P. 1
The Need for a Re Ib Modif

The Need for a Re Ib Modif

|Views: 2|Likes:
Published by drdgrant
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased in proportion to the human population of the Earth over the last several thousand years. This agrees with the hypothesis that anthopogenic carbon dioxide is produced because the sea has become less able to act as a sink for this gas because the inorganic carbon cycle is partially blocked by organic matter tranferred into the sea by human actions.
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased in proportion to the human population of the Earth over the last several thousand years. This agrees with the hypothesis that anthopogenic carbon dioxide is produced because the sea has become less able to act as a sink for this gas because the inorganic carbon cycle is partially blocked by organic matter tranferred into the sea by human actions.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: drdgrant on Apr 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/05/2011

pdf

text

original

Soil humus degradation may contribute to the current increase in atmospheric CO2 content

(Letter from D. Grant, MRSC, New Deer, Aberdeenshire AB53 6SX)

The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is linearly correlated with the size of the global human population(1) . This relationship becomes the most exact for the post-1959 data. There could be a number of separate linearly-transmitted human influences on terrestrial and marine sources and sinks for CO2 as well as, conceivably, human inputs into cloud forming mechanisms, which could have caused the human population to accurately determine the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. It is now suggested that an anthropogenic alteration of the soil organic matter (which apparently is the second largest source of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere(2)) might directly or indirectly have led to the apparent linear correlation between increase in atmospheric CO2 and the human population increase. More intensive food production methods could have stimulated a greater emission of CO2 from the utilization of soil organic matter as a carbon source by microbiota, or caused a greater water-soluble organic matter (fulvate) runoff into the sea. The major carbon pool of marine dissolved organic matter (which is likely to chemically resemble fulvate) is known to abolish the lysocline (3) and potentially increase the degree of supersaturation of CaCO3 phases (4) in surface waters in such a manner as to tend to increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere(5). References (1) K. Onozaki, Population is a Critical Factor for Global Carbon Dioxide Increase, J. Health Sci., 2009, 55, 125; cf. Y.T. Prairie and C.M. Duarte, Biogeosci. Discuss., 2006, 3, 1781.
[The human population effects which have increased the atmospheric CO2 content were suggested by these authors to include domestic animal respiration as well as a fossil fuel combustion].

[The linear human population - CO2 relationship has also been discussed in e.g. web.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/esp/math_review/MathProb2.pdf

http://faculty.washington.edu/blewis/papers/co2/co2b.html web.scribd.com/46952647/Fulvate-II]. The contribution of fossil fuel combustion to anthropogenic CO2
The apparent lack of a close coupling between fossil fuel usage and the atmospheric CO2 trendlines is suggested by the divergence in Fig. 1 between curve a and curve b. The most recent 6+ billion-human-population associated-data associated wtih a greatly increased fossil fuel usage in India and China seems not to not to have greatly affected the population vs. CO2 curve which has tended to follow the earlier linear dependence on human population. The relevance of the relationship shown in Fig. 1 curve b, however, depends on the residence time of fossil fuel derived CO2 in the atmosphere. If this is more than a few hundred years (as is currently believed [cf., e.g. S. Solomon et al PNAS, USA, 2009, 106, 1704] then the cumulative amount of CO2 is the appropriate amount to compare with curve a of Fig.1. Since the start of the industrial revolution this amount can be shown to obey a strictly linear variation with the observed amount of CO2 in the atmosphere (cf. G.W. Hardey web.strom.clemson.edu/becher/prtm321/commons/carbon3.html. If on the other hand this a short period e.g. the ca.10 years originally estimated by R. Revelle and H.E. Suess, Tellus, 1957, 9, 18, then it must be concluded that fossil fuel derived CO2 may not be a major source of the anthropogenic CO2 increase recorded in curve a of Fig1.
(2)

Cf., B. Bond-Lamberty and A. Thomson, Nature, 2010, 464, 579; Biogeosci. Discuss., 2010, 7, 1321.

The annual emission of CO2 from soils was estimated by these authors to be 98±12GtC/yr of which 13GtC/yr was from agricultural soils [1Gt=1000 million metric tones].

P.J. Wangersky, Limnol. Oceanogr., 1969, 14, 929. (4) P. Zuddas et al., Chem. Geol., 2003, 201, 91; A.R. Hoch et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2000, 64, 61; W.P. Inskeep and P.R. Bloom, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 1986, 50, 1167.
(3)

[Fulvate-like polyanions prevent CaCO3 precipitation, a phenomenon which can disturb the operation of the normal inorganic carbon cycle which is part of the putative global CO2 homeostasis system provided by the sea].

(5) Y. Kitano (Calcification and atmospheric CO2) in “Biomineralzation and Biological Metal Accumulation”, Ed. P. Westbroek and E.W. de Jong, D. Reidel Publishing, 1983, p.89. Cf., K.E Chave & E. Suess, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1970, 15, 633; Y. Kitano and D.W. Hood, ibid., 1965, 29, 29; J.R. Morse, Rev Mineralogy, 1983, 11, Carbonates in Mineralogy and Chemistry, Ed. R.J. Reeder, Mineralogy Soc. Amer., p 227-264; A. Pentecost, Thalassas, 2004, 20, 45.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->