) and cells. There are 500

quadrilat eral cells in t his case. This is what we expect since we used 5 divisions

in t he radial direct ion and 100 divisions in t he axial direct ion while generat ing t he

grid. So t he t ot al number of cells is 5* 100 = 500.

Also, t ake a look under zones. We can see t he four zones i nl et , out l et , w al l ,

and cent er l i ne t hat we defined in GAMBI T.

Check and Di spl ay Gr i d

First , we check t he grid t o make sure t hat t here are no errors.

Ma in Men u > Gr id > Ch eck

Any errors in t he grid would be report ed at t his t ime. Check t he out put and make

sure t hat t here are no errors report ed. Check t he grid size:

Ma in Men u > Gr id > I n fo > Size

The following st at ist ics should appear:

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Display t he grid:

Ma in Men u > Dis p la y > Gr id . . .

Make sure all 5 it ems under Sur f aces is select ed. Then click Di spl ay . The

graphics window opens and t he grid is displayed in it . You can now click Cl ose in

t he Grid Display menu t o get back some deskt op space. The graphics window will

remain.

Some of t he operat ions available in t he graphics window are:

Translat ion: The grid can be t ranslat ed in any direct ion by holding down t he Lef t

Mouse But t on and t hen moving t he mouse in t he desired direct ion.

Zoom I n: Hold down t he Mi ddl e Mouse But t on and drag a box from t he Upper

Lef t Hand Cor ner t o t he Low er Ri ght Hand Cor ner over t he area you want t o

zoom in on.

Zoom Out : Hold down t he Mi ddl e Mouse But t on and drag a box anywhere from

t he Low er Ri ght Hand Cor ner t o t he Upper Lef t Hand Cor ner .

Use t hese operat ions t o zoom int o t he grid t o obt ain t he view shown below.

Not e: The zooming operat ions cannot be performed wit hout a middle mouse

but t on.

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( Click pict ure for larger image)

You can also look at specific part s of t he grid by choosing t he boundaries you

wish t o view under Sur f aces ( click t o select and click again t o deselect a specific

boundary) . Click Di spl ay again when you have select ed your boundaries. For

example, t he w al l , out l et , and cent er l i ne boundaries have been select ed in t he

following view:

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These opt ions will display t he graph:

( Click pict ure for larger image)

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For convenience, t he but t on next t o Sur f aces select s all of t he boundaries

while t he deselect s all of t he boundaries at once.

Close t he Grid Display Window when you are done.

Def i ne Sol ver Pr oper t i es

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > Solver

Choose Ax i sy mmet r i c under Space. We' ll use t he default s of segregat ed solver,

implicit formulat ion, st eady flow and absolut e velocit y formulat ion. Click OK.

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > Vis cou s

Lami nar flow is t he default . So we don' t need t o change anyt hing in t his menu.

Click Cancel .

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > En er gy

For incompressible flow, t he energy equat ion is decoupled from t he cont inuit y

and moment um equat ions. We need t o solve t he energy equat ion only if we are

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int erest ed in det ermining t he t emperat ure dist ribut ion. We will not deal wit h

t emperat ure in t his example. So leave t he Ener gy Equat i on unselect ed and

click Cancel t o exit t he menu.

Def i ne Mat er i al Pr oper t i es

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Ma t er ia ls . . .

Change Densi t y t o 1.0 and Vi scosi t y t o 2e-3. These are t he values t hat we

specified under Problem Specificat ion. We' ll t ake bot h as const ant .

Click Change/ Cr eat e.

Def i ne Oper at i ng Condi t i ons

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Op er a t in g Con d it ion s . . .

For all flows, FLUENT uses gauge pressure int ernally. Any t ime an absolut e

pressure is needed, it is generat ed by adding t he operat ing pressure t o t he

gauge pressure. We' ll use t he default value of 1 at m ( 101, 325 Pa) as t he

Oper at i ng Pr essur e.

Click Cancel t o leave t he default in place.

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Def i ne Boundar y Condi t i ons

We' ll now set t he value of t he velocit y at t he inlet and pressure at t he out let .

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Bou n d a r y Con d it ion s . . .

We not e here t hat t he four t ypes of boundaries we defined are specified as zones

on t he left side of t he Boundary Condit ions Window. The cent er l i ne zone should

be select ed by default . Make sure it is, t hen make sure t he Ty pe of t his

boundary is select ed as ax i s and click Set .... Not ice t hat t here is not hing t o set

for t he axis. Click OK.

Move down t he list and select i nl et under Zone. Not e t hat FLUENT indicat es t hat

t he Ty pe of t his boundary is vel oci t y - i nl et . Recall t hat t he boundary t ype for

t he "inlet " was set in GAMBI T. I f necessary, we can change t he boundary t ype

set previously in GAMBI T in t his menu by select ing a different t ype from t he list

on t he right .

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Click on Set .... Ent er 1 for Vel oci t y Magni t ude. Click OK. This set s t he velocit y

of t he fluid ent ering at t he left boundary.

The ( absolut e) pressure at t he out let is 1 at m. Since t he operat ing pressure is

set t o 1 at m, t he out let gauge pressure = out let absolut e pressure - operat ing

pressure = 0. Choose out l et under Zone. The Ty pe of t his boundary is

pr essur e- out l et . Click on Set .... The default value of t he Gauge Pr essur e is 0.

Click Cancel t o leave t he default in place.

Last ly, click on w al l under Zones and make sure Ty pe is set as w al l . Click on

each of t he t abs and not e t hat only moment um can be changed under t he

current condit ions. This will not be so under lat er exercises so make a not e of t he

locat ion of t hese opt ions. Click OK.

Click Cl ose t o close t he Boundary Condit ions menu.

Go t o St ep 5: Solve!

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Sol ve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 5: Solve!

We' ll use a second- order discret izat ion scheme.

Ma in Men u > Solve > Con t r ols > Solu t ion . . .

Change Moment um t o Second Or der Upw i nd.

Click OK.

Set I ni t i al Guess

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I nit ialize t he flow field t o t he values at t he inlet :

Ma in Men u > Solve > I n it ia lize > I n it ia lize. . .

I n t he Solut ion I nit ializat ion menu t hat comes up, choose i nl et under Comput e

Fr om. The Ax i al Vel oci t y for all cells will be set t o 1 m/ s, t he Radi al Vel oci t y

t o 0 m/ s and t he Gauge Pr essur e t o 0 Pa. These values have been t aken from

t he inlet boundary condit ion.

Click I ni t . This complet es t he init ializat ion.

Set Conver gence Cr i t er i a

FLUENT report s a residual for each governing equat ion being solved. The residual

is a measure of how well t he current solut ion sat isfies t he discret e form of each

governing equat ion. We' ll it erat e t he solut ion unt il t he residual for each equat ion

falls below 1e- 6.

Ma in Men u > Solve > Mon it or s > Res id u a l. . .

Change t he residual under Conver gence Cr i t er i on for cont i nui t y , x - vel oci t y ,

and y - vel oci t y , all t o 1e- 6.

Also, under Opt i ons, select Pl ot . This will plot t he residuals in t he graphics

window as t hey are calculat ed.

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Click OK.

This complet es t he problem specificat ion. Save your work:

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Ca s e. . .

Type in pipe.cas for Case Fi l e. Click OK. Check t hat t he file has been creat ed in

your working direct ory. I f you exit FLUENT now, you can ret rieve all your work at

any t ime by reading in t his case file.

I t er at e Unt i l Conver gence

St art t he calculat ion by running 100 it erat ions:

Ma in Men u > Solve > I t er a t e. . .

I n t he I t erat e Window t hat comes up, change t he Number of I t er at i ons t o 100.

Click I t er at e.

The residuals for each it erat ion is print ed out as well as plot t ed in t he graphics

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window as t hey are calculat ed.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

The residuals fall below t he specified convergence crit erion of 1e- 6 in 46

it erat ions.

Save t he solut ion t o a dat a file:

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Da t a . . .

Ent er pipe.dat for Dat a Fi l e and click OK. Check t hat t he file has been creat ed

in your working direct ory. You can ret rieve t he current solut ion from t his dat a file

at any t ime.

Go t o St ep 6: Analyze Result s

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Anal y ze Resul t s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 6: Analyze Results

Cent er l i ne Vel oci t y

We' ll plot t he variat ion of t he axial velocit y along t he cent erline.

Ma in Men u > Plot > XY Plot . . .

Make sure t hat Posi t i on on X Ax i s is set under Opt i ons, and X is set t o 1 and

Y t o 0 under Pl ot Di r ect i on. This t ells FLUENT t o plot t he x- coordinat e value on

t he abscissa of t he graph.

Under Y Ax i s Funct i on, pick Vel oci t y ... and t hen in t he box under t hat , pick

Ax i al Vel oci t y .

Please not e t hat X Ax i s Funct i on and Y Ax i s Funct i on describe t he x and y

axes of t he graph, which should not be confused wit h t he x and y direct ions of

t he pipe.

Finally, select cent er l i ne under Sur f aces since we are plot t ing t he axial velocit y

along t he cent erline. This finishes set t ing up t he plot t ing paramet ers.

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Click Pl ot .

This brings up a plot of t he axial velocit y as a funct ion of t he dist ance along t he

cent erline of t he pipe.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

I n t he graph t hat comes up, we can see t hat t he velocit y reaches a const ant

value beyond a cert ain dist ance from t he inlet . This is t he fully- developed flow

region.

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Change t he axes ext ent s: I n t he Solut ion XY Plot menu, click on Ax es.... Under

Opt i ons, deselect Aut o Range. The boxes under Range should now be

act ivat ed. Select X under Ax i s. Ent er 1 for Mi ni mum and 3 for Max i mum under

Range.

We' ll t urn on t he grid lines t o help est imat e where t he flow becomes fully

developed. Check t he boxes next t o Maj or Rul es and Mi nor Rul es under

Opt i ons. Click Appl y .

Now, pick Y under Ax i s and once again deselect Aut o Range under Opt i ons,

t hen ent er 1.8 for Mi ni mum and 2.0 for Max i mum under Range. Also select

Maj or Rul es and Mi nor Rul es t o t urn on t he grid lines in t he Y direct ion. We

have now finished specifying t he range for each axes, so click Appl y and t hen

Cl ose.

Go back t o t he Solut ion XY Plot menu and click Pl ot t o replot t he graph wit h t he

new axes ext ent s. We can see t hat t he fully- developed region st art s at around

x= 3m and t he cent erline velocit y in t his region is 1. 93 m/ s.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Sav i ng t he Pl ot

Save t he dat a from t his plot :

I n t he Solut ion XY Plot Window, check t he Wr i t e t o Fi l e box under Opt i ons. The

Pl ot but t on should have changed t o Wr i t e.... Click on Wr i t e.... Ent er vel.xy as

t he XY Fi l e Name and click OK. Check t hat t his file has been creat ed in your

FLUENT working direct ory.

Now, save a pict ure of t he plot :

Leave t he Solut ion XY Plot Window and t he Graphics Window open and click on:

File > Ha r d cop y . . .

Under For mat , choose one of t he following t hree opt ions:

EPS - if you have a post script viewer, t his is t he best choice. EPS allows you t o

save t he file in vect or mode, which will offer t he best viewable image qualit y.

Aft er select ing EPS, choose Vect or from under Fi l e Ty pe.

TI FF - t his will offer a high resolut ion image of your graph. However, t he image

file generat ed will be rat her large, so t his is not recommended if you do not have

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

a lot of room on your st orage device.

JPG - t his is small in size and viewable from all browsers. However, t he qualit y

of t he image is not part icularly good.

Aft er select ing your desired image format and associat ed opt ions, click on Save...

Ent er vel.eps, vel.tif, or vel.jpg depending on your format choice and click

OK.

Verify t hat t he image file has been creat ed in your working direct ory. You can

now copy t his file ont o a disk or print it out for your records.

Coef f i ci ent of Sk i n Fr i ct i on

FLUENT provides a large amount of useful informat ion in t he online help t hat

comes wit h t he soft ware. Let ' s probe t he online help for informat ion on

calculat ing t he coefficient of skin frict ion.

Ma in Men u > Help > Us er ' s Gu id e I n d ex. . .

Click on S in t he links on t op and scroll down t o sk i n f r i ct i on coef f i ci ent . Click

on t he second 965 link ( normally, you would have t o go t hrough each of t he

links unt il you find what you are looking for) . We can see an excerpt on t he skin

coefficient as well as t he equat ion for calculat ing it .

Click on t he link for Ref er ence Val ues panel , which t ells us how t o set t he

reference values used in calculat ing t he skin coefficient .

Set t he reference values:

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

Ma in Men u > Rep or t > Refer en ce Va lu es . . .

Select i nl et under Comput e Fr om t o t ell FLUENT t o calculat e t he reference

values from t he values at inlet . Check t hat densit y is 1 kg/ m3 and velocit y is 1 m/

s. ( Alt ernat ely, you could have j ust t yped in t he appropriat e values) . Click OK.

Go back t o t he Solut ion XY Plot menu. Uncheck Wr i t e t o Fi l e under Opt i ons

since we want t o plot t o t he window right now. We can leave t he ot her Opt i ons

and Pl ot Di r ect i on as is since we are st ill plot t ing against t he x dist ance along

t he pipe.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

Under t he Y Ax i s Funct i on, pick Wal l Fl ux es..., and t hen Sk i n Fr i ct i on

Coef f i ci ent in t he box under t hat .

Under Sur f aces, select w al l and unselect cent er l i ne by clicking on t hem.

Reset axes ranges: Go t o Ax es... and re- select Aut o- Range for t he Y axis. Set

t he range of t he X axis from 1 t o 8 by select ing X under Ax i s, ent ering 1 under

Mi ni mum, and 8 under Max i mum in t he Range box ( remember t o de- select

Aut o- Range first if it is checked) .

Click Appl y , Cl ose, and t hen Pl ot in t he Solut ion XY Plot Window.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

We can see t hat t he fully developed region is reached at around x= 3. 0m and t he

skin frict ion coefficient in t his region is around 1. 54. Compare t he numerical

value of 1. 54 wit h t he t heoret ical, fully- developed value of 0. 16.

Save t he dat a from t his plot : Pick Wr i t e t o Fi l e under Opt i ons and click

Wr i t e.... Ent er cf.xy for XY Fi l e and click OK.

Vel oci t y Pr of i l e

We' ll next plot t he velocit y at t he out let as a funct ion of t he dist ance from t he

cent er of t he pipe. To do t his, we have t o set t he y axis of t he graph t o be t he y

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

axis of t he pipe ( t he radial direct ion) .

To plot t he posit ion variable on t he y axis of t he graph, uncheck Posi t i on on X

Ax i s under Opt i ons and choose Posi t i on on Y Ax i s inst ead. To make t he

posit ion variable t he radial dist ance from t he cent erline, under Pl ot Di r ect i on,

change X t o 0 and Y t o 1. To plot t he axial velocit y on t he x axis of t he graph, for

X Ax i s Funct i on, pick Vel oci t y ... and Ax i al Vel oci t y under t hat .

Since we want t o plot t his at t he out let boundary, pick out l et under Sur f aces.

Change bot h t he x and y axes t o Aut o- Range.

Uncheck Wr i t e t o Fi l e under Opt i ons so t hat we can see t he graph. Click Pl ot .

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Does t his look like a parabolic profile?

Save t he dat a from t his plot : Pick Wr i t e t o Fi l e under Opt i ons and click

Wr i t e.... Ent er profile.xy for XY Fi l e and click OK.

To see how t he velocit y profile changes in t he developing region, let us add t he

profiles at x= 0. 6m ( x/ D= 3) and x= 0. 12m ( x/ D= 6) t o t he above plot . First ,

creat e a line at x= 0. 6m using t he Line/ Rake t ool:

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

Ma in Men u > Su r fa ce > Lin e/ Ra ke

We' ll creat e a st raight line from ( x0, y0) = ( 0. 6, 0) t o ( x1, y1) = ( 0. 6, 0. 1) . Select

Li ne Tool under Opt i ons. Ent er x 0= 0.6, y 0= 0, x 1= 0.6, y 1= 0.1. Ent er line1

under New Sur f ace Name. Click Cr eat e.

To see t he line j ust creat ed, select

Ma in Men u > Dis p la y > Gr id . . .

Not e t hat l i ne1 appears in t he list of surfaces. Select all surfaces except def aul t -

i nt er i or . Click Di spl ay . This displays all surfaces but not t he mesh cells. Zoom

int o t he region near t he inlet t o see t he line creat ed at x= 0. 6m. ( Click here t o

review t he zoom funct ionalit y discussion in st ep 4. ) line1 is t he whit e vert ical line

t o t he right in t he figure below.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

Similarly, creat e a vert ical line called line2 at x= 1. 2; ( x0, y0) = ( 1. 2, 0) t o ( x1, y1) =

( 1. 2, 0. 1) in t his case. Display it in t he graphics window t o check t hat it has been

creat ed correct ly.

Now we can plot t he velocit y profiles at x= 0. 6m ( x/ D= 3) and x= 0. 12m ( x/ D= 6)

along wit h t he out let profile. I n t he Solut ion XY plot menu, use t he same set t ings

as above. Under Sur f aces, in addit ion t o out l et , select l i ne1 and l i ne2. Select

Node Val ues under Opt ions. Click Pl ot . Your symbols might be different from

t he ones below. You can change t he symbols and line st yles under t he Cur ves...

but t on. Click on Hel p in t he Curves menu if you have problems figuring out how

t o change t hese set t ings.

The profile t hree diamet ers downst ream is fairly close t o t he fully- developed

profile at t he out let . I f you redo t his plot using t he fine grid result s in t he next

st ep, you' ll see t hat t his is not act ually t he case. The coarse grid used here

doesn' t capt ure t he boundary layer development properly and underpredict s t he

development lengt h.

I n FLUENT, you can choose t o display t he comput ed cell- cent er values or

values t hat have been int erpolat ed t o t he nodes. By default , t he Node Values

opt ion is t urned on, and t he int erpolat ed values are displayed. Node- averaged

dat a curves may be somewhat smoot her t han curves for cell values.

Vel oci t y Vect or s

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

One can plot vect ors in t he ent ire domain, or on select ed surfaces. Let us plot

t he velocit y vect ors for t he ent ire domain t o see how t he flow develops

downst ream of t he inlet .

Ma in Men u > Dis p la y > Vect or s . . . > Dis p la y

Zoom int o t he region near t he inlet . ( Click here t o review t he zoom funct ionalit y

discussion in st ep 4. ) The lengt h and color of t he arrows represent t he velocit y

magnit ude. The vect or display is more int elligible if one makes t he arrows

short er as follows: Change Scal e t o 0.4 in t he Vect ors menu and click Di spl ay .

You can reflect t he plot about t he axis t o get an expanded sect ional view:

Mai n Menu > Di spl ay > Vi ew s...

Under Mi r r or Pl anes, only t he ax i s surface is list ed since t hat is t he only

symmet ry boundary in t he present case. Select ax i s and click Appl y . Close t he

Views window.

The velocit y vect ors provide a pict ure of how t he flow develops downst ream of

t he inlet . As t he boundary layer grows, t he flow near t he wall is ret arded by

viscous frict ion. Not e t he sloping arrows in t he near wall region close t o t he inlet .

This indicat es t hat t he slowing of t he flow in t he near- wall region result s in an

inj ect ion of fluid int o t he region away from t he wall t o sat isfy mass conservat ion.

Thus, t he velocit y out side t he boundary layer increases.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6

By default , one vect or is drawn at t he cent er of each cell. This can be seen by

t urning on t he grid in t he vect or plot : Select Dr aw Gr i d in t he Vect ors menu

and t hen click Di spl ay in t he Grid Display as well as t he Vect ors menus.

Velocit y vect ors are t he default , but you can also plot ot her vect or quant it ies.

See sect ion 27. 1. 3 of t he user manual for more det ails about t he vect or plot

funct ionalit y.

Go t o St ep 7: Refine Mesh

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. St art - up and preliminary set - up

2. Creat e Geomet ry

3. Mesh Geomet ry

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Ref i ne Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 7: Refine Mesh

I t is very import ant t o assess t he dependence of your result s on t he mesh used

by repeat ing t he same calculat ion on different meshes and comparing t he

result s. We will re- do t he previous calculat ion on a 100x10 mesh and compare

t he result s wit h t he 100x5 mesh used previously. I f you prefer t o skip t he

GAMBI T st eps for modifying t he mesh, download t he 100x10 mesh ( by right -

clicking on t he link) and go direct ly t o t he FLUENT analysis discussed below.

Modi f y Mesh i n GAMBI T

The 100x5 mesh is saved as pipe. dbs in your working direct ory. Bring up t he

command prompt window as in st ep 1. To copy pipe. dbs t o pipe2. dbs, at t he

command prompt , t ype

copy pipe.dbs pipe2.dbs

We will work wit h pipe2. dbs in order t o ret ain pipe. dbs as is. Launch GAMBI T

wit h pipe2. dbs as t he input file by t yping:

gambit pipe2.dbs

Not e in t he main menu bar t hat pipe2 is t he I D of t his j ob. So files creat ed during

t his session will have t hat prefix.

We will delet e t he face mesh, modify t he edge meshes for t he vert ical edges and

remesh t he face. To delet e t he original face mesh, choose

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on > Delet e

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Fa ce Mes h es

I n t he Delet e Face Meshes Window t hat comes up, uncheck t he Remove

unused l ow er mesh box. This t ells GAMBI T t o remove t he face mesh only and

keep t he edge meshes associat ed wit h t he face mesh. Since we will be changing

t he mesh on only t wo edges of t he rect angle, t here is no need t o redo t he

meshes for all four edges.

Select t he only face of t he rect angle by shi f t - cl i ck i ng on it and t hen click Appl y .

Modi f y Edge Meshes

To change t he number of divisions on t he vert ical edges from 5 t o 10, choose:

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on > Mes h

Ed ges

Select t he t wo vert ical edges by holding down t he Shi f t but t on, clicking on each

in t urn, and t hen releasing t he Shi f t but t on. Select I nt er val count from t he box

under Spaci ng t hat says I nt er val si ze. Change t he number in t he box next t o

t he I nt er val count box from 5 t o 10.

Make sure t hat t he Remove ol d mesh box is checked under Opt i ons. This will

make sure t hat t he old edge meshes are erased before t he new edge meshes are

creat ed.

Click Appl y .

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Remember t hat you can zoom in by holding down Ct r l , dragging a box across

t he area you want t o zoom in on, and t hen releasing Ct r l . Do t his now and make

sure t hat t he vert ical edges have 10 divisions.

( Click image for larger pict ure)

Recr eat e Face Mesh

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on > Mes h

Fa ces

Shi f t - cl i ck on t he face in t he Graphics Window t o select it . Click Appl y .

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( Click here for larger pict ure)

Sav e & Ex por t

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

Type in pipe2.msh for t he Fi l e Name: . Select Ex por t 2d Mesh opt ion. Click

Accept .

Fi ner Mesh Anal y si s

Repeat st eps 4 and 5 of t his t ut orial wit h t he 100x10 mesh ( a t ad on t he

repet it ious side but consider it good pract ice) .

One you obt ain t he solut ion, plot t he variat ion of t he cent erline velocit y along t he

x- direct ion as described in st ep 6. Compare t his result wit h t hat obt ained on t he

previous mesh which is st ored in t he vel. xy file creat ed earlier. To do t his, aft er

cent erline velocit y has been plot t ed, click on Load Fi l e... in t he Solut ion XY Plot

window. Navigat e t o your working folder if necessary and click on vel.xy and

OK. Click Pl ot .

I n t he graphics window, we can see bot h of t he lines plot t ed in t he same window.

Adj ust t he axes so t hat you can zoom in on t he beginning of t he fully developed

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

region.

( Click image for larger pict ure)

I n t he cent erline velocit y plot above, t he whit e and red symbols represent t he

result s on t he 100x10 mesh and 100x5 meshes, respect ively. The cent erline

velocit y in t he fully- developed region for t he finer mesh is 1. 98 m/ s. This value

agrees bet t er wit h t he analyt ical value of 2 m/ s t hat t he value of 1. 93 m/ s

obt ained on t he coarser mesh. Save t he dat a for t his plot as vel2.xy. The

velocit y result get s more accurat e on refining t he mesh as expect ed.

Plot t he skin frict ion coefficient as described in st ep 6. Compare t he result wit h

t hat obt ained on t he 100x5 mesh by loading it from cf.xy.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( Click here for larger image)

The finer mesh provides a skin frict ion coefficient of 0. 159 in t he fully- developed

region, which is much closer t o t he t heoret ical value of 0. 16 t han t he

corresponding coarser mesh value of 0. 154. Save t he dat a for t his plot as cf2.

xy.

Similarly, plot t he velcoit y profile at t he out let and compare wit h t he coarser grid

result in out.xy. The t wo result s compare well wit h t he great est deviat ion

occurring near t he cent erline. Save t he dat a for t his plot as out2.xy.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( Click pict ure for larger image)

I f you repeat t he calculat ion on a 100x20 mesh, you' ll see t hat t he result s on t he

t wo finest meshes are grid- independent t o a high level of accuracy. I n t he plot s

below, t he whit e, red and green symbols correspond t o t he 100x20, 100x10 and

100x5 meshes, respect ively.

Vel oci t y al ong cent er l i ne:

( Click pict ure for larger image)

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Sk i n Coef f i ci ent :

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Out l et Vel oci t y :

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Go t o Problem 1

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Problem #1

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Pr obl em 1

Problem 2

Problem 1

Pr obl em

a) Consider t he problem solved in t his t ut orial. At t he exit of t he pipe, we can

define t he error in t he calculat ion of t he cent erline velocit y as:

where Uc is t he cent erline value from FLUENT and Uexact is t he exact analyt ical

value for fully- developed laminar pipe flow. We expect t he error t o t ake t he form:

where t he coefficient K and t he power p depend upon t he met hod . Consider t he

solut ions obt ained on t he 100x5, 100x10, and 100x20 meshes. Using MATLAB,

perform a linear least squares fit of:

t o obt ain t he coefficient s K and p. You can look up t he value of Uexact from any

int roduct ory t ext book in fluid mechanics such as Fluid Mechanics by F. Whit e.

Explain why your values make sense.

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Fluent Tutorial - Problem #1

b) Repeat t he above exercise using t he "first - order upwind" scheme for t he

moment um equat ion. Cont rast t he value of p obt ained in t his case wit h t he

previous one and explain your result s briefly ( 2- 3 sent ences) .

Hi nt s

Not e t hat t he first or second order discret izat ion applies only t o t he convect ive

t erms in t he Navier- St okes equat ions. The viscous t erms are always second

order accurat e.

Go t o Problem 2

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Problem #2

Lami nar Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Pr obl em 2

Problem 2

Pr obl em

On your finest mesh ( 100x20) , rerun t he FLUENT calculat ion for Reynolds

numbers 200 and 500 using t he "second- order upwind" scheme. Not e: change

t he Reynolds number by adj ust ing t he molecular viscosit y µ. Plot t he cent erline

velocit y and skin frict ion as a funct ion of axial dist ance for Re = 100 ( previous

problem) , 200, and 500. Plot all t hree cases on t he same graph for comparsion.

Briefly explain t he t rend you observe as t he Reynolds number increases.

Hi nt s

I f you' ve saved t he 100x20 mesh in st ep 7, you can load it int o FLUENT again

wit hout having t o recreat e it in GAMBI T.

Solve for µ for each of t he Reynolds number first and t hen t hink about what

st eps need t o be changed.

Sol ut i on

Your solut ion should look somet hing like t he plot s below:

Cent er l i ne Vel oci t y

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Fluent Tutorial - Problem #2

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Sk i n Coef f i ci ent

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Back t o Problem Specificat ion

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Fluent Tutorial - Problem #2

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial: Turbulent Pipe Flow

Fl uent 6.0: Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Aut hor: Raj esh Bhaskaran

E- mail: rb88@cornell. edu

Pr obl em Speci f i cat i on

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem Specification

Let ' s revisit t he pipe flow example considered in t he previous exercise. As before,

t he inlet velocit y is 1 m/ s, t he fluid exhaust s int o t he ambient at mosphere and

densit y is 1 kg/ m

3

. For µ = 2 x 10

- 5

kg/ ( ms) , t he Reynolds no. based on t he pipe

diamet er and average velocit y at t he inlet is

At t his Reynolds number, t he flow is usually complet ely t urbulent .

A t urbulent flow exhibit s small- scale fluct uat ions in t ime. I t is usually not

possible t o resolve t hese fluct uat ions in a CFD calculat ion. So t he flow variables

such as velocit y, pressure, et c. are t ime- averaged. Unfort unat ely, t he t ime-

averaged governing equat ions are not closed i. e. t hey cont ain fluct uat ing

quant it ies which need t o be modeled using a t urbulence model. No t urbulence

model is current ly available t hat is valid for all t ypes of flows and so it is

necessary t o choose and fine- t une a model for part icular classes of flows. I n t his

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Fluent Tutorial: Turbulent Pipe Flow

exercise, you' ll be t urned loose on variant s of t he k- ε model. But in t he real

world, t read wit h great caut ion: you should evaluat e t he validit y of your

calculat ions using a t urbulence model very carefully ( which, ahem, means t hat

t here is no get t ing away from st udying fluid dynamics concept s and numerical

met hods very carefully) . FLUENT should not be used as a black box. The k- ε

models consist of t wo different ial equat ions: one each for t he t urbulent kinet ic

energy k and t urbulent dissipat ion ε. These t wo equat ions have t o be solved

along wit h t he t ime- averaged cont inuit y, moment um and energy equat ions. So

t urbulent flow calculat ions are much more difficult and t ime- consuming t han

laminar flow calculat ions. This is an exercise t o whet your appet it e for t urbulent

flow calculat ions.

Go t o St ep 1: Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in Nozzle - Problem Specification

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Aut hor: Raj esh Bhaskaran

E- mail: rb88@cornell. edu

Pr obl em Speci f i cat i on

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

* * Under const r uct i on* *

Problem Specification

Consider air flowing at high- speed t hrough a convergent - divergent nozzle having

a circular cross- sect ional area, A, t hat varies wit h axial dist ance from t he t hroat ,

x, according t o t he formula

A = 0. 1 + x

2

; - 0. 5 < x < 0. 5

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Compressible Flow in Nozzle - Problem Specification

where A is in square met ers and x is in met ers. The st agnat ion pressure p

o

at t he

inlet is 101, 325 Pa. The st agnat ion t emperat ure T

o

at t he inlet is 300 K. The

st at ic pressure p at t he exit is 3, 738. 9 Pa. We will calculat e t he Mach number,

pressure and t emperat ure dist ribut ion in t he nozzle using FLUENT and compare

t he solut ion t o quasi- 1D nozzle flow result s. The Reynolds number for t his high-

speed flow is large. So we expect viscous effect s t o be confined t o a small region

close t o t he wall. So it is reasonable t o model t he flow as inviscid.

Go t o St ep 1: Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Problem Specification

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Aut hor: Raj esh Bhaskaran

E- mail: rb88@cornell. edu

Pr obl em Speci f i cat i on

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Problem Specification

Consider air flowing over t he given airfoil. The freest ream velocit y is 50 m/ s and

t he angle of at t ack is 5

o

. Assume st andard sea- level values for t he freest ream

propert ies:

Pressure = 101, 325 Pa

Densit y = 1. 2250 kg/ m3

Temperat ure = 288. 16 K

Kinemat ic viscosit y v = 1. 4607e- 5 m

2

/ s

Det ermine t he lift and drag coefficient s under t hese condit ions using FLUENT.

Go t o St ep 1: Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

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Flow over an Airfoil - Problem Specification

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate

For ced Convect i on over a Fl at Pl at e

Aut hor: Mat t hew Offerman

E- mail: mvo2@cornell. edu

Pr obl em Speci f i cat i on

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem Specification

I n our problem, we have a flat plat e at a const ant t emperat ure of 413K. The

plat e is infinit ely wide. The velocit y profile of t he fluid is uniform at t he point x =

0. The free st ream t emperat ure of t he fluid is 353K. The assumpt ion of

incompressible flow becomes invalid increasingly less valid for larger

t emperat ure differences bet ween t he plat e and freest ream. Because of t his, we

will t reat t his as a compressible flow. We will analyze a fluid flow wit h t he

following non- dimensional condit ions:

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate

I n order t o achieve t hese flow condit ions, we will use t hese free st ream flow

condit ions:

According t o t he ideal gas law, t his t emperat ure and pressure result in t he

following freest ream densit y:

These flow condit ions do not necessarily represent a realist ic fluid. Rat her, t hey

are chosen t o provide t he Prandt l and Reynolds numbers specified above. This

will make calculat ions simpler t hroughout t his t ut orial.

Solve t his problem in FLUENT. Validat e t he solut ion by plot t ing t he y+ values at

t he plat e. Also plot t he velocit y profile at x = 1m. Then plot Reynolds Number vs.

Nusselt Number. Compare t he accuracy of your result s from FLUENT wit h

empirical correlat ions.

Preliminary Analysis

We expect t he t urbulent boundary layer t o grow along t he plat e. As t he boundary

layer grows in t hickness, t he rat e of heat t ransfer ( q' ' ) and t hus t he heat t ransfer

coefficient ( h) will decrease.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate

We will compare t he numerical result s wit h experiment ally- derived heat t ransfer

correlat ions. We will creat e t he geomet ry and mesh in GAMBI T, read t he mesh

int o FLUENT, and solve t he flow problem.

Go t o St ep 1: Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #1

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Cr eat e Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT

I f you would prefer t o skip t he mesh creat ion st eps, you can download t he

mesh here ( right click and select Save As...) and go st raight t o st ep 4.

Since t he flow is axisymmet ric, t he geomet ry is a rect angle as in t he Laminar

Pipe Flow t ut orial. We will first use a 100x30 mesh ( i. e. 100 divisions in t he axial

direct ion and 30 divisions in t he radial direct ion) .

We could creat e t his mesh from scrat ch, as in t he Laminar Pipe Flow t ut orial, but

inst ead, we will modify t he previous 100x5 t o get t he 100x30 mesh. This will

int roduce you t o t he art of modifying meshes in GAMBI T.

Go t o St ep 2: Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT

Launch GAMBI T

Creat e a folder called pipe2 at a convenient locat ion t o use as your working

folder. Copy your pipe. dbs file cont aining t he 100x5 mesh from t he Laminar Pipe

Flow t ut orial t o t his folder. I f you don' t have t his file, here' s a copy ( r i ght - cl i ck

and select Save As...) . Rename t his file as pipe100x30. dbs. We' ll modify t his file

t o obt ain t he mesh for t he t urbulent pipe flow simulat ion.

St art GAMBI T in your working folder by t yping gambit -id pipe100x30 at t he

command prompt . ( Refer t o st ep 1 of t he Laminar Pipe Flow t ut orial if you' ve

forgot t en how t o do t his. ) Recall t hat GAMBI T will use t he id pipe100x30 as t he

default prefix for all files creat ed during t his session.

To make best use of screen real est at e, resize t he GAMBI T and browser windows

so t hat you approximat e t his screen arrangement . This way you can read

inst ruct ions in t he browser window and implement t hem in GAMBI T.

The mesh from t he previous t ut orial should be displayed. To fit t he mesh t o t he

size of t he window, select :

Globa l Con t r ol > Fit t o Win d ow

Del et e Pr evi ous Face Mesh

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2

The first st ep we have t o do is remove t he old face mesh. Recall t hat t he face

mesh is built on t op of meshed edges, t hereby forming t he grid. I n t his case, we

don' t want t o remove t he underlying edge meshes. So t o delet e only t he face

mesh, select :

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Delet e Fa ce Mes h es

Since we only have one face, shi f t - cl i ck any edge of t he bounding rect angle t o

select t he face mesh we want t o delet e. The face you have select ed should

become red and t he name of t he face list ed in t he Delet e Face Meshes window in

t he drop down box.

Now, because we don' t want t o delet e t he edge meshes, uncheck t he Remove

unused l ow er mesh box.

Click Appl y .

Check t hat t he face mesh has been removed in t he GAMBI T Graphics Window.

Remesh Edges

Since we are st ill going t o use 100 divisions for t he horizont al edges, we only

need t o remesh t he vert ical edges.

To resolve t he much higher gradient near t he wall for a t urbulent flow, we will

use smaller grid spacing near t he wall by employing grid st ret ching.

For each vert ical edge, we will specify t he division lengt h next t o t he wall t o be

0. 001 and t he t ot al number of divisions t o be 30. I n GAMBI T, each edge has a

direct ion associat ed wit h it as shown by an arrow. We will set t his arrow t o point

away from t he wall. Then t he division next t o t he wall becomes t he "First Lengt h"

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2

and t he division next t o t he axis becomes t he "Last Lengt h". We' ll specify t he

"First Lengt h" t o be 0. 001 and t he t ot al number of divisions t o be 30 for t he

edge; GAMBI T will aut omat ically calculat e t he appropriat e value for t he "Last

Lengt h".

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

Select t he vert ical edges by shift - clicking on each of t hem. Not ice t he red arrow

t hat appears on t he edge when it is select ed. Make sure t hese arrows are

point ing down ( t owards t he axis and away from t he wall) . I f bot h of t hese arrows

are point ing in t he wrong direct ion, you can reverse t hem by clicking Rever se

next t o Pi ck w i t h l i nk s. However, if only one of t he edges needs t o be reversed,

you can do t hat by shift - middle clicking on t hat edge. You' ll have t o zoom in t o

be able t o do t his. ( Recall t hat you can zoom in by holding down t he Ct rl key and

t hen dragging a box wit h your left mouse but t on. Double- click wit h t he middle

mouse but t on t o go back t o t he last view. )

For Ty pe in t he Mesh Edges menu, select Fi r st Lengt h from t he drop down box.

Next t o Lengt h, t ype in 0.001.

We want 30 divisions on each of t he vert ical edges; so select I nt er val Count

from t he drop down box under Spaci ng and ent er 30 in t he t ext box t o it s left .

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2

Click Appl y .

I f you zoom in on t he right edge, you should see t he following:

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Not e t hat t he mesh spacing is smaller near t he wall as indicat ed by t he blue

circles on t he edge.

Recr eat e Face Mesh

The next st ep is t o recreat e t he face mesh on t op of t hese edge meshes. This is

t he same procedure as in t he previous t ut orial:

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Fa ces

Shi f t l ef t - cl i ck on t he face and click Appl y . The meshed area should look like

t his aft er zooming in:

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Go t o St ep 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #3

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Speci f y Boundar y Ty pes i n GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

Recall t hat we creat ed t he following boundary t ypes for t he 100x5 mesh in t he

Laminar Pipe Flow t ut orial:

Edge

Position

Name Type

Left inlet VELOCITY_INLET

Right outlet PRESSURE_OUTLET

Top wall WALL

Bottom centerline AXIS

These boundary t ypes are st ill ret ained even if t he edges are remeshed since t he

edges t hemselves were not delet ed. To verify t his:

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Zon es Com m a n d Bu t t on > Sp ecify Bou n d a r y Typ es

Check t hat t he following is in t he Name/ Ty pe list :

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #3

Addit ionally, click on show l abel s. You should now be able t o see each of t he

boundary names on t he respect ive edges in t he Graphics Window. Verify t hat t he

boundary t ypes specificat ion is correct .

Sav e and Ex por t

As in t he previous t ut orial, we will now save and export t he mesh.

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

Type in pipe100x30.msh for t he Fi l e Name: . Select Ex por t 2d Mesh since t his

is a t wo- dimensional mesh. Click Accept .

Check t hat pipe100x30.msh has been creat ed in your working direct ory.

Exit GAMBI T: Ma in Men u > File > Exit and save t he session.

Go t o St ep 4: Set Up Problem in Fluent

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Pr obl em i n FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Launch FLUENT

St a r t > Pr ogr a m s > Flu en t I n c > FLUENT 6. 0

Select 2ddp ( 2D, double- precision version) from t he list of opt ions and click

Run.

I mpor t Fi l e

Ma in Men u > File > Rea d > Ca s e. . .

Navigat e t o your working direct ory and select t he pipe100x30.msh file. Click OK.

The following should appear in t he FLUENT window:

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2

Check t he number of nodes, faces ( of different t ypes) and cells. There are 3000

quadrilat eral cells in t his case. This is what we' d expect since we used 30

divisions in t he radial direct ion and 100 divisions in t he axial direct ion while

generat ing t he grid. So t he t ot al number of cells is 30* 100 = 3000.

Also, t ake a look under zones. We can see t he four zones i nl et , out l et , w al l ,

and cent er l i ne t hat we defined in GAMBI T.

Gr i d

First , we check t he grid t o make sure t hat t here are no errors.

Ma in Men u > Gr id > Ch eck

Any errors in t he grid would be report ed at t his t ime. Check t he out put and make

sure t hat t here are no errors report ed. Then select :

Ma in Men u > Gr id > I n fo > Size

The following summary about t he grid should appear:

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2

Let ' s look at t he grid:

Ma in Men u > Dis p la y > Gr id . . .

Make sure all 5 it ems under Sur f aces are select ed. Then click Di spl ay .

Remember t hat we can zoom in using t he middle mouse but t on. Zoom in and

admire t he grid. How many divisions are t here in t he radial direct ion?

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Recall t hat you can look at specific component s of t he grid by choosing t he

ent it ies you wish t o view under Sur f aces ( click t o select and click again t o

deselect a specific boundary) . Click Di spl ay again when you have select ed your

boundaries. Use t his feat ure and make sure t hat t he boundary labels correspond

t o t he correct geomet ric ent it ies.

Close t he Grid Display Window when you are done.

Def i ne Sol ver Pr oper t i es

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > Solver

Choose Ax i sy mmet r i c under Space. As in t he laminar pipe flow t ut orial, we' ll

use t he default s of segregat ed solver, implicit formulat ion, st eady flow and

absolut e velocit y formulat ion. Click OK.

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > Vis cou s . . .

Choose k - epsi l on ( 2eqn) . Not ice t hat t he window expands and addit ional

opt ions are displayed on choosing t he k- epsilon t urbulence model. Under Near -

Wal l Tr eat ment , pick Enhanced Wal l Tr eat ment so t hat we may get a more

accurat e result .

Click OK.

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > En er gy. . .

The energy equat ion can be t urned off since t his is an incompressible flow and

we are not int erest ed in t he t emperat ure. Make sure no t ick mark appears next

t o Ener gy Equat i on.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Ma t er ia ls . . .

Change Densi t y t o 1.0 and Vi scosi t y t o 2e-5. These are t he values in t he

Problem Specificat ion. We' ll t ake bot h as const ant .

Click Change/ Cr eat e.

Def i ne Oper at i ng Condi t i ons

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Op er a t in g Con d it ion s . . .

Recall t hat for all flows, FLUENT uses t he gauge pressure int ernally. Any t ime an

absolut e pressure is needed, it is generat ed by adding t he operat ing pressure t o

t he gauge pressure. We' ll use t he default value of 1 at m ( 101, 325 Pa) as t he

Oper at i ng Pr essur e.

Click Cancel t o leave t he default in place.

Def i ne Boundar y Condi t i ons

We' ll now set t he value of t he velocit y at t he inlet and pressure at t he out let .

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Bou n d a r y Con d it ion s . . .

The four t ypes of boundaries we defined are specified as zones on t he left side of

t he Boundary Condit ions Window. Recall t hat we don' t need t o set any

paramet ers for t he cent er l i ne and w al l zones. Verify t his by select ing each of

t hese t wo zones and clicking on Set ....

Choose inlet and click on Set .... Ent er 1 for Vel oci t y Magni t ude. This indicat es

t hat t he fluid is coming in normal t o t he inlet at t he rat e of 1 met er per second.

Select I nt ensi t y and Hy dr aul i c Di amet er next t o t he Tur bul ence

Speci f i cat i on Met hod. Then ent er 1 for Tur bul ence I nt ensi t y and 0.2 for

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Fluent Tutorial - Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2

Hy dr aul i c Di amet er . Click OK t o set t he velocit y.

The ( absolut e) pressure at t he out let is 1 at m. Since t he operat ing pressure is

set t o 1 at m, t he out let gauge pressure = out let absolut e pressure - operat ing

pressure = 0. Choose out l et under Zone. The Ty pe of t his boundary is

pr essur e- out l et . Click on Set .... The default value of t he Gauge Pr essur e is 0.

Click Cancel t o leave t he default s in place.

Not e: Backflow in t he Pressure Out let menu refers t o flow ent ering t hrough an

out let boundary. This is not likely t o happen in t his case. So we don' t have t o

set t he backflow paramet ers.

This complet es t he boundary condit ion specificat ion. Cl ose t he Boundary

Condit ions menu.

Go t o St ep 5: Solve!

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Sol ve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Step 5: Solve!

We' ll use second- order discret izat ion for t he moment um equat ion, as in t he

laminar pipe flow t ut orial, and also for t he t urbulence kinet ic energy equat ion

which is part of t he k- epsilon t urbulence model.

Ma in Men u > Solve > Con t r ols > Solu t ion . . .

Change Di scr et i zat i on for Moment um, Tur bul ence Ki net i c Ener gy and

Tur bul ence Di ssi pat i on Rat e ( scroll down t o see it ) equat ions t o Second

Or der Upw i nd.

Click OK.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3

The order of discret izat ion t hat we j ust set refers t o t he convect ive t erms in

t he equat ions; t he discret izat ion of t he viscous t erms is always second- order

accurat e in FLUENT. Second- order discret izat ion generally yields bet t er

accuracy while first - order discret izat ion yields more robust convergence. I f

t he second- order scheme doesn' t converge, you can t ry st art ing t he it erat ions

wit h t he first - order scheme and swit ching t o t he second- order scheme aft er

some it erat ions.

Set I ni t i al Guess

We' ll use an init ial guess t hat is const ant over t he ent ire flow domain and equal

t o t he values at t he inlet :

Ma in Men u > Solve > I n it ia lize > I n it ia lize. . .

I n t he Solut ion I nit ializat ion menu t hat comes up, choose i nl et under Comput e

Fr om. The Ax i al Vel oci t y for all cells will be set t o 1 m/ s, t he Radi al Vel oci t y

t o 0 m/ s and t he Gauge Pr essur e t o 0 Pa. The Tur bul ence Ki net i c Ener gy

and Di ssi pat i on Rat e ( scroll down t o see it ) values are set from t he prescribed

values for t he Turbulence I nt ensit y and Hydraulic Diamet er at t he inlet .

Click I ni t . Close t he Solut ion I nit ializat ion window.

Set Conver gence Cr i t er i a

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3

Recall t hat FLUENT report s a residual for each governing equat ion being solved.

The residual is a measure of how well t he current solut ion sat isfies t he discret e

form of each governing equat ion. We' ll it erat e t he solut ion unt il t he residual for

each equat ion falls below 1e- 6.

Ma in Men u > Solve > Mon it or s > Res id u a l. . .

Not ice t hat Conver gence Cr i t er i on has t o be set for t he k and epsilon

equat ions in addit ion t o t he t hree equat ions in t he last t ut orial. Set t he

Conver gence Cr i t er i on t o be 1e-06 for all five equat ions being solved.

Select Pr i nt and Pl ot under Opt i ons. This will print as well plot t he residuals as

t hey are calculat ed which you will use t o monit or convergence.

Click OK.

This complet es t he problem specificat ion. Save your work:

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Ca s e. . .

Type in pipe100x30.cas for Case Fi l e. Click OK. Check t hat t he file has been

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3

creat ed in your working direct ory.

I t er at e Unt i l Conver gence

Solve for 100 it erat ions first .

Ma in Men u > Solve > I t er a t e. . .

I n t he I t erat e menu t hat comes up, change t he Number of I t er at i ons t o 100.

Click I t er at e.

You' ll find t hat not all residuals have fallen below 1e- 6 in 100 it erat ions. Solve for

200 more it erat ions. The solut ion converges in a t ot al of 229 it erat ions.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

We need a larger number of it erat ions for convergence t han in t he laminar

case since we have a finer mesh and are also solving addit ional equat ions

from t he t urbulence model.

Save t he solut ion t o a dat a file:

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Da t a . . .

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3

Ent er pipe100x30.dat for Dat a Fi l e and click OK. Check t hat t he file has been

creat ed in your working direct ory.

Go t o St ep 6: Analyze Result s

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Anal y ze Resul t s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Step 6: Analyze Results

y +

Turbulent flows are significant ly affect ed by t he presence of walls. The k- epsilon

t urbulence model is primarily valid away from walls and special t reat ment is

required t o make it valid near walls. The near- wall model is sensit ive t o t he grid

resolut ion which is assessed in t he wall unit y+ ( defined in sect ion 10. 9. 1 of t he

FLUENT user manual) . We' ll gloss over t he det ails for now and use t he following

rule of t humb: select t he near- wall resolut ion such t hat y+ > 30 or < 5 for t he

wall- adj acent cell. Look at sect ion 10. 9, Grid Considerat ions for Turbulent Flow

Simulat ions, for det ails.

First , we need t o set t he reference values needed t o calculat e y+ .

Ma in Men u > Rep or t > Refer en ce Va lu es . . .

Select i nl et under Comput e Fr om t o t ell FLUENT t o use values at t he pipe inlet

for t he reference values. Check t hat t he reference value for densit y is 1 kg/ m3,

velocit y is 1 m/ s, and coefficient of viscosit y is 2e- 5 kg/ m- s as given in t he

Problem Specificat ion. These reference values will be used t o non- dimensionalize

t he dist ance of t he cell cent er from t he wall t o obt ain t he corresponding y+

values. Click OK.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

Let ' s plot y+ values for wall- adj acent cells t o check how it compares wit h t he

recommendat ion ment ioned above.

Ma in Men u > Plot > XY Plot . . .

Make sure t hat Posi t i on on X Ax i s is set under Opt i ons, t hat 1 is t he value

next t o X, and 0 is t he value next t o Y and Z under Pl ot Di r ect i on. Recall t hat

t his t ells FLUENT t o plot t he x- coordinat e value on t he abscissa of t he graph. Pick

Tur bul ence... under Y Ax i s Funct i on and select Wal l Ypl us from t he drop

down list under t hat . Since we want t he y+ value for cells adj acent t o t he wall of

t he pipe, choose w al l under Sur f aces.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

Click Pl ot .

( Click pict ure for larger image)

As we can see, t he wall y+ value is bet ween 1. 6 and 1. 9 ( ignoring t he

anamolous at t he inlet ) . Since t his is less t han 5, t he near- wall grid resolut ion is

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

accept able.

Sav e Pl ot

I n t he Solut ion XY Plot Window, check t he Wr i t e t o Fi l e box under Opt i ons. The

Pl ot but t on should have changed t o t he Wr i t e... but t on. Click on Wr i t e.... Ent er

yplus.xy as t he filename and click OK. Check t hat t his file has been creat ed in

your FLUENT working direct ory.

Cent er l i ne Vel oci t y

Under Y Ax i s Funct i on, pick Vel oci t y ... and t hen in t he box under t hat , pick

Ax i al Vel oci t y . Finally, select cent er l i ne under Sur f aces since we are plot t ing

t he axial velocit y along t he cent erline. De- select w al l under Sur f aces.

Click on Cur ves... in t he Solut ion XY Plot window. Select t he solid line opt ion

under Pat t er n as shown below. Change Wei ght t o 2. Select t he blank opt ion

under Sy mbol . Click Appl y and Cl ose.

s

Turn on grid lines: I n t he Solut ion XY Plot window, click on Ax es.... Turn on t he

grid by checking t he boxes Maj or Rul es and Mi nor Rul es under Opt i ons. Click

Appl y . Select Y under Ax i s and repeat . Click Appl y and Cl ose.

Uncheck Wr i t e t o Fi l e. Click Pl ot .

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

( Click pict ure for larger image)

We can see t hat t he fully developed region st art s around x= 5m wit h t he

cent erline velocit y becoming const ant at a value of 1. 195 m/ s. This is quit e a bit

lower t han t he value of 2 m/ s for t he laminar case. Can you explain t he

difference based on t he physical charact erist ics of laminar and t urbulent flows?

Save t he dat a for t his plot as vel.xy.

Coef f i ci ent of Sk i n Fr i ct i on

The definit ion of t he skin frict ion coefficient was discussed in t he laminar pipe

flow t ut orial. The required reference values of densit y and velocit y have already

been set when plot t ing y+ .

Go back t o t he Solut ion XY Plot Window. Under t he Y Ax i s Funct i on, pick Wal l

Fl ux es..., and t hen Sk i n Fr i ct i on Coef f i ci ent in t he box under t hat . Under

Sur f aces, we are plot t ing t he frict ion coefficient along t he w al l . Uncheck

cent er l i ne surface.

Uncheck Wr i t e t o Fi l e. Click Pl ot .

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

( Click pict ure for larger image)

We can see t hat t he fully- developed value is 0. 0085. Compare t his wit h what

you' d expect from t he Moody chart .

Save t he dat a for t his plot as cf.xy.

Vel oci t y Pr of i l e

We' ll plot t he axial velocit y at t he out let as a funct ion of t he dist ance from t he

cent er of t he pipe.

Change t he plot set t ings so t hat t he radial dist ance from t he axis is plot t ed as

t he ordinat e: I n t he Solut ion XY Plot window, uncheck Posi t i on on X Ax i s under

Opt i ons and choose Posi t i on on Y Ax i s inst ead. Under Pl ot Di r ect i on, change

X t o 0 and Y t o 1. For t he X Ax i s Funct i on i. e. t he abscissa, pick Vel oci t y ...

and Ax i al Vel oci t y under t hat .

Since we want t o plot t his at t he out let boundary, pick only out l et under

Sur f aces.

Uncheck Wr i t e t o Fi l e. Click Pl ot .

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4

( Click pict ure for larger image)

The axial velocit y is maximum at t he cent erline and zero at t he wall t o sat isfy t he

no- slip boundary condit ion for viscous flow. Compare qualit at ively t he near- wall

velocit y gradient normal t o t he wall wit h t he laminar case. Which is larger? From

t his, what can you say about t he relat ive st regt hs of near- wall mixing in t he

laminar and t urbulent cases?

Save t his plot as profile.xy.

Go t o St ep 7: Refine Mesh

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Ref i ne Mesh

Problem 1

Step 7: Refine Mesh

I n order t o assess t he numerical accuracy of t he result s obt ained, it is necessary

t o compare result s on different meshes. We' ll re- do t he calculat ion on a 100x60

mesh which has t wice t he number of nodes in t he radial direct ion as t he 100x30

mesh. You can download t he 100x60 mesh here.

File > Rea d > Ca s e. . .

Navigat e t o your working direct ory elect t he pipe100x60.msh file you have

creat ed. Click OK. Display t he grid. Check it s size.

Fi ner Mesh Anal y si s

Repeat st eps 4, 5, and 6 of t his t ut orial wit h t he finer mesh.

When you get t o st ep 6 of t he t ut orial, plot each of t he graphs as described.

However, for each of t he plot s, overlay t he corresponding result for t he coarser

mesh so t hat we may compare t hem. To do t his, aft er t he plot t ing t he finer mesh

result , in t he Solut ion XY Plot Window, click on Load Fi l e.... Navigat e t o your

working folder, click on t he appropriat e filename for t he previous result , eg. vel.

xy for cent erline velocit y, and click OK. Click Pl ot . You' ll see bot h result s plot t ed

in t he same t he graphics window.

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5

( Click pict ure for larger image)

I n t he cent erline velocit y plot above, t he whit e line represent s t he cent erline

velocit y of t he finer mesh, while t he red line represent s t he velocit y of t he

coarser mesh from before. As we can see, t here isn' t t oo much of a difference

bet ween t he t wo plot s. Save t his plot as velt2.xy.

Now, let ' s t ake a look at t he coefficient of skin frict ion. This t ime, load t he cft.

xy file t o compare against t he plot . This is t he coefficient of skin frict ion plot :

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Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Once again, we can see t hat due t o t he fine degree of each mesh, t here isn' t

much difference bet ween t he t wo plot s. Save t his plot as cf2.xy. Now, st udy t he

velocit y of t he out let by plot t ing and comparing t o t he graph in outt.xy.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Once again, t he finer mesh in t his case doesn' t offer much more precision t han

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step7.htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:50:56 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5

t he coarser mesh. Save t his plot as outt2.xy. Now let ' s t ake a look at t he YPlus

plot .

( Click pict ure for larger image)

As we can see, t here is a significant increase in t he accuracy of t he plot from t he

finer mesh. Save t his plot as yplus2.xy.

You may want t o experiment wit h meshes of ot her granularit ies and compare

t heir plot s wit h t he plot s saved from t he 100x30 and 100x60 meshes.

I n Problem 1, we will be looking at t he effect of coarse meshes wit h uniform

granularit y.

Go t o Problem 1

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Simple Pipe Flow

Tur bul ent Pi pe Fl ow

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Pr obl em 1

Problem 1

Pr obl em

Use FLUENT t o resolve t he developing flow in a pipe ( same configurat ion as was

done in t he t ut orial) for a pipe Reynolds number of 10, 000 on t he following

meshes: 100x5, 100x20 wit h uniform spacing in t he radial direct ion. Plot t he skin

frict ion c

f

as a funct ion of axial locat ion for each grid. Compare t he exit value

wit h t he expect ed value for fully developed flow ( e. g. , see Whit e pgs. 345- 346) .

Recall t hat a key quest ion for t he int egrit y of t he mesh is t he non- dimensional

value of t he first nodal point :

This should be eit her less t han 4 ( so t hat you resolve down int o t he viscous

sublayer) or great er t han 30 ( where wall funct ions can accurat ely compensat e

for t he poorly resolved viscous sublayer) . I nt ermediat e values can lead t o

great er errors. Calculat e t he value of y

1

+

for each mesh; use t hat t o help explain

( briefly) t he t rends in t he agreement t hat you observe.

Hi nt s

I f you no longer have t he 100x5 or 100x20 mesh, you can download t hem here:

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/ps1.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:51:03 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Simple Pipe Flow

pipe100x5. msh, pipe100x20. msh

Back t o Problem Specificat ion

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #1

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Cr eat e Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT

Since t he nozzle has a circular cross- sect ion, it ' s reasonable t o assume t hat t he

flow is axisymmet ric. So t he geomet ry t o be creat ed is t wo- dimensional.

St ar t GAMBI T

Creat e a new direct ory called nozzle and st art GAMBI T from t hat direct ory by

t yping gambit -id nozzle at t he command prompt .

Under Ma in Men u , select Solver > FLUENT 5/ 6 since t he mesh t o be creat ed is

t o be used in FLUENT 6. 0.

Cr eat e Ax i s Edge

We' ll creat e t he bot t om edge corresponding t o t he nozzle axis by creat ing t he

vert ices A and B shown in t he above figure and j oining t hem by a st raight line.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ver t ex Com m a n d

Bu t t on > Cr ea t e Ver t ex

Creat e t he following t wo vert ices:

Vert ex 1: ( - 0. 5, 0, 0)

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #1

Vert ex 2: ( 0. 5, 0, 0)

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Cr ea t e Ed ge

Select vert ex 1 by holding down t he Shi f t but t on and clicking on it . Next , select

vert ex 2. Click Appl y in t he Creat e St raight Edge window.

Cr eat e Wal l Edge

We' ll next creat e t he bot t om edge corresponding t o t he nozzle wall. This edge is

curved. Since

A= pi r

2

where r( x) is t he radius of t he cross- sect ion at x and

A = 0. 1 + x

2

for t he given nozzle geomet ry, we get

r( x) = [ ( 0. 1 + x

2

) / pi]

0. 5

; - 0. 5 < x < 0. 5

This is t he equat ion of t he curved wall. Life would have been easier if GAMBI T

allowed for t his equat ion t o be ent ered direct ly t o creat e t he curved edge.

I nst ead, one has t o creat e a file cont aining t he coordinat es of a series of point s

along t he curved line and read in t he file. The more number of point s used along

t he curved edge, t he smoot her t he result ant edge.

The file vert . dat cont ains t he point definit ions for t he nozzle wall. Take a look at

t his file. The first line is

21 1

which says t hat t here are 21 point s along t he edge and we are defining only 1

edge. This is followed by x, r and z coordinat es for each point along t he edge. The

r- value for each x was generat ed from t he above equat ion for r( x) . The z-

coordinat e is 0 for all point s since we have a 2D geomet ry.

Ri ght - cl i ck on vert . dat and select Save As... t o download t he file t o your

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #1

working direct ory.

Ma in Men u > File > I n p u t > I CEM I n p u t . . .

Next t o Fi l e Name: , ent er t he pat h t o t he vert.dat file t hat you downloaded or

browse t o it by clicking on t he Br ow se but t on.

Then, check t he Ver t i cesand Edges boxes under Geomet r y t o Cr eat e as we

want t o creat e t he vert ices as well as t he curved edge.

Click Accept .

This should creat e t he curved edge. Here it is in relat ion t o t he vert ices we

creat ed above:

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #1

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Cr eat e I nl et and Out l et Edges

Creat e t he vert ical edge for t he inlet :

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Cr ea t e Ed ge

Shi f t - cl i ck on vert ex 1 and t hen t he vert ex above it t o creat e t he inlet edge.

Similarly, creat e t he vert ical edge for t he out let .

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #1

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Cr eat e Face

Form a face out of t he area enclosed by t he four edges:

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on

> For m Fa ce

Recall t hat we have t o shi f t - cl i ck on each of t he edges enclosing t he face and

t hen click Appl y t o creat e t he face.

Sav e Your Wor k

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

This will creat e t he nozzle. dbs file in your working direct ory. Check t hat it has

been creat ed so t hat you will able t o resume from here if necessary.

Go t o St ep 2: Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #1

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Step #2

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT

Now t hat we have t he basic geomet ry of t he nozzle creat ed, we need t o mesh it .

We would like t o creat e a 50x20 grid for t his geomet ry.

Mesh Edges

As in t he previous t ut orials, we will first st art by meshing t he edges.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Ed ges

Like t he Laminar Pipe Flow Tut orial, we are going t o use even spacing bet ween

each of t he mesh point s. We won' t be using t he Grading t his t ime, so deselect

t he box next t o Gr adi ng t hat says Appl y .

Then, change I nt er val Count t o 20 for t he side edges and I nt er val Count t o

50 for t he t op and bot t om edges.

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Fluent Tutorial - Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Step #2

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Mesh Face

Now t hat we have t he edges meshed, we need t o mesh t he face.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Fa ces

As before, select t he face and click t he Appl y but t on.

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Fluent Tutorial - Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Step #2

( Click pict ure for large image)

Sav e Your Wor k

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Go t o St ep 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #3

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Speci f y Boundar y Ty pes i n GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

Speci f y Boundar y Ty pes

Now t hat we have t he mesh, we would like t o specify t he boundary condit ions

here in GAMBI T.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Zon es Com m a n d Bu t t on > Sp ecify Bou n d a r y Typ es

Com m a n d Bu t t on

This will bring up t he Specify Boundary Types window on t he Operat ion Panel.

We will first specify t hat t he left edge is t he inlet . Under Ent i t y : , pick Edges so

t hat GAMBI T knows we want t o pick an edge ( face is default ) .

Now select t he left edge by Shi f t - cl i ck i ng on it . The select ed edge should

appear in t he yellow box next t o t he Edges box you j ust worked wit h as well as

t he Label / Ty pe list right under t he Edges box.

Next t o Name: , ent er inlet.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #3

For Ty pe: , select VELOCI TY_I NLET.

Click Appl y . You should see t he new ent ry appear under Name/ Ty pe box near

t he t op of t he window.

Creat e boundary t ypes for each of t he edges as specified in t he chart below:

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #3

Edge

Position

Name Type

Left inlet PRESSURE_INLET

Right outlet PRESSURE_OUTLET

Top wall WALL

Bottom centerline AXIS

You should have t he following edges in t he Name/ Ty pe list when finished:

Sav e and Ex por t

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

Type in nozzle.msh for t he Fi l e Name: . Select Ex por t 2d Mesh since t his is a 2

dimensional mesh. Click Accept .

Check nozzle.msh has been creat ed in your working direct ory.

Go t o St ep 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #4

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Pr obl em i n FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Launch FLUENT

St a r t > Pr ogr a m s > Flu en t I n c > FLUENT 6. 0

Select 2ddp from t he list of opt ions and click Run.

I mpor t Fi l e

Ma in Men u > File > Rea d > Ca s e. . .

Navigat e t o your working direct ory and select t he nozzle.msh file. Click OK.

The following should appear in t he FLUENT window:

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #4

Check t hat t he displayed informat ion is consist ent wit h our expect at ions of t he

nozzle grid.

Anal y ze Gr i d

Gr id > I n fo > Size

How many cells and nodes does t he grid have?

Dis p la y > Gr id

How many nodes are t here in t he radial direct ion? Are t he nodes clust ered

t owards t he wall? Why?

Def i ne Pr oper t i es

Defin e > Mod els > Solver . . .

Under t he Sol ver box, select Coupl ed. Under Space, choose Ax i sy mmet r i c.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #4

Click OK.

Defin e > Mod els > Vis cou s

Select I nvi sci d under Model .

Click OK.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #4

Defin e > Mod els > En er gy

The energy equat ion needs t o be t urned on since t his is a compressible flow

where t he energy equat ion is coupled t o t he cont inuit y and moment um

equat ions.

Make sure t here is a check box next t o Ener gy Equat i on and click OK.

Defin e > Ma t er ia ls

Select ai r under Fl ui d mat er i al s. Under Pr oper t i es, choose I deal Gas next t o

Densi t y . You should see t he window expand. This means FLUENT uses t he ideal

gas equat ion of st at e t o relat e densit y t o t he st at ic pressure and t emperat ure.

Click Change/ Cr eat e.

Defin e > Op er a t in g Con d it ion s

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #4

We' ll work in t erms of absolut e rat her t han gauge pressures in t his example. So

set Oper at i ng Pr essur e in t he Pr essur e box t o 0.

Click OK.

I t is import ant t hat you set t he operat ing pressure correct ly in compressible flow

calculat ions since FLUENT uses it t o comput e absolut e pressure t o use in t he

ideal gas law.

Defin e > Bou n d a r y Con d it ion s

Set boundary condit ions for t he following surfaces: axis, default - int erior, fluid,

inlet , out let , wall.

Select i nl et under Sur f ace and pick pr essur e- i nl et under Ty pe as it s boundary

condit ion. Click Set .... The Pressure I nlet window should come up.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #4

Set t he t ot al ( i. e. st agnat ion) pressure ( not ed as Gauage Tot al Pr essur e in

FLUENT) and t emperat ure at t he inlet . For a subsonic inlet , Super soni c/ I ni t i al

Gauge Pr essur e is t he init ial guess value for t he st at ic pressure. Calculat e t his

init ial guess value from t he 1D solut ion. Aft er you have ent ered t he values, click

OK t o close t he window.

Using t he same st eps as above, pick pr essur e- out l et as t he boundary condit ion

for t he out l et surface. Then, when t he Pressure Out let window comes up, set t he

pressure and t emperat ure as above. Click OK.

Go t o St ep 5: Solve!

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #5

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Sol ve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 5: Solve!

Now we will set t he solve set t ings for t his problem and t hen it erat e t hrough and

act ually solve it .

Solve > Con t r ol > Solu t ion

Take a look at t he opt ions available. We want Second Or der Upw i nd for t he

Fl ow ( under t he Di scr et i zat i on box) .

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #5

Make sure t hat is select ed and click OK.

Solve > I n it ia lize

As you may recall from t he previous t ut orials, t his is where we set t he init ial

guess values ( t he base case) for t he it erat ive solut ion. Once again, we' ll set

t hese values t o be t he ones at t he inlet . Select i nl et under Comput e Fr om.

Click I ni t .

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #5

Solve > Mon it or s > Res id u a l

Now we will set t he residual values ( t he crit eria for a good enough solut ion) .

Once again, we' ll set t his value t o 1e- 06.

Click OK.

Solve > I t er a t e

What does t he convergence plot look like?

How many it erat ions does it t ake t o converge?

Save case and dat a aft er you have obt ained a converged solut ion.

Go t o St ep 6: Analyze Result s

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #5

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #6

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Anal y ze Resul t s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 6: Analyze Results

Mach Number Pl ot

As in t he previous t ut orials, we are going t o plot t he velocit y along t he

cent erline. However, t his t ime, we are going t o use t he dimensionless Mach

quant it y.

Plot > XY Plot

We are going plot t he variat ion of t he Mach number in t he axial direct ion at t he

axis and wall. I n addit ion, we will plot t he corresponding variat ion from 1D

t heory. You can download t he file here: mach_1D. xy.

Do everyt hing as we would do for plot t ing t he cent erline velocit y. However,

inst ead of select ing Ax i al Vel oci t y as t he Y Ax i s Funct i on, select Mach

Number .

Also, since we are going t o plot t his number at bot h t he wall and axis, select

cent er l i ne and w al l under Sur f aces.

Then, load t he mach_1D. xy by clicking on Load Fi l e....

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #6

Click Pl ot .

( Click pict ure for large image)

How does t he FLUENT solut ion compare wit h t he 1D solut ion?

I s t he comparison bet t er at t he wall or at t he axis? Can you explain t his?

Save t his plot as machplot.xy by checking Wr i t e t o Fi l e and clicking Wr i t e....

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #6

Pr essur e Cont our Pl ot

Somet imes, it is very useful t o see how t he pressure and t emperat ure changes

t hroughout t he obj ect . This can be done via cont our plot s.

Dis p la y > Con t ou r s . . .

First , we are going t o plot t he pressure cont ours of t he nozzle. Therefore, make

sure t hat under Cont our s Of , Pr essur e... and St at i c Pr essur e is select ed.

We want t his at a fine enough granularit y so t hat we can see t he pressure

changes clearly. Under Level s, change t he default 20 t o 40. This increases t he

number of lines in t he cont our plot so t hat we can get a more accurat e result .

Click Di spl ay .

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #6

( Click pict ure for large image)

Not ice t hat t he pressure on t he fluid get s smaller as it flows t o t he right , as is

consist ent wit h fluid going t hrough a nozzle.

Temper at ur e Cont our Pl ot

Now we will plot t he t emperat ure cont ours and see how t he t emperat ure varies

t hroughout t he nozzle.

Back in t he Cont ours window, under Cont our s Of , select Temper at ur e... and

St at i c Temper at ur e.

Click Di spl ay .

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #6

( Click pict ure for large image)

As we can see, t he t emperat ure decreases t owards t he right side of t he nozzle,

indicat ing a change of int ernal energy t o kinet ic energy as t he fluid speeds up.

Go t o St ep 7: Refine Mesh

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #7

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Ref i ne Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 7: Refine Mesh

Solve t he nozzle flow for t he same condit ions as used in class on a 80x30 grid.

Recall t hat t he st at ic pressure p at t he exit is 3, 738. 9 Pa. The grid for t his

calculat ion can be downloaded here. You may also download it from here.

( a) Plot t he variat ion of Mach number at t he axis and t he wall as a funct ion of

t he axial dist ance x. Also, plot t he corresponding result s obt ained on t he 50x20

grid used in class and from t he quasi- 1D assumpt ion. Recall t hat t he quasi- 1D

result for t he Mach number variat ion was given t o you in t he M_1D.xy file. Not e

all five curves should be plot t ed on t he same graph so t hat you can compare

t hem. You can make t he plot s in FLUENT, MATLAB or EXCEL.

( b) Plot t he variat ion of st at ic pressure at t he axis and t he wall as a funct ion of

t he axial dist ance x. Also, plot t he corresponding result s obt ained on t he 50x20

grid used in class and from t he quasi- 1D assumpt ion. Calculat e t he st at ic

pressure variat ion for t he quasi- 1D case from t he Mach number variat ion given

in M_1D.xy.

( c) Plot t he variat ion of st at ic t emperat ure at t he axis and t he wall as a funct ion

of t he axial dist ance x. Also, plot t he corresponding result s obt ained on t he

50x20 grid used in class and from t he quasi- 1D assumpt ion. Calculat e t he st at ic

t emperat ure variat ion for t he quasi- 1D case from t he Mach number variat ion

given in M_1D.xy.

Comment very briefly on t he grid dependence of your result s and t he comparison

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #7

wit h t he quasi- 1D result s.

Go t o Problem 1

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Problem #1

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Grid

Pr obl em 1

Problem 2

Problem 1

Consider t he nozzle flow problem solved using FLUENT in t he t ut orial. Recall t hat

t he nozzle has a circular cross- sect ional area, A, t hat varies wit h axial dist ance

from t he t hroat , x, according t o t he formula:

A = 0. 1 + x

2

where A is in square met ers and x is in met ers. The st agnat ion pressure p

o

and

st agnat ion t emperat ure T

o

at t he inlet are 101, 325 Pa and 300 K, respect ively.

Using t he quasi- 1D flow assumpt ion, det ermine t he st at ic pressure at t he nozzle

inlet and out let for t he following condit ions:

( a) Sonic flow at t he t hroat , and supersonic, isent ropic flow in t he diverging

sect ion.

( b) Sonic flow at t he t hroat , and subsonic, isent ropic flow in t he diverging sect ion.

( c) Sonic flow at t he t hroat and normal shock at t he exit .

Go t o Problem 2

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Problem #1

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Problem 3

Compr essi bl e Fl ow i n a Nozzl e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Grid

Problem 1

Pr obl em 2

Problem 2

Change t he exit pressure t o 40, 000 Pa while keeping all t he ot her boundary

condit ions t he same. What flow regime do you expect for t his exit pressure

based on t he quasi- 1D result s in problem 1? Re- run t he FLUENT calculat ion wit h

t his exit pressure on t he 50x20 grid.

( a) Plot cont ours of t he Mach number and st at ic pressure for t his case. I s t he

flow regime as predict ed by quasi- 1D t heory? Explain briefly t he possible causes

for any similarit ies or disparit ies.

( b) Plot t he st at ic and st agnat ion pressures at t he axis as a funct ion of t he axial

dist ance. Also, plot t he corresponding values from t he case where t he exit

pressure is 3, 738. 9 Pa. ( These four curves should be on t he same graph. )

Explain briefly t he salient feat ures of t his plot .

( c) Plot t he st at ic and st agnat ion t emperat ures at t he axis as a funct ion of t he

axial dist ance. Again provide a brief explanat ion for t he salient feat ures.

Back t o Problem Specificat ion

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Problem 3

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Cr eat e Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT

I f you wish t o skip t he st eps for grid creat ion, you can download t he mesh file

here ( r i ght - cl i ck and select Save As...) and go t o St ep 4.

This t ut orial leads you t hrough t he st eps for generat ing a mesh in GAMBI T for an

airfoil geomet ry. This mesh can t hen be read int o FLUENT for fluid flow

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

simulat ion.

I n an ext ernal flow such as t hat over an airfoil, we have t o define a farfield

boundary and mesh t he region bet ween t he airfoil geomet ry and t he farfield

boundary. I t is a good idea t o place t he farfield boundary well away from t he

airfoil since we' ll use t he ambient condit ions t o define t he boundary condit ions at

t he farfield. The fart her we are from t he airfoil, t he less effect it has on t he flow

and so more accurat e is t he farfield boundary condit ion.

The farfield boundary we' ll use is t he line ABCDEFA in t he figure above. c is t he

chord lengt h.

St ar t GAMBI T

Creat e a new direct ory called airfoil and st art GAMBI T from t hat direct ory by

t yping gambit -id airfoil at t he command prompt .

Under Ma in Men u , select Solver > FLUENT 5/ 6 since t he mesh t o be creat ed is

t o be used in FLUENT 6. 0.

I mpor t Edge

To specify t he airfoil geomet ry, we' ll import a file cont aining a list of vert ices

along t he surface and have GAMBI T j oin t hese vert ices t o creat e t wo edges,

corresponding t o t he upper and lower surfaces of t he airfoil. We' ll t hen split t hese

edges int o 4 dist inct edges t o help us cont rol t he mesh size at t he surface.

The file cont aining t he vert ices for t he airfoil can be downloaded here: vert ices.

dat ( right click and select Save As...)

Let ' s t ake a look at t he vert ices. dat file:

The first line of t he file represent s t he number of point s on each edge ( 61) and

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

t he number of edges ( 2) . The first 61 set of vert ices are connect ed t o form t he

edge corresponding t o t he upper surface; t he next 61 are connect ed t o form t he

edge for t he lower surface.

The chord lengt h c for t he geomet ry in vert ices. dat file is 1, so x varies bet ween

0 and 1. I f you are using a different airfoil geomet ry specificat ion file, not e t he

range of x values in t he file and det ermine t he chord lengt h c. You' ll need t his

lat er on.

Ma in Men u > File > I m p or t > I CEM I n p u t . . .

For Fi l e Name, browse and select t he vert ices. dat file. Select bot h Ver t i ces and

Edges under Geomet r y t o Cr eat e: since t hese are t he geomet ric ent it ies we

need t o creat e. Deselect Face. Click Accept .

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Spl i t Edges

Next , we will split t he t op and bot t om edges int o t wo edges each as shown in t he

figure below.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

We need t o do t his because a non- uniform grid spacing will be used for x< 0. 3c

and a uniform grid spacing for x> 0. 3c. To split t he t op edge int o HI and I G, select

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Sp lit / Mer ge Ed ge

Make sure Poi nt is select ed next t o Spl i t Wi t h in t he Split Edge window.

Select t he t op edge of t he airfoil by Shi f t - cl i ck i ng on it . You should see

somet hing similar t o t he pict ure below:

( Click pict ure for larger image)

We' ll use t he point at x= 0. 3c on t he upper surface t o split t his edge int o HI and

I G. To do t his, ent er 0.3 for x : under Gl obal . I f your c is not equal t o one, ent er

t he value of 0. 3* c inst ead of j ust 0. 3. For inst ance, if c= 4, ent er 1.2. From here

on, whenever you' re asked t o ent er ( some fact or) * c, calculat e t he appropriat e

value for your c and ent er it .

You should see t hat t he whit e circle has moved t o t he correct locat ion on t he

edge.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Click Appl y . You will see a message saying ` ` Edge edge. 1 was split , and edge

edge. 3 creat ed' ' in t he Transcript window.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Not e t he yellow marker in place of t he whit e circle, indicat ing t he original edge

has been split int o t wo edges wit h t he yellow marker as it s dividing point .

Repeat t his procedure for t he lower surface t o split it int o HJ and JG. Use t he

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

point at x= 0. 3c on t he lower surface t o split t his edge.

Cr eat e Far f i el d Boundar y

Next we' ll creat e t he farfield boundary by creat ing vert ices and j oining t hem

appropriat ely t o form edges.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ver t ex Com m a n d

Bu t t on > Cr ea t e Ver t ex

Creat e t he following vert ices by ent ering t he coordinat es under Gl obal and t he

label under Label :

Label x-coordinate y-coordinate z-coordinate

A c 12.5c 0

B 21c 12.5c 0

C 21c 0 0

D 21c -12.5c 0

E c -12.5c 0

F -11.5c 0 0

G c 0 0

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Click t he FI T TO WI NDOW but t on t o scale t he display so t hat you can see all t he

vert ices.

As you creat e t he edges for t he farfield boundary, keep t he pict ure of t he farfield

nomenclat ure given at t he t op of t his st ep handy.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Cr ea t e Ed ge

Creat e t he edge AB by select ing t he vert ex A followed by vert ex B. Ent er AB for

Label . Click Appl y . GAMBI T will creat e t he edge. You will see a message saying

somet hing like "Creat ed edge: AB' ' in t he Transcript window.

Similarly, creat e t he edges BC, CD, DE, EG, GA and CG. Not e t hat you might

have t o zoom in on t he airfoil t o select vert ex G correct ly.

Next we' ll creat e t he circular arc AF. Ri ght - cl i ck on t he Cr eat e Edge but t on and

select Ar c.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1.htm (7 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM

Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

I n t he Creat e Real Circular Arc menu, t he box next t o Cent er will be yellow. That

means t hat t he vert ex you select will be t aken as t he cent er of t he arc. Select

vert ex G and click Appl y .

Now t he box next t o End Poi nt s will be highlight ed in yellow. This means t hat

you can now select t he t wo vert ices t hat form t he end point s of t he arc. Select

vert ex A and t hen vert ex F. Ent er AF under Label . Click Appl y .

I f you did t his right , t he arc AF will be creat ed. I f you look in t he t ranscript

window, you' ll see a message saying t hat an edge has been creat ed.

Similarly, creat e an edge corresponding t o arc EF.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1.htm (8 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM

Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Cr eat e Faces

The edges can be j oined t oget her t o form faces ( which are planar surfaces in

2D) . We' ll creat e t hree faces: ABCGA, EDCGE and GAFEG+ airfoil surface. Then

we' ll mesh each face.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on

> For m Fa ce

This brings up t he Creat e Face From Wireframe menu. Recall t hat we had

select ed vert ices in order t o creat e edges. Similarly, we will select edges in order

t o form a face.

To creat e t he face ABCGA, select t he edges AB, BC, CG, and GA and click Appl y .

GAMBI T will t ell you t hat it has "Creat ed face: face. 1' ' in t he t ranscript window.

Similarly, creat e t he face EDCGE.

To creat e t he face consist ing of GAFEG+ airfoil surface, select t he edges in t he

following order: AG, AF, EF, EG, and JG, HJ, HI and I G ( around t he airfoil in t he

clockwise direct ion) . Click Appl y .

Go t o St ep 2: Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #1

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #2

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT

Mesh Faces

We' ll mesh each of t he 3 faces separat ely t o get our final mesh. Before we mesh

a face, we need t o define t he point dist ribut ion for each of t he edges t hat form

t he face i. e. we first have t o mesh t he edges. We' ll select t he mesh st ret ching

paramet ers and number of divisions for each edge based on t hree crit eria:

1. We'd like to cluster points near the airfoil since this is where the flow is modified the most; the

mesh resolution as we approach the farfield boundaries can become progressively coarser since

the flow gradients approach zero.

2. Close to the surface, we need the most resolution near the leading and trailing edges since these

are critical areas with the steepest gradients.

3. We want transitions in mesh size to be smooth; large, discontinuous changes in the mesh size

significantly decrease the numerical accuracy.

The edge mesh paramet ers we' ll use for cont rolling t he st ret ching are successive

rat io, first lengt h and last lengt h. Each edge has a direct ion as indicat ed by t he

arrow in t he graphics window. The successive rat io R is t he rat io of t he lengt h of

any t wo successive divisions in t he arrow direct ion as shown below. Go t o t he

index of t he GAMBI T User Guide and look under Edge> Meshi ng for t his figure

and accompanying explanat ion. This help page also explains what t he first and

last lengt hs are; make sure you underst and what t hey are.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #2

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Ed ges

Select t he edge GA. The edge will change color and an arrow and several circles

will appear on t he edge. This indicat es t hat you are ready t o mesh t his edge.

Make sure t he arrow is point ing upwards. You can reverse t he direct ion of t he

edge by clicking on t he Rever se but t on in t he Mesh Edges menu. Ent er a rat io of

1. 15. This means t hat each successive mesh division will be 1. 15 t imes bigger in

t he direct ion of t he arrow. Select I nt er val Count under Spaci ng. Ent er 45 for

I nt er val Count . Click Appl y . GAMBI T will creat e 45 int ervals on t his edge wit h

a successive rat io of 1. 15.

For edges AB and CG, we' ll set t he First Lengt h ( i. e. t he lengt h of t he division at

t he st art of t he edge) rat her t han t he Successive Rat io. Repeat t he same st eps

for edges BC, AB and CG wit h t he following specificat ions:

Edges Arrow Direction Successive Ratio Interval Count

GA and BC Upwards 1.15 45

Edges Arrow Direction First Length Interval Count

AB and CG Left to Right 0.02c 60

Not e t hat lat er we' ll select t he lengt h at t he t railing edge t o be 0. 02c so t hat t he

mesh lengt h is cont inuous bet ween I G and CG, and HG and CG.

Now t hat t he appropriat e edge meshes have been specified, mesh t he face

ABCGA:

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #2

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Fa ces

Select t he face ABCGA. The face will change

color. You can use t he default s of Quad ( i. e. quadrilat erals) and Map. Click

Appl y .

The meshed face should look as follows:

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Next mesh face EDCGE in a similar fashion. The following t able shows t he

paramet ers t o use for t he different edges:

Edges Arrow Direction Successive Ratio Interval Count

EG and CD Downwards 1.15 45

Edges Arrow Direction First Length Interval Count

DE Left to Right 0.02c 60

The result ant mesh should be symmet ric about CG as shown in t he figure below.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #2

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Finally, let ' s mesh t he face consist ing of GAFEG and t he airfoil surface. For edges

HI and HJ on t he front part of t he airfoil surface, use t he following paramet ers t o

creat e edge meshes:

Edges Arrow Direction Last Length Interval Count

HI From H to I 0.02c 40

HJ From H to J 0.02c 40

For edges I G and JG, we' ll set t he divisions t o be uniform and equal t o 0. 02c.

Use I nt erval Size rat her t han I nt erval Count and creat e t he edge meshes:

Edges Arrow Direction Successive Ratio Interval Size

IG and JG Left to Right 1 0.02c

For edge AF, t he number of divisions needs t o be equal t o t he number of

divisions on t he line opposit e t o it i. e. t he upper surface of t he airfoil ( t his is a

subt le point ; chew over it ) . To det ermine t he number of divisions t hat GAMBI T

has creat ed on edge I G, select

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

>Su m m a r ize Ed ge Mes h

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #2

Select edge I G and t hen El ement s under Component and click Appl y . This will

give t he t ot al number of nodes ( i. e. point s) and element s ( i. e. divisions) on t he

edge in t he Transcript window. The number of divisions on edge I G is 35. ( I f you

are using a different geomet ry, t his number will be different ; I ' ll refer t o it as

N

I G

) . So t he I nt erval Count for edge AF is N

HI

+ N

I G

= 40+ 35= 75.

Similarly, det ermine t he number of divisions on edge JG. This also comes out as

35 for t he current geomet ry. So t he I nt erval Count for edge EF also is 75.

Creat e t he mesh for edges AF and EF wit h t he following paramet ers:

Edges Arrow Direction First Length Interval Count

AF From A to F 0.02c

40+N

IG

EF From E to F 0.02c

40+N

JG

Mesh t he face. The result ant mesh is shown below.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Go t o St ep 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #2

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #3

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Speci f y Boundar y Ty pes i n GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

We' ll label t he boundary AFE as farfield1, ABDE as farfield2 and t he airfoil surface

as airfoil. Recall t hat t hese will be t he names t hat show up under boundary zones

when t he mesh is read int o FLUENT.

Gr oup Edges

We' ll creat e groups of edges and t hen creat e boundary ent it ies from t hese

groups.

First , we will group AF and EF t oget her.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Gr ou p Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Cr ea t e Gr ou p

Select Edges and ent er farfield1 for Label , which is t he name of t he group.

Select t he edges AF and EF.

Not e t hat GAMBI T adds t he edge t o t he list as it is select ed in t he GUI .

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #3

Click Appl y .

I n t he t ranscript window, you will see t he message “ Creat ed group: farfield1

group” .

Similarly, creat e t he ot her t wo farfield groups. You should have creat ed a t ot al of

t hree groups:

Group Name Edges in Group

farfield1 AF,EF

farfield2 AB,DE

farfield3 BC,CD

airfoil HI,IG,HJ,JG

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #3

Def i ne Boundar y Ty pes

Now t hat we have grouped each of t he edges int o t he desired groups, we can

assign appropriat e boundary t ypes t o t hese groups.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Zon es Com m a n d Bu t t on > Sp ecify Bou n d a r y Typ es

Under Ent i t y , select Gr oups.

Select any edge belonging t o t he airfoil surface and t hat will select t he airfoil

group. Next t o Name: , ent er airfoil. Leave t he Ty pe as WALL.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step3.htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:55:59 PM

Flow over an Airfoil - Step #3

Click Appl y .

I n t he Transcript Window, you will see a message saying "Creat ed Boundary

ent it y: airfoil".

Similarly, creat e boundary ent it ies corresponding t o farfield1, farfield2 and

farfield3 groups. Set t he Ty pe t o Pr essur e Far f i el d in each case.

Sav e Your Wor k

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Ex por t Mesh

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

Save t he file as airfoil.msh.

Make sure t hat t he Ex por t 2d Mesh opt ion is select ed.

Check t o make sure t hat t he file is creat ed.

Go t o St ep 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Copyright 2002.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #4

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Pr obl em i n FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Launch FLUENT

St a r t > Pr ogr a m s > Flu en t I n c > FLUENT 6. 0

Select 2ddp from t he list of opt ions and click Run.

I mpor t Fi l e

Ma in Men u > File > Rea d > Ca s e. . .

Navigat e t o your working direct ory and select t he airfoil.msh file. Click OK.

The following should appear in t he FLUENT window:

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM

Flow over an Airfoil - Step #4

Check t hat t he displayed informat ion is consist ent wit h our expect at ions of t he

airfoil grid.

Anal y ze Gr i d

Gr id > I n fo > Size

How many cells and nodes does t he grid have?

Dis p la y > Gr id

Not e what t he surfaces farfield1, farfield2, et c. correspond t o by select ing and

plot t ing t hem in t urn.

Zoom int o t he airfoil.

Where are t he nodes clust ered? Why?

Def i ne Pr oper t i es

Defin e > Mod els > Solver . . .

Under t he Sol ver box, select Segr egat ed.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #4

Click OK.

Defin e > Mod els > Vis cou s

Select I nvi sci d under Model .

Click OK.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #4

Defin e > Mod els > En er gy

The speed of sound under SSL condit ions is 340 m/ s so t hat our freest ream Mach

number is around 0. 15. This is low enough t hat we' ll assume t hat t he flow is

incompressible. So t he energy equat ion can be t urned off.

Make sure t here is no check in t he box next t o Ener gy Equat i on and click OK.

Defin e > Ma t er ia ls

Make sure ai r is select ed under Fl ui d Mat er i al s. Set Densi t y t o const ant and

equal t o 1.225 kg/ m

3

.

Click Change/ Cr eat e.

Defin e > Op er a t in g Con d it ion s

We' ll work in t erms of gauge pressures in t his example. So set Oper at i ng

Pr essur e t o t he ambient value of 101,325 Pa.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #4

Click OK.

Defin e > Bou n d a r y Con d it ion s

Set f ar f i el d1 and f ar f i el d2 t o t he vel oci t y - i nl et boundary t ype.

For each, click Set .... Then, choose Component s under Vel oci t y Speci f i cat i on

Met hod and set t he x- and y- component s t o t hat for t he freest ream. For

inst ance, t he x- component is 50* cos( 5

o

) = 49. 81.

Click OK.

Set f ar f i el d3 t o pr essur e- out l et boundary t ype, click Set ... and set t he Gauge

Pr essur e at t his boundary t o 0. Click OK.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #4

Go t o St ep 5: Solve!

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #5

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Sol ve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 5: Solve!

Solve > Con t r ol > Solu t ion

Take a look at t he opt ions available.

Under Di scr et i zat i on, set Pr essur e t o PRESTO! and Moment um t o Second-

Or der Upw i nd.

Click OK.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #5

Solve > I n it ia lize > I n it ia lize. . .

As you may recall from t he previous t ut orials, t his is where we set t he init ial

guess values ( t he base case) for t he it erat ive solut ion. Once again, we' ll set

t hese values t o be t he ones at t he inlet . Select f ar f i el d1 under Comput e Fr om.

Click I ni t .

Solve > Mon it or s > Res id u a l. . .

Now we will set t he residual values ( t he crit eria for a good enough solut ion) .

Once again, we' ll set t his value t o 1e- 06.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #5

Click OK.

Solve > Mon it or s > For ce. . .

Under Coef f i ci ent , choose Li f t . Under Opt i ons, select Pr i nt and Pl ot . Then,

Choose ai r f oi l under Wal l Zones.

Last ly, set t he For ce Vect or component s for t he lift . The lift is t he force

perpendicular t o t he direct ion of t he freest ream. So t o get t he lift coefficient , set

X t o - sin( 5°) = -0.0872 and Y t o cos( 5°) = 0.9962.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #5

Click Appl y for t hese changes t o t ake effect .

Similarly, set t he For ce Moni t or opt ions for t he Dr ag force. The drag is defined

as t he force component in t he direct ion of t he freest ream. So under For ce

Vect or , set X t o cos( 5°) = 0.9962 and Y t o sin( 5°) = 0.0872. Turn on only Pr i nt

for it .

Rep or t > Refer en ce Va lu es

Now, set t he reference values t o set t he base cases for our it erat ion. Select

f ar f i el d1 under Comput e Fr om.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #5

Click OK.

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Ca s e. . .

Save t he case file before you st art t he it erat ions.

Solve > I t er a t e

What does t he convergence plot look like?

How many it erat ions does it t ake t o converge?

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #5

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Ca s e & Da t a . . .

Save case and dat a aft er you have obt ained a converged solut ion.

Go t o St ep 6: Analyze Result s

Copyright 2002.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #6

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Anal y ze Resul t s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 6: Analyze Results

Pl ot Pr essur e Coef f i ci ent

Plot > XY Plot . . .

Change t he Y Ax i s Funct i on t o Pr essur e..., followed by Pr essur e Coef f i ci ent .

Then, select ai r f oi l under Sur f aces.

Click Pl ot .

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #6

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Pl ot Pr essur e Cont our s

Plot st at ic pressure cont ours.

Dis p la y > Con t ou r s . . .

Select Pr essur e... and St at i c Pr essur e from under Cont our s Of . Click Di spl ay .

( Click pict ure for larger image)

Where are t he highest and lowest pressures occurring?

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #6

Go t o St ep 7: Refine Mesh

Copyright 2002.

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Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Step #7

Fl ow over an

Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Ref i ne Mesh

Problem 1

Problem 2

Step 7: Refine Mesh

* * Under const ruct ion* *

Go t o Problem 1

Copyright 2002.

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Flow over an Airfoil - Problem #1

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Pr obl em 1

Problem 2

Problem 1

Consider t he incompressible, inviscid airfoil calculat ion in FLUENT present ed in

class. Recall t hat t he angle of at t ack, α, was 5°.

Repeat t he calculat ion for t he airfoil for α = 0° and α = 10°. Save your

calculat ion for each angle of at t ack as a different case file.

( a) Graph t he pressure coefficient ( C

p

) dist ribut ion along t he airfoil surface at α

= 5° and α = 10° in t he manner discussed in class ( i. e. , follow t he aeronaut ical

convent ion of let t ing C

p

decrease wit h increasing ordinat e ( y- axis) values) .

What change do you see in t he C

p

dist ribut ion on t he upper and lower surfaces

as you increase t he angle of at t ack?

Which part of t he airfoil surface cont ribut es most t o t he increase in lift wit h

increasing α?

Hi nt : The area under t he C

p

vs. x curve is approximat ely equal t o C

l

.

( b) Make a t able of C

l

and C

d

values obt ained for α = 0°, 5°, and 10°. Plot C

l

vs.

α for t he t hree values of α. Make a linear least - squares fit of t his dat a and obt ain

t he slope. Compare your result t o t hat obt ained from inviscid, t hin- airfoil t heory:

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/ps1.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:58:21 PM

Flow over an Airfoil - Problem #1

,

where α is in degrees.

Go t o Problem 2

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Flow over an Airfoil - Problem #2

Fl ow over an Ai r f oi l

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Problem 1

Pr obl em 2

Problem 2

Repeat t he incompressible calculat ion at α = 5° including viscous effect s. Since

t he Reynolds number is high, we expect t he flow t o be t urbulent . Use t he k- ε

t urbulence model wit h t he enhanced wall t reat ment opt ion. At t he farfield

boundaries, set t urbulence int ensit y= 1% and t urbulent lengt h scale= 0. 01.

( a) Graph t he pressure coefficient ( C

p

) dist ribut ion along t he airfoil surface for

t his calculat ion and t he inviscid calculat ion done in t he previous problem at α =

5°. Comment on any differences you observe.

( b) Compare t he C

l

and C

d

values obt ained wit h t he corresponding values from

t he inviscid calculat ion. Discuss briefly t he similarit ies and differences bet ween

t he t wo result s.

Back t o Problem Specificat ion

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1

For ced Convect i on over a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Cr eat e Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT

St ar t GAMBI T & Sel ect Sol ver

Specify t hat t he mesh t o be creat ed is for use wit h FLUENT 6:

Ma in Men u > Solver > FLUENT 5/ 6

Verify t his has been done by looking in t he Transcript Window where you should

see:

The boundary t ypes t hat you' ll be able t o select in t he t hird st ep depends on

t he solver select ed.

St r at egy f or cr eat i ng f l ow f i el d geomet r y

I n creat ing t he geomet ry for our flow field we must consider what is necessary

for our model t o approximat e real flow. A boundary layer grows along t he plat e,

which must sat isfy t he no slip condit ion. The flow velocit y at t he plat e must be

zero. Cont inuit y requires t hat t his condit ion gives rise t o a y- velocit y. Alt hough

t he y- velocit y is significant ly smaller in magnit ude t han t he x- velocit y, it can

affect t he solut ion significant ly if not t aken int o considerat ion when creat ing t he

geomet ry of t he flow field.

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

We will put t he origin of t he coordinat e syst em at t he lower left corner of t he

rect angle t hat defines our flow field. The coordinat es of t he corners are shown in

t he figure below:

We will first creat e four vert ices at t he four corners and j oin adj acent vert ices t o

get t he edges of t he rect angle. We will t hen form a face t hat covers t he area of

t he rect angle.

Cr eat e Ver t i ces

We will t reat t his problem as a 2- dimensional problem by assuming t hat t he

plat e is infinit ely wide. Let ' s begin by creat ing t he vert ices t hat define our flow

region.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ver t ex Com m a n d

Bu t t on > Cr ea t e Ver t ex

Not e t hat t he Creat e Vert ex but t on has already been select ed by default . Aft er

you select a but t on under a sub- pad, it becomes t he default when you go t o a

different sub- pad and t hen come back t o t he sub- pad.

Creat e t he vert ex at t he lower- left corner of t he rect angle:

Next t o x : , ent er value 0. Next t o y : , ent er value 0. Next t o z: , ent er value 0

( t hese values should be default s) . Click Appl y .

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This creat es t he vert ex ( 0, 0, 0) which is displayed in t he graphics window.

I n t he Transcript window, GAMBI T report s t hat it "Creat ed vert ex: vert ex. 1".

The vert ices are numbered vert ex. 1, vert ex. 2 et c. in t he order in which t hey

are creat ed.

Repeat t his process t o creat e t hree more vert ices:

Vert ex 2: ( 1, 0, 0)

Vert ex 3: ( 1, 1, 0)

Vert ex 4: ( 0, 1, 0)

Not e t hat for a 2D problem, t he z- coordinat e can always be left t o t he default

value of 0.

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Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Globa l Con t r ol > Fit t o Win d ow Bu t t on

This fit s t he four vert ices of t he rect angle we have creat ed t o t he size of t he

Graphics Window.

( click pict ure for larger image)

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Anot her useful but t on on t he Op er a t ion Toolp a d is t he Or ien t Mod el but t on .

I f you click and hold t he left mouse but t on and t hen move t he mouse, t he model

will rot at e 3- dimensionally. This is, of course, not usually a helpful feat ure when

creat ing 2- D models in GAMBI T. Click t he Or ien t Mod el but t on t o make t he z-

axis normal t o t he page again.

Cr eat e Edges

An edge is creat ed by select ing t wo vert ices and creat ing a line bet ween t hem.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on

> Cr ea t e Ed ge

Click t he up ar r ow but t on next t o t he vert ices box in t he Creat e St raight

Edge window.

This brings up a list of vert ices, from which vert ices 1 and 2 can be select ed.

Select Ver t ex .1 and Ver t ex .2. Then push t he r i ght ar r ow but t on t o

bring t hese vert ices int o t he Picked column.

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Click Cl ose. Then click Appl y in t he Creat e St raight Edge window t o creat e t his

edge.

Alt ernat ely, t hese vert ices can be select ed by holding down t he Shi f t but t on and

clicking on t he corresponding vert ices. As each vert ex is picked, it will appear red

in t he Graphics Window. Then let go of t he Shi f t but t on and click Appl y in t he

Creat e St raight Edge window.

Repeat t his process t o creat e edges bet ween vert ices 2 & 3, vert ices 3 & 4, and

vert ices 4 & 1.

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( click pict ure for larger image)

Cr eat e Face

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Geom et r y Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on

> For m Fa ce

To form a face out of t he area enclosed by t he four lines, we need t o select t he

four edges t hat enclose t his area. This is done in much t he same way as when

we select ed t he vert ices.

Click t he up ar r ow but t on next t o t he vert ices box in t he Creat e Face From

Wireframe window. Then push t he Al l r i ght ar r ow but t on t o bring t hese

vert ices int o t he Picked column.

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Click Cl ose. Then click Appl y in t he Creat e Face From Wireframe window t o

creat e t he face. The edges and vert ices will become blue, indicat ing t hat t hey

now form a face.

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( click pict ure for larger image)

Sav e

Save your GAMBI T file in your working direct ory.

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve As . . . > Br ows e. . .

Find your working direct ory and save your GAMBI T file t here. Make sure t o ent er

t he file name, plate.dbs, in t he Select ion box in addit ion t o t he pat h.

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Go t o St ep 2: Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #2

For ced Convect i on over a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet r y i n GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT

We' ll now creat e a mesh on t he rect angular face wit h 100 divisions in t he vert ical

direct ion and 30 divisions in t he horizont al direct ion. We' ll first mesh t he four

edges and t hen t he face. The desired grid spacing is specified t hrough t he edge

mesh.

Mesh Edges

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Ed ge Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Ed ges

Mesh St r at egy

I n creat ing t his mesh, it is desirable t o have more cells near t he plat e ( Edge 1)

because we want t o resolve t he t urbulent boundary layer, which is very t hin

compared t o t he height of t he flow field.

Click t he up ar r ow but t on next t o t he Edges box in t he Mesh Edges window.

Select edge Edge.2. Then push t he r i ght ar r ow but t on t o bring t his

vert ex int o t he Picked column. Not ice t hat t he arrow on t he select ed edge should

be point ing upwards. An upwards point ing arrow indicat es t he direct ion of closely

spaced nodes t o widely spaced nodes. Remember, we will need more closely

spaced nodes near t he boundary layer in order t o resolve it accurat ely.

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The proper arrow direct ion is necessary t o ensure a proper mesh. Select Edge.4

in t he Mesh Edges window. The arrow on t his edge is point ing downwards, which

needs t o be changed. Shi f t + Mi ddl e- cl i ck on t he select ed edge t o change t he

direct ion of t he arrow t o upward.

Under Type, select Successi ve Rat i o, if it is not already select ed. Set Rat io t o

1.08. Under Spacing, select I nt er val Count . Set I nt er val Count t o 100 and

t hen click Appl y .

Select Edge.1 and Edge.3 in t he Mesh Edges Window. The direct ion of t he

arrows on t hese edges is irrelevant because t he divisions will be t he same

lengt h. Leave t he Successi ve Rat i o set t o 1 and set t he I nt er val Count t o 30.

Click Appl y .

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( click pict ure for larger image)

Mesh Face

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Mes h Com m a n d Bu t t on > Fa ce Com m a n d Bu t t on >

Mes h Fa ces

Shi f t l ef t - cl i ck on t he face or use t he up arrow next t o Faces t o select t he face.

Click Appl y .

( click pict ure for larger image)

Go t o St ep 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

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Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #3

For ced Convect i on over a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Speci f y Boundar y Ty pes i n GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

Cr eat e Boundar y Ty pes

We' ll next set t he boundary t ypes in GAMBI T. The left edge is t he inflow of t he

flow field, t he right edge t he out flow, t he t op edge t he open t op of t he flow field,

and t he bot t om edge t he plat e.

Op er a t ion Toolp a d > Zon es Com m a n d Bu t t on > Sp ecify Bou n d a r y Typ es

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Com m a n d Bu t t on

This will bring up t he Specify Boundary Types window on t he Operat ion Panel.

We will first specify t hat t he left edge is t he inflow. Under Ent it y: , pick Edges so

t hat GAMBI T knows we want t o pick an edge ( face is default ) .

Now select t he left edge by Shi f t - cl i ck i ng on it . The select ed edge should

appear in t he yellow box next t o t he Edges box as well as t he Label / Ty pe list

under t he Edges box.

Next t o Name: , ent er inflow.

For Type: , select VELOCI TY_I NLET. You may have t o move t he Specify

Boundary Types box up in order t o see t he bot t om of t he list and select

VELOCI TY_I NLET.

Click Appl y . You should see t he new ent ry appear under Name/ Ty pe box near

t he t op of t he window.

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Repeat t his process for t he ot her t hree edges according t o t he following t able:

Edge

Position

Name Type

Left inflow VELOCITY_INLET

Right outflow PRESSURE_OUTLET

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Top top SYMMETRY

Bottom plate WALL

You should have t he following edges in t he Name/ Type list when finished:

Sav e and Ex por t

Ma in Men u > File > Sa ve

Ma in Men u > File > Exp or t > Mes h . . .

Type in plate.msh for t he Fi l e Name: . Select Ex por t 2d Mesh because t his is a

2 dimensional mesh. Click Accept .

I t is import ant t o check t hat plate.msh has been creat ed in your working

direct ory. GAMBI T may periodically fail t o writ e t he .msh file. I f t his should

happen, simply t ry writ ing t he .msh file t o anot her direct ory and t hen coping it

int o your working direct ory.

Go t o St ep 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4

For ced Conv ect i on over a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Pr obl em i n FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Launch Fl uent 6.0

St a r t > Pr ogr a m s > Flu en t I n c > FLUENT 6. 0

Select t he 2ddp version and click Run.

The "2ddp" opt ion is used t o select t he 2- dimensional, double- precision solver. I n t he double-

precision solver, each float ing point number is represent ed using 64 bit s in cont rast t o t he

single- precision solver which uses 32 bit s. The ext ra bit s increase not only t he precision but

also t he range of magnit udes t hat can be represent ed. The downside of using double

precision is t hat it requires more memory.

I mpor t Gr i d

Ma in Men u > File > Rea d > Ca s e. . .

Navigat e t o t he working direct ory and select t he plate.msh file. This is t he mesh file t hat was

creat ed using t he preprocessor GAMBI T in t he previous st ep. FLUENT report s t he mesh

st at ist ics as it reads in t he mesh:

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Check t he number of nodes, faces ( of different t ypes) and cells. There are 3000 quadrilat eral

cells in t his case. This is what we expect because we used 30 divisions in t he horizont al

direct ion and 100 divisions in t he vert ical direct ion while generat ing t he grid. So t he t ot al

number of cells is 30* 100 = 3000.

Also, t ake a look under zones. We can see t he four zones i nf l ow , out f l ow , t op, and pl at e t hat

we defined in GAMBI T.

Check and Di spl ay Gr i d

First , we check t he grid t o make sure t hat t here are no errors.

Ma in Men u > Gr id > Ch eck

Any errors in t he grid would be report ed at t his t ime. Check t he out put and make sure t hat

t here are no errors report ed. Check t he grid size:

Ma in Men u > Gr id > I n fo > Size

The following st at ist ics should appear:

Display t he grid:

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Ma in Men u > Dis p la y > Gr id . . .

Make sure all 5 it ems under Surfaces are select ed.

Then click Di spl ay . The graphics window opens and t he grid is displayed in it . Your grid should

look like t his:

( click pict ure for larger image)

Def i ne Sol v er Pr oper t i es

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > Solver

We' ll use t he default s of 2D space, segregat ed solver, implicit formulat ion, st eady flow and

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absolut e velocit y formulat ion. Click OK.

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > En er gy

We are int erest ed in solving t he t emperat ure dist ribut ion, so we need t o solve t he energy

equat ion. Select t he Ener gy Equat i on and click OK t o exit t he menu.

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Mod els > Vis cou s

Under Model, select t he k - epsi l on t urbulence model. We will use t he Real i zabl e model in t he

k- epsilon Model box. The Realizable k- epsilon model produces more accurat e result s for

boundary layer flows t han t he St andard k- epsilon model. I n t he Near- Wall Treat ment box,

observe t he Enhanced Wal l Tr eat ment opt ion, which deals wit h t he resolut ion of t he boundar

layer in our model. There are 3 regions in t he boundary layer t hat we are concerned wit h,

st art ing at t he wall:

1. Laminar sublayer ( y+ < 5)

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2. Buffer region ( 5 < y+ < 30)

3. Turbulent region ( y+ > 30)

y+ is a mesh- dependent dimensionless dist ance t hat quant ifies t o what degree t he wall layer is

resolved. Aft er solving t his problem in FLUENT, we will observe t he value of y+ for each mesh

we use. The Enhanced Wal l Tr eat ment opt ion serves t o more accurat ely resolve t he

boundary layer in t he case when t he mesh is only fine enough t o resolve t o t he t urbulent region

( y+ > 30) . Enhanced Wal l Tr eat ment also improves t he accuracy of meshes t hat can only be

resolved t o t he Buffer region ( 5< y+ < 30) . However, solut ions wit h y+ values in t he buffer

region are generally less accurat e t han if t he solut ion is resolved t o one of t he ot her 2 regions.

Look at FLUENT Help sect ion 10. 9, Grid Considerat ions for Turbulent Flow Simulat ions, for more

det ails.

For our mesh, FLUENT will be able t o resolve t he laminar sublayer, t hus Enhanced Wal l

Tr eat ment does not improve t he accuracy of our solut ion wit h our mesh. I t will however make

a difference in St ep 7 when we use a less refined mesh. The t hickness of t he boundary layer is

significant ly smaller t han t he height of our flow field. Resolving t he solut ion t o t he laminar

sublayer is comput at ionally int ensive, especially in high Reynolds Number flows. Resolving t o

t he t urbulent region is oft en t he only reasonable opt ion. Thus it is good pract ice t o always use

Enhanced Wal l Tr eat ment when dealing wit h a boundary layer. Alt hough it is not necessary

wit h t he current mesh, it will be necessary for t he less refined mesh lat er on, so go ahead and

select Enhanced Wal l Tr eat ment now.

Select Ther mal Ef f ect s in t he Enhanced Wall Treat ment Opt ions box t o include t he t hermal

t erms in t he Enhanced Wall Treat ment equat ion.

The values in t he Model Const ant s box are const ant s used in t he k - epsi l on t urbulence

equat ions. These values for t he Model Const ant s are well- accept ed for a wide range of wall-

bounded shear flows. Leave all values in t he Model Const ant s box set t o t heir default values.

Click OK.

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Def i ne Mat er i al Pr oper t i es

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Ma t er ia ls . . .

Change Densi t y t o ideal gas because we are t reat ing t he flow as compressible. FLUENT will

calcualt e t he densit y of t he flow at each point based on t he pressure and t emperat ure it

calculat es at t hat point . Leave Cp set as t he default value of 1006.43. Change Ther mal

Conduct i vi t y t o 9.4505 e-4. Change Vi scosi t y t o 6.667e-7. Scroll down t o see Mol ecul ar

Wei ght . Leave Mol ecul ar Wei ght set t o t he default value of 28.966. These are t he values

t hat we specified under Problem Specificat ion.

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Click Change/ Cr eat e. Simply clicking close wit hout clicking Change/ Creat e will cause t hese

propert ies t o revert back t o t heir default values.

Def i ne Oper at i ng Condi t i ons

Ma in Men u > Defin e > Op er a t in g Con d it ion s . . .

For all flows, FLUENT uses gauge pressure int ernally. Any t ime an absolut e pressure is needed,

it is generat ed by adding t he operat ing pressure t o t he gauge pressure. We' ll use t he default

value of 1 at m ( 101, 325 Pa) as t he Oper at i ng Pr essur e.

Click Cancel t o leave t he default value in place.

Def i ne Boundar y Condi t i ons

We' ll now set t he value of t he velocit y at t he inflow and pressure at t he out flow.

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Ma in Men u > Defin e > Bou n d a r y Con d it ion s . . .

We not e here t hat t he four t ypes of boundaries we defined are specified as zones on t he left

side of t he Boundary Condit ions Window. There are also 2 zones default - int erior fluid, used t o

define t he int erior of t he flow field. We will not need t o change any set t ing for t hese 2 zones.

Move down t he list and select i nf l ow under Zone. Not e t hat FLUENT indicat es t hat t he Type of

t his boundary is vel oci t y - i nl et . Recall t hat t he boundary t ype for t he inflow was set in GAMBI T.

I f necessary, we can change t he boundary t ype set previously in GAMBI T in t his menu by

select ing a different t ype from t he list on t he right . Click Set ....

Ent er 1 for Vel oci t y Magni t ude. This set s t he velocit y of t he fluid ent ering at t he left boundary

t o a uniform velocit y profile of 1m/ s. Set Temperat ure t o 353K. Change Turbulence Specificat ion

Met hod t o I nt ensi t y and Vi scosi t y Rat i o. Set Turbulence I nt ensit y t o 1 and Turbulent

Viscosit y Rat io t o 1. Click OK.

Choose out f l ow under Zone. The Type of t his boundary is pr essur e- out l et . Click Set .... The

default value of t he Gauge Pr essur e is 0. The ( absolut e) pressure at t he out flow is 1 at m.

Since t he operat ing pressure is set t o 1 at m, t he out flow gauge pressure = out flow absolut e

pressure - operat ing pressure = 0. Because we do not expect any backflow, we do not need t o

set any backflow condit ions. Click Cancel t o leave t he default s in place.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4

Click on pl at e under Zones and make sure Type is set as w al l . Click Set .... Because we have a

heat ed isot hermal plat e, we need t o set t he t emperat ure. On t he Ther mal t ab, select

Temper at ur e under Thermal Condit ions. Change Temperat ure t o 413. The mat erial select ed is

inconsequent ial because t he plat e has zero t hickness in our model, t hus t he mat erial propert ies

of t he plat e do not affect t he heat t ransfer propert ies of t he plat e. Click OK.

The last boundary condit ion t o set is for t he t op of t he flow field. Click on t op under Zones and

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4

make sure Type is set as sy mmet r y . Click Set ... t o see t hat t here is not hing t o set for t his

boundary. Click OK.

Click Cl ose t o close t he Boundary Condit ions menu.

Go t o St ep 5: Solve!

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5

For ced Conv ect i on ov er a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Sol ve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Refine Mesh

Step 5: Solve!

We' ll use a second- order discret izat ion scheme.

Ma in Men u > Solve > Con t r ols > Solu t ion . . .

Change Densi t y , Moment um, Tur bul ence Ki net i c Ener gy , Tur bul ence Di ssi pat i on

Rat e, and Ener gy all t o Second Or der Upw i nd. Leave Pressure and Pressure- Velocit y

Coupling set t o t he default met hods ( St andar d and SI MPLE, respect ively) . The ot her

Pressure and Pressure- Velocit y Coupling met hods are useful for flows wit h part icular

charact erist ics not present in our problem.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5

Click OK.

Set I ni t i al Guess

I nit ialize t he flow field t o t he values at t he inflow:

Ma in Men u > Solve > I n it ia lize > I n it ia lize. . .

I n t he Solut ion I nit ializat ion window t hat comes up, choose i nf l ow under Comput e

From. The X Vel oci t y for all cells will aut omat ically be set t o 1 m/ s, t he Y Vel oci t y t o 0

m/ s and t he Gauge Pr essur e t o 0 Pa. These values have been t aken from t he inflow

boundary condit ion.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5

Click I ni t . This complet es t he init ializat ion. Then click Cl ose.

Set Conver gence Cr i t er i a

FLUENT report s a residual for each governing equat ion being solved. The residual is a

measure of how well t he current solut ion sat isfies t he discret e form of each governing

equat ion. We will it erat e unt il t he residual for each equat ion falls below 1e- 6.

Ma in Men u > Solve > Mon it or s > Res id u a l. . .

Change t he residual under Conver gence Cr i t er i on for cont i nui t y , x - vel oci t y , and y -

vel oci t y , ener gy , k , and epsi l on all t o 1e- 6.

Also, under Opt i ons, select Pr i nt and Pl ot . This will print t he residuals in t he main

window and plot t he residuals in t he graphics window as t hey are calculat ed.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5

Click OK.

This complet es t he problem specificat ion. Save your work:

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Ca s e. . .

Type in plate.cas for Case Fi l e. Click OK. Check t hat t he file has been creat ed in your

working direct ory. I f you exit FLUENT now, you can ret rieve all your work at any t ime

by reading in t his case file.

I t er at e Unt i l Conver gence

St art t he calculat ion by running 10, 000 it erat ions. The solut ion will converge before

10, 000 it erat ions are performed, which will st op t he it erat ion process.

Ma in Men u > Solve > I t er a t e. . .

I n t he I t erat e Window, change t he Number of I t er at i ons t o 10000. Click I t er at e.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5

The residuals for each it erat ion are print ed out as well as plot t ed in t he graphics window

as t hey are calculat ed.

( Click pict ure for larger image)

The residuals fall below t he specified convergence crit erion of 1e- 6 in approximat ely

1623 it erat ions.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5

Save t he solut ion t o a dat a file:

Ma in Men u > File > Wr it e > Da t a . . .

Ent er plate.dat for Dat a Fi l e and click OK. Check t hat t he file has been creat ed in

your working direct ory. You can ret rieve t he current solut ion from t his dat a file at any

t ime.

Go t o St ep 6: Analyze Result s

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

For ced Convect i on over a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. Creat e Geomet ry in GAMBI T

2. Mesh Geomet ry in GAMBI T

3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBI T

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Anal y ze Resul t s

7. Refine Mesh

Step 6: Analyze Results

y +

Turbulent flows are significant ly affect ed by t he presence of walls. The k- epsilon

t urbulence model' s validit y is grid- independent away from walls but requires

verificat ion t o make sure it is valid when used near walls. The near- wall model is

sensit ive t o t he grid resolut ion, which is assessed in t he wall unit y+ , as

discussed in St ep 4.

First , we need t o set t he reference values needed t o calculat e y+ .

Ma in Men u > Rep or t > Refer en ce Va lu es . . .

Select i nf l ow under Comput e Fr om t o t ell FLUENT t o use values at t he inflow

for t he reference values. Check t hat t he reference value for velocit y is 1 m/ s,

t emperat ure is 353 K, and coefficient of viscosit y is 6. 667e- 7 kg/ m- s as given in

t he Problem Specificat ion. These reference values will be used t o non-

dimensionalize t he dist ance of t he cell cent er from t he wall t o obt ain t he

corresponding y+ values. Click OK.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

By using t he following met hod, plot y+ values for wall- adj acent cells t o check

how t hey compare wit h t he recommendat ion ment ioned above.

Ma in Men u > Plot > XY Plot . . .

Make sure t hat Posi t i on on X Ax i s is set under Opt i ons, t hat 1 is t he value

next t o X, and 0 is t he value next t o Y under Pl ot Di r ect i on. Recall t hat t his

t ells FLUENT t o plot t he x- coordinat e value on t he abscissa of t he graph. Select

Tur bul ence... under Y Ax i s Funct i on and select Wal l Ypl us from t he drop

down list under t hat . Since we want t he y+ value for cells adj acent t o t he wall of

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

t he pipe, choose pl at e under Sur f aces.

Click Pl ot .

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

( Click pict ure for larger image)

As we can see, t he wall y+ value is bet ween 1. 0 and 1. 4 ( ignoring t he

anamolous at t he inflow) . Because t hese values are less t han 5, t he near- wall

mesh resolut ion is in t he laminar sublayer, which is t he most accurat e region t o

which we can resolve t he boundary layer.

Sav e Pl ot

I n t he Solut ion XY Plot Window, check t he Wr i t e t o Fi l e box under Opt i ons. The

Pl ot but t on should have changed t o t he Wr i t e... but t on. Click on Wr i t e.... Ent er

yplus.xy as t he filename and click OK. Check t hat t his file has been creat ed in

your FLUENT working direct ory.

Vel oci t y at x = 1m

Ma in Men u > Plot > XY Plot . . .

Under Opt ions, unselect Posi t i on on X Ax i s and select Posi t i on on Y Ax i s.

Under Plot Direct ion, ent er 0 in t he X box and 1 in t he Y box. This t ells FLUENT

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

t o plot a vert ical rat her t han horizont al profile.

Under X Ax i s Funct i on, pick Vel oci t y ... and t hen in t he box under t hat , pick X

Vel oci t y . Finally, select out f l ow under Sur f aces since we are plot t ing t he

velocit y profile at t he out flow. De- select pl at e under Sur f aces.

Click on Ax es... in t he Solut ion XY Plot window. Select X in t he Axis box. I n t he

Opt ions box select Maj or Rul es t o t urn on t he grid lines in t he plot . Click Appl y .

Then select t he Y in t he Axis box, select Maj or Rul es again, and t urn off Aut o

Range. I n t he Range box ent er 0.1 for t he Maximum so t hat we may view t he

velocit y profile in t he boundary layer region more closely. Click Appl y and

Cl ose.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

Uncheck Wr i t e t o Fi l e. Click Pl ot .

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

( Click pict ure for larger image)

We not ice here t hat t he x velocit y reaches 1 m/ s at approximat ely y = 0. 02 m.

This shows t he relat ive t hinness of t he boundary layer compared t o t he lengt h

scale of t he plat e. We also not ice t hat t he velocit y profile is slight ly great er t han

1 m/ s above t he boundary layer. We know t his would not happen in real flow,

rat her it is a result of t he boundary condit ion we have chosen for our model. We

chose t he Sy mmet r y boundary condit ion at t he t op of our flow field, which is

essent ially a wall wit hout t he no- slip condit ion. Thus, no flow is permit t ed t o

escape t hrough t his boundary.

I n a real ext ernal flow, t here is no such boundary at t he t op and flow is

permit t ed t o pass t hrough freely. When we consider t he inflow and out flow

velocit y profiles in t erms of conservat ion of mass, t he uniform velocit y profile of

1 m/ s at x = 0 has more mass ent ering t he flow field t han t he non- uniform

velocit y profile at x = 1m, in which t he velocit y is lower near t he plat e. I n

addit ion, t he fluid is expanding near t he plat e because it s t emperat ure is

increasing, furt her increasing t he y- velocit y of t he fluid above it . These fact ors

require t hat some mass must escape t hrough t he t op of our flow field in order t o

sat isfy conservat ion of mass.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

Choosing a Pr essur e Out l et for t he t op boundary condit ion would represent real

ext ernal flow more accurat ely. Unfort unat ely, t his cannot be used in our flow

field wit hout encount ering convergence problems, so select ing t he Sy mmet r y

boundary condit ion was t he next best opt ion. Because we are not allowing flow

t o escape t hrough t he t op boundary, we observe an out flow velocit y profile in

which out flow velocit y is great er t han 1 above t he boundary layer in order t o

sat isfy conservat ion of mass. Fort unat ely, t he inaccuracies result ing from t he

model we chose have no significant effect on t he heat t ransfer coefficient s at t he

plat e.

Select Wr i t e t o Fi l e and save t he dat a for t his plot as outflow_profile.xy.

Pl ot Nussel t Number vs. Rey nol ds Number

Recall t hat t he Nusselt Number is a non- dimensional heat t ransfer coefficient t hat

relat es convect ive and conduct ive heat t ransfer.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

I n order t o obt ain t he Nusselt Number from FLUENT, we will begin by plot t ing

Tot al Surface Heat Flux.

Ma in Men u > Plot > XY Plot . . .

I n t he Opt ions box, change back t o Posi t i on on X Ax i s. I n t he Plot Direct ion

box, ent er t he default values of 1 in t he X box and 0 in t he Y box. Under Y- Axis

Funct ion choose Wal l Fl ux es. I n t he box below, chose Tot al Sur f ace Heat

Fl ux . Select Pl at e under Surfaces. Before plot t ing, be sure t o t urn on Aut o

Range for t he Y axis under Ax es....

Click Pl ot .

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

( click pict ure for larger image)

Now Select Wr i t e t o Fi l e. Save t he dat a for t his plot as heatflux.xy. Click

Wr i t e....

Open t he file heatflux.xy using Wordpad or a similar applicat ion. You can

simply copy and past e t he dat a int o Excel.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

I f Excel does not aut omat ically separat e t he dat a int o columns, separat e it by

select ing t he column of dat a and t hen using t he Text t o Columns funct ion:

Ma in Men u > Da t a > Text t o Colu m n s

The first column is t he x locat ion on t he plat e and t he second column is t he t ot al

surface heat flux ( q' ' ) at t he corresponding x locat ion. We now need t o det ermine

t he Nusselt number from t hese values at each x locat ion. We will define posit ive

q' ' as heat t ransfer int o t he fluid. Use t he following expression t o convert q' ' t o

Nusselt Number in your Excel spreadsheet .

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

Reynolds Number can be defined at each x locat ion by

Now plot Re vs. Nu in Excel. Your plot should look like t his:

( click pict ure for larger image)

Compar e Resul t s w i t h Cor r el at i on & Ex per i ment

Validat e your result s form FLUENT by comparing t o a correlat ion and

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

experiment al result s. The correlat ion we will use is derived by Reynolds [ 1] :

All propert ies in t his correlat ion are evaluat ed at t he free- st ream st at ic

t emperat ure of 300K. This correlat ion assumes t he following:

1. Pr = 0. 7

2. 10^ 5 < Re < 10^ 7

3. Fluid propert ies evaluat ed at free- st ream condit ions

4. Turbulent compressible boundary layer

5. Flat plat e

6. Frict ion fact or calculat ed from t he following relat ion ( implicit in Nu equat ion

above, does not need t o be calculat ed in your analysis) :

Add t he Reynolds correlat ion for Nusselt Number t o your Excel spreadsheet .

Seban & Dought y [ 2] performed a heat ed flat plat e experiment for which t hey

derived t he following expression for Nusselt Number:

The Seban & Dought yexperiment was performed wit h air as t he fluid ( Pr = 0. 7)

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

and at various Reynolds Numbers in t he range 1e5 < Re < 4e6. Add t he t his

experiment al relat ion for Nusselt Number t o your Excel spreadsheet .

Now plot and compare Re vs. Nu from FLUENT, t he Reynolds Correlat ion, and

Seban' s experiment .

( click pict ure for larger image)

As we can see, t here is very lit t le variat ion bet ween t hese 3 result s. The largest

% error bet ween t he FLUENT result s and t he Reynolds correlat ion is only 7. 5%.

I n t urbulent flow as we have here, similar result s bet ween FLUENT and

correlat ion are more difficult t o come by t han in laminar flow because a t urbulent

model must be used in FLUENT, which does not solve t he Navier- St okes

Equat ions exact ly. Experiment al error ( in experiment s from which correlat ions

are derived) also account s for some of t his 7. 5% error. Each of t he t urbulence

models t hat FLUENT offers produces result s similar t o t hese, alt hough t he k-

epsilon model is t he most appropriat e model t o use in t his case.

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Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

Go t o St ep 7: Refine Mesh

[ 1] Reynolds, W. C. , Kays, W. M. , Kline, S. J. "Heat Transfer in t he Turbulent

I ncompressible Boundary Layer. " NASA Memo 12- 1- 58W. December 1958.

[ 2] Seban, R. A. and Dought y, D. L. "Heat Transfer t o Turbulent Boundary Layers

wit h Variable Freest ream Velocit y. " Journal of Heat Transfer 78: 217 ( 1956) .

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

For ced Conv ect i on ov er a Fl at Pl at e

Problem Specificat ion

1. St art - up and preliminary set - up

2. Creat e Geomet ry

3. Mesh Geomet ry

4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT

5. Solve!

6. Analyze Result s

7. Ref i ne Mesh

Step 7: Refine Mesh

I t is very import ant t o assess t he dependence of your result s on t he mesh used by

repeat ing t he same calculat ion on different meshes and comparing t he result s. We will

re- do t he previous calculat ion on a 30 x 50 mesh as well as a 30 x 150 mesh and t hen

compare t he result s wit h t he 30x100 mesh used previously.

Modi f y Mesh i n GAMBI T t o a 30x 50 mesh

The 30x100 mesh is saved as plat e. dbs in your working direct ory. Bring up t he

command prompt window as in st ep 1. To copy plat e. dbs t o plat e50. dbs, at t he

command prompt , t ype

copy plate.dbs plate50.dbs

We will work wit h plat e50. dbs in order t o ret ain plat e. dbs as is. Launch GAMBI T wit h

plat e50. dbs as t he input file by t yping:

gambit plate50.dbs

Follow t he same met hod as in previous t ut orials t o change t he mesh. The face mesh will

be aut omat ically delet ed when you re- mesh t he edges. The t op and bot t om edges will

remain t he same.

Mesh t he inflow and out flow edges at a Successi ve Rat i o of 1. 095 and an I nt er val

Count of 50.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Remesh t he face and t hen export t his as t he 2D mesh file, plate50.msh.

Read t he file int o FLUENT and repeat st ep 4 and st ep 5 of t his t ut orial t o set up and

solve t he problem in FLUENT. The solut ion should converge in approximat ely 115

it erat ions. Plot y+ at t he plat e as explained in st ep 6.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( click pict ure for larger image)

y+ ranges from 29 t o 50 in t his plot . This is ( most ly) out side of t he ill- defined Buffer

region ( 5 < y+ < 30) and is t hus accept able.

Now use t he Tot al Surface Heat Flux plot t o det ermine Nu( x) . Plot Re vs. Nu and

compare wit h t he 30x100 mesh result s.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( click pict ure for larger image)

We can see t hat t he courser mesh produces slight ly different result s, alt hough t hey are

st ill reasonable. Some numerical error is int roduced when t he less- refined 30x50 mesh

is used. As one would expect , resolving t he boundary layer t o t he laminar sublayer,

which we did wit h t he orignial mesh, produces more accurat e result s t han resolving only

t o t he t urbulent region. Resolving t o t he laminar sublayer is not always a reasonable

t hing t o do, especially at high Reynolds numbers. The result s from using t he 30 x 50

grid show t hat a reasonable solut ion can st ill be obt ained wit hout resolving down t o t he

laminar sublayer.

Modi f y Mesh i n GAMBI T t o a 30x 150 mesh

Creat e a mesh t hat is finer t han t he original mesh t o see if our original solut ion

cont ained inaccuracies due t o t he mesh. Mesh t he inflow and out flow edges at a

Successi ve Rat i o of 1. 065 and an I nt er val Count of 150.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

Remesh t he face and t hen export t his as t he 2D mesh file, plate150.msh.

Read t he file int o FLUENT and repeat st ep 4 and st ep 5 of t his t ut orial t o set up and

solve t he problem in FLUENT. The solut ion should converge in approximat ely 4550

it erat ions. Plot y+ at t he plat e.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( click pict ure for larger image)

y+ ranges from 0. 14 t o 0. 25 in t his plot , well wit hin t he laminar sublayer.

Now use t he Tot al Surface Heat Flux plot t o det ermine Nu( x) . Plot Re vs. Nu and

compare wit h t he 30x100 mesh result s.

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7

( click pict ure for larger image)

This plot shows t hat t he result s did not change by increasing t he fineness of t he mesh.

Thus, we can conclude t hat our 30x100 mesh was good enough. I t is also import ant t o

verify t hat t he solut ion does not change by refining t he mesh in t he st reamwise

direct ion. I n t his case, t he mesh in t he st reamwise direct ion is already fine enough t o

eliminat e mesh- dependent numerical error.

Copyright 2002.

Cornell University

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

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http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.dat

61 2

0.0000000 0.0000000 0

0.0005000 0.0023390 0

0.0010000 0.0037271 0

0.0020000 0.0058025 0

0.0040000 0.0089238 0

0.0080000 0.0137350 0

0.0120000 0.0178581 0

0.0200000 0.0253735 0

0.0300000 0.0330215 0

0.0400000 0.0391283 0

0.0500000 0.0442753 0

0.0600000 0.0487571 0

0.0800000 0.0564308 0

0.1000000 0.0629981 0

0.1200000 0.0686204 0

0.1400000 0.0734360 0

0.1600000 0.0775707 0

0.1800000 0.0810687 0

0.2000000 0.0839202 0

0.2200000 0.0861433 0

0.2400000 0.0878308 0

0.2600000 0.0890840 0

0.2800000 0.0900016 0

0.3000000 0.0906804 0

0.3200000 0.0911857 0

0.3400000 0.0915079 0

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http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.dat

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http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.dat

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Farfield Boundary - Vertices and Edges

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/01farfield_edges.htm (1 of 2)12/2/2005 2:56:18 PM

Farfield Boundary - Vertices and Edges

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FLUENT TUTORIALS - Cornell University

**About the FLUENT Tutorials
**

This FLUENT short course consists of a set of tutorials on using FLUENT to solve problems in fluid mechanics. The tutorials lead the user through the steps involved in solving a selected set of problems using GAMBIT (the preprocessor) and FLUENT. We not only provide the solution steps but also the rationale behind them. It is worthwhile for the user to understand the underlying concepts as she goes through the tutorials in order to be able to correctly apply FLUENT to other problems. The user would be ill-served by clicking through the tutorials in zombie-mode. Each tutorial is followed by problems which are geared towards strengthening and reinforcing the knowledge and understanding gained in the tutorials. Working through the problem sets is an intrinsic part of the learning process and shouldn't be skipped. These tutorials have been developed by the Swanson Engineering Simulation Program in the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University. The Swanson Engineering Simulation Program has been established with the goal of integrating computer-based simulations into the mechanical engineering curriculum. The development of these tutorials is being supported by a Faculty Innovation in Teaching award from Cornell University. What is FLUENT FLUENT is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package to simulate fluid flow problems. It uses the finite-volume method to solve the governing equations for a fluid. It provides the capability to use different physical models such as incompressible or compressible, inviscid or viscous, laminar or turbulent, etc. Geometry and grid generation is done using GAMBIT which is the preprocessor bundled with FLUENT. How to use these tutorials These tutorials are designed to be used online and run side-by-side with the FLUENT software. After you launch the web tutorials and FLUENT, you will have to drag the browser window to the width of the largest image (about 350 pixels). To make best use of screen real estate, move the windows around and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (2 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

FLUENT TUTORIALS - Cornell University

**System and software requirements
**

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System: Any system that can run GAMBIT, FLUENT, and a web browser. Screen: Resolution should be at least 1280 x 1024 pixels for optimal viewing. A 17" monitor or larger is recommended. GAMBIT version 2.0. These tutorials were created using GAMBIT 2.0. FLUENT version 6.0. These tutorials were created using FLUENT 6.0. Web Browser: These tutorials work best in 5.0 or higher versions of Internet Explorer and Netscape because style sheet support is needed. These tutorials can be used with Netscape 4.x but may not render correctly.

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Choose a tutorial by selecting from the list at the top of this page Conventions used Each tutorial begins with a problem specification. A solution can be obtained by following these nine steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Create Geometry in GAMBIT Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT Set Boundary Types in GAMBIT Set Up Problem in FLUENT Solve! Analyze Results Refine Mesh

These steps appear at the top of each page of the tutorial with the current step highlighted in red. GAMBIT and FLUENT uses cascading menus which are represented as follows: Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh... This means that in the Main Menu, click on File. Then, in the File menu that comes up, click on Export and so on.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

FLUENT TUTORIALS - Cornell University

Names of windows are in italics. Items and options appearing within menus and dialog boxes are purple, italic, and bold. Text and numbers that need to be entered are indicated in Courier font. Additional explanations and related discussions are enclosed in a box.

Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Feedback .

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/ (4 of 4)11/7/2005 6:08:21 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Introduction to CFD Basics

**Introduction to CFD Basics
**

Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran E-mail: rb88@cornell.edu

**Introduction to CFD Basics
**

You can download the following tutorials in PDF format. You will need Adobe Acrobat to read these files. Introduction to CFD Basics Problem set on CFD Basics Back to: FLUENT Home Page

Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/cfd/index.htm11/7/2005 6:11:18 PM

Numerical Stability 1 . 2003 This is a quick introduction to the basic concepts underlying CFD. Assembly of Discrete System and Application of Boundary Conditions 7. The Strategy of CFD 4. Discretization Using The Finite-Volume Method 6. Solution of Discrete System 8. We discuss the following topics brieﬂy: 1. The Need for CFD 2. Iterative Convergence 12. Direct and Iterative Solvers 11. Dealing with Nonlinearity 10. Applications of CFD 3. Discretization Using the Finite-Diﬀerence Method 5. Grid Convergence 9.Introduction to CFD Basics Rajesh Bhaskaran Lance Collins Jan. The concepts are illustrated by applying them to a simple 1D example.

The simulations shown below have been performed using the FLUENT software. This mixing manifold is part of the passenger cabin ventilation system on the Boeing 767. Bio-medical engineering is a rapidly growing ﬁeld and uses CFD to study the circulatory and respiratory systems. one must note that complex ﬂow simulations are challenging and error-prone and it takes a lot of engineering expertise to obtain validated solutions. CFD can be used to simulate the ﬂow over a vehicle. The CFD analysis showed the eﬀectiveness of a simpler manifold design without the need for ﬁeld testing.Applications of CFD CFD is useful in a wide variety of applications and here we note a few to give you an idea of its use in industry. The temperature distribution obtained from a CFD analysis of a mixing manifold is shown below. However. Rotors and propellers can be represented with models of varying complexity. it can be used to study the interaction of propellers or rotors with the aircraft fuselage The following ﬁgure shows the prediction of the pressure ﬁeld induced by the interaction of the rotor with a helicopter fuselage in forward ﬂight. 2 . CFD is attractive to industry since it is more cost-eﬀective than physical testing. For instance. The following ﬁgure shows pressure contours and a cutaway view that reveals velocity vectors in a blood pump that assumes the role of heart in open-heart surgery.

Vi etc. the pressure would be deﬁned only at the N grid points. V etc. The discrete system is a large set of coupled. one would directly solve for the relevant ﬂow variables only at the grid points. algebraic equations in the discrete variables. the strategy of CFD is to replace the continuous problem domain with a discrete domain using a grid. N Continuous Domain 0≤x≤1 x=0 x=1 Discrete Domain x = x1. . In the continuous domain. the pressure p in the continuous 1D domain shown in the ﬁgure below would be given as p = p(x). For instance. 0 < x < 1 In the discrete domain. So. . in the discrete domain shown below. in discrete variables i xN In a CFD solution.xN x 1 x Coupled PDEs + boundary conditions in continuous variables Grid point Coupled algebraic eqs. …. . One can approximate these in the discrete domain in terms of the discrete variables pi . . This idea can be extended to any general problem domain. The governing partial diﬀerential equations and boundary conditions are deﬁned in terms of the continuous variables p. pi = p(xi ). The values at other locations are determined by interpolating the values at the grid points. 3 . each ﬂow variable is deﬁned at every point in the domain. x2. 2. Setting up the discrete system and solving it (which is a matrix inversion problem) involves a very large number of repetitive calculations and is done by the digital computer. The following ﬁgure shows the grid used for solving the ﬂow over an airfoil.The Strategy of CFD Broadly. each ﬂow variable is deﬁned only at the grid points. i = 1.

we will illustrate the fundamental ideas underlying CFD by applying them to the following simple 1D equation: du + um = 0. We’ll brieﬂy indicate the philosophy of the ﬁnite-volume method next but will keep using the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approach to illustrate the underlying concepts since they are very similar between the diﬀerent approaches with the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method being easier to understand. We’ll derive a discrete representation of the above equation with m = 1 on the following grid: ∆x=1/3 x =0 1 x2=1/3 x3=2/3 x4=1 This grid has four equally-spaced grid points with ∆x being the spacing between successive points. 4 . Since the governing equation is valid at any grid point. Using (3) in (2) and excluding higherorder terms in the Taylor’s series. u(0) = 1 (1) We’ll ﬁrst consider the case where m = 1 when the equation is linear. we expand ui−1 in a Taylor’s series: ui−1 = ui − ∆x Rearranging gives du dx = i du dx + O(∆x2 ) i ui − ui−1 + O(∆x) ∆x (3) The error in (du/dx)i due to the neglected terms in the Taylor’s series is called the truncation error. However. We’ll later consider the m = 2 case when the equation is nonlinear. Since the error in (du/dx)i due to the neglected terms in the Taylor’s series is of O(∆x). we have du dx + ui = 0 i (2) where the subscript i represents the value at grid point xi . this representation is termed as ﬁrst-order accurate.Discretization Using the Finite-Diﬀerence Method To keep the details simple. we get the following discrete equation: ui − ui−1 + ui = 0 ∆x (4) Note that we have gone from a diﬀerential equation to an algebraic equation! This method of deriving the discrete equation using Taylor’s series expansions is called the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method. In order to get an expression for (du/dx)i in terms of u at the grid points. dx 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. this discrete representation is termed ﬁrstorder accurate. Since the truncation error above is O(∆x). For example. the FLUENT code uses the ﬁnite-volume method whereas ANSYS uses the ﬁnite-element method. most commercial CFD codes use the ﬁnite-volume or ﬁnite-element methods which are better suited for modeling ﬂow past complex geometries.

momentum. energy and other relevant quantities are being conserved for each cell. you’ll see that it consists of quadrilaterals.Discretization Using The Finite-Volume Method If you look closely at the airfoil grid shown earlier.e. one can obtain discrete equations for the conservation of momentum and energy for the cell. Usually the values at the cell centers are stored. It is equivalent to summing up the net mass ﬂow into the control volume and setting it to zero. the integral form of the conservation equations are applied to the control volume deﬁned by a cell to get the discrete equations for the cell.v4) face 4 ∆y face 1 (u1. Look back at the airfoil grid. the integral form of the continuity equation was given earlier. For example. In the ﬁnite-volume method. In 3D. v2 . Physically. Consider the rectangular cell shown below. In the ﬁnite-volume approach. incompressible ﬂow. ∆x (u4. Take a few minutes to contrast the discretization in the ﬁnite-volume approach to that in the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method discussed earlier. this equation reduces to S ˆ V · n dS = 0 (5) ˆ The integration is over the surface S of the control volume and n is the outward normal at the surface. In 2D. cells are usually hexahedrals. it’s useful to remind yourself that the code is ﬁnding a solution such that mass. this equation means that the net volume ﬂow into the control volume is zero. 5 . one could also have triangular cells. When you are using FLUENT or another ﬁnite-volume code.v2) face 3 (u3. are obtained by suitably interpolating the cell-center values for adjacent cells. Similarly. For steady. or prisms. tetrahedrals.v3) Cell center The velocity at face i is taken to be Vi = ui ˆ + vi ˆ Applying the mass conservation i j. etc. equation (5) to the control volume deﬁned by the cell gives −u1 ∆y − v2 ∆x + u3 ∆y + v4 ∆x = 0 This is the discrete form of the continuity equation for the cell. that mass is conserved for the cell. The face values u1 . such a quadrilateral is commonly referred to as a “cell” and a grid point as a “node”.v1) y x face 2 (u2. One can readily extend these ideas to any general cell shape in 2D or 3D and any conservation equation. So it ensures that the net mass ﬂow into the cell is zero i.

one would apply a combination of the discrete equations and boundary conditions. pressure outlet. pressure inlet. u3 and u4 . 3. one would obtain a system of simultaneous algebraic equations with the number of equations being equal to the number of independent discrete variables. we use the boundary condition to get u1 = 1 (9) Equations (6)-(9) form a system of four simultaneous algebraic equations in the four unknowns u1 . read through the documentation for a boundary condition option to understand what it does before you use it (it might not be doing what you expect). 4 gives −u1 + (1 + ∆x) u2 = 0 −u2 + (1 + ∆x) u3 = 0 −u3 + (1 + ∆x) u4 = 0 (i = 2) (i = 3) (i = 4) (6) (7) (8) The discrete equation cannot be applied at the left boundary (i=1) since ui−1 is not deﬁned here. Instead. Also. u2 . etc. For grid points (or cells) at or near the boundary. It’s convenient to write this system in matrix form: 1 0 0 0 −1 1 + ∆x 0 0 0 −1 1 + ∆x 0 0 0 −1 1 + ∆x u1 u2 u3 u4 = 1 0 0 0 (10) In a general situation. FLUENT.Assembly of Discrete System and Application of Boundary Conditions Recall that the discrete equation that we obtained using the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method was ui − ui−1 + ui = 0 ∆x Rearranging. oﬀers a variety of boundary condition options such as velocity inlet. It is very important that you specify the proper boundary conditions in order to have a well-deﬁned problem. like other commercial CFD codes. In the end. A single wrong boundary condition can give you a totally wrong result. The process is essentially the same as above with the details being much more complex. 6 . one would apply the discrete equations to the grid points (or cells in the ﬁnite-volume method) in the interior of the domain. we get −ui−1 + (1 + ∆x)ui = 0 Applying this equation to the 1D grid shown earlier at grid points i = 2.

8 0. the longer one iterates.7%. It would also generally use an iterative procedure to invert the matrix. u3 and u4 in turn and using ∆x = 1/3. it would be take the computer forever to perform the calculation. a Gaussian elimination procedure naively to invert the matrix.Solution of Discrete System The discrete system (10) for our own humble 1D example can be easily inverted to obtain the unknowns at the grid points. The error is largest at the right boundary where it is equal to 14.8 1 In a practical CFD application.6 0. Solving for u1 .4 x 0. u2 . 1 Numerical solution Exact solution 0. say.6 0. The matrix to be inverted is sparse i. one would have thousands to millions of unknowns in the discrete system and if one uses. most of the entries in it are zeros since the discrete equation at a grid point or cell will contain only quantities from the neighboring points or cells. So a lot of work goes into optimizing the matrix inversion in order to minimize the CPU time and memory required. 7 .7 u 0. the closer one gets to the true solution for the matrix inversion. A CFD code would store only the non-zero values to minimize memory usage.3 0 0.5 0.9 0.e.4 0.2 0. we get u1 = 1 u2 = 3/4 u3 = 9/16 u4 = 27/64 The exact solution for the 1D example is easily calculated to be uexact = exp(−x) The ﬁgure below shows the comparison of the discrete solution obtained on the four-point grid with the exact solution.

8 0.3 0 0.9 0. they are referred to as “grid converged” solutions. the error in the numerical solution would decrease and the agreement between the numerical and exact solutions would get better. We can easily repeat the assembly and solution steps for the discrete system on each of these additional grids.7 u 0. the numerical error decreases as the number of grid points is increased.2 0. becomes independent of the grid as the cell size is reduced. The concept of grid convergence applies to the ﬁnite-volume approach also where the numerical solution.4 0.4 x 0. Let’s consider the eﬀect of increasing the number of grid points N on the numerical solution of the 1D problem. As expected. we saw that the truncation error in our discrete system is O(∆x). We’ll consider N = 8 and N = 16 in addition to the N = 4 case solved previously.Grid Convergence While developing the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation for the 1D example. It is very important that you investigate the eﬀect of grid resolution on the solution in every CFD problem you solve. if correct. The following ﬁgure compares the results obtained on the three grids with the exact solution.5 0.6 0.6 0. 1 N=4 N=8 N=16 Exact solution 0. 8 . So one expects that as the number of grid points is increased and ∆x is reduced.8 1 When the numerical solutions obtained on diﬀerent grids agree to within a level of tolerance speciﬁed by the user. Never trust a CFD solution unless you have convinced yourself that the solution is grid converged to an acceptance level of tolerance (which would be problem dependent).

. u2 i 2ugi ui − u2i g The ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (11) after linearization becomes ui − ui−1 + 2ugi ui − u2i = 0 g ∆x (12) u2i + 2ugi ∆ui = u2i + 2ugi (ui − ugi ) g g Since the error due to linearization is O(∆u2 ). the u value obtained in the previous iteration is used as the guess value. We continue the iterations until they converge. we need guess values ug at the grid points. we can neglect the ∆u2 term to get i u2 i Thus. We’ll illustrate this on the above example. is ui − ui−1 (11) + u2 = 0 i ∆x This is a nonlinear algebraic equation with the u2 term being the source of the nonlinearity. it tends to zero as ug → u. with the details varying depending on the code. Iteration l: u(l) = u(l−1) g The superscript indicates the iteration level. We start with an initial guess value in the ﬁrst iteration.Dealing with Nonlinearity The momentum conservation equation for a ﬂuid is nonlinear due to the convection term (V · )V . In order to calculate the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (12). Phenomena such as turbulence and chemical reaction introduce additional nonlinearities. . The highly nonlinear nature of the governing equations for a ﬂuid makes it challenging to obtain accurate numerical solutions for complex ﬂows of practical interest. For each subsequent iteration. u(0) = 1 dx A ﬁrst-order ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation to this equation. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. We’ll defer the discussion on how to evaluate convergence until a little later. i The strategy that is adopted to deal with nonlinearity is to linearize the equations about a guess value of the solution and to iterate until the guess agrees with the solution to a speciﬁed tolerance level. Iteration 1: u(1) = Initial guess g Iteration 2: u(2) = u(1) g . We will demonstrate the eﬀect of nonlinearity by setting m = 2 in our simple 1D example (1): du + u2 = 0. The important points to remember are that the linearization is performed about a guess and that it is necessary to iterate through successive approximations until the iterations converge. analogous to that in (4) for m = 1. Let ugi be the guess for ui . Deﬁne ∆ui = ui − ugi Rearranging and squaring this equation gives u2 = u2i + 2ugi ∆ui + (∆ui )2 i g Assuming that ∆ui ugi . 9 . This is essentially the process used in CFD codes to linearize the nonlinear terms in the conservations equations.

iteration serves two purposes: 1. In this case. In an act of cleverness. one would usually have millions of grid points or cells so that each dimension of the above matrix would be of the order of a million (with most of the elements being zeros). It is necessary to solve nonlinear equations. Rearrange the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (12) at grid point i so that ui is expressed in terms of the values at the neighboring grid points and the guess values: ui = ui−1 + ∆x u2i g 1 + 2 ∆x ugi If a neighboring value at the current iteration level is not available. the approximate solution for the matrix inversion tends towards the exact solution for the inversion since the error introduced by using ug instead of u in (14) also tends to zero. with the the guess value at any time level being given by the solution at the previous time level. Inverting such a matrix directly would take a prohibitively large amount of memory. Thus. the matrix is inverted using an iterative scheme as discussed below. a common and eﬀective strategy used in CFD codes is to solve the unsteady form of the governing equations and “march” the solution in time until the solution converges to a steady value. we are eﬀectively obtaining only an approximate solution for the matrix inversion in (13) during each iteration but in the process have greatly reduced the memory required for the inversion. It allows for eﬃcient matrix inversion with greatly reduced memory requirements. we use the guess value for it. We next discuss another factor that makes it necessary to carry out iterations in practical CFD problems. we update u4 . then u3 and (l) ﬁnally u2 in each iteration. In steady problems. Let’s say that we sweep from right to left on our grid i. 2. each time step is eﬀectively an iteration. we have combined the iteration to handle nonlinear terms with the iteration for matrix inversion into a single iteration process. Most importantly.e. In the mth iteration. This tradeoﬀ is good strategy since it doesn’t make sense to expend a great deal of resources to do an exact matrix inversion when the matrix elements depend on guess values which are continuously being reﬁned.Direct and Iterative Solvers We saw that we need to perform iterations to deal with the nonlinear terms in the governing equations. So instead. 10 . ui−1 is not available while updating um and i so we use the guess value u(l) for it instead: gi−1 (l) ui = u(l) + ∆x u(l) gi−1 gi 1 + 2 ∆x ugi (l) 2 (14) Since we are using the guess values at neighboring points. Verify that the discrete equation system resulting from the ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation (12) on our four-point grid is 1 0 0 0 0 0 −1 1 + 2∆x ug2 0 −1 1 + 2∆x ug3 0 0 0 −1 1 + 2∆x ug4 u1 u2 u3 u4 = 1 ∆x u22 g ∆x u23 g ∆x u24 g (13) In a practical problem. as the iterations converge and ug → u.

Iterative Convergence Recall that as ug → u. u4 . a lot more iterations would be necessary for achieving convergence.01 would be relatively small if the average value of u in the domain is 5000 but would be relatively large if the average value is 0.e. So we continue the iteration process until some selected measure of the diﬀerence between ug and u. In more complex problems. In each iteration. Note that logarithmic scale is used for the ordinate. in turn. Scaling ensures that the residual is a relative rather than an absolute measure. say. deﬁne the residual R as the RMS value of the diﬀerence between u and ug on the grid: N (ui − ugi )2 N R≡ i=1 It’s useful to scale this residual with the average value of u in the domain. An unscaled residual of. The variation of the residual with iterations obtained from MATLAB is shown below. 0. We could. we’ll take the initial guess at all grid points to be equal to the value at the left boundary i. the linearization and matrix inversion errors tends to zero. for instance. we update ug . Scaling the above residual by dividing by the average value of u gives R= (ui − ugi )2 N i=1 N N N i=1 = N N (ui − ugi )2 (15) ui i=1 i=1 N ui For the nonlinear 1D example.1. We’ll terminate the iterations when the residual falls below 10−9 (which is referred to as the convergence criterion). refered to as the residual. u(1) = 1. u3 and u2 using (14) and calculate the residual using (15). is “small enough”. The iterative process converges to a level smaller than 10−9 in just 6 iterations. sweep g from right to left on the grid updating. 10 0 10 −2 Residual 10 −4 10 −6 10 −8 10 −10 1 2 3 4 Iteration number 5 6 11 . Take a few minutes to implement this procedure in MATLAB which will help you gain some familiarity with the mechanics of the implementation.

In the FLUENT code. The iterative convergence error.4 x 0. both errors would be of comparable level and less than a tolerance level chosen by the user.5 0 0.and code-dependent.65 0. In a good calculation. A discrete conservation equation at any cell can be written in the form LHS = 0.4 and 6 iterations and the exact solution are shown below in the right ﬁgure. which is of order 10−9 .2 0. 2.6 0.75 0.8 1 u Iteration 2 Iteration 4 Iteration 6 Exact Some points to note: 1. It can easily be veriﬁed that the exact solution is given by uexact = 1 x+1 The solutions for iterations 4 and 6 are indistinguishable on the graph. residuals are reported for each conservation equation. with the deviation from zero being a mesaure of how far one is from achieving convergence. 3. The converged solution doesn’t agree well with the exact solution because we are using a coarse grid for which the truncation error is relatively large. if one uses the current solution to compute the LHS. 1 0. it won’t be exactly equal to zero. It’s a good idea to start with the default values in the code.8 0. So FLUENT calculates the residual as the (scaled) mean of the absolute value of the LHS over all cells. 12 .85 0.9 0.The solution after 2. Read the documentation to understand how the residual is calculated.95 0. For any iteration. Diﬀerent codes use slightly diﬀerent deﬁnitions for the residual. One may then have to tweak these values. This is another indication that the solution has converged. The convergence criterion you choose for each conservation equation is problem. So driving the residual down to 10−9 when the truncation error is of order 10−1 is a waste of computing resources.55 0.6 0.7 0. is swamped out by the truncation error of order 10−1 . The agreement between the numerical and exact solutions should get much better on reﬁning the grid as was the case for m = 1.

This condition is refered to as the Courant-FriedrichsLewy or CFL condition. it turns out that this scheme is stable only when c∆t ≤1 C≡ ∆x where C is called the Courant number. A stability analysis is usually performed in the context of time-marching. the iterations converge more slowly and in some instances. explicit and implicit. There is usually a maximum allowable time-step ∆tmax beyond which the numerical scheme is unstable. it can seen that the coeﬃcient of ui 13 . the numerical errors will grow exponentially in time causing the solution to diverge from the steady-state result.e. This is determined by performing a stability analysis of the numerical scheme. the iterations converged very rapidly with the residual falling below the convergence criterion of 10−9 in just 6 iterations. But a stability analysis of simpler. Explicit and Implicit Schemes The diﬀerence between explicit and implicit schemes can be most easily illustrated by applying them to the wave equation ∂u ∂u +c =0 ∂t ∂x where c is the wavespeed. If ∆t > ∆tmax . While a detailed derivation of the CFL condition through stability n−1 analysis is outside the scope of the current discussion. There are two classes of numerical shemes. The value of ∆tmax depends on the numerical discretization scheme used. we are only interested in accurately obtaining the asymptotic behavior at large times. While using time-marching to a steady state. may even diverge. Since un at each grid point can be updated independently. One possible way to discretize this equation at grid point i and time-level n is un − un−1 un−1 − un−1 i−1 i i +c i = O(∆t. The scheme in (16) is known as an explicit scheme. Solving for un gives i c∆t c∆t n−1 un = 1 − un−1 + ui−1 (17) i i ∆x ∆x This is an explicit expression i. a common strategy used in CFD codes for steady problems is to solve the unsteady equations and march in time until the solution converges to a steady state. A numerical method is referred to as being stable when the iterative process converges and as being unstable when it diverges. As mentioned earlier. It is not possible to carry out an exact stability analysis for the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. with very diﬀerent stability characteristics which we’ll brieﬂy discuss next. ∆x) (16) ∆t ∆x The crucial thing to note here is that the spatial derivative is evaluated at the n−1 time-level. model equations provides useful insight and approximate conditions for stability. On the downside. In more complex problems. One would like to know a priori the conditions under which a given numerical scheme converges. So we would like to take as large a time-step ∆t as possible to reach the steady state in the least number of time-steps. the value of un at any grid point can be calculated directly i from this expression without the need for any matrix inversion.Numerical Stability In our previous 1D example. these i schemes are easy to implement on the computer.

so it is advantageous to set the Courant number as large as possible within the limits of stability. CFD codes will allow you to set the Courant number (which is also referred to as the CFL number) when using time-stepping. Under-relaxation for non-timestepping 14 . ∆x) ∆t ∆x In this case. Implicit schemes are not unconditonally stable for the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations since the nonlinearities in the governing equations often limit stability. In general. The speciﬁc value of the maximum allowable Courant number is problem dependent. the spatial derivative term is evaluated at the n time-level: un − un un − un−1 i i−1 i +c i = O(∆t. Taking larger time-steps leads to faster convergence to the steady state.in (17) changes sign depending on whether C > 1 or C < 1 leading to very diﬀerent behavior in the two cases. The CFL condition places a rather severe limitation on ∆tmax . It can be shown that this scheme is unconditionally stable so that the numerical errors will be damped out irrespective of how large the time-step is. explicit schemes applied to the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations have the same restriction that the Courant number needs to be less than or equal to one. However. We instead need to solve a i system of algebraic equations in order to calculate the values at all grid points simultaneously. they allow a much larger Courant number than explicit schemes. Some points to note: 1. 2. In an implicit scheme. You may ﬁnd that a lower Courant number is required during startup when changes in the solution are highly nonlinear but it can be increased as the solution progresses. The stability limits discussed above apply speciﬁcally to the wave equation. we can’t update un at each grid point independently. 3.

02 0. We can deﬁne three types of averages: 1. These ﬂuctuations arise from instabilities that grow until nonlinear interactions cause them to break down into ﬁner and ﬁner whirls that eventually are dissipated (into heat) by the action of viscosity.3 (a) (b) 2.04 PSfrag replacements u2 t 0.Turbulence Modeling There are two radically diﬀerent states of ﬂows that are easily identiﬁed and distinguished: laminar ﬂow and turbulent ﬂow.9 PSfrag replacements 1.1 ylabel ylabel 2.2 PSfrag replacements u t 1.06 0. A typical time history of the ﬂow variable u at a ﬁxed point in space is shown in Fig. Turbulent ﬂows occur in the opposite limit of high Reynolds numbers. These ﬂows occur when at low-to-moderate values of the Reynolds number.10 0.7 0 20 40 xlabel 60 80 u t u 100 t -0. nearly random ﬂuctuations in velocity and pressure in both space and time. (a) Shows the velocity. In contrast.8 -0. Laminar ﬂows are characterized by smoothly varying velocity ﬁelds in space and time in which individual “laminae” (sheets) move past one another without generating cross currents.12 (c) 0. Dashed lines in (a) and (c) indicate the time averages.2 2. turbulent ﬂows are characterized by large. 2. 1(a).0 1. (b) shows the ﬂuctuating component of velocity u ≡ u − u and (c) shows the square of the ﬂuctuating velocity. These ﬂows arise when the ﬂuid viscosity is suﬃciently large to damp out any perturbations to the ﬂow that may occur due to boundary imperfections or other irregularities.2 0.00 0 20 40 xlabel 60 80 100 Figure 1: Example of a time history of a component of a ﬂuctuating velocity at a point in a turbulent ﬂow. The dashed line through the curve indicates the “average” velocity. Time average 15 .08 ylabel 0.4 0 20 40 xlabel 60 80 100 0.0 0.

2 The alternative to DNS found in most CFD packages (including FLUENT) is to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. The approaches to solving the ﬂow equations for a turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld can be roughly divided into two classes. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) use the speed of modern computers to numerically integrate the Navier Stokes equations. Consequently. To demonstrate the closure problem. the solution procedure is the same as for laminar ﬂow. Ensemble average The most mathematically general average is the ensemble average. Phys. If we formally average the Navier Stokes equations and simplify for this geometry we arrive at the following 1 dp d2 u(y) du v + =ν dy ρ dx dy 2 1 (20) A stationary ﬂow is deﬁned as one whose statistics are not changing in time. Instead. they used 40963 grid point. In essence. they require modeling to “close” the equations and these models introduce signiﬁcant error into the calculation.. RANS equations govern the mean velocity and pressure. without resorting to modeling. they are much easier to solve. Figures 1(b) and 1(c) show the time evolution of the velocity ﬂuctuation. t)dt (18) The deviation of the velocity from the mean value is called the ﬂuctuation and is usually deﬁned as u ≡u−u (19) Note that by deﬁnition u = 0 (the average of the ﬂuctuation is zero). Fluids 15(2):L21–L24 (2003). The equations governing a turbulent ﬂow are precisely the same as for a laminar ﬂow. as will be shown below. however. DNS remains limited to very simple geometries (e. the solution is clearly much more complicated in this regime. resolving all of the spatial and temporal ﬂuctuations. let us deﬁne the time average for a stationary ﬂow1 as u(y) ≡ τlim →∞ 1 2τ τ −τ u(y. and the square of that quantity. 2 The largest DNS to date was recently published by Kaneda et al. a better measure of the strength of the ﬂuctuation is the average of the square of a ﬂuctuating variable.2. u . a time or volume average (or combination of the two) is made with the assumption that they are equivalent to the ensemble average. Volume average 3. An example of a stationary ﬂow is steady ﬂow in a channel or pipe.g. we consider fully developed turbulent ﬂow in a channel of height 2H. Because these quantities vary smoothly in space and time. in which you repeat a given experiment a large number of times and average the quantity of interest (say velocity) at the same position and time in each experiment. For practical reasons. jets and boundary layers) and is extremely expensive to run. Recall that with RANS we are interested in solving for the mean velocity u(y) only.5 terabytes of memory per variable! 16 . however. Notice that the latter quantity is always greater than zero as is its average. For the sake of this discussion. u 2 . channel ﬂows.. this is rarely done. except the numerics must contend with resolving all of the ﬂuctuations in the velocity and pressure. which corresponds roughly to 0.

dy y = H u=0. known as the Reynolds stress.3 is a higher-order moment that must be modeled in terms of the knowns (i. 4 3 17 . w ) is the ﬂuctuating velocity vector. v .. Notice that if we neglect the Reynolds stress the equations reduce to the equations for laminar ﬂow. Name after the same Osborne Reynolds from which we get the Reynolds number. the turbulent kinetic energy k and the turbulent energy dissipation rate deﬁned below k ≡ 1 u2 +v2 +w2 2 2 ∂u ∂u ≡ ν + ∂x ∂y + ∂w ∂x 2 (23) 2 + 2 ∂u ∂z 2 + 2 ∂v ∂x 2 + ∂v ∂y 2 + ∂v ∂z 2 ∂w + ∂y ∂w + ∂z (24) where (u . Here we simply note that the Reynolds stress is modeled in terms of two turbulence parameters. y = 0 (21) (22) The quantity u v .subject to the boundary conditions du =0. We will revisit turbulence modeling towards the end of the semester. The family of models is generally known as k– and they form the basis of most CFD packages (including FLUENT). thus.4 Turbulence modeling is a rather broad discipline and an in-depth discussion is beyond the scope of this introduction. The kinetic energy is zero for laminar ﬂow and can be as large as 5% of the kinetic energy of the mean ﬂow in a highly turbulent case. This is referred to as the “closure” approximation. The quality of the modeling of this term will determine the reliability of the computations.e. u(y) and its derivatives). the Reynolds stress is solely responsible for the diﬀerence in the mean proﬁle for laminar (parabolic) and turbulent (blunted) ﬂows.

Plot the solution and compare it with the solution for the 4-point grid and the exact solution. iteration number.i−1 .Problem Set for “Intro to CFD” Notes Consider the following diﬀerential equation d2 u − 2 u3 = 0.1 • Apply the ﬁnite-diﬀerence method to this equation to get a linearized diﬀerence equation at grid point i away from the boundary. • Plot the ﬁnite-diﬀerence solution obtained on the 4-point grid and compare it with the exact solution 1 uexact = x+1 • Use your MATLAB program to obtain the solution on a 7-point grid (∆x = 1. Hint: In MATLAB. Apply this code to obtain the solution on a 4-point grid (∆x = 3). Note that a second-order diﬀerence approximation for the second-derivative is d2 u dx2 = i ui−1 − 2ui + ui+1 + O ∆x2 ∆x2 • Assemble the discrete system of equations for a four-point grid into a matrix system of the form [A]{u} = {b} where {u} = {u1 u2 u3 u4 }T • Develop a MATLAB program to solve the ﬁnite-diﬀerence equations on a grid with N points. 1 .i and Ai. u(9) = 0. Ai. For row i of [A] when 2 ≤ i ≤ N − 1. you need to set only the elements Ai. Converge your solution until the residual is below 10−6 . u(0) = 1. 2 dx 0 ≤ x ≤ 9.i+1 . Plot the residuals vs. For the initial guess.5). initialize all elements of [A] to zero. use a linear variation between the two boundary values.

Take density ρ=1 kg/ m3 and coefficient of viscosity µ= 2 x 10-3 kg/(ms). The Reynolds number Re based on the pipe diameter is where Vavg is the average velocity at the inlet. wall skin-friction http://instruct1. The inlet velocity Vin=1 m/ s.edu Problem Specification 1. Solve! 6. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:32:02 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/index.Laminar Pipe Flow Laminar Pipe Flow Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran E-mail: rb88@cornell.cornell. Analyze Results 7. The pipe diameter D=0. The fluid exhausts into the ambient atmosphere which is at a pressure of 1 atm. Plot the centerline velocity. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Solve this problem using FLUENT.Fluent Tutorial .2 m and length L=8 m. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem Specification Consider fluid flowing through a circular pipe of contant cross-section. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Consider the velocity to be constant over the inlet cross-section.cit. which is 1m/s in this case.

x (see figure below). Go to Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT Copyright 2002. and velocity profile at the outlet.Laminar Pipe Flow coefficient. You should have seen this in the Introduction to Fluid Mechanics course.cit. Validate your results.Fluent Tutorial . We will compare the numerical results in the fully-developed region with the corresponding analytical results. and then read the mesh into FLUENT and solve for the flow solution. the flow becomes fully-developed and there is no variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Preliminary Analysis We expect the viscous boundary layer to grow along the pipe starting at the inlet. So it's a good idea for you to go back to your textbook in the Intro course and review the fully-developed flow analysis. Note: The values used for the inlet velocity and flow properties are chosen for convenience rather than to reflect reality. The key parameter value to focus on is the Reynolds no.cornell.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:32:02 PM . It will eventually grow to fill the pipe completely (provided that the pipe is long enough). Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. What are the values of centerline velocity and friction factor you expect in the fully-developed region based on the analytical solution? What is the solution for the velocity profile? We'll create the geometry and mesh in GAMBIT which is the preprocessor for FLUENT.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/index. When this happens. One can obtain a closed-form solution to the governing equations in the fullydeveloped region.

Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT If you would prefer to skip the mesh generation steps. Analyze Results 7.e. you can create a working directory (see below). Strategy for Creating Geometry In order to create the rectangle.cornell.Fluent Tutorial .msh) into the working directory and go straight to step 4. download the mesh from here (right click and save as pipe. We'll then join adjacent vertices by straight lines to form the "edges" of the rectangle. So the hierarchy of geometric objects in GAMBIT is vertices -> edges -> faces -> volumes. Solve! 6. Note that in 3D problems. We'll use this as the working folder in which files created during the session will be stored. Create a Working Directory Create a folder called pipe in a convenient location. In Step 2. you'll have to form a "volume" from faces. the rectangle. http://instruct1.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. we'll mesh the face i. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Lastly.htm (1 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .cit. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. Note for ACCEL computer lab users: Each user gets his/her own 100 MB of disk space under S: at ACCEL. This is where you should put files that you want to keep and access later on. You can put your files in S: and it'll be accessible from any computer. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. we will first create the vertices at the four corners. we'll create a "face" corresponding to the area enclosed by the edges.

Start GAMBIT by typing gambit -id pipe at the command prompt and pressing Enter. The GAMBIT Interface consists of the following: q Main Menu Bar: http://instruct1. This way you can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in GAMBIT.cornell. move the windows and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement. the Exceed X-server starts up before the GAMBIT interface comes up. For example. try typing the full pathname to the GAMBIT executable: c:\fluent. In Windows. then choose the appropriate font size. If this doesn't work.cit. if you created a folder named fluent on drive S: in Windows.Fluent Tutorial . You can resize the text in the browser window to your taste and comfort: In Internet Explorer: Menubar > View > Text Size. Exceed is a third-party application needed to render the interface in Windows (GAMBIT was originally developed under Unix). In Netscape: Menubar > View > Increase Font or Menubar > View > Decrease Font. Start > Run In Windows NT/2000/XP: Type cmd and press enter.htm (2 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM . To make best use of screen real estate.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. In Windows 95/98/ME: Type command and press enter.inc\ntbin\ntx86\gambit -id pipe This brings up the GAMBIT interface and tells GAMBIT to use pipe as the default prefix for all files created during the session.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 Start GAMBIT Start your command prompt. type cd S:\fluent at the command prompt and press Enter. Navigate your way to your working folder.

q Operation Toolpad: We'll more or less work our way across the Operation Toolpad as we go through the solution steps. a different "sub-pad" appears.cornell.cit. The Geometry sub-pad is shown in the above snaphot.Fluent Tutorial . q Global Control Toolpad: http://instruct1.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 Note that the job name pipe appears after ID: in the title bar of the Utility Menu. Notice that as each of the top buttons is selected.htm (3 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1.

edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. q GAMBIT Description Panel: The Description Panel contains descriptions of buttons or objects that the mouse is pointing to. Move your mouse over some buttons and notice the corresponding text in the Description Panel. q GAMBIT Transcript Window: http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 The Global Control Toolpad has options such as Fit to Screen Undo creation. q and that are very handy during the course of geometry and mesh GAMBIT Graphics: This is the window where the graphical results of operations are displayed.cit.htm (4 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .cornell.

Fluent Tutorial . give this a try. Select Solver Specify that the mesh to be created is for use with FLUENT 6. respectively. at some point. The problem domain is: where r and x are the radial and axial coordinates. The coordinates of the corners are shown in the figure below: http://instruct1. You can click on the arrow button in the upper right hand corner to make the Transcript window full-sized.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1.htm (5 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .cit. Go ahead.cornell.0: Main Menu > Solver > FLUENT 5/6 Verify this has been done by looking in the Transcript Window where you should see: The boundary types that you'll be able to select in the third step depends on the solver selected. this is where to look to figure out what you just did. you are not sure you clicked the right button or entered a value correctly. Strategy for creating geometry We will put the origin of the coordinate system at the lower left corner of the rectangle. You can click on the arrow again to return the window to its original size. If. We can assume that the flow is axisymmetric.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 This is the window to which output from GAMBIT commands is written and which provides feedback on the actions taken by GAMBIT as you perform operations.

0) which is displayed in the graphics window. Next to z:. We will then form a face that covers the area of the rectangle.htm (6 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM . Next to y:.cit. After you select a button under a sub-pad.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. enter value 0. Create Vertices Find the buttons described below by pointing the mouse at each of the buttons and reading the Description Window.0. http://instruct1. it becomes the default when you go to a different sub-pad and then come back to the sub-pad.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 We will first create four vertices at the four corners and join adjacent vertices to get the edges of the rectangle. enter value 0.Fluent Tutorial . Create the vertex at the lower-left corner of the rectangle: Next to x:. This creates the vertex (0. Click Apply. enter value 0 (these values should be defaults).cornell. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button Button > Create Vertex > Vertex Command Notice that the Create Vertex button has already been selected by default.

1. vertex.cit.1". the z-coordinate can always be left to the default value of 0. GAMBIT reports that it "Created vertex: vertex.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 In the Transcript window.0.0.0) Vertex 3: (8.0) Vertex 4: (8.cornell. Repeat this process to create three more vertices: Vertex 2: (0. The vertices are numbered vertex.0) Note that for a 2D problem.Fluent Tutorial .1. in the order in which they are created.2 etc. Operation Toolpad > Global Control > Fit to Window Button http://instruct1.htm (7 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .1.0.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1.

edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1.cornell.Fluent Tutorial . Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Create Edge Select two vertices that make up an edge of this rectangle by holding down the http://instruct1.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 This fits the four vertices of the rectangle we have created to the size of the Graphics Window. hold down the Shift key and click on the entity. To select any entity in GAMBIT.htm (8 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM > Edge Command Button .cit. (Click picture for larger image) Create Edges We'll now connect appropriate pairs of vertices to form edges.

Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 Shift button and clicking on the corresponding vertices.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. then click Apply in the Create Straight Edge window. After the correct vertices have been selected. Repeat this process to create a rectangle. We can check the selected vertices by clicking on the up-arrow next to Vertices:.cit. click Close. Vertices can be moved from the Available and Picked lists by selecting them and then pressing the left or right arrow buttons.htm (9 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .cornell. This will bring up a window containing the vertices that have been selected. Then let go of the Shift button. http://instruct1. As each vertex is picked. it will appear red in the Graphics Window.Fluent Tutorial .

edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. Click Close. Alternatively.cit.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 (Click picture for larger image) Create Face Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Form Face To form a face out of the area enclosed by the four lines.Fluent Tutorial . clicking on each line (notice that the currently selected line appears red).cornell. This can be done by holding down the Shift key. we need to select the four ledges that enclose this area. and then releasing the Shift key after all four lines have been selected. an easier way to do this would be to click on the up arrow next to edges: > Face Command Button This will bring up the Edge List window. Click on All-> to select all of the edges at once.htm (10 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM . http://instruct1.

Laminar Pipe Flow Step #1 Click Apply to create the face.htm (11 of 11)11/7/2005 6:36:06 PM .cornell. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step1. Go to Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Fluent Tutorial .cit.

enter 5 for the interval count.Fluent Tutorial . Then.cit.htm (1 of 3)11/7/2005 6:36:18 PM .cornell. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Analyze Results 7.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #2 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. If this is difficult. > Edge Command Button > http://instruct1. Solve! 6. one can zoom in on an edge by holding down the Ctrl button. To return to the main view. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. select Interval Count from the drop down box that says Interval Size in the Mesh Edges Window. clicking and dragging the mouse to specify an area to zoom in on. We'll first mesh the four edges and then the face.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step2. click on the Global Control Toolpad > Fit to Window Button again. Mesh Edges Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Edges Shift-click or bring up the Edge List window and select both the vertical lines. Once a vertical edge has been selected. in the box to the left of this combo box. and releasing the Ctrl button. The desired grid spacing is specified through the edge mesh. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT We'll now create a mesh on the rectangular face with 100 divisions in the axial direction and 5 divisions in the radial direction. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.

but with an interval count of 100. Click Apply. Now that the edges are meshed.Fluent Tutorial .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #2 Click Apply. we are ready to create a 2-D mesh for the face. > Face Command Button > http://instruct1. Mesh Face Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Faces Shift left-click on the face or use the up arrow next to Faces to select the face.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step2.cit. Nodes appear on the edges showing that they are divided into 5.cornell. (Click picture for larger image) Repeat the same process for the horizontal edges.htm (2 of 3)11/7/2005 6:36:18 PM .

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #2

**(Click picture for larger image) Go to Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT
**

Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #3

**Laminar Pipe Flow
**

Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Solve! 6. Analyze Results 7. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2

Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

Create Boundary Types We'll next set the boundary types in GAMBIT. The left edge is the inlet of the pipe, the right edge the outlet, the top edge the wall, and the bottom edge the axis. Operation Toolpad > Zones Command Button Command Button This will bring up the Specify Boundary Types window on the Operation Panel. We will first specify that the left edge is the inlet. Under Entity:, pick Edges so that GAMBIT knows we want to pick an edge (face is default). > Specify Boundary Types

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Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #3

Now select the left edge by Shift-clicking on it. The selected edge should appear in the yellow box next to the Edges box you just worked with as well as the Label/Type list right under the Edges box. Next to Name:, enter inlet. For Type:, select VELOCITY_INLET. Click Apply. You should see the new entry appear under Name/Type box near the top of the window.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step3.htm (2 of 4)11/7/2005 6:36:49 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #3

Repeat this process for the other three edges according to the following table: Edge Position Left Right Top Bottom

Name inlet outlet wall centerline

Type VELOCITY_INLET PRESSURE_OUTLET WALL AXIS

You should have the following edges in the Name/Type list when finished:

Save and Export Main Menu > File > Save Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh... Type in pipe.msh for the File Name:. Select Export 2d Mesh since this is a 2 dimensional mesh. Click Accept. Check pipe.msh has been created in your working directory.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step3.htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:36:49 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Laminar Pipe Flow Step #3

**Go to Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT
**

Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step3.htm (4 of 4)11/7/2005 6:36:49 PM

Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4. each floating point number is represented using 64 bits in contrast to the single-precision solver which uses 32 bits. Analyze Results 7. Solve! 6..htm (1 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM .cit. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. The extra bits increase not only the precision but also the range of magnitudes that can be represented.cornell. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.0 Select 2ddp from the list of options and click Run. This is the mesh file that was created using the preprocessor GAMBIT in the previous step. Import Grid Main Menu > File > Read > Case.msh file. double-precision solver. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Launch Fluent 6. The downside of using double precision is that it requires more memory. FLUENT reports the mesh statistics as it reads in the mesh: http://instruct1. In the double-precision solver.0 Start > Programs > Fluent Inc > FLUENT 6. The "2ddp" option is used to select the 2-dimensional. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.Fluent Tutorial . Navigate to the working directory and select the pipe..

Main Menu > Grid > Check Any errors in the grid would be reported at this time.htm (2 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM . we check the grid to make sure that there are no errors. This is what we expect since we used 5 divisions in the radial direction and 100 divisions in the axial direction while generating the grid. So the total number of cells is 5*100 = 500.cornell.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 Check the number of nodes. Check the grid size: Main Menu > Grid > Info > Size The following statistics should appear: http://instruct1. wall. Check the output and make sure that there are no errors reported. and centerline that we defined in GAMBIT. take a look under zones.Fluent Tutorial . Check and Display Grid First. outlet. faces (of different types) and cells. There are 500 quadrilateral cells in this case. Also.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4.cit. We can see the four zones inlet.

Some of the operations available in the graphics window are: Translation: The grid can be translated in any direction by holding down the Left Mouse Button and then moving the mouse in the desired direction.. Zoom In: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box from the Upper Left Hand Corner to the Lower Right Hand Corner over the area you want to zoom in on. The graphics window opens and the grid is displayed in it.cornell. Then click Display.htm (3 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM . Make sure all 5 items under Surfaces is selected.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4. Note: The zooming operations cannot be performed without a middle mouse button.Fluent Tutorial . Use these operations to zoom into the grid to obtain the view shown below.. The graphics window will remain. Zoom Out: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box anywhere from the Lower Right Hand Corner to the Upper Left Hand Corner. You can now click Close in the Grid Display menu to get back some desktop space.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 Display the grid: Main Menu > Display > Grid. http://instruct1.cit.

For example. and centerline boundaries have been selected in the following view: http://instruct1. the wall. Click Display again when you have selected your boundaries.htm (4 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4.Fluent Tutorial .cornell. outlet.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 (Click picture for larger image) You can also look at specific parts of the grid by choosing the boundaries you wish to view under Surfaces (click to select and click again to deselect a specific boundary).cit.

htm (5 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 These options will display the graph: (Click picture for larger image) http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial .cit.cornell.

the energy equation is decoupled from the continuity and momentum equations. implicit formulation.htm (6 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM . the while the button next to Surfaces selects all of the boundaries deselects all of the boundaries at once. Main Menu > Define > Models > Energy For incompressible flow. Click Cancel. Close the Grid Display Window when you are done. We need to solve the energy equation only if we are http://instruct1. Click OK. steady flow and absolute velocity formulation. Define Solver Properties Main Menu > Define > Models > Solver Choose Axisymmetric under Space.cit. So we don't need to change anything in this menu.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 For convenience.cornell. Main Menu > Define > Models > Viscous Laminar flow is the default.Fluent Tutorial . We'll use the defaults of segregated solver.

edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4.. We'll take both as constant. it is generated by adding the operating pressure to the gauge pressure. Any time an absolute pressure is needed. For all flows. Define Operating Conditions Main Menu > Define > Operating Conditions.. Click Change/Create.cornell. These are the values that we specified under Problem Specification. We will not deal with temperature in this example. We'll use the default value of 1 atm (101.htm (7 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM .0 and Viscosity to 2e-3.cit.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 interested in determining the temperature distribution. Click Cancel to leave the default in place. Define Material Properties Main Menu > Define > Materials.. Change Density to 1. FLUENT uses gauge pressure internally.Fluent Tutorial . So leave the Energy Equation unselected and click Cancel to exit the menu.. http://instruct1.325 Pa) as the Operating Pressure.

If necessary... Recall that the boundary type for the "inlet" was set in GAMBIT. we can change the boundary type set previously in GAMBIT in this menu by selecting a different type from the list on the right. Note that FLUENT indicates that the Type of this boundary is velocity-inlet. Move down the list and select inlet under Zone..Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 Define Boundary Conditions We'll now set the value of the velocity at the inlet and pressure at the outlet. Click OK. Notice that there is nothing to set for the axis. http://instruct1.htm (8 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM . then make sure the Type of this boundary is selected as axis and click Set.Fluent Tutorial .cit.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4. The centerline zone should be selected by default... Main Menu > Define > Boundary Conditions. Make sure it is.cornell. We note here that the four types of boundaries we defined are specified as zones on the left side of the Boundary Conditions Window.

. Lastly.. Click OK. Go to Step 5: Solve! Copyright 2002. The Type of this boundary is pressure-outlet.Fluent Tutorial . Enter 1 for Velocity Magnitude. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.cornell.cit.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #4 Click on Set. click on wall under Zones and make sure Type is set as wall. Choose outlet under Zone. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Since the operating pressure is set to 1 atm.operating pressure = 0. Click OK..htm (9 of 9)11/7/2005 6:37:26 PM . The (absolute) pressure at the outlet is 1 atm.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step4.. Click on each of the tabs and note that only momentum can be changed under the current conditions. This will not be so under later exercises so make a note of the location of these options. This sets the velocity of the fluid entering at the left boundary. the outlet gauge pressure = outlet absolute pressure . Click Cancel to leave the default in place. Click Close to close the Boundary Conditions menu. Click on Set... The default value of the Gauge Pressure is 0.

Main Menu > Solve > Controls > Solution. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Solve! 6.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step5. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Click OK.Fluent Tutorial . Set Initial Guess http://instruct1. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.. Analyze Results 7.cit. Change Momentum to Second Order Upwind.htm (1 of 5)11/7/2005 6:38:25 PM .. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 5: Solve! We'll use a second-order discretization scheme. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.

The Axial Velocity for all cells will be set to 1 m/s. all to 1e-6.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5 Initialize the flow field to the values at the inlet: Main Menu > Solve > Initialize > Initialize. Main Menu > Solve > Monitors > Residual.Fluent Tutorial .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step5.. http://instruct1. Also. In the Solution Initialization menu that comes up. and y-velocity.. This will plot the residuals in the graphics window as they are calculated. the Radial Velocity to 0 m/s and the Gauge Pressure to 0 Pa. This completes the initialization. x-velocity.. Set Convergence Criteria FLUENT reports a residual for each governing equation being solved.htm (2 of 5)11/7/2005 6:38:25 PM . Click Init. choose inlet under Compute From.cornell. These values have been taken from the inlet boundary condition. The residual is a measure of how well the current solution satisfies the discrete form of each governing equation.. We'll iterate the solution until the residual for each equation falls below 1e-6. Change the residual under Convergence Criterion for continuity. under Options.cit. select Plot.

.Fluent Tutorial .cas for Case File. Iterate Until Convergence Start the calculation by running 100 iterations: Main Menu > Solve > Iterate. If you exit FLUENT now.. The residuals for each iteration is printed out as well as plotted in the graphics http://instruct1. change the Number of Iterations to 100. Click OK.. Click Iterate. you can retrieve all your work at any time by reading in this case file.htm (3 of 5)11/7/2005 6:38:25 PM . This completes the problem specification.cit..edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step5. Save your work: Main Menu > File > Write > Case.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5 Click OK. In the Iterate Window that comes up. Check that the file has been created in your working directory.cornell. Type in pipe.

dat for Data File and click OK. Check that the file has been created in your working directory.htm (4 of 5)11/7/2005 6:38:25 PM .cit. Save the solution to a data file: Main Menu > File > Write > Data.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step5..cornell.Fluent Tutorial . Go to Step 6: Analyze Results http://instruct1.. You can retrieve the current solution from this data file at any time. (Click picture for larger image) The residuals fall below the specified convergence criterion of 1e-6 in 46 iterations.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5 window as they are calculated. Enter pipe.

cornell.htm (5 of 5)11/7/2005 6:38:25 PM .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #5 Copyright 2002.Fluent Tutorial .cit.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step5. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 6: Analyze Results Centerline Velocity We'll plot the variation of the axial velocity along the centerline.cit. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Under Y Axis Function. Main Menu > Plot > XY Plot.cornell. and X is set to 1 and Y to 0 under Plot Direction. This finishes setting up the plotting parameters. http://instruct1. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. pick Velocity. Make sure that Position on X Axis is set under Options.Fluent Tutorial .. Analyze Results 7. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4..edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. which should not be confused with the x and y directions of the pipe. and then in the box under that. pick Axial Velocity.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.htm (1 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM ... Finally. Please note that X Axis Function and Y Axis Function describe the x and y axes of the graph. This tells FLUENT to plot the x-coordinate value on the abscissa of the graph. select centerline under Surfaces since we are plotting the axial velocity along the centerline. Solve! 6.

htm (2 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .cornell.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Click Plot.cit. we can see that the velocity reaches a constant value beyond a certain distance from the inlet. http://instruct1. This is the fully-developed flow region. (Click picture for larger image) In the graph that comes up.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. This brings up a plot of the axial velocity as a function of the distance along the centerline of the pipe.Fluent Tutorial .

The boxes under Range should now be activated. Under Options.cornell. click on Axes.8 for Minimum and 2. Also select Major Rules and Minor Rules to turn on the grid lines in the Y direction.. Select X under Axis. Enter 1 for Minimum and 3 for Maximum under Range. We have now finished specifying the range for each axes.. http://instruct1. We can see that the fully-developed region starts at around x=3m and the centerline velocity in this region is 1.cit. so click Apply and then Close.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. Click Apply.0 for Maximum under Range. then enter 1. pick Y under Axis and once again deselect Auto Range under Options.. We'll turn on the grid lines to help estimate where the flow becomes fully developed. deselect Auto Range. Check the boxes next to Major Rules and Minor Rules under Options.htm (3 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .Fluent Tutorial .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Change the axes extents: In the Solution XY Plot menu. Now. Go back to the Solution XY Plot menu and click Plot to replot the graph with the new axes extents.93 m/s.

if you have a postscript viewer. so this is not recommended if you do not have http://instruct1.cornell. Now. After selecting EPS. EPS allows you to save the file in vector mode. save a picture of the plot: Leave the Solution XY Plot Window and the Graphics Window open and click on: File > Hardcopy .this will offer a high resolution image of your graph.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. this is the best choice. check the Write to File box under Options. the image file generated will be rather large. Check that this file has been created in your FLUENT working directory. Enter vel. Under Format..cit.. choose one of the following three options: EPS .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 (Click picture for larger image) Saving the Plot Save the data from this plot: In the Solution XY Plot Window.htm (4 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .. TIFF . The Plot button should have changed to Write.Fluent Tutorial .. which will offer the best viewable image quality.. choose Vector from under File Type. However..xy as the XY File Name and click OK. Click on Write...

Fluent Tutorial .eps. Click on the second 965 link (normally.htm (5 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM . Verify that the image file has been created in your working directory.tif. Click on the link for Reference Values panel. We can see an excerpt on the skin coefficient as well as the equation for calculating it.. Set the reference values: http://instruct1.. vel.jpg depending on your format choice and click OK.this is small in size and viewable from all browsers. Coefficient of Skin Friction FLUENT provides a large amount of useful information in the online help that comes with the software.cit. Enter vel. You can now copy this file onto a disk or print it out for your records. which tells us how to set the reference values used in calculating the skin coefficient. click on Save. However.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. JPG . Main Menu > Help > User's Guide Index. Click on S in the links on top and scroll down to skin friction coefficient..Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 a lot of room on your storage device. or vel.. you would have to go through each of the links until you find what you are looking for). Let's probe the online help for information on calculating the coefficient of skin friction.cornell. After selecting your desired image format and associated options. the quality of the image is not particularly good.

Go back to the Solution XY Plot menu. Check that density is 1 kg/m3 and velocity is 1 m/ s.htm (6 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .cit. We can leave the other Options and Plot Direction as is since we are still plotting against the x distance along the pipe. Click OK. (Alternately.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Main Menu > Report > Reference Values.Fluent Tutorial .cornell. Select inlet under Compute From to tell FLUENT to calculate the reference values from the values at inlet. Uncheck Write to File under Options since we want to plot to the window right now. you could have just typed in the appropriate values).. http://instruct1..

.. pick Wall Fluxes..edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. Save the data from this plot: Pick Write to File under Options and click Write.54. select wall and unselect centerline by clicking on them. Close..xy for XY File and click OK. To do this. and then Skin Friction Coefficient in the box under that.54 with the theoretical.. Compare the numerical value of 1.cit.16. Under Surfaces. fully-developed value of 0.cornell. Set the range of the X axis from 1 to 8 by selecting X under Axis.Fluent Tutorial .. Enter cf. Velocity Profile We'll next plot the velocity at the outlet as a function of the distance from the center of the pipe.. and 8 under Maximum in the Range box (remember to de-select Auto-Range first if it is checked).htm (7 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .. Click Apply.0m and the skin friction coefficient in this region is around 1. (Click picture for larger image) We can see that the fully developed region is reached at around x=3. entering 1 under Minimum. we have to set the y axis of the graph to be the y http://instruct1. and re-select Auto-Range for the Y axis. and then Plot in the Solution XY Plot Window.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Under the Y Axis Function. Reset axes ranges: Go to Axes.

12m (x/D=6) to the above plot. Uncheck Write to File under Options so that we can see the graph..cit...6m using the Line/Rake tool: http://instruct1. let us add the profiles at x=0. under Plot Direction. To plot the position variable on the y axis of the graph. Change both the x and y axes to Auto-Range. change X to 0 and Y to 1. Since we want to plot this at the outlet boundary. Click Plot. pick Velocity. create a line at x=0. Enter profile.6m (x/D=3) and x=0.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 axis of the pipe (the radial direction). pick outlet under Surfaces. To plot the axial velocity on the x axis of the graph. First.htm (8 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM ..cornell. uncheck Position on X Axis under Options and choose Position on Y Axis instead. To make the position variable the radial distance from the centerline. To see how the velocity profile changes in the developing region. and Axial Velocity under that.xy for XY File and click OK. (Click picture for larger image) Does this look like a parabolic profile? Save the data from this plot: Pick Write to File under Options and click Write.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6..Fluent Tutorial . for X Axis Function.

. y1=0.htm (9 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .6. This displays all surfaces but not the mesh cells.1). Click Create. Enter line1 under New Surface Name. (Click here to review the zoom functionality discussion in step 4. Note that line1 appears in the list of surfaces.6. Zoom into the region near the inlet to see the line created at x=0. select Main Menu > Display > Grid. Select Line Tool under Options.y0)=(0.cornell.cit.1.y1)=(0.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Main Menu > Surface > Line/Rake We'll create a straight line from (x0..6.0. Enter x0=0. x1=0.6m. Select all surfaces except defaultinterior. To see the line just created.0) to (x1.6.Fluent Tutorial .) line1 is the white vertical line to the right in the figure below. y0=0.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. http://instruct1. Click Display.

In FLUENT.0.0) to (x1.1) in this case.6m (x/D=3) and x=0. In the Solution XY plot menu. Select Node Values under Options.. select line1 and line2. Click Plot. Node-averaged data curves may be somewhat smoother than curves for cell values. If you redo this plot using the fine grid results in the next step. Velocity Vectors http://instruct1.htm (10 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM . You can change the symbols and line styles under the Curves. use the same settings as above.2. the Node Values option is turned on. you'll see that this is not actually the case.. Your symbols might be different from the ones below.cornell.y1)= (1.y0)=(1. Display it in the graphics window to check that it has been created correctly. you can choose to display the computed cell-center values or values that have been interpolated to the nodes.cit. The coarse grid used here doesn't capture the boundary layer development properly and underpredicts the development length. Now we can plot the velocity profiles at x=0. Click on Help in the Curves menu if you have problems figuring out how to change these settings.12m (x/D=6) along with the outlet profile. create a vertical line called line2 at x=1. in addition to outlet.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 Similarly. By default. (x0.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6.2.Fluent Tutorial . The profile three diameters downstream is fairly close to the fully-developed profile at the outlet. button. Under Surfaces. and the interpolated values are displayed.2.

. Under Mirror Planes. Main Menu > Display > Vectors.) The length and color of the arrows represent the velocity magnitude. As the boundary layer grows.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 One can plot vectors in the entire domain. Close the Views window. The vector display is more intelligible if one makes the arrows shorter as follows: Change Scale to 0. (Click here to review the zoom functionality discussion in step 4.. The velocity vectors provide a picture of how the flow develops downstream of the inlet. or on selected surfaces.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6.Fluent Tutorial .cornell.4 in the Vectors menu and click Display. You can reflect the plot about the axis to get an expanded sectional view: Main Menu > Display > Views.. This indicates that the slowing of the flow in the near-wall region results in an injection of fluid into the region away from the wall to satisfy mass conservation. the velocity outside the boundary layer increases. Note the sloping arrows in the near wall region close to the inlet.htm (11 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .. the flow near the wall is retarded by viscous friction. only the axis surface is listed since that is the only symmetry boundary in the present case. Thus.cit. Select axis and click Apply. Let us plot the velocity vectors for the entire domain to see how the flow develops downstream of the inlet. > Display Zoom into the region near the inlet. http://instruct1.

Laminar Pipe Flow Step #6 By default.3 of the user manual for more details about the vector plot functionality. one vector is drawn at the center of each cell.cornell. but you can also plot other vector quantities.1. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Velocity vectors are the default. See section 27. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.cit.htm (12 of 12)11/7/2005 6:39:21 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step6. This can be seen by turning on the grid in the vector plot: Select Draw Grid in the Vectors menu and then click Display in the Grid Display as well as the Vectors menus. Go to Step 7: Refine Mesh Copyright 2002.Fluent Tutorial .

dbs.dbs We will work with pipe2.dbs as is. type copy pipe.dbs pipe2. To copy pipe. choose Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Face Command Button > Delete http://instruct1. Modify Mesh in GAMBIT The 100x5 mesh is saved as pipe. Launch GAMBIT with pipe2. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 7: Refine Mesh It is very important to assess the dependence of your results on the mesh used by repeating the same calculation on different meshes and comparing the results.dbs to pipe2.cornell. To delete the original face mesh.dbs in order to retain pipe.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7. We will re-do the previous calculation on a 100x10 mesh and compare the results with the 100x5 mesh used previously. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. at the command prompt. Solve! 6. Create Geometry 3.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. modify the edge meshes for the vertical edges and remesh the face. Bring up the command prompt window as in step 1. If you prefer to skip the GAMBIT steps for modifying the mesh.dbs Note in the main menu bar that pipe2 is the ID of this job. Analyze Results 7. Mesh Geometry 4. We will delete the face mesh.cit. download the 100x10 mesh (by rightclicking on the link) and go directly to the FLUENT analysis discussed below.htm (1 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM .dbs as the input file by typing: gambit pipe2. So files created during this session will have that prefix.Fluent Tutorial . Start-up and preliminary set-up 2.dbs in your working directory.

Select Interval count from the box under Spacing that says Interval size. This tells GAMBIT to remove the face mesh only and keep the edge meshes associated with the face mesh.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Face Meshes In the Delete Face Meshes Window that comes up. Select the only face of the rectangle by shift-clicking on it and then click Apply. uncheck the Remove unused lower mesh box. clicking on each in turn. This will make sure that the old edge meshes are erased before the new edge meshes are created. Make sure that the Remove old mesh box is checked under Options. Modify Edge Meshes To change the number of divisions on the vertical edges from 5 to 10. and then releasing the Shift button. Change the number in the box next to the Interval count box from 5 to 10.htm (2 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM . http://instruct1. choose: Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Edge Command Button > Mesh Edges Select the two vertical edges by holding down the Shift button. there is no need to redo the meshes for all four edges.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7.Fluent Tutorial . Click Apply. Since we will be changing the mesh on only two edges of the rectangle.cornell.cit.

dragging a box across the area you want to zoom in on. (Click image for larger picture) Recreate Face Mesh Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Face Command Button > Mesh Faces Shift-click on the face in the Graphics Window to select it.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Remember that you can zoom in by holding down Ctrl.htm (3 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM . http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial . Do this now and make sure that the vertical edges have 10 divisions.cit. and then releasing Ctrl. Click Apply.

xy file created earlier.cornell. Click Plot..Fluent Tutorial . click on Load File. Type in pipe2. To do this. Click Accept. Navigate to your working folder if necessary and click on vel..Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (Click here for larger picture) Save & Export Main Menu > File > Save Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh. Compare this result with that obtained on the previous mesh which is stored in the vel. Adjust the axes so that you can zoom in on the beginning of the fully developed http://instruct1.cit.. after centerline velocity has been plotted. In the graphics window.htm (4 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM .xy and OK. in the Solution XY Plot window. Finer Mesh Analysis Repeat steps 4 and 5 of this tutorial with the 100x10 mesh (a tad on the repetitious side but consider it good practice). One you obtain the solution.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7. we can see both of the lines plotted in the same window.msh for the File Name:.. plot the variation of the centerline velocity along the x-direction as described in step 6. Select Export 2d Mesh option.

93 m/s obtained on the coarser mesh.htm (5 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM . (Click image for larger picture) In the centerline velocity plot above. This value agrees better with the analytical value of 2 m/s that the value of 1.cornell. The velocity result gets more accurate on refining the mesh as expected. Save the data for this plot as vel2.Fluent Tutorial .cit. respectively. The centerline velocity in the fully-developed region for the finer mesh is 1. http://instruct1.xy. the white and red symbols represent the results on the 100x10 mesh and 100x5 meshes. Compare the result with that obtained on the 100x5 mesh by loading it from cf.xy. Plot the skin friction coefficient as described in step 6.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7.98 m/s.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 region.

154.159 in the fully-developed region.xy. which is much closer to the theoretical value of 0. The two results compare well with the greatest deviation occurring near the centerline.xy.cornell.16 than the corresponding coarser mesh value of 0. plot the velcoity profile at the outlet and compare with the coarser grid result in out. xy. Save the data for this plot as cf2.Fluent Tutorial . Save the data for this plot as out2.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7.cit. http://instruct1.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (Click here for larger image) The finer mesh provides a skin friction coefficient of 0.htm (6 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM . Similarly.

cornell. respectively.Fluent Tutorial .cit. 100x10 and 100x5 meshes. you'll see that the results on the two finest meshes are grid-independent to a high level of accuracy. the white.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (Click picture for larger image) If you repeat the calculation on a 100x20 mesh.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7. In the plots below. Velocity along centerline: (Click picture for larger image) http://instruct1. red and green symbols correspond to the 100x20.htm (7 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM .

cornell.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Skin Coefficient: (Click picture for larger image) Outlet Velocity: (Click picture for larger image) Go to Problem 1 http://instruct1.cit.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7.htm (8 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM .Fluent Tutorial .

edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/step7.cornell. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cit. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.htm (9 of 9)11/7/2005 6:40:22 PM .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Copyright 2002.Fluent Tutorial .

Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Solve! 6.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/ps1. You can look up the value of Uexact from any introductory textbook in fluid mechanics such as Fluid Mechanics by F.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:40:29 PM . Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 1 Problem a) Consider the problem solved in this tutorial. and 100x20 meshes. perform a linear least squares fit of: to obtain the coefficients K and p. 100x10. we can define the error in the calculation of the centerline velocity as: where Uc is the centerline value from FLUENT and Uexact is the exact analytical value for fully-developed laminar pipe flow. White. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.cornell. We expect the error to take the form: where the coefficient K and the power p depend upon the method . At the exit of the pipe. Analyze Results 7. Consider the solutions obtained on the 100x5.cit. http://instruct1. Using MATLAB. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.Fluent Tutorial . Explain why your values make sense.Problem #1 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.

htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:40:29 PM . Hints Note that the first or second order discretization applies only to the convective terms in the Navier-Stokes equations.cornell. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Go to Problem 2 Copyright 2002.Fluent Tutorial . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. The viscous terms are always second order accurate.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/ps1.Problem #1 b) Repeat the above exercise using the "first-order upwind" scheme for the momentum equation.cit. Contrast the value of p obtained in this case with the previous one and explain your results briefly (2-3 sentences).

Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Analyze Results 7. 200. and 500. Hints If you've saved the 100x20 mesh in step 7. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Solution Your solution should look something like the plots below: Centerline Velocity http://instruct1. Solve! 6. Briefly explain the trend you observe as the Reynolds number increases.htm (1 of 3)11/7/2005 6:41:05 PM . you can load it into FLUENT again without having to recreate it in GAMBIT.Fluent Tutorial . Solve for µ for each of the Reynolds number first and then think about what steps need to be changed.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/ps2. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Plot the centerline velocity and skin friction as a function of axial distance for Re = 100 (previous problem). rerun the FLUENT calculation for Reynolds numbers 200 and 500 using the "second-order upwind" scheme. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Plot all three cases on the same graph for comparsion.Problem #2 Laminar Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.cornell. Note: change the Reynolds number by adjusting the molecular viscosity µ. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 2 Problem On your finest mesh (100x20).cit.

htm (2 of 3)11/7/2005 6:41:05 PM .cit.Problem #2 (Click picture for larger image) Skin Coefficient (Click picture for larger image) Back to Problem Specification http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial .edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/ps2.cornell.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Problem #2 Copyright 2002.Fluent Tutorial .cit.cornell.htm (3 of 3)11/7/2005 6:41:05 PM . Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/pipe1/ps2.

It is usually not possible to resolve these fluctuations in a CFD calculation.edu Problem Specification 1. the flow is usually completely turbulent.0: Turbulent Pipe Flow Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran E-mail: rb88@cornell. the inlet velocity is 1 m/s.Fluent Tutorial: Turbulent Pipe Flow Fluent 6. No turbulence model is currently available that is valid for all types of flows and so it is necessary to choose and fine-tune a model for particular classes of flows. etc.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:41:13 PM .cornell. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. the Reynolds no.cit. So the flow variables such as velocity. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Analyze Results 7. the timeaveraged governing equations are not closed i. Unfortunately. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem Specification Let's revisit the pipe flow example considered in the previous exercise. pressure. As before. A turbulent flow exhibits small-scale fluctuations in time. Solve! 6.e. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. the fluid exhausts into the ambient atmosphere and density is 1 kg/m3. they contain fluctuating quantities which need to be modeled using a turbulence model. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. based on the pipe diameter and average velocity at the inlet is At this Reynolds number. In this http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/index. For µ = 2 x 10-5 kg/(ms). are time-averaged.

FLUENT should not be used as a black box.Fluent Tutorial: Turbulent Pipe Flow exercise. The k-ε models consist of two differential equations: one each for the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation ε.cornell. means that there is no getting away from studying fluid dynamics concepts and numerical methods very carefully). These two equations have to be solved along with the time-averaged continuity. ahem. So turbulent flow calculations are much more difficult and time-consuming than laminar flow calculations. This is an exercise to whet your appetite for turbulent flow calculations.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/index. momentum and energy equations. tread with great caution: you should evaluate the validity of your calculations using a turbulence model very carefully (which. you'll be turned loose on variants of the k-ε model. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:41:13 PM .cit. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Go to Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT Copyright 2002. But in the real world.

Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 **Under construction** Problem Specification Consider air flowing at high-speed through a convergent-divergent nozzle having a circular cross-sectional area. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.1 + x2.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:41:22 PM . -0.5 < x < 0.edu Problem Specification 1.5 http://instruct1. according to the formula A = 0.Problem Specification Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran E-mail: rb88@cornell. Solve! 6.cit. A.Compressible Flow in Nozzle . Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/index. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. x. that varies with axial distance from the throat. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Analyze Results 7.cornell.

edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/index.325 Pa. The static pressure p at the exit is 3.738.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:41:22 PM .Problem Specification where A is in square meters and x is in meters. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. pressure and temperature distribution in the nozzle using FLUENT and compare the solution to quasi-1D nozzle flow results.Compressible Flow in Nozzle . The Reynolds number for this highspeed flow is large. The stagnation temperature To at the inlet is 300 K.cornell. So it is reasonable to model the flow as inviscid.9 Pa.cit. We will calculate the Mach number. So we expect viscous effects to be confined to a small region close to the wall. Go to Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. The stagnation pressure po at the inlet is 101.

Go to Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT http://instruct1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.325 Pa Density = 1. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Assume standard sea-level values for the freestream properties: Pressure = 101. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Analyze Results 7.Problem Specification Flow over an Airfoil Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran E-mail: rb88@cornell.cornell. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem Specification Consider air flowing over the given airfoil.edu Problem Specification 1.Flow over an Airfoil .4607e-5 m2/s Determine the lift and drag coefficients under these conditions using FLUENT.16 K Kinematic viscosity v = 1.2250 kg/m3 Temperature = 288. The freestream velocity is 50 m/s and the angle of attack is 5o.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/index. Solve! 6.cit.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:41:32 PM .

Problem Specification Copyright 2002. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/index.Flow over an Airfoil .cit.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:41:32 PM .

Refine Mesh Problem Specification In our problem.cornell. Solve! 6. The free stream temperature of the fluid is 353K. The assumption of incompressible flow becomes invalid increasingly less valid for larger temperature differences between the plate and freestream.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Author: Matthew Offerman E-mail: mvo2@cornell. The plate is infinitely wide. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.edu Problem Specification 1. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.edu/courses/fluent/plate/index. The velocity profile of the fluid is uniform at the point x = 0. We will analyze a fluid flow with the following non-dimensional conditions: http://instruct1. Because of this. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.cit. we have a flat plate at a constant temperature of 413K.htm (1 of 3)11/7/2005 6:41:54 PM . Analyze Results 7. we will treat this as a compressible flow. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.Fluent Tutorial .

Preliminary Analysis We expect the turbulent boundary layer to grow along the plate. Compare the accuracy of your results from FLUENT with empirical correlations. Solve this problem in FLUENT.edu/courses/fluent/plate/index.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate In order to achieve these flow conditions. we will use these free stream flow conditions: According to the ideal gas law. This will make calculations simpler throughout this tutorial. http://instruct1. Rather. As the boundary layer grows in thickness.cornell.Fluent Tutorial .htm (2 of 3)11/7/2005 6:41:54 PM . Nusselt Number. this temperature and pressure result in the following freestream density: These flow conditions do not necessarily represent a realistic fluid.cit. the rate of heat transfer (q'') and thus the heat transfer coefficient (h) will decrease. Then plot Reynolds Number vs. they are chosen to provide the Prandtl and Reynolds numbers specified above. Validate the solution by plotting the y+ values at the plate. Also plot the velocity profile at x = 1m.

edu/courses/fluent/plate/index. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Go to Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.htm (3 of 3)11/7/2005 6:41:54 PM . and solve the flow problem. We will create the geometry and mesh in GAMBIT.cit. read the mesh into FLUENT.cornell.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate We will compare the numerical results with experimentally-derived heat transfer correlations.Fluent Tutorial .

Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Go to Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT Copyright 2002. Solve! 6. We could create this mesh from scratch.Fluent Tutorial . Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. We will first use a 100x30 mesh (i. but instead. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.) and go straight to step 4.. you can download the mesh here (right click and select Save As.cornell.. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT If you would prefer to skip the mesh creation steps.cit. Analyze Results 7.htm11/7/2005 6:47:41 PM . we will modify the previous 100x5 to get the 100x30 mesh. 100 divisions in the axial direction and 30 divisions in the radial direction). the geometry is a rectangle as in the Laminar Pipe Flow tutorial.e.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step1.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #1 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. This will introduce you to the art of modifying meshes in GAMBIT. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Since the flow is axisymmetric. as in the Laminar Pipe Flow tutorial.

.Fluent Tutorial . Analyze Results 7.dbs file containing the 100x5 mesh from the Laminar Pipe Flow tutorial to this folder. Solve! 6.. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. This way you can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in GAMBIT. To fit the mesh to the size of the window. Start GAMBIT in your working folder by typing gambit -id pipe100x30 at the command prompt. resize the GAMBIT and browser windows so that you approximate this screen arrangement. Rename this file as pipe100x30.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. here's a copy (right-click and select Save As.dbs. We'll modify this file to obtain the mesh for the turbulent pipe flow simulation.cit.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:48:48 PM . To make best use of screen real estate. The mesh from the previous tutorial should be displayed.cornell.) Recall that GAMBIT will use the id pipe100x30 as the default prefix for all files created during this session.). select: Global Control > Fit to Window Delete Previous Face Mesh http://instruct1. (Refer to step 1 of the Laminar Pipe Flow tutorial if you've forgotten how to do this. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step2. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT Launch GAMBIT Create a folder called pipe2 at a convenient location to use as your working folder. Copy your pipe. If you don't have this file.

we only need to remesh the vertical edges. we will use smaller grid spacing near the wall by employing grid stretching.001 and the total number of divisions to be 30.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:48:48 PM . Remesh Edges Since we are still going to use 100 divisions for the horizontal edges.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step2.Fluent Tutorial . The face you have selected should become red and the name of the face listed in the Delete Face Meshes window in the drop down box. > Face Command Button > Click Apply. because we don't want to delete the edge meshes. we will specify the division length next to the wall to be 0. Now. For each vertical edge. select: Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Delete Face Meshes Since we only have one face.cornell. In this case.cit. Check that the face mesh has been removed in the GAMBIT Graphics Window. we don't want to remove the underlying edge meshes. We will set this arrow to point away from the wall. To resolve the much higher gradient near the wall for a turbulent flow. each edge has a direction associated with it as shown by an arrow. shift-click any edge of the bounding rectangle to select the face mesh we want to delete. uncheck the Remove unused lower mesh box. Then the division next to the wall becomes the "First Length" http://instruct1. So to delete only the face mesh. In GAMBIT.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2 The first step we have to do is remove the old face mesh. Recall that the face mesh is built on top of meshed edges. thereby forming the grid.

Double-click with the middle mouse button to go back to the last view.) For Type in the Mesh Edges menu.cit. http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial . Make sure these arrows are pointing down (towards the axis and away from the wall). type in 0. We'll specify the "First Length" to be 0. select First Length from the drop down box.001. (Recall that you can zoom in by holding down the Ctrl key and then dragging a box with your left mouse button. if only one of the edges needs to be reversed. Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button > Edge Command Button Select the vertical edges by shift-clicking on each of them.001 and the total number of divisions to be 30 for the edge.cornell. However.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step2.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2 and the division next to the axis becomes the "Last Length". You'll have to zoom in to be able to do this. you can reverse them by clicking Reverse next to Pick with links. GAMBIT will automatically calculate the appropriate value for the "Last Length". If both of these arrows are pointing in the wrong direction.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:48:48 PM . We want 30 divisions on each of the vertical edges. you can do that by shift-middle clicking on that edge. so select Interval Count from the drop down box under Spacing and enter 30 in the text box to its left. Next to Length. Notice the red arrow that appears on the edge when it is selected.

Fluent Tutorial .htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:48:48 PM .cornell. If you zoom in on the right edge. you should see the following: http://instruct1.cit.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step2.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2 Click Apply.

cornell. The meshed area should look like this after zooming in: > Face Command Button > http://instruct1.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2 (Click picture for larger image) Note that the mesh spacing is smaller near the wall as indicated by the blue circles on the edge. This is the same procedure as in the previous tutorial: Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Faces Shift left-click on the face and click Apply.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:48:48 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step2.Fluent Tutorial .cit. Recreate Face Mesh The next step is to recreate the face mesh on top of these edge meshes.

Fluent Tutorial .Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #2 (Click picture for larger image) Go to Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT Copyright 2002.cit. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:48:48 PM .cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step2. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT Recall that we created the following boundary types for the 100x5 mesh in the Laminar Pipe Flow tutorial: Edge Position Left Right Top Bottom Name inlet outlet wall centerline Type VELOCITY_INLET PRESSURE_OUTLET WALL AXIS These boundary types are still retained even if the edges are remeshed since the edges themselves were not deleted. To verify this: Operation Toolpad > Zones Command Button > Specify Boundary Types Check that the following is in the Name/Type list: http://instruct1. Analyze Results 7.Fluent Tutorial .cornell. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.Turblent Pipe Flow Step #3 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:48:53 PM .cit. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Solve! 6.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step3. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.

Turblent Pipe Flow Step #3 Additionally. Type in pipe100x30.cit.msh has been created in your working directory. Go to Step 4: Set Up Problem in Fluent Copyright 2002. Exit GAMBIT: Main Menu > File > Exit and save the session.. Select Export 2d Mesh since this is a two-dimensional mesh.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step3. You should now be able to see each of the boundary names on the respective edges in the Graphics Window. click on show labels.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:48:53 PM . Main Menu > File > Save Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cornell. Check that pipe100x30. we will now save and export the mesh. Click Accept. Verify that the boundary types specification is correct.. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Save and Export As in the previous tutorial.Fluent Tutorial .msh for the File Name:.

Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. double-precision version) from the list of options and click Run. Import File Main Menu > File > Read > Case.. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.msh file.0 Select 2ddp (2D.cit. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:49:33 PM . Click OK.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step4. Analyze Results 7. The following should appear in the FLUENT window: http://instruct1..cornell. Navigate to your working directory and select the pipe100x30. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.Fluent Tutorial . Solve! 6. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Launch FLUENT Start > Programs > Fluent Inc > FLUENT 6.

Check the output and make sure that there are no errors reported.Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2 Check the number of nodes.cit. Then select: Main Menu > Grid > Info > Size The following summary about the grid should appear: http://instruct1. take a look under zones.Fluent Tutorial .edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step4. So the total number of cells is 30*100 = 3000. wall. We can see the four zones inlet. Also. Grid First. This is what we'd expect since we used 30 divisions in the radial direction and 100 divisions in the axial direction while generating the grid.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:49:33 PM . faces (of different types) and cells.cornell. and centerline that we defined in GAMBIT. outlet. Main Menu > Grid > Check Any errors in the grid would be reported at this time. we check the grid to make sure that there are no errors. There are 3000 quadrilateral cells in this case.

cit. Click Display again when you have selected your boundaries.Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2 Let's look at the grid: Main Menu > Display > Grid..Fluent Tutorial . How many divisions are there in the radial direction? (Click picture for larger image) Recall that you can look at specific components of the grid by choosing the entities you wish to view under Surfaces (click to select and click again to deselect a specific boundary). Use this feature and make sure that the boundary labels correspond to the correct geometric entities.cornell.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:49:33 PM . Then click Display. Define Solver Properties http://instruct1.. Make sure all 5 items under Surfaces are selected.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step4. Remember that we can zoom in using the middle mouse button. Zoom in and admire the grid. Close the Grid Display Window when you are done.

http://instruct1. we'll use the defaults of segregated solver... Choose k-epsilon (2eqn). Click OK.Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2 Main Menu > Define > Models > Solver Choose Axisymmetric under Space. Make sure no tick mark appears next to Energy Equation. Notice that the window expands and additional options are displayed on choosing the k-epsilon turbulence model. As in the laminar pipe flow tutorial. Under NearWall Treatment. steady flow and absolute velocity formulation.htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:49:33 PM . pick Enhanced Wall Treatment so that we may get a more accurate result. The energy equation can be turned off since this is an incompressible flow and we are not interested in the temperature. implicit formulation.cornell. Main Menu > Define > Models > Energy. Click OK.Fluent Tutorial . Main Menu > Define > Models > Viscous...cit.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step4.

. Recall that for all flows. The four types of boundaries we defined are specified as zones on the left side of the Boundary Conditions Window.Fluent Tutorial .0 and Viscosity to 2e-5. Enter 1 for Velocity Magnitude.2 for http://instruct1.. Define Operating Conditions Main Menu > Define > Operating Conditions. We'll use the default value of 1 atm (101. These are the values in the Problem Specification.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:49:33 PM . Any time an absolute pressure is needed...cornell. Then enter 1 for Turbulence Intensity and 0.. This indicates that the fluid is coming in normal to the inlet at the rate of 1 meter per second..edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step4.325 Pa) as the Operating Pressure. Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter next to the Turbulence Specification Method. Define Boundary Conditions We'll now set the value of the velocity at the inlet and pressure at the outlet.cit. We'll take both as constant. Main Menu > Define > Boundary Conditions.. Choose inlet and click on Set.Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2 Main Menu > Define > Materials...... Verify this by selecting each of these two zones and clicking on Set. Click Change/Create. Recall that we don't need to set any parameters for the centerline and wall zones. Change Density to 1. Click Cancel to leave the default in place. it is generated by adding the operating pressure to the gauge pressure. FLUENT uses the gauge pressure internally.

. Click on Set.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step4. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Click Cancel to leave the defaults in place.cornell. Go to Step 5: Solve! Copyright 2002. Close the Boundary Conditions menu.cit.. Click OK to set the velocity. The default value of the Gauge Pressure is 0. So we don't have to set the backflow parameters. This is not likely to happen in this case. The (absolute) pressure at the outlet is 1 atm. Choose outlet under Zone. This completes the boundary condition specification. Since the operating pressure is set to 1 atm. The Type of this boundary is pressure-outlet.operating pressure = 0. Note: Backflow in the Pressure Outlet menu refers to flow entering through an outlet boundary.htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:49:33 PM . the outlet gauge pressure = outlet absolute pressure .Turblent Pipe Flow Step #2 Hydraulic Diameter.. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial .

Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.htm (1 of 5)11/7/2005 6:49:57 PM . Solve! 6. Analyze Results 7. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Click OK.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step5. and also for the turbulence kinetic energy equation which is part of the k-epsilon turbulence model..cit. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 5: Solve! We'll use second-order discretization for the momentum equation. as in the laminar pipe flow tutorial.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. http://instruct1. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Main Menu > Solve > Controls > Solution.Fluent Tutorial . Change Discretization for Momentum. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Turbulence Kinetic Energy and Turbulence Dissipation Rate (scroll down to see it) equations to Second Order Upwind..

htm (2 of 5)11/7/2005 6:49:57 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step5. the discretization of the viscous terms is always second-order accurate in FLUENT. Set Initial Guess We'll use an initial guess that is constant over the entire flow domain and equal to the values at the inlet: Main Menu > Solve > Initialize > Initialize. The Turbulence Kinetic Energy and Dissipation Rate (scroll down to see it) values are set from the prescribed values for the Turbulence Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter at the inlet. you can try starting the iterations with the first-order scheme and switching to the second-order scheme after some iterations.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3 The order of discretization that we just set refers to the convective terms in the equations. Second-order discretization generally yields better accuracy while first-order discretization yields more robust convergence.cit. The Axial Velocity for all cells will be set to 1 m/s. Click Init. the Radial Velocity to 0 m/s and the Gauge Pressure to 0 Pa.Fluent Tutorial . choose inlet under Compute From.cornell.. If the second-order scheme doesn't converge. Set Convergence Criteria http://instruct1. Close the Solution Initialization window. In the Solution Initialization menu that comes up..

Check that the file has been http://instruct1. Set the Convergence Criterion to be 1e-06 for all five equations being solved.cas for Case File.cit. Click OK.. Notice that Convergence Criterion has to be set for the k and epsilon equations in addition to the three equations in the last tutorial. This will print as well plot the residuals as they are calculated which you will use to monitor convergence. The residual is a measure of how well the current solution satisfies the discrete form of each governing equation. Select Print and Plot under Options. Click OK. Type in pipe100x30.htm (3 of 5)11/7/2005 6:49:57 PM . Save your work: Main Menu > File > Write > Case.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3 Recall that FLUENT reports a residual for each governing equation being solved.. This completes the problem specification.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step5.Fluent Tutorial . Main Menu > Solve > Monitors > Residual.. We'll iterate the solution until the residual for each equation falls below 1e-6..cornell.

Solve for 200 more iterations.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3 created in your working directory.cit. In the Iterate menu that comes up. The solution converges in a total of 229 iterations.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step5..htm (4 of 5)11/7/2005 6:49:57 PM . Main Menu > Solve > Iterate. http://instruct1.. Click Iterate.Fluent Tutorial . Save the solution to a data file: Main Menu > File > Write > Data. change the Number of Iterations to 100. Iterate Until Convergence Solve for 100 iterations first. You'll find that not all residuals have fallen below 1e-6 in 100 iterations.. (Click picture for larger image) We need a larger number of iterations for convergence than in the laminar case since we have a finer mesh and are also solving additional equations from the turbulence model.cornell..

cit.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #3 Enter pipe100x30.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step5.cornell.Fluent Tutorial . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Check that the file has been created in your working directory. Go to Step 6: Analyze Results Copyright 2002.htm (5 of 5)11/7/2005 6:49:57 PM .dat for Data File and click OK. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

cornell. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Select inlet under Compute From to tell FLUENT to use values at the pipe inlet for the reference values.htm (1 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM . These reference values will be used to non-dimensionalize the distance of the cell center from the wall to obtain the corresponding y+ values. Grid Considerations for Turbulent Flow Simulations. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.1 of the FLUENT user manual). Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 6: Analyze Results y+ Turbulent flows are significantly affected by the presence of walls.cit. http://instruct1..Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. First. Look at section 10.9. and coefficient of viscosity is 2e-5 kg/m-s as given in the Problem Specification. Solve! 6. for details. The near-wall model is sensitive to the grid resolution which is assessed in the wall unit y+ (defined in section 10.9.. Check that the reference value for density is 1 kg/m3.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6. We'll gloss over the details for now and use the following rule of thumb: select the near-wall resolution such that y+ > 30 or < 5 for the wall-adjacent cell. Click OK. Main Menu > Report > Reference Values. Analyze Results 7. velocity is 1 m/s. we need to set the reference values needed to calculate y+. The k-epsilon turbulence model is primarily valid away from walls and special treatment is required to make it valid near walls.Fluent Tutorial .

.cit.Fluent Tutorial .htm (2 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM .. and 0 is the value next to Y and Z under Plot Direction. choose wall under Surfaces..cornell. Recall that this tells FLUENT to plot the x-coordinate value on the abscissa of the graph. that 1 is the value next to X.. under Y Axis Function and select Wall Yplus from the drop down list under that. http://instruct1. Pick Turbulence. Make sure that Position on X Axis is set under Options. Since we want the y+ value for cells adjacent to the wall of the pipe.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 Let's plot y+ values for wall-adjacent cells to check how it compares with the recommendation mentioned above. Main Menu > Plot > XY Plot.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6.

Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 Click Plot. (Click picture for larger image) As we can see. Since this is less than 5. the near-wall grid resolution is http://instruct1.9 (ignoring the anamolous at the inlet). the wall y+ value is between 1.6 and 1.cit.Fluent Tutorial .cornell.htm (3 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM .edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6.

and then in the box under that..Fluent Tutorial .. Select Y under Axis and repeat..htm (4 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM .. Check that this file has been created in your FLUENT working directory.. check the Write to File box under Options. Click on Curves. s Turn on grid lines: In the Solution XY Plot window.xy as the filename and click OK.. Select the solid line option under Pattern as shown below.cornell. Change Weight to 2. Finally.. button. Click Apply.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 acceptable.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6. pick Velocity. Turn on the grid by checking the boxes Major Rules and Minor Rules under Options. Uncheck Write to File. De-select wall under Surfaces. The Plot button should have changed to the Write.. Enter yplus. click on Axes.cit.. Click Plot. select centerline under Surfaces since we are plotting the axial velocity along the centerline. Select the blank option under Symbol.. Click Apply and Close.. Save Plot In the Solution XY Plot Window. Click Apply and Close. http://instruct1. in the Solution XY Plot window. Centerline Velocity Under Y Axis Function. Click on Write.. pick Axial Velocity.

Can you explain the difference based on the physical characteristics of laminar and turbulent flows? Save the data for this plot as vel.Fluent Tutorial . Uncheck centerline surface.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6. Click Plot. Uncheck Write to File. Under the Y Axis Function.xy..Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 (Click picture for larger image) We can see that the fully developed region starts around x=5m with the centerline velocity becoming constant at a value of 1.. pick Wall Fluxes.cit.cornell. we are plotting the friction coefficient along the wall. and then Skin Friction Coefficient in the box under that. The required reference values of density and velocity have already been set when plotting y+. Go back to the Solution XY Plot Window.htm (5 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM . http://instruct1. This is quite a bit lower than the value of 2 m/s for the laminar case. Coefficient of Skin Friction The definition of the skin friction coefficient was discussed in the laminar pipe flow tutorial..195 m/s. Under Surfaces.

Under Plot Direction. pick Velocity.0085. pick only outlet under Surfaces.cornell.cit.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 (Click picture for larger image) We can see that the fully-developed value is 0. Velocity Profile We'll plot the axial velocity at the outlet as a function of the distance from the center of the pipe. change X to 0 and Y to 1. Compare this with what you'd expect from the Moody chart. Save the data for this plot as cf.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6. and Axial Velocity under that.e. http://instruct1. Uncheck Write to File. uncheck Position on X Axis under Options and choose Position on Y Axis instead. For the X Axis Function i.. the abscissa. Click Plot.htm (6 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM . Since we want to plot this at the outlet boundary. Change the plot settings so that the radial distance from the axis is plotted as the ordinate: In the Solution XY Plot window.xy..Fluent Tutorial .

edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step6.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #4 (Click picture for larger image) The axial velocity is maximum at the centerline and zero at the wall to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition for viscous flow.htm (7 of 7)11/7/2005 6:50:43 PM .xy. Which is larger? From this.cit. what can you say about the relative stregths of near-wall mixing in the laminar and turbulent cases? Save this plot as profile. Compare qualitatively the near-wall velocity gradient normal to the wall with the laminar case. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Fluent Tutorial . Go to Step 7: Refine Mesh Copyright 2002. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.cornell.

Analyze Results 7.msh file you have created. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. plot each of the graphs as described.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step7. eg. and click OK. Solve! 6. for each of the plots. it is necessary to compare results on different meshes. You can download the 100x60 mesh here. When you get to step 6 of the tutorial. Click Plot..htm (1 of 4)11/7/2005 6:50:56 PM .. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Check its size.. Navigate to your working directory elect the pipe100x60. Finer Mesh Analysis Repeat steps 4. and 6 of this tutorial with the finer mesh. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Step 7: Refine Mesh In order to assess the numerical accuracy of the results obtained. click on the appropriate filename for the previous result. Click OK. Display the grid. 5. overlay the corresponding result for the coarser mesh so that we may compare them. xy for centerline velocity.cornell. You'll see both results plotted in the same the graphics window. click on Load File. To do this.. in the Solution XY Plot Window. File > Read > Case. However. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Navigate to your working folder. vel. after the plotting the finer mesh result.Fluent Tutorial .cit. http://instruct1. We'll re-do the calculation on a 100x60 mesh which has twice the number of nodes in the radial direction as the 100x30 mesh..Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5 Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.

xy.htm (2 of 4)11/7/2005 6:50:56 PM . As we can see. This time. This is the coefficient of skin friction plot: http://instruct1. Save this plot as velt2. let's take a look at the coefficient of skin friction.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step7.cornell.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5 (Click picture for larger image) In the centerline velocity plot above. Now.Fluent Tutorial . there isn't too much of a difference between the two plots. load the cft.cit. the white line represents the centerline velocity of the finer mesh. while the red line represents the velocity of the coarser mesh from before. xy file to compare against the plot.

Now. study the velocity of the outlet by plotting and comparing to the graph in outt.xy. Save this plot as cf2. the finer mesh in this case doesn't offer much more precision than http://instruct1. (Click picture for larger image) Once again. we can see that due to the fine degree of each mesh.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step7.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5 (Click picture for larger image) Once again.htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:50:56 PM .xy.cit.Fluent Tutorial . there isn't much difference between the two plots.

Go to Problem 1 Copyright 2002. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. there is a significant increase in the accuracy of the plot from the finer mesh. In Problem 1. (Click picture for larger image) As we can see.edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/step7.Turbulent Pipe Flow Step #5 the coarser mesh. Now let's take a look at the YPlus plot.xy. You may want to experiment with meshes of other granularities and compare their plots with the plots saved from the 100x30 and 100x60 meshes. Save this plot as outt2.cornell.Fluent Tutorial . Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.htm (4 of 4)11/7/2005 6:50:56 PM . Save this plot as yplus2.xy.cit. we will be looking at the effect of coarse meshes with uniform granularity.

Fluent Tutorial . Plot the skin friction cf as a function of axial location for each grid. Recall that a key question for the integrity of the mesh is the non-dimensional value of the first nodal point: This should be either less than 4 (so that you resolve down into the viscous sublayer) or greater than 30 (where wall functions can accurately compensate for the poorly resolved viscous sublayer). Calculate the value of y1+ for each mesh. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 1 Problem Use FLUENT to resolve the developing flow in a pipe (same configuration as was done in the tutorial) for a pipe Reynolds number of 10. Compare the exit value with the expected value for fully developed flow (e. 345-346).edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/ps1.cornell. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. you can download them here: http://instruct1. Intermediate values can lead to greater errors. use that to help explain (briefly) the trends in the agreement that you observe.. Solve! 6. 100x20 with uniform spacing in the radial direction.Simple Pipe Flow Turbulent Pipe Flow Problem Specification 1.cit. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Analyze Results 7.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:51:03 PM . Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Hints If you no longer have the 100x5 or 100x20 mesh. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. see White pgs.g.000 on the following meshes: 100x5.

cit.Fluent Tutorial .edu/courses/fluent/pipe2/ps1. pipe100x20. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.cornell.msh.msh Back to Problem Specification Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:51:03 PM .Simple Pipe Flow pipe100x5.

So the geometry to be created is two-dimensional. Analyze Results 7. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.cornell. Create Axis Edge We'll create the bottom edge corresponding to the nozzle axis by creating the vertices A and B shown in the above figure and joining them by a straight line. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT Since the nozzle has a circular cross-section. Solve! 6.5.cit. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Start GAMBIT Create a new directory called nozzle and start GAMBIT from that directory by typing gambit -id nozzle at the command prompt.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button Button > Create Vertex > Vertex Command Create the following two vertices: Vertex 1: (-0.0.Step #1 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1. it's reasonable to assume that the flow is axisymmetric. select Solver > FLUENT 5/6 since the mesh to be created is to be used in FLUENT 6. Under Main Menu.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step1.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:51:18 PM .0.0) http://instruct1.

The more number of points used along the curved edge. select vertex 2. This is followed by x. the smoother the resultant edge.5.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . The zcoordinate is 0 for all points since we have a 2D geometry. The first line is 21 1 which says that there are 21 points along the edge and we are defining only 1 edge.0. -0. Click Apply in the Create Straight Edge window. This edge is curved. Instead. we get r(x) = [(0. Create Wall Edge We'll next create the bottom edge corresponding to the nozzle wall...Step #1 Vertex 2: (0. Take a look at this file.cit.1 + x2)/pi]0.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step1. The r-value for each x was generated from the above equation for r(x). The file vert. to download the file to your http://instruct1.cornell.dat and select Save As. one has to create a file containing the coordinates of a series of points along the curved line and read in the file.r and z coordinates for each point along the edge.0) Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Create Edge Select vertex 1 by holding down the Shift button and clicking on it. Next.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:51:18 PM > Edge Command Button .1 + x2 for the given nozzle geometry. Right-click on vert. Life would have been easier if GAMBIT allowed for this equation to be entered directly to create the curved edge.5. Since A=pi r2 where r(x) is the radius of the cross-section at x and A = 0.5 This is the equation of the curved wall.dat contains the point definitions for the nozzle wall.5 < x < 0.

enter the path to the vert.cornell. Click Accept. Then. This should create the curved edge. Next to File Name:.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:51:18 PM . Main Menu > File > Input > ICEM Input ..edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step1.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .Step #1 working directory.cit.dat file that you downloaded or browse to it by clicking on the Browse button. check the Verticesand Edges boxes under Geometry to Create as we want to create the vertices as well as the curved edge.. Here it is in relation to the vertices we created above: http://instruct1.

cit. create the vertical edge for the outlet.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step1.Step #1 (Click picture for larger image) Create Inlet and Outlet Edges Create the vertical edge for the inlet: Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Create Edge Shift-click on vertex 1 and then the vertex above it to create the inlet edge. Similarly.cornell.htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:51:18 PM .Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . > Edge Command Button http://instruct1.

cornell.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step1. Check that it has been created so that you will able to resume from here if necessary.cit.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .Step #1 (Click picture for larger image) Create Face Form a face out of the area enclosed by the four edges: Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Form Face Recall that we have to shift-click on each of the edges enclosing the face and then click Apply to create the face. Save Your Work Main Menu > File > Save This will create the nozzle. Go to Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT > Face Command Button http://instruct1.dbs file in your working directory.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:51:18 PM .

Step #1 Copyright 2002.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:51:18 PM . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.cit.cornell. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step1.

> Edge Command Button > http://instruct1. Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Edges Like the Laminar Pipe Flow Tutorial. we are going to use even spacing between each of the mesh points. Analyze Results 7.cit. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.cornell. We won't be using the Grading this time. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Solve! 6. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Step #2 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1. we need to mesh it. we will first start by meshing the edges. Then. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. so deselect the box next to Grading that says Apply. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT Now that we have the basic geometry of the nozzle created.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step2. Mesh Edges As in the previous tutorials. change Interval Count to 20 for the side edges and Interval Count to 50 for the top and bottom edges. We would like to create a 50x20 grid for this geometry.Fluent Tutorial .htm (1 of 3)11/7/2005 6:51:31 PM .

Fluent Tutorial - Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Step #2

(Click picture for larger image) Mesh Face Now that we have the edges meshed, we need to mesh the face. Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Faces As before, select the face and click the Apply button. > Face Command Button >

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step2.htm (2 of 3)11/7/2005 6:51:31 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Step #2

(Click picture for large image) Save Your Work Main Menu > File > Save Go to Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT

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Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #3

**Compressible Flow in a Nozzle
**

Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Solve! 6. Analyze Results 7. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2

**Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT
**

Specify Boundary Types Now that we have the mesh, we would like to specify the boundary conditions here in GAMBIT. Operation Toolpad > Zones Command Button Command Button This will bring up the Specify Boundary Types window on the Operation Panel. We will first specify that the left edge is the inlet. Under Entity:, pick Edges so that GAMBIT knows we want to pick an edge (face is default). > Specify Boundary Types

Now select the left edge by Shift-clicking on it. The selected edge should appear in the yellow box next to the Edges box you just worked with as well as the Label/Type list right under the Edges box. Next to Name:, enter inlet.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step3.htm (1 of 3)11/7/2005 6:51:51 PM

Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #3

For Type:, select VELOCITY_INLET. Click Apply. You should see the new entry appear under Name/Type box near the top of the window.

Create boundary types for each of the edges as specified in the chart below:

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step3.htm (2 of 3)11/7/2005 6:51:51 PM

Compressible Flow in a Nozzle - Step #3

Edge Position Left Right Top Bottom

Name inlet outlet wall centerline

Type PRESSURE_INLET PRESSURE_OUTLET WALL AXIS

You should have the following edges in the Name/Type list when finished:

Save and Export Main Menu > File > Save Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh... Type in nozzle.msh for the File Name:. Select Export 2d Mesh since this is a 2 dimensional mesh. Click Accept. Check nozzle.msh has been created in your working directory. Go to Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT

Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step3.htm (3 of 3)11/7/2005 6:51:51 PM

cornell. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2..msh file. Analyze Results 7. The following should appear in the FLUENT window: http://instruct1.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4..0 Select 2ddp from the list of options and click Run.cit. Navigate to your working directory and select the nozzle. Solve! 6. Import File Main Menu > File > Read > Case.Step #4 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step4.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:52:36 PM . Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Launch FLUENT Start > Programs > Fluent Inc > FLUENT 6. Click OK. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.

choose Axisymmetric.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:52:36 PM .Step #4 Check that the displayed information is consistent with our expectations of the nozzle grid.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step4. select Coupled.cit. Analyze Grid Grid > Info > Size How many cells and nodes does the grid have? Display > Grid How many nodes are there in the radial direction? Are the nodes clustered towards the wall? Why? Define Properties Define > Models > Solver. Under the Solver box..Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . http://instruct1.. Under Space.

Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step4. Define > Models > Viscous Select Inviscid under Model. http://instruct1.Step #4 Click OK.cit.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:52:36 PM . Click OK.cornell.

You should see the window expand. Make sure there is a check box next to Energy Equation and click OK. Click Change/Create.cornell.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .Step #4 Define > Models > Energy The energy equation needs to be turned on since this is a compressible flow where the energy equation is coupled to the continuity and momentum equations.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step4.cit. Under Properties. Define > Operating Conditions http://instruct1. This means FLUENT uses the ideal gas equation of state to relate density to the static pressure and temperature. choose Ideal Gas next to Density.htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:52:36 PM . Define > Materials Select air under Fluid materials.

outlet..cornell. It is important that you set the operating pressure correctly in compressible flow calculations since FLUENT uses it to compute absolute pressure to use in the ideal gas law.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:52:36 PM . inlet. wall.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step4.cit.. The Pressure Inlet window should come up. fluid. http://instruct1. Select inlet under Surface and pick pressure-inlet under Type as its boundary condition. default-interior. Click OK.Step #4 We'll work in terms of absolute rather than gauge pressures in this example..Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Define > Boundary Conditions Set boundary conditions for the following surfaces: axis. So set Operating Pressure in the Pressure box to 0. Click Set.

Go to Step 5: Solve! Copyright 2002. Then. stagnation) pressure (noted as Gauage Total Pressure in FLUENT) and temperature at the inlet.cornell. Using the same steps as above. when the Pressure Outlet window comes up.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step4. Click OK.e. set the pressure and temperature as above. click OK to close the window. pick pressure-outlet as the boundary condition for the outlet surface.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . For a subsonic inlet.htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:52:36 PM .cit. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure is the initial guess value for the static pressure. Calculate this initial guess value from the 1D solution.Step #4 Set the total (i. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. After you have entered the values.

Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Analyze Results 7.Step #5 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step5.htm (1 of 4)11/7/2005 6:52:52 PM . Solve! 6.cornell. We want Second Order Upwind for the Flow (under the Discretization box). Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 5: Solve! Now we will set the solve settings for this problem and then iterate through and actually solve it. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. http://instruct1.cit. Solve > Control > Solution Take a look at the options available. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.

edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step5. this is where we set the initial guess values (the base case) for the iterative solution.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . we'll set these values to be the ones at the inlet. Click Init. Select inlet under Compute From.cornell.cit.Step #5 Make sure that is selected and click OK. http://instruct1. Solve > Initialize As you may recall from the previous tutorials.htm (2 of 4)11/7/2005 6:52:52 PM . Once again.

Go to Step 6: Analyze Results http://instruct1. Solve > Iterate What does the convergence plot look like? How many iterations does it take to converge? Save case and data after you have obtained a converged solution. Click OK.cornell.htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:52:52 PM .Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . we'll set this value to 1e-06.cit. Once again.Step #5 Solve > Monitors > Residual Now we will set the residual values (the criteria for a good enough solution).edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step5.

Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .htm (4 of 4)11/7/2005 6:52:52 PM .cornell.cit. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Step #5 Copyright 2002.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step5.

Plot > XY Plot We are going plot the variation of the Mach number in the axial direction at the axis and wall. select Mach Number.xy by clicking on Load File. Solve! 6. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 6: Analyze Results Mach Number Plot As in the previous tutorials. In addition. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. You can download the file here: mach_1D. load the mach_1D. However.. http://instruct1. since we are going to plot this number at both the wall and axis.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step6. this time. we will plot the corresponding variation from 1D theory. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Analyze Results 7. Do everything as we would do for plotting the centerline velocity...Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .htm (1 of 5)11/7/2005 6:53:25 PM .xy.Step #6 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.cit.cornell. However. select centerline and wall under Surfaces. Then. we are going to plot the velocity along the centerline. Also. instead of selecting Axial Velocity as the Y Axis Function. we are going to use the dimensionless Mach quantity.

.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step6.htm (2 of 5)11/7/2005 6:53:25 PM .xy by checking Write to File and clicking Write.cit.. http://instruct1.Step #6 Click Plot. (Click picture for large image) How does the FLUENT solution compare with the 1D solution? Is the comparison better at the wall or at the axis? Can you explain this? Save this plot as machplot.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle ..cornell.

Therefore.cit.cornell.Step #6 Pressure Contour Plot Sometimes.htm (3 of 5)11/7/2005 6:53:25 PM . Under Levels. it is very useful to see how the pressure and temperature changes throughout the object. Pressure... and Static Pressure is selected.. Display > Contours. We want this at a fine enough granularity so that we can see the pressure changes clearly. This increases the number of lines in the contour plot so that we can get a more accurate result. Click Display. we are going to plot the pressure contours of the nozzle.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step6. This can be done via contour plots. http://instruct1.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . make sure that under Contours Of. change the default 20 to 40. First..

Back in the Contours window. and Static Temperature.. Temperature Contour Plot Now we will plot the temperature contours and see how the temperature varies throughout the nozzle.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step6. select Temperature.cornell. as is consistent with fluid going through a nozzle. http://instruct1.Step #6 (Click picture for large image) Notice that the pressure on the fluid gets smaller as it flows to the right.. under Contours Of.htm (4 of 5)11/7/2005 6:53:25 PM .Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .cit. Click Display.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. indicating a change of internal energy to kinetic energy as the fluid speeds up. the temperature decreases towards the right side of the nozzle.Step #6 (Click picture for large image) As we can see. Go to Step 7: Refine Mesh Copyright 2002.cit.htm (5 of 5)11/7/2005 6:53:25 PM .edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step6.cornell.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Note all five curves should be plotted on the same graph so that you can compare them. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. plot the corresponding results obtained on the 50x20 grid used in class and from the quasi-1D assumption. Comment very briefly on the grid dependence of your results and the comparison http://instruct1. MATLAB or EXCEL.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step7.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .738. Recall that the static pressure p at the exit is 3. Also. Solve! 6.cit.xy file.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:53:49 PM .Step #7 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1. (b) Plot the variation of static pressure at the axis and the wall as a function of the axial distance x.cornell. You can make the plots in FLUENT. Recall that the quasi-1D result for the Mach number variation was given to you in the M_1D. You may also download it from here. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Calculate the static pressure variation for the quasi-1D case from the Mach number variation given in M_1D. plot the corresponding results obtained on the 50x20 grid used in class and from the quasi-1D assumption. (c) Plot the variation of static temperature at the axis and the wall as a function of the axial distance x.xy. Also. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.xy. Calculate the static temperature variation for the quasi-1D case from the Mach number variation given in M_1D.9 Pa. Also. The grid for this calculation can be downloaded here. (a) Plot the variation of Mach number at the axis and the wall as a function of the axial distance x. Analyze Results 7. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 7: Refine Mesh Solve the nozzle flow for the same conditions as used in class on a 80x30 grid. plot the corresponding results obtained on the 50x20 grid used in class and from the quasi-1D assumption.

cornell.cit.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:53:49 PM . Go to Problem 1 Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/step7. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .Step #7 with the quasi-1D results.

A. determine the static pressure at the nozzle inlet and outlet for the following conditions: (a) Sonic flow at the throat.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:54:14 PM . and supersonic. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.1 + x2 where A is in square meters and x is in meters. according to the formula: A = 0.325 Pa and 300 K. isentropic flow in the diverging section. Go to Problem 2 http://instruct1. Solve! 6. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. and subsonic.cit. respectively.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . isentropic flow in the diverging section.Problem #1 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/ps1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Analyze Results 7. x. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. (b) Sonic flow at the throat. Using the quasi-1D flow assumption. (c) Sonic flow at the throat and normal shock at the exit.cornell. Refine Grid Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 1 Consider the nozzle flow problem solved using FLUENT in the tutorial. that varies with axial distance from the throat. Recall that the nozzle has a circular cross-sectional area. The stagnation pressure poand stagnation temperature To at the inlet are 101.

cornell. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cit.Problem #1 Copyright 2002.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:54:14 PM .edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/ps1.

Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.Problem 3 Compressible Flow in a Nozzle Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. plot the corresponding values from the case where the exit pressure is 3.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:54:37 PM . (c) Plot the static and stagnation temperatures at the axis as a function of the axial distance. (These four curves should be on the same graph. (b) Plot the static and stagnation pressures at the axis as a function of the axial distance. Again provide a brief explanation for the salient features.000 Pa while keeping all the other boundary conditions the same. Analyze Results 7. Solve! 6.9 Pa.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/ps2. Is the flow regime as predicted by quasi-1D theory? Explain briefly the possible causes for any similarities or disparities. Back to Problem Specification http://instruct1.) Explain briefly the salient features of this plot. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Also.738.cit. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. What flow regime do you expect for this exit pressure based on the quasi-1D results in problem 1? Re-run the FLUENT calculation with this exit pressure on the 50x20 grid.cornell.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle . Refine Grid Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 2 Change the exit pressure to 40. (a) Plot contours of the Mach number and static pressure for this case.

Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cit.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:54:37 PM . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/nozzle/ps2.Problem 3 Copyright 2002.Compressible Flow in a Nozzle .cornell.

This mesh can then be read into FLUENT for fluid flow http://instruct1. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.Flow over an Airfoil .cit.. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.Step #1 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1. Analyze Results 7.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1..htm (1 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM .cornell.) and go to Step 4. This tutorial leads you through the steps for generating a mesh in GAMBIT for an airfoil geometry. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. you can download the mesh file here (right-click and select Save As. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT If you wish to skip the steps for grid creation. Solve! 6.

Start GAMBIT Create a new directory called airfoil and start GAMBIT from that directory by typing gambit -id airfoil at the command prompt. Import Edge To specify the airfoil geometry. We'll then split these edges into 4 distinct edges to help us control the mesh size at the surface. we'll import a file containing a list of vertices along the surface and have GAMBIT join these vertices to create two edges..cornell. In an external flow such as that over an airfoil.) Let's take a look at the vertices. corresponding to the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. Under Main Menu. The farfield boundary we'll use is the line ABCDEFA in the figure above. c is the chord length.Flow over an Airfoil . we have to define a farfield boundary and mesh the region between the airfoil geometry and the farfield boundary.Step #1 simulation. dat (right click and select Save As.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1. the less effect it has on the flow and so more accurate is the farfield boundary condition. select Solver > FLUENT 5/6 since the mesh to be created is to be used in FLUENT 6. The farther we are from the airfoil.htm (2 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM . It is a good idea to place the farfield boundary well away from the airfoil since we'll use the ambient conditions to define the boundary conditions at the farfield.dat file: The first line of the file represents the number of points on each edge (61) and http://instruct1..0.cit. The file containing the vertices for the airfoil can be downloaded here: vertices.

For File Name. browse and select the vertices.Flow over an Airfoil .htm (3 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM . the next 61 are connected to form the edge for the lower surface. we will split the top and bottom edges into two edges each as shown in the figure below.cit. Click Accept. note the range of x values in the file and determine the chord length c. The first 61 set of vertices are connected to form the edge corresponding to the upper surface. Main Menu > File > Import > ICEM Input .cornell. You'll need this later on. (Click picture for larger image) Split Edges Next.dat file. The chord length c for the geometry in vertices.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1.Step #1 the number of edges (2). If you are using a different airfoil geometry specification file...dat file is 1. Select both Vertices and Edges under Geometry to Create: since these are the geometric entities we need to create. so x varies between 0 and 1. Deselect Face. http://instruct1.

select Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Split/Merge Edge Make sure Point is selected next to Split With in the Split Edge window. You should see that the white circle has moved to the correct location on the edge. To split the top edge into HI and IG. enter the value of 0. If your c is not equal to one. whenever you're asked to enter (some factor)*c.3.3c on the upper surface to split this edge into HI and IG.3*c instead of just 0. enter 1.3c. http://instruct1. To do this. From here on.Step #1 We need to do this because a non-uniform grid spacing will be used for x<0.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1.3 for x: under Global. if c=4. enter 0.3c and a uniform grid spacing for x>0.Flow over an Airfoil .cornell. Select the top edge of the airfoil by Shift-clicking on it. For instance.cit.htm (4 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM .2. calculate the appropriate value for your c and enter it. You should see something similar to the picture below: > Edge Command Button (Click picture for larger image) We'll use the point at x=0.

1 was split.Flow over an Airfoil . indicating the original edge has been split into two edges with the yellow marker as its dividing point.3 created'' in the Transcript window.cornell. Use the http://instruct1. and edge edge.htm (5 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM .Step #1 (Click picture for larger image) Click Apply. Repeat this procedure for the lower surface to split it into HJ and JG. (Click picture for larger image) Note the yellow marker in place of the white circle.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1.cit. You will see a message saying ``Edge edge.

cornell.5c 12.Flow over an Airfoil .5c 0 -12.htm (6 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM .Step #1 point at x=0.5c 0 0 z-coordinate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 http://instruct1.5c c y-coordinate 12.5c -12.3c on the lower surface to split this edge.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button Button > Create Vertex > Vertex Command Create the following vertices by entering the coordinates under Global and the label under Label: Label A B C D E F G x-coordinate c 21c 21c 21c c -11. Create Farfield Boundary Next we'll create the farfield boundary by creating vertices and joining them appropriately to form edges.cit.

keep the picture of the farfield nomenclature given at the top of this step handy. GAMBIT will create the edge. GA and CG. DE.Step #1 (Click picture for larger image) Click the FIT TO WINDOW button to scale the display so that you can see all the vertices. create the edges BC. Right-click on the Create Edge button and select Arc. Note that you might have to zoom in on the airfoil to select vertex G correctly.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1.cit. EG. Click Apply. You will see a message saying something like "Created edge: AB'' in the Transcript window.cornell.htm (7 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM . Similarly. Enter AB for Label. > Edge Command Button http://instruct1. CD.Flow over an Airfoil . As you create the edges for the farfield boundary. Next we'll create the circular arc AF. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Create Edge Create the edge AB by selecting the vertex A followed by vertex B.

If you did this right.htm (8 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM . http://instruct1. Select vertex A and then vertex F. That means that the vertex you select will be taken as the center of the arc. Similarly. Select vertex G and click Apply. create an edge corresponding to arc EF. the box next to Center will be yellow.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1. Click Apply. If you look in the transcript window.cit.Step #1 In the Create Real Circular Arc menu.Flow over an Airfoil . the arc AF will be created. you'll see a message saying that an edge has been created. Now the box next to End Points will be highlighted in yellow. Enter AF under Label. This means that you can now select the two vertices that form the end points of the arc.

select the edges AB. Similarly. We'll create three faces: ABCGA. and JG. Recall that we had selected vertices in order to create edges. Similarly. and GA and click Apply. GAMBIT will tell you that it has "Created face: face.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1. Click Apply. CG. BC.1'' in the transcript window. select the edges in the following order: AG. Then we'll mesh each face. create the face EDCGE. HJ.cit. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Form Face This brings up the Create Face From Wireframe menu. Go to Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT http://instruct1. we will select edges in order to form a face.cornell. HI and IG (around the airfoil in the clockwise direction).Flow over an Airfoil .htm (9 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM > Face Command Button . EDCGE and GAFEG+airfoil surface.Step #1 (Click picture for larger image) Create Faces The edges can be joined together to form faces (which are planar surfaces in 2D). AF. EF. To create the face consisting of GAFEG+airfoil surface. To create the face ABCGA. EG.

Step #1 Copyright 2002.cit.htm (10 of 10)11/7/2005 6:54:58 PM . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step1. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cornell.Flow over an Airfoil .

cornell. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.e.Step #2 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1. we need to define the point distribution for each of the edges that form the face i. 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. the mesh resolution as we approach the farfield boundaries can become progressively coarser since the flow gradients approach zero. We want transitions in mesh size to be smooth. Close to the surface.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step2. we first have to mesh the edges. We'll select the mesh stretching parameters and number of divisions for each edge based on three criteria: 1. we need the most resolution near the leading and trailing edges since these are critical areas with the steepest gradients. The edge mesh parameters we'll use for controlling the stretching are successive ratio. first length and last length. 2.Flow over an Airfoil . This help page also explains what the first and last lengths are. We'd like to cluster points near the airfoil since this is where the flow is modified the most. large. http://instruct1. Solve! 6. discontinuous changes in the mesh size significantly decrease the numerical accuracy. Before we mesh a face. Analyze Results 7.cit. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. The successive ratio R is the ratio of the length of any two successive divisions in the arrow direction as shown below.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:55:22 PM . Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT Mesh Faces We'll mesh each of the 3 faces separately to get our final mesh. Each edge has a direction as indicated by the arrow in the graphics window. make sure you understand what they are. Go to the index of the GAMBIT User Guide and look under Edge>Meshing for this figure and accompanying explanation.

Select Interval Count under Spacing. and HG and CG. You can reverse the direction of the edge by clicking on the Reverse button in the Mesh Edges menu.cit. Make sure the arrow is pointing upwards.15 times bigger in the direction of the arrow.e.15. the length of the division at the start of the edge) rather than the Successive Ratio. This means that each successive mesh division will be 1.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step2.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:55:22 PM . Enter a ratio of 1.02c so that the mesh length is continuous between IG and CG. GAMBIT will create 45 intervals on this edge with a successive ratio of 1.Flow over an Airfoil .Step #2 Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Edges > Edge Command Button > Select the edge GA. For edges AB and CG.15. Click Apply.15 First Length 0.cornell.02c Interval Count 45 Interval Count 60 Note that later we'll select the length at the trailing edge to be 0. AB and CG with the following specifications: Edges GA and BC Edges AB and CG Arrow Direction Upwards Arrow Direction Left to Right Successive Ratio 1. This indicates that you are ready to mesh this edge. we'll set the First Length (i. mesh the face ABCGA: http://instruct1. Enter 45 for Interval Count. Now that the appropriate edge meshes have been specified. The edge will change color and an arrow and several circles will appear on the edge. Repeat the same steps for edges BC.

e.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step2. quadrilaterals) and Map.cornell.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:55:22 PM . The meshed face should look as follows: (Click picture for larger image) Next mesh face EDCGE in a similar fashion.02c Interval Count 45 Interval Count 60 The resultant mesh should be symmetric about CG as shown in the figure below.Flow over an Airfoil . Click Apply. You can use the defaults of Quad (i. The following table shows the parameters to use for the different edges: Edges EG and CD Edges DE Arrow Direction Downwards Arrow Direction Left to Right Successive Ratio 1.cit.Step #2 Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Faces > Face Command Button > Select the face ABCGA. http://instruct1. The face will change color.15 First Length 0.

Use Interval Size rather than Interval Count and create the edge meshes: Edges IG and JG Arrow Direction Left to Right Successive Ratio 1 Interval Size 0.htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:55:22 PM . use the following parameters to create edge meshes: Edges HI HJ Arrow Direction From H to I From H to J Last Length 0.Step #2 (Click picture for larger image) Finally. To determine the number of divisions that GAMBIT has created on edge IG.02c Interval Count 40 40 For edges IG and JG. chew over it).02c. we'll set the divisions to be uniform and equal to 0. For edges HI and HJ on the front part of the airfoil surface.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step2.cit.02c For edge AF. the upper surface of the airfoil (this is a subtle point.e. the number of divisions needs to be equal to the number of divisions on the line opposite to it i. let's mesh the face consisting of GAFEG and the airfoil surface.Flow over an Airfoil .cornell.02c 0. select Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button >Summarize Edge Mesh > Edge Command Button http://instruct1.

e. The number of divisions on edge IG is 35. (If you are using a different geometry. The resultant mesh is shown below. (Click picture for larger image) Go to Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT http://instruct1.e.Step #2 Select edge IG and then Elements under Component and click Apply. this number will be different.02c 0.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step2. divisions) on the edge in the Transcript window.Flow over an Airfoil .htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:55:22 PM . So the Interval Count for edge AF is NHI+NIG= 40+35= 75. Similarly.cornell. points) and elements (i. Create the mesh for edges AF and EF with the following parameters: Edges AF EF Arrow Direction From A to F From E to F First Length 0. I'll refer to it as NIG). This will give the total number of nodes (i. This also comes out as 35 for the current geometry. determine the number of divisions on edge JG.02c Interval Count 40+NIG 40+NJG Mesh the face.cit. So the Interval Count for edge EF also is 75.

cornell.cit.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step2. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Flow over an Airfoil . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Step #2 Copyright 2002.htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:55:22 PM .

Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. which is the name of the group. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.cornell. Analyze Results 7. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT We'll label the boundary AFE as farfield1. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Create Group Select Edges and enter farfield1 for Label.Flow over an Airfoil .edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step3. we will group AF and EF together.Step #3 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1. Group Edges We'll create groups of edges and then create boundary entities from these groups.cit. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. > Group Command Button http://instruct1.htm (1 of 4)11/7/2005 6:55:59 PM . ABDE as farfield2 and the airfoil surface as airfoil. Select the edges AF and EF. Recall that these will be the names that show up under boundary zones when the mesh is read into FLUENT. First. Note that GAMBIT adds the edge to the list as it is selected in the GUI. Solve! 6.

Similarly. You should have created a total of three groups: Group Name farfield1 farfield2 farfield3 airfoil Edges in Group AF. you will see the message “Created group: farfield1 group”.IG. create the other two farfield groups. In the transcript window.EF AB.CD HI.HJ.htm (2 of 4)11/7/2005 6:55:59 PM .Flow over an Airfoil .JG http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step3.Step #3 Click Apply.DE BC.cit.cornell.

htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 6:55:59 PM . Select any edge belonging to the airfoil surface and that will select the airfoil group.Flow over an Airfoil . > Specify Boundary Types http://instruct1. Next to Name:. Operation Toolpad > Zones Command Button Under Entity.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step3. we can assign appropriate boundary types to these groups.cornell. enter airfoil. select Groups.cit. Leave the Type as WALL.Step #3 Define Boundary Types Now that we have grouped each of the edges into the desired groups.

Save Your Work Main Menu > File > Save Export Mesh Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.htm (4 of 4)11/7/2005 6:55:59 PM . create boundary entities corresponding to farfield1...Flow over an Airfoil . you will see a message saying "Created Boundary entity: airfoil". Save the file as airfoil. Make sure that the Export 2d Mesh option is selected. Similarly.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step3. farfield2 and farfield3 groups.cornell. In the Transcript Window. Go to Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Copyright 2002.Step #3 Click Apply. Set the Type to Pressure Farfield in each case.cit.msh. Check to make sure that the file is created.

Analyze Results 7.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM .cornell. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.Step #4 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Import File Main Menu > File > Read > Case.msh file. Solve! 6. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.. Navigate to your working directory and select the airfoil.cit.0 Select 2ddp from the list of options and click Run. The following should appear in the FLUENT window: http://instruct1. Click OK.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Launch FLUENT Start > Programs > Fluent Inc > FLUENT 6. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.Flow over an Airfoil ..

select Segregated.cit.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM .Flow over an Airfoil . correspond to by selecting and plotting them in turn. Zoom into the airfoil. http://instruct1..Step #4 Check that the displayed information is consistent with our expectations of the airfoil grid. Under the Solver box.cornell. Analyze Grid Grid > Info > Size How many cells and nodes does the grid have? Display > Grid Note what the surfaces farfield1. Where are the nodes clustered? Why? Define Properties Define > Models > Solver.. etc.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4. farfield2.

cit.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM . http://instruct1. Define > Models > Viscous Select Inviscid under Model.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4.Flow over an Airfoil . Click OK.Step #4 Click OK.cornell.

325 Pa. So set Operating Pressure to the ambient value of 101. So the energy equation can be turned off. Define > Materials Make sure air is selected under Fluid Materials. Make sure there is no check in the box next to Energy Equation and click OK. Define > Operating Conditions We'll work in terms of gauge pressures in this example.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4. This is low enough that we'll assume that the flow is incompressible.15.cornell. http://instruct1.225 kg/m3. Set Density to constant and equal to 1.cit.Step #4 Define > Models > Energy The speed of sound under SSL conditions is 340 m/s so that our freestream Mach number is around 0.Flow over an Airfoil .htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM . Click Change/Create.

and set the Gauge Pressure at this boundary to 0.81. For each.Click OK. Define > Boundary Conditions Set farfield1 and farfield2 to the velocity-inlet boundary type..cit. Click OK.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM .Step #4 Click OK.. click Set. Set farfield3 to pressure-outlet boundary type. the x-component is 50*cos(5o)=49..and y-components to that for the freestream.. http://instruct1. choose Components under Velocity Specification Method and set the x.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4. Then. For instance.Flow over an Airfoil ..cornell. click Set.

Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Flow over an Airfoil .Step #4 Go to Step 5: Solve! Copyright 2002.htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:31 PM .cit.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step4.cornell.

Step #5 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1.Flow over an Airfoil . Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Click OK. Analyze Results 7. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. set Pressure to PRESTO! and Momentum to SecondOrder Upwind. http://instruct1.htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:50 PM . Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.cit. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 5: Solve! Solve > Control > Solution Take a look at the options available. Solve! 6.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step5. Under Discretization.

Once again.Flow over an Airfoil .cornell. As you may recall from the previous tutorials.Step #5 Solve > Initialize > Initialize.. http://instruct1. Now we will set the residual values (the criteria for a good enough solution).cit. Solve > Monitors > Residual. Select farfield1 under Compute From. this is where we set the initial guess values (the base case) for the iterative solution.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:50 PM .. Once again.. we'll set this value to 1e-06. Click Init. we'll set these values to be the ones at the inlet..edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step5.

cornell. Lastly.Step #5 Click OK.0872 and Y to cos(5°)=0. Solve > Monitors > Force.. http://instruct1.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:50 PM .cit. set the Force Vector components for the lift. Choose airfoil under Wall Zones. Under Coefficient.9962..edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step5. select Print and Plot. Under Options.Flow over an Airfoil . Then. set X to -sin(5°)=-0. The lift is the force perpendicular to the direction of the freestream. choose Lift. So to get the lift coefficient.

Flow over an Airfoil .edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step5. Turn on only Print for it.cornell. Select farfield1 under Compute From.htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:50 PM . set X to cos(5°)=0.9962 and Y to sin(5°)=0. So under Force Vector.0872. set the Force Monitor options for the Drag force.Step #5 Click Apply for these changes to take effect. Similarly. The drag is defined as the force component in the direction of the freestream.cit. Report > Reference Values Now. set the reference values to set the base cases for our iteration. http://instruct1.

edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step5. Main Menu > File > Write > Case.Step #5 Click OK.cornell.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:50 PM . Save the case file before you start the iterations... Solve > Iterate What does the convergence plot look like? How many iterations does it take to converge? http://instruct1.Flow over an Airfoil .cit.

Save case and data after you have obtained a converged solution.Step #5 Main Menu > File > Write > Case & Data.Flow over an Airfoil ..htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 6:56:50 PM .cit.cornell. Go to Step 6: Analyze Results Copyright 2002. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step5.. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Step #6 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1.. Solve! 6. Click Plot. select airfoil under Surfaces. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Analyze Results 7. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.cit... Change the Y Axis Function to Pressure. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.. Then.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step6. followed by Pressure Coefficient.Flow over an Airfoil .htm (1 of 3)11/7/2005 6:57:27 PM . Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 6: Analyze Results Plot Pressure Coefficient Plot > XY Plot. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.cornell.. http://instruct1.

Display > Contours. Select Pressure.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step6.Flow over an Airfoil .cornell.cit.. and Static Pressure from under Contours Of.htm (2 of 3)11/7/2005 6:57:27 PM .... Click Display. (Click picture for larger image) Where are the highest and lowest pressures occurring? http://instruct1.Step #6 (Click picture for larger image) Plot Pressure Contours Plot static pressure contours.

Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.cornell.Step #6 Go to Step 7: Refine Mesh Copyright 2002.cit.htm (3 of 3)11/7/2005 6:57:27 PM .edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step6.Flow over an Airfoil . Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Step #7 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/step7. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Solve! 6. Analyze Results 7.cornell. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Step 7: Refine Mesh **Under construction** Go to Problem 1 Copyright 2002.Flow over an Airfoil . Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.cit.htm11/7/2005 6:57:53 PM . Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.

cit. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Repeat the calculation for the airfoil for α = 0° and α = 10°. Recall that the angle of attack. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 1 Consider the incompressible. Compare your result to that obtained from inviscid.. Analyze Results 7. inviscid airfoil calculation in FLUENT presented in class. α. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Make a linear least-squares fit of this data and obtain the slope.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/ps1.htm (1 of 2)11/7/2005 6:58:21 PM . What change do you see in the Cp distribution on the upper and lower surfaces as you increase the angle of attack? Which part of the airfoil surface contributes most to the increase in lift with increasing α? Hint: The area under the Cp vs. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. 5°.Problem #1 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1. α for the three values of α. follow the aeronautical convention of letting Cp decrease with increasing ordinate (y-axis) values). was 5°. Solve! 6. x curve is approximately equal to Cl. thin-airfoil theory: http://instruct1. Plot Cl vs. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5.cornell.e.Flow over an Airfoil . and 10°. (a) Graph the pressure coefficient (Cp) distribution along the airfoil surface at α = 5° and α = 10° in the manner discussed in class (i. Save your calculation for each angle of attack as a different case file. (b) Make a table of Cl and Cd values obtained for α = 0°.

cornell.Problem #1 .cit. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/ps1. where α is in degrees.htm (2 of 2)11/7/2005 6:58:21 PM .Flow over an Airfoil . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Go to Problem 2 Copyright 2002.

Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. set turbulence intensity=1% and turbulent length scale=0. Back to Problem Specification Copyright 2002. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. we expect the flow to be turbulent.01.Problem #2 Flow over an Airfoil Problem Specification 1. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Comment on any differences you observe. At the farfield boundaries. (a) Graph the pressure coefficient (Cp) distribution along the airfoil surface for this calculation and the inviscid calculation done in the previous problem at α = 5°. Discuss briefly the similarities and differences between the two results.Flow over an Airfoil . Solve! 6.cit. Analyze Results 7. (b) Compare the Cl and Cd values obtained with the corresponding values from the inviscid calculation. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/ps2. Since the Reynolds number is high.cornell.htm11/7/2005 6:58:29 PM . Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Refine Mesh Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 2 Repeat the incompressible calculation at α = 5° including viscous effects. Use the k-ε turbulence model with the enhanced wall treatment option.

cit.cornell. Refine Mesh Step 1: Create Geometry in GAMBIT Start GAMBIT & Select Solver Specify that the mesh to be created is for use with FLUENT 6: Main Menu > Solver > FLUENT 5/6 Verify this has been done by looking in the Transcript Window where you should see: The boundary types that you'll be able to select in the third step depends on the solver selected. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. A boundary layer grows along the plate. The flow velocity at the plate must be zero. Analyze Results 7. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. it can affect the solution significantly if not taken into consideration when creating the geometry of the flow field.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Problem Specification 1. http://instruct1. which must satisfy the no slip condition.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.htm (1 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM . Although the y-velocity is significantly smaller in magnitude than the x-velocity. Solve! 6. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.Fluent . Strategy for creating flow field geometry In creating the geometry for our flow field we must consider what is necessary for our model to approximate real flow. Continuity requires that this condition gives rise to a y-velocity.

it becomes the default when you go to a different sub-pad and then come back to the sub-pad.htm (2 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM .cit.Fluent . Next to z:. Create the vertex at the lower-left corner of the rectangle: Next to x:. enter value 0. We will then form a face that covers the area of the rectangle. Next to y:. Let's begin by creating the vertices that define our flow region.cornell. http://instruct1. enter value 0 (these values should be defaults).edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1. After you select a button under a sub-pad. The coordinates of the corners are shown in the figure below: We will first create four vertices at the four corners and join adjacent vertices to get the edges of the rectangle. Create Vertices We will treat this problem as a 2-dimensional problem by assuming that the plate is infinitely wide. Click Apply. Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button Button > Create Vertex > Vertex Command Note that the Create Vertex button has already been selected by default. enter value 0.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 ************************************************************* We will put the origin of the coordinate system at the lower left corner of the rectangle that defines our flow field.

1.Fluent .cit.0) which is displayed in the graphics window. Repeat this process to create three more vertices: Vertex 2: (1.0.1". the z-coordinate can always be left to the default value of 0. In the Transcript window.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.htm (3 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM .0) Vertex 3: (1. vertex. in the order in which they are created. GAMBIT reports that it "Created vertex: vertex.1.0) Vertex 4: (0.2 etc. The vertices are numbered vertex.0.cornell.1.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 This creates the vertex (0.0) Note that for a 2D problem. http://instruct1.

cornell. (click picture for larger image) http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.Fluent .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 Operation Toolpad > Global Control > Fit to Window Button This fits the four vertices of the rectangle we have created to the size of the Graphics Window.htm (4 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM .cit.

edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1. If you click and hold the left mouse button and then move the mouse. Create Edges An edge is created by selecting two vertices and creating a line between them.cit.1 and Vertex.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 Another useful button on the Operation Toolpad is the Orient Model button . not usually a helpful feature when creating 2-D models in GAMBIT. of course. Then push the right arrow button bring these vertices into the Picked column.cornell.htm (5 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM . Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Create Edge Click the up arrow button Edge window. Select Vertex.Fluent .2. Click the Orient Model button to make the zaxis normal to the page again. This is. the model will rotate 3-dimensionally. from which vertices 1 and 2 can be selected. to http://instruct1. next to the vertices box in the Create Straight > Edge Command Button This brings up a list of vertices.

Then let go of the Shift button and click Apply in the Create Straight Edge window. As each vertex is picked.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.cit. vertices 3 & 4. it will appear red in the Graphics Window. Then click Apply in the Create Straight Edge window to create this edge.Fluent . and vertices 4 & 1. Alternately.htm (6 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM . http://instruct1. these vertices can be selected by holding down the Shift button and clicking on the corresponding vertices.cornell.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 Click Close. Repeat this process to create edges between vertices 2 & 3.

This is done in much the same way as when we selected the vertices. http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.htm (7 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM .cit. Then push the All right arrow button vertices into the Picked column.Fluent .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1 (click picture for larger image) Create Face Operation Toolpad > Geometry Command Button > Form Face To form a face out of the area enclosed by the four lines.cornell. Click the up arrow button next to the vertices box in the Create Face From to bring these > Face Command Button Wireframe window. we need to select the four edges that enclose this area.

Fluent - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1

Click Close. Then click Apply in the Create Face From Wireframe window to create the face. The edges and vertices will become blue, indicating that they now form a face.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.htm (8 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM

Fluent - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1

(click picture for larger image)

Save Save your GAMBIT file in your working directory. Main Menu > File > Save As... > Browse... Find your working directory and save your GAMBIT file there. Make sure to enter the file name, plate.dbs, in the Selection box in addition to the path.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.htm (9 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM

Fluent - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #1

**Go to Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT
**

Copyright 2002. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step1.htm (10 of 10)11/7/2005 6:59:38 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #2

**Forced Convection over a Flat Plate
**

Problem Specification 1. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Solve! 6. Analyze Results 7. Refine Mesh

**Step 2: Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT
**

We'll now create a mesh on the rectangular face with 100 divisions in the vertical direction and 30 divisions in the horizontal direction. We'll first mesh the four edges and then the face. The desired grid spacing is specified through the edge mesh. Mesh Edges Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Edges Mesh Strategy In creating this mesh, it is desirable to have more cells near the plate (Edge 1) because we want to resolve the turbulent boundary layer, which is very thin compared to the height of the flow field. Click the up arrow button next to the Edges box in the Mesh Edges window. > Edge Command Button >

Select edge Edge.2. Then push the right arrow button to bring this vertex into the Picked column. Notice that the arrow on the selected edge should be pointing upwards. An upwards pointing arrow indicates the direction of closely spaced nodes to widely spaced nodes. Remember, we will need more closely spaced nodes near the boundary layer in order to resolve it accurately.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step2.htm (1 of 4)11/7/2005 7:00:43 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #2

The proper arrow direction is necessary to ensure a proper mesh. Select Edge.4 in the Mesh Edges window. The arrow on this edge is pointing downwards, which needs to be changed. Shift + Middle-click on the selected edge to change the direction of the arrow to upward. Under Type, select Successive Ratio, if it is not already selected. Set Ratio to 1.08. Under Spacing, select Interval Count. Set Interval Count to 100 and then click Apply. Select Edge.1 and Edge.3 in the Mesh Edges Window. The direction of the arrows on these edges is irrelevant because the divisions will be the same length. Leave the Successive Ratio set to 1 and set the Interval Count to 30. Click Apply.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step2.htm (2 of 4)11/7/2005 7:00:43 PM

> Face Command Button > (click picture for larger image) Go to Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT http://instruct1.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #2 (click picture for larger image) Mesh Face Operation Toolpad > Mesh Command Button Mesh Faces Shift left-click on the face or use the up arrow next to Faces to select the face. Click Apply.htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 7:00:43 PM .cit.Fluent Tutorial .cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step2.

Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #2 Copyright 2002.cornell.cit. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step2.htm (4 of 4)11/7/2005 7:00:43 PM . Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial .

Operation Toolpad > Zones Command Button http://instruct1. and the bottom edge the plate.cit. The left edge is the inflow of the flow field. Analyze Results 7.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step3. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #3 Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Problem Specification 1. the top edge the open top of the flow field. the right edge the outflow.cornell. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2. Solve! 6.htm (1 of 4)11/7/2005 7:01:52 PM > Specify Boundary Types . Refine Mesh Step 3: Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT Create Boundary Types We'll next set the boundary types in GAMBIT.Fluent Tutorial .

select VELOCITY_INLET.htm (2 of 4)11/7/2005 7:01:52 PM . enter inflow. We will first specify that the left edge is the inflow. Next to Name:. pick Edges so that GAMBIT knows we want to pick an edge (face is default). Now select the left edge by Shift-clicking on it. Click Apply. You should see the new entry appear under Name/Type box near the top of the window. The selected edge should appear in the yellow box next to the Edges box as well as the Label/Type list under the Edges box. http://instruct1. Under Entity:. For Type:. You may have to move the Specify Boundary Types box up in order to see the bottom of the list and select VELOCITY_INLET.Fluent Tutorial .cornell.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #3 Command Button This will bring up the Specify Boundary Types window on the Operation Panel.cit.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step3.

cornell.Fluent Tutorial .htm (3 of 4)11/7/2005 7:01:52 PM .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #3 Repeat this process for the other three edges according to the following table: Edge Position Left Right Name inflow outflow Type VELOCITY_INLET PRESSURE_OUTLET http://instruct1.cit.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step3.

Go to Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Copyright 2002.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step3. GAMBIT may periodically fail to write the . If this should happen.msh for the File Name:.cornell.. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.msh file. Select Export 2d Mesh because this is a 2 dimensional mesh. Type in plate.. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.htm (4 of 4)11/7/2005 7:01:52 PM .cit. Click Accept. simply try writing the .msh has been created in your working directory.msh file to another directory and then coping it into your working directory.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #3 Top Bottom top plate SYMMETRY WALL You should have the following edges in the Name/Type list when finished: Save and Export Main Menu > File > Save Main Menu > File > Export > Mesh. It is important to check that plate.Fluent Tutorial .

each floating point number is represented using 64 bits in contrast to the single-precision solver which uses 32 bits. Solve! 6.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Problem Specification 1. Refine Mesh Step 4: Set Up Problem in FLUENT Launch Fluent 6.0 Select the 2ddp version and click Run. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.msh file. Import Grid Main Menu > File > Read > Case. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4.cornell. double-precision solver.0 Start > Programs > Fluent Inc > FLUENT 6. In the doubleprecision solver. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.htm (1 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM . Navigate to the working directory and select the plate. FLUENT reports the mesh statistics as it reads in the mesh: http://instruct1. The extra bits increase not only the precision but also the range of magnitudes that can be represented. The "2ddp" option is used to select the 2-dimensional..cit. Analyze Results 7.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4..Fluent Tutorial . The downside of using double precision is that it requires more memory. This is the mesh file that was created using the preprocessor GAMBIT in the previous step.

Check the output and make sure that there are no errors reported. This is what we expect because we used 30 divisions in the horizontal direction and 100 divisions in the vertical direction while generating the grid.cornell.cit. take a look under zones. top. Check the grid size: Main Menu > Grid > Info > Size The following statistics should appear: Display the grid: http://instruct1. and plate that we defined in GAMBIT.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Check the number of nodes.Fluent Tutorial . Also. we check the grid to make sure that there are no errors.htm (2 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM . Main Menu > Grid > Check Any errors in the grid would be reported at this time. outflow. So the total number of cells is 30*100 = 3000. There are 3000 quadrilateral cells in this case. faces (of different types) and cells. We can see the four zones inflow. Check and Display Grid First.

. Then click Display.htm (3 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM . segregated solver. implicit formulation. The graphics window opens and the grid is displayed in it. Your grid should look like this: (click picture for larger image) Define Solver Properties Main Menu > Define > Models > Solver We'll use the defaults of 2D space.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4. Make sure all 5 items under Surfaces are selected.cit. steady flow and http://instruct1..Fluent Tutorial .cornell.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Main Menu > Display > Grid.

Click OK. There are 3 regions in the boundary layer that we are concerned with. starting at the wall: 1. Select the Energy Equation and click OK to exit the menu. The Realizable k-epsilon model produces more accurate results for boundary layer flows than the Standard k-epsilon model.Fluent Tutorial . so we need to solve the energy equation. select the k-epsilon turbulence model. In the Near-Wall Treatment box.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 absolute velocity formulation. which deals with the resolution of the boundar layer in our model.cit.htm (4 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM . Laminar sublayer (y+ < 5) http://instruct1. We will use the Realizable model in the k-epsilon Model box. Main Menu > Define > Models > Viscous Under Model. observe the Enhanced Wall Treatment option.cornell. Main Menu > Define > Models > Energy We are interested in solving the temperature distribution.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4.

solutions with y+ values in the buffer region are generally less accurate than if the solution is resolved to one of the other 2 regions. especially in high Reynolds Number flows. Buffer region (5 < y+ < 30) 3.htm (5 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM . FLUENT will be able to resolve the laminar sublayer. Thus it is good practice to always use Enhanced Wall Treatment when dealing with a boundary layer. The thickness of the boundary layer is significantly smaller than the height of our flow field. Leave all values in the Model Constants box set to their default values. Although it is not necessary with the current mesh.9. it will be necessary for the less refined mesh later on. Resolving the solution to the laminar sublayer is computationally intensive. Turbulent region (y+ > 30) y+ is a mesh-dependent dimensionless distance that quantifies to what degree the wall layer is resolved. Look at FLUENT Help section 10. Enhanced Wall Treatment also improves the accuracy of meshes that can only be resolved to the Buffer region (5< y+ < 30). Resolving to the turbulent region is often the only reasonable option.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4. The Enhanced Wall Treatment option serves to more accurately resolve the boundary layer in the case when the mesh is only fine enough to resolve to the turbulent region (y+ > 30). After solving this problem in FLUENT. http://instruct1. For our mesh. for more details. so go ahead and select Enhanced Wall Treatment now.cit. we will observe the value of y+ for each mesh we use.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 2. Select Thermal Effects in the Enhanced Wall Treatment Options box to include the thermal terms in the Enhanced Wall Treatment equation. However.Fluent Tutorial . Grid Considerations for Turbulent Flow Simulations. Click OK. The values in the Model Constants box are constants used in the k-epsilon turbulence equations. These values for the Model Constants are well-accepted for a wide range of wallbounded shear flows. It will however make a difference in Step 7 when we use a less refined mesh. thus Enhanced Wall Treatment does not improve the accuracy of our solution with our mesh.

These are the values that we specified under Problem Specification. Leave Cp set as the default value of 1006.Fluent Tutorial .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Define Material Properties Main Menu > Define > Materials. Scroll down to see Molecular Weight.966.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4.4505 e-4. Change Viscosity to 6. Leave Molecular Weight set to the default value of 28. Change Density to ideal gas because we are treating the flow as compressible. FLUENT will calcualte the density of the flow at each point based on the pressure and temperature it calculates at that point. http://instruct1.cit.667e-7.43...cornell. Change Thermal Conductivity to 9.htm (6 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM .

htm (7 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM . it is generated by adding the operating pressure to the gauge pressure.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Click Change/Create.. Define Boundary Conditions We'll now set the value of the velocity at the inflow and pressure at the outflow.cornell.325 Pa) as the Operating Pressure. For all flows. Define Operating Conditions Main Menu > Define > Operating Conditions. We'll use the default value of 1 atm (101.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4.cit. Click Cancel to leave the default value in place. http://instruct1. FLUENT uses gauge pressure internally. Any time an absolute pressure is needed.Fluent Tutorial . Simply clicking close without clicking Change/Create will cause these properties to revert back to their default values..

. We will not need to change any setting for these 2 zones. Recall that the boundary type for the inflow was set in GAMBIT. the outflow gauge pressure = outflow absolute pressure . Set Turbulence Intensity to 1 and Turbulent Viscosity Ratio to 1.. Enter 1 for Velocity Magnitude. we do not need to set any backflow conditions.Fluent Tutorial . There are also 2 zones default-interior fluid.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4.. Click Set.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Main Menu > Define > Boundary Conditions. Because we do not expect any backflow.cornell. The Type of this boundary is pressure-outlet.. Click OK.operating pressure = 0. used to define the interior of the flow field.... we can change the boundary type set previously in GAMBIT in this menu by selecting a different type from the list on the right. This sets the velocity of the fluid entering at the left boundary to a uniform velocity profile of 1m/s.htm (8 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM .. The (absolute) pressure at the outflow is 1 atm. The default value of the Gauge Pressure is 0. Change Turbulence Specification Method to Intensity and Viscosity Ratio. Move down the list and select inflow under Zone. We note here that the four types of boundaries we defined are specified as zones on the left side of the Boundary Conditions Window. Since the operating pressure is set to 1 atm. Choose outflow under Zone. Set Temperature to 353K. http://instruct1. Click Set. Note that FLUENT indicates that the Type of this boundary is velocity-inlet. If necessary.cit. Click Cancel to leave the defaults in place.

. we need to set the temperature.cit. Click Set. Change Temperature to 413. Click on top under Zones and http://instruct1. select Temperature under Thermal Conditions.Fluent Tutorial . Because we have a heated isothermal plate.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4. The material selected is inconsequential because the plate has zero thickness in our model.htm (9 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM .cornell..Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 Click on plate under Zones and make sure Type is set as wall.. Click OK. On the Thermal tab. thus the material properties of the plate do not affect the heat transfer properties of the plate. The last boundary condition to set is for the top of the flow field.

Click OK...cit. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Click Set. to see that there is nothing to set for this boundary.htm (10 of 10)11/7/2005 7:04:00 PM .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #4 make sure Type is set as symmetry.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step4.Fluent Tutorial . Click Close to close the Boundary Conditions menu. Go to Step 5: Solve! Copyright 2002.

Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5 Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Problem Specification 1.cornell. Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3.cit. respectively). Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. Leave Pressure and Pressure-Velocity Coupling set to the default methods (Standard and SIMPLE. and Energy all to Second Order Upwind. Main Menu > Solve > Controls > Solution.. Solve! 6. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Refine Mesh Step 5: Solve! We'll use a second-order discretization scheme. Momentum. Change Density. Turbulence Kinetic Energy. Analyze Results 7. http://instruct1.. Turbulence Dissipation Rate. The other Pressure and Pressure-Velocity Coupling methods are useful for flows with particular characteristics not present in our problem. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step5.Fluent Tutorial .htm (1 of 6)11/7/2005 7:05:42 PM .

Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5 Click OK. Set Initial Guess Initialize the flow field to the values at the inflow: Main Menu > Solve > Initialize > Initialize. In the Solution Initialization window that comes up... choose inflow under Compute From. The X Velocity for all cells will automatically be set to 1 m/s. the Y Velocity to 0 m/s and the Gauge Pressure to 0 Pa.cit. These values have been taken from the inflow boundary condition. http://instruct1.Fluent Tutorial .edu/courses/fluent/plate/step5.cornell.htm (2 of 6)11/7/2005 7:05:42 PM .

Main Menu > Solve > Monitors > Residual. and yvelocity.cornell. Also. Set Convergence Criteria FLUENT reports a residual for each governing equation being solved.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5 Click Init. We will iterate until the residual for each equation falls below 1e-6.cit.. x-velocity.. k. energy. Then click Close. select Print and Plot. under Options. This completes the initialization.htm (3 of 6)11/7/2005 7:05:42 PM .edu/courses/fluent/plate/step5. The residual is a measure of how well the current solution satisfies the discrete form of each governing equation. http://instruct1. This will print the residuals in the main window and plot the residuals in the graphics window as they are calculated. Change the residual under Convergence Criterion for continuity.Fluent Tutorial . and epsilon all to 1e-6.

Main Menu > Solve > Iterate.cas for Case File.. Click OK..edu/courses/fluent/plate/step5.000 iterations are performed.cornell.. Click Iterate. which will stop the iteration process.htm (4 of 6)11/7/2005 7:05:42 PM .Fluent Tutorial . http://instruct1. This completes the problem specification.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5 Click OK..000 iterations. Type in plate. If you exit FLUENT now. Check that the file has been created in your working directory. change the Number of Iterations to 10000. Iterate Until Convergence Start the calculation by running 10.cit. The solution will converge before 10. you can retrieve all your work at any time by reading in this case file. In the Iterate Window. Save your work: Main Menu > File > Write > Case.

edu/courses/fluent/plate/step5.htm (5 of 6)11/7/2005 7:05:42 PM . (Click picture for larger image) The residuals fall below the specified convergence criterion of 1e-6 in approximately 1623 iterations. http://instruct1.cornell.Fluent Tutorial .cit.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5 The residuals for each iteration are printed out as well as plotted in the graphics window as they are calculated.

Go to Step 6: Analyze Results Copyright 2002.cornell.Fluent Tutorial .htm (6 of 6)11/7/2005 7:05:42 PM .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #5 Save the solution to a data file: Main Menu > File > Write > Data. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step5. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. Check that the file has been created in your working directory... Enter plate.cit.dat for Data File and click OK. You can retrieve the current solution from this data file at any time.

First. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. http://instruct1. and coefficient of viscosity is 6.667e-7 kg/m-s as given in the Problem Specification. Click OK.htm (1 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM . Mesh Geometry in GAMBIT 3. Analyze Results 7.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Problem Specification 1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6. Specify Boundary Types in GAMBIT 4. Solve! 6.cit. Create Geometry in GAMBIT 2.Fluent Tutorial . These reference values will be used to nondimensionalize the distance of the cell center from the wall to obtain the corresponding y+ values. which is assessed in the wall unit y+.. The near-wall model is sensitive to the grid resolution. Main Menu > Report > Reference Values. Select inflow under Compute From to tell FLUENT to use values at the inflow for the reference values. Check that the reference value for velocity is 1 m/s. as discussed in Step 4. The k-epsilon turbulence model's validity is grid-independent away from walls but requires verification to make sure it is valid when used near walls. we need to set the reference values needed to calculate y+. Refine Mesh Step 6: Analyze Results y+ Turbulent flows are significantly affected by the presence of walls..cornell. temperature is 353 K.

.Fluent Tutorial .cit. plot y+ values for wall-adjacent cells to check how they compare with the recommendation mentioned above.cornell. Make sure that Position on X Axis is set under Options.. under Y Axis Function and select Wall Yplus from the drop down list under that.htm (2 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM . and 0 is the value next to Y under Plot Direction. Main Menu > Plot > XY Plot.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 By using the following method. Select Turbulence.. that 1 is the value next to X. Since we want the y+ value for cells adjacent to the wall of http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.. Recall that this tells FLUENT to plot the x-coordinate value on the abscissa of the graph.

Fluent Tutorial . http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6. Click Plot.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 the pipe.htm (3 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM .cit.cornell. choose plate under Surfaces.

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

(Click picture for larger image) As we can see, the wall y+ value is between 1.0 and 1.4 (ignoring the anamolous at the inflow). Because these values are less than 5, the near-wall mesh resolution is in the laminar sublayer, which is the most accurate region to which we can resolve the boundary layer. Save Plot In the Solution XY Plot Window, check the Write to File box under Options. The Plot button should have changed to the Write... button. Click on Write.... Enter yplus.xy as the filename and click OK. Check that this file has been created in your FLUENT working directory. Velocity at x = 1m Main Menu > Plot > XY Plot... Under Options, unselect Position on X Axis and select Position on Y Axis. Under Plot Direction, enter 0 in the X box and 1 in the Y box. This tells FLUENT

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (4 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

to plot a vertical rather than horizontal profile. Under X Axis Function, pick Velocity... and then in the box under that, pick X Velocity. Finally, select outflow under Surfaces since we are plotting the velocity profile at the outflow. De-select plate under Surfaces.

Click on Axes... in the Solution XY Plot window. Select X in the Axis box. In the Options box select Major Rules to turn on the grid lines in the plot. Click Apply. Then select the Y in the Axis box, select Major Rules again, and turn off Auto Range. In the Range box enter 0.1 for the Maximum so that we may view the velocity profile in the boundary layer region more closely. Click Apply and Close.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (5 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

Uncheck Write to File. Click Plot.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (6 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

(Click picture for larger image) We notice here that the x velocity reaches 1 m/s at approximately y = 0.02 m. This shows the relative thinness of the boundary layer compared to the length scale of the plate. We also notice that the velocity profile is slightly greater than 1 m/s above the boundary layer. We know this would not happen in real flow, rather it is a result of the boundary condition we have chosen for our model. We chose the Symmetry boundary condition at the top of our flow field, which is essentially a wall without the no-slip condition. Thus, no flow is permitted to escape through this boundary. In a real external flow, there is no such boundary at the top and flow is permitted to pass through freely. When we consider the inflow and outflow velocity profiles in terms of conservation of mass, the uniform velocity profile of 1 m/s at x = 0 has more mass entering the flow field than the non-uniform velocity profile at x = 1m, in which the velocity is lower near the plate. In addition, the fluid is expanding near the plate because its temperature is increasing, further increasing the y-velocity of the fluid above it. These factors require that some mass must escape through the top of our flow field in order to satisfy conservation of mass.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (7 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM

Fluent Tutorial - Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6

Choosing a Pressure Outlet for the top boundary condition would represent real external flow more accurately. Unfortunately, this cannot be used in our flow field without encountering convergence problems, so selecting the Symmetry boundary condition was the next best option. Because we are not allowing flow to escape through the top boundary, we observe an outflow velocity profile in which outflow velocity is greater than 1 above the boundary layer in order to satisfy conservation of mass. Fortunately, the inaccuracies resulting from the model we chose have no significant effect on the heat transfer coefficients at the plate. Select Write to File and save the data for this plot as outflow_profile.xy. Plot Nusselt Number vs. Reynolds Number Recall that the Nusselt Number is a non-dimensional heat transfer coefficient that relates convective and conductive heat transfer.

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (8 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM

http://instruct1.cit.. chose Total Surface Heat Flux.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6. In the Options box.Fluent Tutorial ... Click Plot.. In the box below.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 In order to obtain the Nusselt Number from FLUENT.cornell. Select Plate under Surfaces.htm (9 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM . Before plotting. In the Plot Direction box. we will begin by plotting Total Surface Heat Flux. enter the default values of 1 in the X box and 0 in the Y box. change back to Position on X Axis.. be sure to turn on Auto Range for the Y axis under Axes. Main Menu > Plot > XY Plot. Under Y-Axis Function choose Wall Fluxes.

.xy using Wordpad or a similar application. Open the file heatflux. Click Write.cornell.xy.cit.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 (click picture for larger image) Now Select Write to File. You can simply copy and paste the data into Excel..edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (10 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM .Fluent Tutorial .. Save the data for this plot as heatflux. http://instruct1.

cornell.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6. We now need to determine the Nusselt number from these values at each x location. separate it by selecting the column of data and then using the Text to Columns function: Main Menu > Data > Text to Columns The first column is the x location on the plate and the second column is the total surface heat flux (q'') at the corresponding x location.Fluent Tutorial .htm (11 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 If Excel does not automatically separate the data into columns. Use the following expression to convert q'' to Nusselt Number in your Excel spreadsheet. http://instruct1.cit. We will define positive q'' as heat transfer into the fluid.

Fluent Tutorial . Nu in Excel.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 Reynolds Number can be defined at each x location by Now plot Re vs. Your plot should look like this: (click picture for larger image) Compare Results with Correlation & Experiment Validate your results form FLUENT by comparing to a correlation and http://instruct1.cit.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.htm (12 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM .cornell.

cornell. 10^5 < Re < 10^7 3. does not need to be calculated in your analysis): Add the Reynolds correlation for Nusselt Number to your Excel spreadsheet. Fluid properties evaluated at free-stream conditions 4.7 2. Pr = 0.htm (13 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM .Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 experimental results.This correlation assumes the following: 1. Flat plate 6.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.cit. The correlation we will use is derived by Reynolds [1]: All properties in this correlation are evaluated at the free-stream static temperature of 300K. Turbulent compressible boundary layer 5.Fluent Tutorial . Friction factor calculated from the following relation (implicit in Nu equation above. Seban & Doughty [2] performed a heated flat plate experiment for which they derived the following expression for Nusselt Number: The Seban & Doughtyexperiment was performed with air as the fluid (Pr = 0.7) http://instruct1.

Nu from FLUENT. Now plot and compare Re vs. Add the this experimental relation for Nusselt Number to your Excel spreadsheet. http://instruct1.cit. although the kepsilon model is the most appropriate model to use in this case. Each of the turbulence models that FLUENT offers produces results similar to these. (click picture for larger image) As we can see. The largest % error between the FLUENT results and the Reynolds correlation is only 7.Fluent Tutorial .5%. similar results between FLUENT and correlation are more difficult to come by than in laminar flow because a turbulent model must be used in FLUENT. which does not solve the Navier-Stokes Equations exactly. there is very little variation between these 3 results. Experimental error (in experiments from which correlations are derived) also accounts for some of this 7.cornell. and Seban's experiment. In turbulent flow as we have here.htm (14 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM .5% error. the Reynolds Correlation.Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 and at various Reynolds Numbers in the range 1e5 < Re < 4e6.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6.

R.M. and Doughty.cornell.L.htm (15 of 15)11/7/2005 7:07:43 PM . [2] Seban.cit.. D." Journal of Heat Transfer 78:217 (1956).J..Forced Convection on a Flat Plate Step #6 Go to Step 7: Refine Mesh [1] Reynolds.C.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step6. Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. W. Kline. Copyright 2002.A. "Heat Transfer to Turbulent Boundary Layers with Variable Freestream Velocity.Fluent Tutorial . December 1958. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1. S. Kays." NASA Memo 12-1-58W. W. "Heat Transfer in the Turbulent Incompressible Boundary Layer.

http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Forced Convection over a Flat Plate Problem Specification 1.Fluent Tutorial . Start-up and preliminary set-up 2. Solve! 6. We will re-do the previous calculation on a 30 x 50 mesh as well as a 30 x 150 mesh and then compare the results with the 30x100 mesh used previously. Modify Mesh in GAMBIT to a 30x50 mesh The 30x100 mesh is saved as plate.dbs as is. Bring up the command prompt window as in step 1.dbs We will work with plate50.095 and an Interval Count of 50. Refine Mesh Step 7: Refine Mesh It is very important to assess the dependence of your results on the mesh used by repeating the same calculation on different meshes and comparing the results.dbs in order to retain plate. type copy plate. To copy plate. Set Up Problem in FLUENT 5. The top and bottom edges will remain the same.dbs to plate50.htm (1 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM . The face mesh will be automatically deleted when you re-mesh the edges. Create Geometry 3.cornell. Mesh Geometry 4.cit.dbs in your working directory.dbs Follow the same method as in previous tutorials to change the mesh. Launch GAMBIT with plate50.dbs as the input file by typing: gambit plate50.dbs.dbs plate50. at the command prompt. Analyze Results 7. Mesh the inflow and outflow edges at a Successive Ratio of 1.

Read the file into FLUENT and repeat step 4 and step 5 of this tutorial to set up and solve the problem in FLUENT.htm (2 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Remesh the face and then export this as the 2D mesh file.Fluent Tutorial . plate50. http://instruct1.cit.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7.msh.cornell. The solution should converge in approximately 115 iterations. Plot y+ at the plate as explained in step 6.

http://instruct1. Nu and compare with the 30x100 mesh results.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7.Fluent Tutorial .cornell. Plot Re vs. Now use the Total Surface Heat Flux plot to determine Nu(x).htm (3 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (click picture for larger image) y+ ranges from 29 to 50 in this plot.cit. This is (mostly) outside of the ill-defined Buffer region (5 < y+ < 30) and is thus acceptable.

Some numerical error is introduced when the less-refined 30x50 mesh is used. although they are still reasonable. The results from using the 30 x 50 grid show that a reasonable solution can still be obtained without resolving down to the laminar sublayer. produces more accurate results than resolving only to the turbulent region.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7. especially at high Reynolds numbers.Fluent Tutorial .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (click picture for larger image) We can see that the courser mesh produces slightly different results.065 and an Interval Count of 150. As one would expect.cornell. Resolving to the laminar sublayer is not always a reasonable thing to do.htm (4 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM . Modify Mesh in GAMBIT to a 30x150 mesh Create a mesh that is finer than the original mesh to see if our original solution contained inaccuracies due to the mesh.cit. which we did with the orignial mesh. Mesh the inflow and outflow edges at a Successive Ratio of 1. resolving the boundary layer to the laminar sublayer. http://instruct1.

The solution should converge in approximately 4550 iterations.htm (5 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM .cit. Read the file into FLUENT and repeat step 4 and step 5 of this tutorial to set up and solve the problem in FLUENT.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7. plate150.Fluent Tutorial . http://instruct1.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 Remesh the face and then export this as the 2D mesh file.msh. Plot y+ at the plate.cornell.

14 to 0.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7.htm (6 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM .Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (click picture for larger image) y+ ranges from 0. Plot Re vs. http://instruct1. well within the laminar sublayer.cit.Fluent Tutorial .25 in this plot. Now use the Total Surface Heat Flux plot to determine Nu(x). Nu and compare with the 30x100 mesh results.cornell.

Thus. It is also important to verify that the solution does not change by refining the mesh in the streamwise direction. we can conclude that our 30x100 mesh was good enough.cornell. the mesh in the streamwise direction is already fine enough to eliminate mesh-dependent numerical error.htm (7 of 7)11/7/2005 7:09:12 PM .cit.Fluent Tutorial . Cornell University Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Laminar Pipe Flow Step #7 (click picture for larger image) This plot shows that the results did not change by increasing the fineness of the mesh. Copyright 2002. In this case. Fluent Short Course-Tutorial List | Feedback http://instruct1.edu/courses/fluent/plate/step7.

3800000 0.0686204 0.0037271 0.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.0732055 0.2800000 0.0391283 0.1600000 0.0878308 0.5800000 0.0900016 0.0757633 0.http://instruct1.0005000 0.0800000 0.6000000 0.0839202 0.0564308 0.1400000 0.0300000 0.0781451 0.0803480 0.0080000 0.cornell.1000000 0.0858772 0.2400000 0.0915079 0.1200000 0.2200000 0.3400000 0.0873572 0.0629981 0.0442753 0.0120000 0.4200000 0.0020000 0.0600000 0.4000000 0.0861433 0.0400000 0.0911857 0.0775707 0.dat (1 of 3)12/2/2005 2:52:34 PM .cit.0023390 0.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.0200000 0.3600000 0.0906804 0.5400000 0.0897175 0.0058025 0.5600000 0.0734360 0.0089238 0.dat 61 2 0.0704822 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 http://instruct1.2600000 0.0178581 0.0890840 0.6200000 0.0137350 0.0916266 0.0487571 0.3200000 0.5200000 0.4800000 0.0330215 0.0915212 0.4400000 0.cit.0000000 0.0823712 0.6400000 0.0911712 0.2000000 0.0040000 0.5000000 0.0253735 0.0905657 0.0886427 0.0500000 0.0842145 0.3000000 0.0010000 0.4600000 0.cornell.0000000 0.0810687 0.1800000 0.

0271277 0.8600000 0.0645843 0.0000000 0 0 0.9900000 0.9400000 0.0076868 0.0245211 0.0235025 0.0080000 -.0078113 0.0500000 -.0360536 0.0800000 -.2800000 -.0142862 0.7400000 0.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.0029690 1.1000000 -.0293786 0.0438836 0.0319740 0.0191156 0.0400000 -.8000000 0.cornell.1600000 -.0000000 0.0581599 0.0120000 -.dat 0.0277891 0.0400245 0.cit.0059418 0.0146239 0.0285181 0.0105126 0.8800000 0.http://instruct1.0296656 0.9800000 0.0302404 0.0300490 0.0202723 0.cornell.6800000 0.0020000 -.1800000 -.0676046 0.9200000 0.2000000 -.0300000 -.6600000 0.0302546 0.2400000 -.0046700 0.0169733 0.8400000 0.1400000 -.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.0600000 -.0053335 0.0040000 -.0299633 0.7000000 0.7600000 0.0512565 0.0226056 0.2200000 -.0010000 -.0614329 0.7800000 0.0000000 0.0260452 0.0278164 0.0200000 -.9000000 0.2600000 -.1200000 -.0270696 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 http://instruct1.9700000 0.cit.8200000 0.0291445 0.0100232 0.dat (2 of 3)12/2/2005 2:52:34 PM .0284595 0.9600000 0.0005000 -.7200000 0.0547675 0.0476281 0.

0226341 0.6800000 -.0009666 1.3200000 -.0064753 0.5400000 -.0255565 0.0233606 0.0263079 0.8800000 -.4400000 -.6400000 -.0174914 0.9200000 -.6200000 -.8200000 -.6600000 -.0211708 0.0028028 0.0086788 0.cit.8000000 -.cornell.0130862 0.0145551 0.4600000 -.0196986 0.0189619 0.0017011 0.9600000 -.9000000 -.0050063 0.0123515 0.7000000 -.9700000 -.0079443 0.http://instruct1.0108823 0.7800000 -.cit.0240870 0.0182262 0.0138207 0.dat 0.3000000 -.9400000 -.0000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 http://instruct1.0116169 0.7400000 -.9800000 -.edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.0152893 0.8400000 -.0248176 0.0160232 0.0035373 0.0020683 0.4800000 -.7200000 -.0101478 0.3800000 -.7600000 -.0042718 0.0167572 0.cornell.0204353 0.0219042 0.5600000 -.4200000 -.3400000 -.4000000 -.0094133 0.0072098 0.8600000 -.0057408 0.3600000 -.5800000 -.9900000 -.5000000 -.dat (3 of 3)12/2/2005 2:52:34 PM .edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/vertices.0013339 0.5200000 -.6000000 -.

cornell.htm (1 of 2)12/2/2005 2:56:18 PM .edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/01farfield_edges.Farfield Boundary .Vertices and Edges http://instruct1.cit.

edu/courses/fluent/airfoil/01farfield_edges.htm (2 of 2)12/2/2005 2:56:18 PM .cit.Farfield Boundary .Vertices and Edges http://instruct1.cornell.

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