YHIIIBEP3111TET .Ca.

KIIIPlIIll III METO,Qlllr - CKOnJE

.ItIiOIO.CKIt .AKYIiTn

iOQUHU

i nCUHO oru iI

CIlMnOlllYM nCHxollorHjoro

H ApyrHre 06110CTH

.BOPHIIK 2004 roAHHO

CKOnJE 2006

CIP - Karanorasauaia BO ny6Il~Ka4~ja

Ha4~OHaIlHa ~ yH~Bep3~TeTCKa 6~6Il~OTeKa "CB. KI1~MeHT OXp~ACK~", CKonje

159:001.2(062)

nc~XOnOn1JATA ~ APyr~Te 06JlaCT~ : C~Mn03V1yM ; 360PHV1K Ha TPYAoBV1 2004 rOAV1Ha. - CKonj ¢V1Il030cj:JCKV1 cj:JaKYJlTeT, 2006. - 341 CTp. ; 20 CM

Summaries V1 6V16JlV10rpacj:JV1ja KOH TPYAoBV1Te.

ISBN 9989-934-61-4

a) nCV1xoIlorV1ja - ~HTepAV1C4V1nJlV1HapHOcT - C06V1PV1

,IJ;-p HHKOC qaYCH).J,HC

MHCTHTYT sa acropaja na YMeTHOCTa <PHJI030CPCKH cpaKYJITeT

APXEOJIOrHJA - JIHKOBHA CEMHOTHKA - nCHXOJIOrHJA (IIHTEP'[J;lfCLUIllJIIIHO COfJIE,IO'BAILE HA (J)EHOMEHOT "llPEMECTYBAIbE HA JIII61I,I1;OTO")

KPATKA CO,lJ,P>KV1HA

TpYAOT e nOCBeTeH HO <peHOMeHOT "npeMeCTYBOH>e HO flV16V1AOTO" BO pOMKV1Te HO ApeBHV1Te V1 COBpeMeHV1Te TPOAV1UV10HOflHV1 30eAHV1UV1 V1, OC06eHO, HerOBV1Te MOHV1- <peCTOUV1V1 BO MOTepV1joflHOTO KYflTYPO. Bo BOeAOT e eflo60pV1POH OAHOCOT Mery opxeonoruioro V1 ncaxonon-jcro V1 vnorcro HO flV1KOBHOTO ceMV10TV1KO KOKO HV1BHV1 MeAV1- jOTOp. nOTOO ce KpV1TV1KyBOOT KOHuemV1Te BO KOV1, npa 06jOCHYBOH>eTO HO reHe30TO HO npBV1Te KyflTypHV1 V1 ocofieuo np0V13BOACTBeHV1 OKTV1BHOCTV1, HeOCHOBOHO ce BKflyYYBO POUV10TO HO 0pX0V1YHV10T YOBeK. HOMecTo OBV1e, ce npennoro npvr xoauerrr BO KOj reHe30TO HO npV1MopHV1Te <pOPMV1 HO np0V13BOACTBO ce 60po BO C<pePOTO HO "MYTV1- pOHV1Te" V1flV1 "nepBepTV1pOHV1Te", HorOHCKV1 30AOAeHV1 MeXOHV13MV1 BO 40BeKOT. HOToMY ce npOBV1 06V1A 30 AOKO)!(YBOH>e HO V1HBeCTV1pOH>eTO HO flV16V1AOTO BO flOBOT OA enoXOTO HO nOfleOflV1TOT (CTOpO KOMeHO epewe], V1 TOO Bp3 6030 HO flV1KOBHV1 npercrcaa V1 KyflTHV1 npeAMeTV1 OA TOO epeve, KOKO VI KOMnopOUVlVlTe CO OHOflorHVI <peHOMeHVI OA nOAOUHe)!(HVlTe xvnrvp«, BKflYYV1TeflHO OHVle OA 60flKOHCKVlOT <pOflKflOp. Bo OBVle POMKVI ce OKueHTV1po CV1M60flVl4KOTO VlAeHTVI<pV1KOUVljo HO opvxjero CO <POflYCOT, HO flOBeHOTO )!(VlBOTHO CO )!(eHOTO VI HO flOBOT CO KOVITYCOT. Ho ouonorea HOYV1H e 06p060TeHO V1 VlHBecTVlUV1joTO HO flV16V1AOTO BO coepare HO 3eMjoAeflcTBOTO, V1 TOO Bp3 6030 HO CVlM- 60flV1YKOTO VlAeHTVI<pV1KoUVljo HO 3eMjoTo/HVlBOTO co )!(eHOTO VI HO 3eMjoAeflcKOTo 0pYAVle CO <POflYCOT, npVl llJTO OKTOT HO o6p060TKO HO 3eMjoTo VI CeeH>eTO VlCTO TOKO Ao6V1BO KOpOKTep HO KOVITYC. OBOO VlAeHTVI<pV1KoUVljo e MOHVI<pecTVlpoHO HV13 HeKoflKY TYKO npVlflO)!(eHV1 TpOAV1UV1V1 OA AOUHOTO npenacropa]o AO coapeweuaor <pOflKflOP (flV1KOBHVI npeTCToBV1, rporn BO j03V1KOT, MVITOBV1 V1 06peAVI). Ho KpOjOT e npanoxes npVlMep HO VlHBeCTVlpOH>e HO flV16V1AOTO BO npoVl3BoACTBOTO HO 6poH3eHoA06HO KOMeHO cex-rpo (nocronco HO AynyeH>e OTBOP 30 pOYKO VlCTO roxo Vl3eAHOyeHO CO KOV1TYC).

KnY'lHH 360POBH: noneonarcxo peflVlrVljo, nOfleOflV1TCKO YMeTHoCT, flOBHO 06peAVI, 3eMjoAeflcKVI 06peAV1, npoVl3BoTCTBeHo MorVljo, flVl6V1AO, MVlTCKO MVlC1leH>e, VlHVlUVljOUVljO.

133

HUKOC Haycuquc

AKO O)];HOCOT Mefy HaBe)];eHHTe )];HCn:HrrJIHHH ce rrOCTaBH nparaarasao (KaKO HJIH 60 Koja CMUC./la THe Mefyce6Ho MO)l(aT na CH noaoraar"), JIHKOBaara ceMHoTHKa, He CJIYl.JajHo nocrasena BO cpenaaara, ro )];06HBa xapaxTepOT aa Me)];HjaTop-rrocpe)];HHK. Taa ja BocrrOCTaBYBa penauajara Mefy

.. .

apxeonornjara H rrCHXOJIOrnjaTa H, KOHel.JHO, so TaKBaTa KOHCTeJIan:Hja ro

06e36eJI:YBa H corrCTBeHOTO nocroeae, T.e. CPYHKn:HOHHpalbe.

I103HaTO e )];eKa apxeonorajara ce 3aHHMaBa co acrpaxysaae na l.JOBeKOT H aerosara xynrypa 0)]; rrOO)];aMHeIIIHHTe nepaoaa, H roa, npen ce, Bp3 6a3a sa MaTepHjaJIHHTe eJIeMeHTH sa roranraara xyrrrypa. OBHe eJIeMeHTH aajtecro noaraar )];0 Hac KaKO ociiiaiiiol/u, orrpraarn 0)]; rJI06aJIHaTa xynrypa aa xoja H3BOPHO H rrpnnarane, 6e3 )l(HBHTe CBe)];OlIITBa sa nyrero - Hej3HHH rrpHrra)l;HHn;H. Bo e)l;Ha TaKBa caryannja, apxeonoror ce CTpeMH sa pa3HH Hal{HHH, npexy pa3JIHl.JHH MeTO)l;H, )];a ro "pa36epe" npoaajneaaor rrpenver H HeroBOTO MeCTO BO )];a)];eHaTa xynrypa. Hecronara, BO OBa ronxysaae He MY ce

. ..

)];OBOJIHH er3aKTHHTe aHaJIH3H sa MaTepMJaJIOT H TeXHOJIOfH]aTa HH3 xoja e H3-

pa60TeH npemreror, aerosara CTapoCT H nasrenara, ocooeao aKO ce patiora sa HaO)l;H KOH HeMaJIe casro npaxrmaa HaMeHa. Bo cospexemrre rrpHCTaIIH ce rroxaxysa KaKO HeOIIXO)l;HOCT, npa OBHe aHaJIH3H, )];a ce sexa rrpe)l;BH)]; H KOMIIOHeHTaTa sa HHBHHOT rsopen H KOPHCHHK-l.JOBeKoT. HeMajIhr )];OBOJIeH (a l.JeCTO H HHKaKoB) YSH)]; BO KYJIrypHHOT rrpoCPHJI na osoj l.JOBeK 0)]; MHHaTOTO, apxeoJIOrOT e rrpHHY)];eH )];a rprne 0)]; OHa lIITO e YHHBep3aJIHO - aHTporrOJIOlIIKHTe H rrCHXOJIOlIIKHTe KOHCTaHTH aa l.JOBeKOT KaKO BH)];. Toa HeMHHOBHO ro caprysa H KOH HaYl.JHHTe )l;HCn;HrrJIHHH KOH rn HCTp~aaT OBHe cpeHOMeHH.

Ilpoysyaajxa ra rrCHXHl.JKHTe npoueca BO l.JOBeKOT, rrCHXOJIOrnjaTa

HeMHHOBHO saofaa H BO HCTpa~BalheTO na HHBHaTa renesa H passoj HH3 BpeMeTO. Henocpenanor yBH)]; BO )l(HBHTe HH)];HBH)];YH ro orpamrryaa OBa acrpaxyaaae aaaasan aa cano BeK-)];Ba, HJIH neurro noaexe. Kopncrejxa ce co nocrapa 3arrHCH, rrCHXOJI03HTe ce 06H)];YBaaT OBOj yBH)]; )];a ro rrpO)];OJI)I(aT sa yurre HeKOJIKY necerana nexa. Ho, co ornen na nenocroersero sa IIHCMOTO, sajcrapare rrpe)];HCTOpHCKH H sa rrCHXOJIOrHjaTa HajHHTepeCHH (rrOl.JeTHH) nepaona na l.JOBeKOBHOT rrCHXHl.JKH pasaoj OCTaHYBaaT BO TeMHHHa. KaK06 6UJl iiCUXOJlOlUKUoiii iipOfjJUJl ua iip6uiiie JlOBl/U oiJ ciiiapoiiio KaMeHO epeMe? Koj 6UJl oouocou: ua pauuoilio U iioiiicBeciiia xa] HUB? KaKBU oiicecuu U KOMiiJleKcu nocene BO ce6e? KaKO 6UJla KOHciiiuiiiyupana KOJleKiiiu6Haiiia ucuxonoiuja ua upeuiiu: seujooesuu? CeKaKO, rrCHXOJI03HTe npaaar 06H)];H, na rn nocernar BaKBHTe npamaaa CO noxom aa apXeOJI03HTe. Ho "l.JHCTHTe apXeOJI03H" Hajl.JeCTO He ycnesaar MHory na HM novoruar BO roa.

134

Apxeonoiuja - JlUKOBHIJ ceA(uoiuUKa - acuxonotuia

O~ OBHe aajcrapa enOXH, ~O HaC noaraar 6pojHH npenaera H rpanea, HO BO HHB He ce 3anHlIIaHH (CO IlHCMO) MHCJIHTe H 'I)'BCTBaTa na TOraIIIHHTe nyre. Ce pasoapa, ryxa ce QPTe)I(HTe, CJIHKHTe H CKYJIllTypHTe, KOH HaB~YM qHTJIHEO H jacao HH rn npaxaxysaar aKTHBHOCTHTe, )l{eJI6HTe HJIH m06aJIHO - )l{HBOTOT aa HHBHHTe TBOPQH. Ho, HaKO nenec jacao rn rnenaae, He MO)l{eMe co carypaocr ~a ro OTKpHeMe HHEHOTO saa-reae, KOHTeKer, CPYHKQHja BO ~a~eHaTa xynrypa, na OTT)'Ka H nCHXOJIOIIIKHTe KOMnOHeHTH HHBeCTHpaHH BO HHB. OTT)'Ka, sa ~a ce OTKpHe, HJIH 6apeM ~a ce nonpe, H3BOPHOTO snaseIDe na OBHe JIHKOBHH nena H na ynrre 6pojHH npyra aejacaa oCTaToQH, na ofiocrpaaa xopacr na apXeOJI03HTe H na nCHXOJI03HTe e socnocrasysaaero HHTeH3HBHH HHTep~CQHnJIHHapHH BpCKH Mefy HHE. Bo nOCJIe~HHTe ~eQeHHH na MHHaTHOT BeK, OBHe peJIaQHH na H3BOHpe~eH HaqHH 6ea aHTHQHnHpaHH co acrpaxyaarsara na BOHH MaTHK.l

CeMHOT~KHOT npacran, ycnea BO MHHaTHOT BeK ~a rprae O~ neraprnja 6pojHH HayqHH ~HCQHnJIHHH, TBOpeqKH )l{aHpOBH H npasua, HO maBHO OHHe Bp3aHH sa MeWIYMOT na ja3HKOT. Ilnaecer H npBHOT BeK, co CHTe CBOH Te~KH neppopvanca BO O~OC aa BH3yeJIHOTO H JIHKOBHOTO, ro HaMernysa KaKO HeMHHOBHOer nOHHTeH3HBHOTO orsopaae H na JlUIW8Haiiia, 8U3Ye.tlHaiiia HJIH 06J1U1W8Haiiia ceuuoiuuta: Bepysaae nexa co Hej3HHHTe MeTO~H H npacrana, BO conejcrso na apxeorrorajara H nCHXOJIOrnjaTa (a cexaxo H na

. .

npyrn ~HCHllJIHHH, KaKO acropnjara aa YMeTHOCTa, aarpononorajara, eTHO-

nornjara, JIOrnKaTa ... ), TOKMY npexy "HeMHTe apXeOJIOiliKH npenaera' 6H MO)l{eJIO ~a ce rrpornena H BO nynrara, O~OCHO ncnxara, na uajcrapare soaeKOBH npe~QH - BO ,,~eTerBOTO na qOBeiliTBOTO".

Bo aapenaare naCYCH Ke 6~aT H3JIO)l{eHH HeKOJIKY 06~H sa e~HO BaKBO HHTep~HCQHllJIHHapHO nporJIe~BaIDe BO CaMHTe nOqeTOQHTe Ha qOBeKOBaTa KyJIrypa.

Ilpaaapaare <j>OPMH ua KYJlTYpaTa H 6UOJlOWKHTe <j>ymru;HH

AKO ~eHec rn npHcpaTHMe 3aKJIyqOQHTe aa 6pojHHTe HayqHH ~HCD;HnJIHHH IIITO ja HCTpa)K)'BaaT reaesara na qOBeKOT KaKO cneQHCP~eH 6HOJIOiliKH B~, HMajKu ja npensm; aerosara TeJIeCHa H MeHTaJIHa KOHCTHryD;Hja,

1 Matic, V. (1972); Matic, V. (1976); Marie, V. (II); Matic, V. (III).

135

· .

MO)l(eMe Aa H3BJIeqeMe resepanaa resa nexa TOJ e )l(HBOTHO KaJ KOe AeJI oA

6HOJIOlIIKHTe CPYHKn:HH MyiUupa.Jle HJIH uep6epiUupa.Jle 60 KyJliUypa. Ce paa- 6Hpa, oaaa ceareansja HMa CMHCJIa AOKOJIKY KaKO 6a3a, T.e. "HOpMaJIa", ce 3eMe fJI06aJIHHOT CBeT aa )l(HBOTHHHTe (aa KOj MY rrpanaran H qOBeKOT), BO KOj 6HOJIOlIIKHTe CPYHKn;HH aa CYlliTeCTBaTa ce 3aAaAeHH HarOHCKH - Ha):lBOp OA KOHTpOJIaTa aa eAHHKaTa, rra orryxa H He ce pa3JIHKYBaaT BO paMKHTe na qJIeHOBHTe aa eAeH 6HJIOlliKH BRA.

He HaBJIefYBajKH BO rrpHqHHHTe KOH ja YCJIOBHJIe onaa HCKJIYqHTeJIHa nposreaa, TYKa 6H CaKaJIe Aa noco-nnre HeKOJIKY, cnopea Hac, MOlliHe oqeBRAHH npauepa KOH rn noxaxyaaar aenocpenaare BpCKH Mefy aaroacxare, T.e. 6HOJIOlliKH CPYHKn;HH sa qOBeKOT H HeKOH 6a3W1HH cpeHOMeHH aa aerosara KYJITYpa. CeMHOTWlKaTa aHaJIH3a na OBHe CPYHKn;HH, rrpRAPY)I(eHa co 0ApeAeHH npaxepa OA xpyror aa apxaasaare T.e. TPaAHn:HOHaJIHH KYJITYpH, rroxa~BaaTAeKa:

BaJUIfHuiUe '106eK06U KYJliUypHU oejHociiiu ce HeuocpeOHO MoiUu6Upauu 00 Hei06uiUe HaioHCKU ljJYHKqUU;

Oeue KyJliUYPHU oejHociiiu iu u03ajMY6aaiii, OOHOCHO iu UMuiUupaaiU KOHqeuiUuiUe, iii. e. MexaHU3.MuiUe, cuopeo KOU ce pea.JlU3upaaiU HaioHcKuiUe fjJYHKquU;

llociiiojaiU uOKaJaiUeJlu oeKa upu 06a u03ajMY6albe ce jaeyea oopeoeHa UOJl06a ouljJepeHqujaquja, OOHOCHO 06aiUa UOJla uOKa:JICY6aaiU uoione» aljJuHuiUeiU 60 OOHOC ua onaa KYJliUypHa aKiUu6HOciii UJlU uexo] Hej3uH MexaHU3a.M KOj uHiUepljJepupa co HeKoj naiOHCKU uexaHU3a.M cuequfjJu'IeH sa oaoeHuoiU UOJl.

Ileaec, BO «pepara na 06pa30BaHHeTO, rra H BO HaYKaTa, qeCTO ce anocrporpapa HeYBepJIHB KOHn;eIIT cnopen KOj npsare KYJIrypHH aKTHBHOCTH (rrojasara aa opyaajara, )l(HBeaJIHlIITeTO ... ) 6HJIe rrpeAH3BHKaHH cairo, HJIH npen ce, OA HY)I():laTa, T.e. rrOTPe6HTe na qOBeKOT. Osaa CTepeOTHIIHa meaa MO)l(eMe Aa ja npercrasaxe aa CJIeAHHOT Ha~H:

1. Hy3ICoa (uoiUpeoa);

2. Bapaue MexaHU3.MU U eJle.MeHiUu sa 3a0060JlY6albe ua uoiUpeoaiUa;

3. Ilponaoiaue MexaHU3Mu U eJle.MeHiUu KOU ja 3a0060JlY6ilaiU uoiUpeoaiUa;

4. Kopuciiieibe MexaHU3.MU U eJle.MeHi!iu KOU ja 3a0060JlY6aaiU uoiUpeoaiUa; 3eMajKH ro rrpeABHA HHCKOTO HHBO na CBeCT H pan:HOHaJIHOCT aa rrpoToaHTPorroRAHTe, qHj pasaoj ce 6a3Hpa (OAHOCHO e rrOCJIeAHn;a) TOKMY sa

136

Apxeonosuja - I!UK08Ha ceMuoiUuKa - ucuxonotuja

OBHe KYJITYpHH aKTHBHOCTH, MOJKe ~a ce IIpe~JIOJKH npyr KOHn:eIIT, CHHTeTH3HpaH BO CJIe~HaBa nreva:

1. BUOJlOUlKa aKiiiu6HOciii (HaioHCKU .MOiiiU6upaHa);

2. Ilepeepiuupaua 6UOJlOUlKa aKiiiu6Hociii (uciiio iiiaKa HaioHCKU .MOiiiu6upaHa);

3. HyciipoOYKiii ua iiep6epiiiupaHaiiia 6UOJlOUlKa tlKiiiu6Hociii (iipoiiioopyone, iipoiiio-KYJliiiypeH .MexaHU3a.M);

4. lloooJlioiiipajHo ii06iiiopY6albe ua iiep6epiiiupaHaiiia 6UOJlOUlKa asiiiU6Hociii U Kopuciiieibe (ii06iiiopHO HaioHCKU .MOiiiU6upaHo) ua HyCet/JeKiiiuiiie HaciiiaHaiiiu KaKO Hej3uHa uocseouua;

5. CoiJIeoY6albe, OCMUC./lY6albe, 6peoHY6albe U UJ060jY6albe ua oaoeHaiiia aKiiiu6Hociii 00 ct/Jepaiiia na iiPUPOOHOiiio U nejsuuo iiPe.MUHYeaue 60 ct/Jepaiiia na KYJliiiypaJlHOiiiO (06U'IHO KaKO .MUiiioJloiUJaquja, CaKpaJlUJaquja, ".MaiuUJaquja'?2

6. ,l(e.MUCiiiurjJuKaquja (oe-.MuiiioJloiu3aquja, oe-CaKPaJlUJaquja oe- 06peoUJaquja) ua aKiiiu6Hociiia U C6eCHO coiJIeoY6albe na Hej3uHaiiia 'Iuciiio yiiiUJIuiiiapHa oU.MeH3uja U 06jeKiiiu6Huiiie .MexaHU3.MU Uliiio ja yC./l06Y6aaiii. 3

3a HaC e HCKJIyqHTeJIHO BaJKHO lIITO 6a3~Te, r.e. najpaaa qOBeKOBH

.. .

KYJITYpHH ~e]HOCTH He ]a KopHCTaT caxo MOTHBan:H]aTa sa KOHKpeTHHOT na-

rOH, TYKy H HerOBHTe OCHOBHH MexaHH3MH, KOHn;eIlTH, rra H CPOPMaJIHH 06eJIeJKja. ToKMY OBHe KOMIIOHeHTH neaec HH OB03MOJKYBaaT ~a ro npenosaaeMe HarOHOT KOj CTOH 3a~ KOHKpeTHaTa KyJIT)'pHa aKTHBHOCT. Bo onaa CMHCJIa e ocooeao HHTepeCHa 1I0JIOBaTa ~HcpepeHn:Hjan:Hja aa qOBeKOBHTe KYJITYPaJIHH aKTHBHOCTH. HeKOH IIpHMepH jacno nOKaJKYBaaT ~eKa ~eHec, H OC06eHO BO MHHaTOTO, ~BaTa 1I0JIa He npojasysaar HCT acpHHHTeT KOH pa3HH ccpepH sa KYJITYpaTa, TOKMY 6a3HpajKH ce na narorrare Cllen:Hcp~ sa MalIIKHOT H JKeHCKHOT 1I0JI. 11 He caxo roa. Jl:YPH H IIpH IIpaKTHKYBalbeTO na e~a HCTa KYJITYpHa aKTHBHOCT, THe ro 0~6HpaaT OHOj KOHl~eIIT, MeTO~, r.e. MexaHH3aM HJIH 06JIHK, KOj mrreprpepapa Co aexoj O~ HarOHHTe lIITO ce cneuncp~ sa ~a~eHHOT 1I0JI.

2 Cnopen AHHCHMOB, A. <1>. (1959, 42) .Ha opynajaara H KOHCTPYKTHBHaTa aKTHBHOCT aa aarponoanare H coo,n;BeTCTBYBaaT CJIO)l{eHH BH,n;OBH aa YCJIOBHo-pe<pJIeKCHH BPCKH, KOH npepacaysaar BO aaxeroua aa csecea O,n;HOC KOH CBOHTe nejaocra ... " 3 3a MHTCKO ofipenaara reaesa aa opynajara: Mumford, L. (1986) - nosexe nornasja; AbSIKOHOB, H. M. (1990),61; Marie, V. (1976),36,39,202,203.

137

HUKOC 'Iaycuouc

JIOBOT H narosare

Bo «peparc aa CHM60JIornjaTa, rra H na aHaJIHTHqKaTa rrCHXOJIOrnja, opyxjero qeCTO ce TOJIKyaa KaKO CPaJIyceH CHM60JI, H roa aajsecro OHa opysqe xoe ja OCTBapYBa csojara QeJI rrpeKy rrpofiasaae BO :>KpTBaTa. AKO BO raa CMHCJIa ce sexe rrpe));BHA H xpaasara pana IlITO npa roa ja npenassaxyaa, ce aasrerrryaa CJIe)J;HaTa peaatraja: Kp6- pana; Kp6 - eynea; 0)); IlITO CJIe));H: pana - 6YJl6a. 4

IIoCTOH resa nexa JIOBOT CO opyxje xoe ce npofiasa BO TeJIOTO na :>KHBOTHOTO, ce 6a3Hpa Bp3 xopacrersero aa ));pBeHHOT cran CO ocrap BpB, CO xoj aajnpso cnysajao, pecpJIeKCHO H BO acpeKT (nopana aeaanejaa onacaocr), ce H3BpIIIYBaJIe npsnre nanana. Iloxpaj BO HarOHOT sa 0));6paHa, a noroa H BO HarOHOT sa acxpaaa, OBOj MexaHH3aM nocreneno HaIlIOJI csoja MOTHBaIzyfja H CMHCJIa H BO rrOJIOBHOT HarOH, aareprpepapajzn npa roa co MalliKHOT npncran BO rrOJIOBHOT aKT. Bo e));Ha TaKBa CHM60JIHqKO-HaroHcKa HAeHTHcpHKaQHja, rrp06HBalDeTO co xonje, CTpeJIa, HO:>K HJIH npyro opysqe BO :>KHBOTHOTO, ro ));06HBaJIO saa-rersero na rrOJIOBa nenerpauaja.

MO:>Ke OCHOBaHO ));a ce rrpeTIIOCTaBH nexa xaj aajpamrre BoopY:>KeHH Ma:>KH-JIOBQH, OBOj MexaHH3aM, nopana CJIa6aTa MOK sa HHBHOTO pauao, 6yKBaJIHO ce ));O:>KHBYBaJI KaKO xonryc, npa IlITO aajsepojarao H TeJIeCHO ce MaHHcpecmpaJI co epexuaja, Osaa penanaja 6HJIa norxpanera 0)); ynrre e));Ha KOMrrOHeHTa ~ 3a));OBOJICTBOTO 0)); nponyxror na aKTHBHOCTa. Y6HeHoTo :>KHBOTHO 3HaqeJIO nenocpemro 3a));OBOJIYBalDe na HeKOJIKY HarOHCKH MexaHH3- MH - HarOHOT sa xpaaeae, HarOHOT sa CaMOO));p:>K)'BalDe H aa onrnenysarse aa rrO)J;MJIa));OKOT. Ho, penarrmrre co KOHryCOT npenassaxysane caracdiaxrmja H Ha));BOp 0)); csojara npaxrn-raa KOPHCHOCT, 3a));OBOJIYBajKH ro BO onpenea acnexr H rrOJIOBHOT HarOH aa JIOBIzyfTe.

Hajpaaare MaHHq,ecTaIzyfH na onaa HAeHTHcpHKaIzyfja rpetia ));a ce 6apaar ynrre BO MaTepHjaJIHHTe OCTaTOQH 0)); rraJIeOJIHTCKHOT nepnon (CTa-pO KaMeHO apesre). Cpen 6pojHHTe JIHKOBHH rrpercrasa, HaCJIHKaHH aa xaprnrre 0)); nenrrepara Jlacxo (<J>paHn;Hja), ocofieao ce H3));BojYBa emra, aa xoja e npnxaxaao rOJIeMO ));HBO roseno H cnpora Hero qOBeK (aajsepojarao Ma:>K BO CQeHa aa JIOB), KOCO HaBe));HaT naaaaan, npnxaxaa co cpaJIyc BO epexnaja (T.I:l). KOHn;errQHCKH aHaJIOrHa npercrasa aaorasre H aa e));Ha rpasypa Bp3

4 Mumford, L. (1986),23, soonurro sa OAHOCOT opyscje - .!lOB - puaiyan - YMemHOCm BO narreOJIHTOT: 119-126; Leroa Guran, A. (1991); Chevalier, J. Gheerbrant, A. (1987), 278,179.

138

Apxeonoiuia - JlUK081la CeMUOtUww - acuxonoiuja

KaMeH, o~ Mac O'A3UJJ (<I>paHQHja), Ka~e lIITO HCTO raxa e npnxaxaa Ma)K co cparryc BO epexnnja, osojnar BO CY~HP co MeqKa, O~ xoja ce satrysana caxo enaara mena (T.I:2).5 He HaBJIerYBajKH BO npyrare nerann aa OBHe KOMllO- 3HQHH H pa3HHTe TOJIKYBalba aa HHBHaTa CO~p)KHHa H saaseae, npennaraae, BO KOHTeKCT sa npeTCTaBeHHOT KOHQellT, epexuajara aa npHKa)KaHHTe Ma)KH ~a ce npOTOJIKYBa KaKO CHM60JI T.e. 3HaK aa HHBHaTa CPYHKQHja .!106qU.

Bo nenrrepara Moniilecuan (<I>paHQHja), BO enaa Hej3HHa Haj~JIa60Ka, COceM, TeMHa H TelIIKO ~OCTanHa xoxopa, e npoaajneao TOp30 na )KHBOTHO (6e3 rnasa) H3pa60TeHO O~ aeneseaa rJIHHa, BO peamnr ~HMeH3HH. Ha Hero ce KOHCTaTHpaHH nosexe 60~e)KH aaaecena co lIIHJIeCTO opynne (xonje, cran), a Be~HalII noxpaj MO~eJIOT H sepen o~ MeqKa. H3HeceHH ce Te3H ~eKa ce pa60TH sa OCHOBa Bp3 xoja ce HacppJIarrO peaJIHO MeqelIIKO Kp3HO 3ae~HO co rnanara (peKOHCTpYKQHja T.I:S). Ynapare co opynajara, ~06po BH~JIHBH na rJIHHeHOTO TOP30, ce TOJIKYBaaT KaKO nospena aaseceaa npa HeKaKBa rrocranxa na raraae aa osaa "MaKeTa na MeqKa". BaKBH MO~eJIH (o~ rJIHHa, HJIH KaMeH), ~OnOJIHeTH co xeperrn on MeqKa, ce KOHcTaTHpaHH H BO npyra nenrrepa, KopHcTeHH o~ crpana aa narreOJIHTCKHOT qOBeK: Basya (pexoaCTpYKQHja T.I:4),lleru-Mep.!l (06eTe BO <I>paHQHja). Bo nenrrepara Basya, aa rJIHHeHHOT noj; OKOJIY MO~eJIOT, npn ncxorryaarsero ce oTKpHeHH 6pOjHH OTHCHaTH crananxa o~ qOBeK, KOH pe-taca CHTe HM npanaraar aa a~OJIeCQeHTH (T.I:7). 3aqyBaHH ce 6JIarO~apeHHe aa nponecor na nO~OQHe)KHOTO CKaMeHYBalbe na rJIHHeHHOT non. OBHe HaO~H, KOMnapHpaHH co COBpeMeHH eraorparpcxa Tpa~HQHH, ce npOTOJIKYBaHH KaKO rparn na 06pe~ npa xoj rpyna a~OJIeCQeHTH, BO TeMHHTe KOMOPH na nenrerepnre, H3Be~BaJIe HMHTaQHja aa JIOB, T.e. CHM60JI~KO y6HBalbe na MeqKa npercraseaa npexy rJIHHeHHOT MO~eJI ~OnOJIHeT co rnasa H Kp3HO na )KHBOTHO. <I>aKToT lIITO ce pa60TH sa a~OJIeCQeHTH, sajaenocpenao rosopn sa 06pe~ na HHHQHjaQHja, T.e. BOBenysarse na nOJIOBO 3peJIHTe MOMqHlba BO penor na JIOBQHTe. Ce CMeTa nexa CJIHqHH 06pe~H ce assenyaane H npen 6pOjHH npyra narreOJIHTCKH penjerpa H CJIHKH aa )KHBOTHH, npeTCTaBeHH aa KaMeHHTe neurrepan S~OBH, na KOH HCTO raxa ce KOHCTaTHpaHH ~JIanKH naaeceaa co OCTpH opY~HJa HJIH JIHKOBHO npHKa)KaHH CTpeJIH H xonja (npaxepa: T.IJ,6).6

5 3a CJllIKMTe, BMAM: EJllIHeK, 51. (1985),306 (CJI. 484),397,414 (CJI. 660).

6 CTO.IDlP, A. ,IJ:. (1978),86-105; anycrpanna: Enaaex, 51. (1985), nJIaCTM'lHll. MOAeJIM M OTMCHaTM CTanaJIKM: 319 - 324, 330, CJIMKM co npeTCTaBeHM YAapM co opyaqe: 328,431, 432. Pe3epBM BO OAHOC aa HaBeAeHMTe TOJIKYBalha: Leroa Guran, A. (1991), 178-183.

139

HUKOC 'iaycuouc

IIOIOIorryBalbeTO sa OBOj lJHH sa craayaaae JIOBeQ, co rrOJIOBaTa apeJIOer aa MOMtIHlbaTa, MO)Ke ,[la ce nporonxysa KaKO ,[lHpeKTHa MaHHcpeCTaQHja aa ropeaaaegeaaor KOHQerrT na rpaacnoaapaae aa rrOJIOBHOT HarOH BO opepara na JIOBOT. IIpHKa)KaHHTe HaO,[lH nasaar OCHOBa sa resara nexa naj,[lOQHa BO rOpHHOT rraJIeOJIHT, a cocea BepO]aTHO H nopaao, crrOHTaHHTe HR,[lHBH,[l)'aJIHH H,[leHTHcpHKaQHH aa rrOJIOBaTa aKTHBHoer H JIOBOT ,[l06HJIe xapaxrep aa rJI06aJIeH KYJIrypeH cpeHOMeH, npepacaysajxa ,[l)'pH H BO cnenacpHtIHa OIIIIITeCTBeHa aacraryuaja,

CHM60JIHlJKaTa penauaja .n08 = Kouiiiyc ja MaHHcpeerHpaaT H ,[lpym npaaepa, Ocofieao HHTepeCHH BO raa CMHCJIa ce ,[lBe KaMeHH rrJIOlJH O,[l aopoOlba BO <l>paHQHja (La Ferrassiu). Bo npBHOT cnysaj ce pa60TH sa KaMeH xoj, Bp3 fiaaa sa HerOBHOT npaponea 06JIHK, 6HJI nopaoorea BO BH,[l aa 6H30H (T.II:4). IIoTOa BO HerOBHOT cpeaaurrea ,[leJI 6HJIe Bpe)KaHH nse CTHJIH3HpaHH npeTCTaBH sa BYJIBa (H,[leHTHcpHKaQHja aa JIOBeHOTO )KHBOTHO co xeHalBYJIBa) H H3Be,[leHH HeKOJIKY KPY)KHH ,[lJIarrKH (KOH CHM60JIH3HpaJIe y,[lap co opyxje = KOHryC, O,[lHOCHO paHa = BYJIBa). BTOpHOT rrpmrep e rpasypa aa lJeTHpHHO)KHO )KHBOTHO, ,[lOrrOJIHeTa co HeKOJIKY XOPH30HTaJIHH peaa nnanKH (T.II:5,6). Illesraraaapaaara npercrasa na BYJIBa osojnar e npaxaxaaa non erOMaKOT aa )KH80THOTO. Ha OIIlIlTHOT - rmaaerapea xapaxrep aa oaaa CHM60JIHlJKa penanaja ynarysa enaa rpasypa Bp3 KaMeH O,[l JY3ICHa A8Ciiipanuja (Murray), xoja Hero raxa HM ce rrpHIIHIIIYBa na paaare JIOBQH (T.II:l,2). Hacnpora reorparpcsara onnaneaeaocr O,[l nperxonnare npaxepn, raa ra cogP)KH CHTe anocrporpapaaa eJIeMeHTH (lJeTHpHHO)KHO )KH80THo,BYJIBa,,[lJIarrKH).7

Ha rraJIeOJIHTCKHTe neurrepaa CJIHKH H rpasypa O,[l <l>paHQHja (Hem MepA, rap oe Ky3) ce saoenexyaa yurre e,[lHa nojasa xoja 6H MO)KeJIa,[la ce seae KaKO apryxear BO npanor sa ryxa 06pa60TeHHoT cpeHoMeH. Craayaa 360p aa CTHJIH3HpaHH nporpanaa npercrasa aa )KeHa KOH BO csojara KORrypa ce ,[l06JI~BaaT ,[l0 npercrasare aa lJeTHpHHO)KHO )KHBOTHO (T.I1:3), cnopen HeKOH H KOHKpeTHO - 6H30H. HH3 HeKOJIKY rrpHJIHtIHO He,[lHcpepeHQHpasa npaaepa MO)Ke na ce CJIe,[lH H,[leHTHcpHKaQHjaTa aa caIIHTe aa )KHBOTHOTO co 3a,[lHHOT ,[leJI on TeJIOTO aa )KeHaTa H na npenaare H03e sa )KH80THOTO

. .

co HeJ3HRHTe cnynrreaa ,[lOJKH.

5 3a HaBeAeHHTe rpasypa (6e3 TyKa npHJIO)KeHHTe TOJIKYBalba), BHAH: Anati, E. (1999), 14, 15, 17 (sl. 6,7,8,9, 18).

140

Apxeonoiuja -IIUK06HIJ ceMuoiiiuKQ- ucuxonoiuja

H nenec, KaKQ nocaenana aa norope eJIa6QPHpaHlIOT CHM6QJIWlKH xoauerrr, BQ 6PQjHH apXaWIHH KyJIT)'PH aa nnaaerasa, CrrpQTH rrpeTCTQjHHQT JIQB, JIQBn;HTe rrpaKTHKYBaaT ancraaapaae 0.)]; rrQJIQBa aKTHBHQCT,8 co HHTeHnaja sa rpaacnoanpaae, T.e. aasecrapaae sa rrQJIQBaTa MQK BQ JIQBQT (ceKyH)l;apHQ rrpeQCMHCJIeHQ, r.e. paU;HQHaJIH3HpaHQ, KaKQ yCJIQB sa "JIQBHa cpexa" HJIH "ycrrex BQ JIQBQT").

I1)l;eHTHqmKaU;HjaTa na QPY)KjeTO H <PaJIYCOT ce npoanexyna HH3 CHTe HCTQPHCKH nepaona, HQ Q6paTHQ rrpQrrQPU;HQHaJIHQ co. CTerreHQT na n;HBHJIH3HpaHQCTa, raa ja ry6H CBQjaTa eKCrrJIHn;HTHa rrQJIOBa )l;HMeH3Hja, npexpaBajKH ce co npesesor na MeTa<popaTa H eMOTHBHHTe MH )l;yXOBHHTe acnexra sa epOTCKOTO. Bo aHTWlKHOT rrepHO)];, HajeBH)l;eHTHH BO osaa CMHCJIa ce ceKaKO Epoc, T.e. AMOP, co JIaKOT H CTPeJIaTa KaKO rJIaBeH aTPH6YT. THe ja HOcaT <pYHKn;HjaTa na rrOTTHKHYBalffi, T.e. npenaaaasyaasa, aa eporcxoro Mety Ma)KOT H )KeHaTa aaxo, 3eMeHO )];OCJIe)];HQ, CTPeJIaTa 6H TPe6aJIo )];a 6H)l;e ynareaa cauo KOH )KeHaTa. OC06eHQ rpaacnapearaa BQ oaaa CMHCJIa ce TPa)l;Hn;HHTe, rr03HaTH BO pa3HH noapxaasaa KyJIT)'PH, Ka)];e IIITO MOMtleTO, r.e. Ma)KOT, rryurra 0.)]; JIaKOT CTPeJIa KOH csojara H36paHWIKa (Q)l;HOCHO KQH aej- 3HHOTO )KHBeaJIllliITe MH KOH TaTKOTQ ... ), KaKO 3HaK aa CBQjaTa aasrepa, npa mTQ 3eMalheTO na cTPeJIaTa 3Halffi rrpH<paKalbe na notrynara. OCBeH BO peanHHTe noeransn, OBOJ lffiH e lJeCTO npacyren H BO MHTOBHTe, rrpHKa3HHTe H encxare nena, HepeTKO )];OrrOJIHeT H co )];pyrn CHM60JIWIKH MOTHBH.9

AaJIH e CJIYlJajHo mTO BO rrpHKa3HHTe CTPeJIaTa na rrpHHU;OT 3aBpurysa xaj )Ka6aTa, xoja rrO)];OU;Ha Ke My CTaHe )KeHa? He, aKO ce sexe rrpe)];BH)]; )];eKa BO 6pojHH KyJITypH, )Ka6aTa e CHM60JI na )KeHCKHOT rrpHn;HII, 3aCTarrHHK aa 3eMjaTa, aa Hej3HHaTa rrJIO)];HOCT H oc06eHO - cyrrCTHT)'T aa )KeHCKHTe reHHTaJIHH (BYJIBa, MaTKa). Bo osaa nparona e HHTepeCHO)];a ce HaBe)];e )];eKa H BO MaKe)];OHCKHOT Ja3HK, HJIH BO HeKOH HerOBH ronopa, 360pOT 3ICa6a ce KOPHCTH KaKO MeTa<popa, rra H CHHOHHM sa )KeHCKH rrQJIOB opraa, HJIH rrax KaKO Ha3HB aa HeKOH TeXHHlJKH eJIeMeHTH KQH OBOrrJIOTYaaar o)];pe)];eHH 06eJIe)Kja H <PYHKU;HH aa BYJIBaTa (sa npaxep, 3ICaUKa KaKO JIe)KHmTe BO xoe anerysa OCKaTa aa sparara, HJIH KaKQ OTBQP HH3 KQj ce nporayna peMlJe).l0

8 Teopraesa, M. (1983),44.

9 3a CTpeJIaTa KaKO 6paQeH CHM60JI: BeHe,lJ;HKOB, M. (1987),63 - 67; AHHCHMOB, A. cI>. (1959),64,65; 3a onnonyaauero npexy paayaarse co crpena: Matic, V. (II), 194. 10 ,r:t;eTaJIHO aa OBa: l.J:aYCHp;HC, H. (1994), 176-181; l.J:aycH,IJ;HC, H. (2002),272-275.

141

HUKOC Haycuouc

Bo COBpeMeHaTa MaCOBHa xynrypa, P;O neaec e npacyraa CJIHKaTa aa CTHJIH3HpaHO cpne, rrpOHIDKaHO co cTPeJIa, KaKO CHM60JI sa Jby60BTa (T.III:1). AHaJIH3aTa na aaaseaero na cpnero, HH3 pa3HH erroxa H KyJIryPH, noxaxysa p;eKa H BO OBOj CJIY1faj, npasrapao ce pa60TeJIO sa CHM60JI na )KeHCKHTe reHHTaJIHH (BYJIBa, MaTKa). CMeTaMe nexa BO CJIY1fajoB, KJIY1fOT aa osaa Hp;eHTHcpHKa:qHja JIe)I(H BO peaJIHHTe penanna Mefy H3rJIep;OT H 06eJIe)Kjara sa 06aTa eJIeMeHTa. llMeHO, H cpnero H BYJIBaTa ce BHTaJIHH opraaa, Bp3 KOH ce 6a3Hpa 1fOBeKOBHOT )KHBOT. Bo 01fHTe aa apXaH1fHHOT 1fOBeK, 06aTa MO)KaT p;a ce onpenenar KaKO "myrrJIHBH MYCKYJIH KOH BO ce6e COp;p)KaT KpB, Op;HOCHO raa rrOMHHYBa HH3 HHB" (patiora aa cpnero, MeHCTPya:qHja). Toa cexaxo saasa nexa neaennrara CMHCJIa na osaa CJIHKa KaKO CHM60JI na P;YXOBHHTe T.e. eMOTHBHH acnexra na Jby60BTa (6a3HpaHH Bp3 npercrasare sa cpuero KaKO Cep;HIIITe aa P;YXOBHOTO H na qyBCTBaTa) e ceKYH,Il;apHO, npa llITO 3ap; Hero npmrapao CTOeJI ep;eH MHOry rrOOTBOpeH MaTepHjaJIeH H 6HOJIOlliKH acnexr - saaseaero aa KOHryc,11 HajeKCrrJIH:qHTHO OBa ro noxaxysa ep;eH MOTHB npexaa aa cpypKa op; nonpasjero na Xpaarcxa (19 BeK), Kap;e llITO

. .

noxpaj peaJIHO npaxaxanara p;BO]Ka na rOJI Ma)K H rona )KeHa, CTOH cpne co

saooneaa CTPeJIa, HO rrpaxaxaaa aa Ha1fHH KOj MHory rrOeKCrrJIH:qHTHO aJIYP;Hpa na xoarycor (T.III:3,4),12 Bo ep;eH BaKOB KOHTeKCT, HOBO nparaara-nro saaseae p;06HBa H cppa3aTa ,,00 CPlIe uopooa", 1feCTa BO MaKep;OHCKHTe H rrOllIHpOKO BO j~OCJIOBeHCKHTe CPOJIKJIOPHH KHIDKeBHH TPap;H:qHH. II03- HaTH ce IIpHMepH aa paaocpenaoaexonea HaKHT Kap;e llITO, na penauajara "cp:qe - BYJIBa" ynarysa H rrosauajara sa cp:qeBHp;HHOT MOTHB, npaxaxaa BO reHHTaJIHaTa 30Ha sa qmrypaTa (T.III:2),13

Yurre ep;eH npnaep on MaKep;OHCKaTa CPOJIKJIOpHa TPap;H:qHja H3BOHpenao HJIYCTPaTHBHO ro onpaaysa HaBep;eHHOT cpeHOMeH. Ha rr01feTOKOT op; MHHaTHOT BeK, BO OKOJIHHaTa aa Tesrenaja, ce CMeTaJIO sa naspena na p;OMaKHHOT KaKO H sa rrOHIDKYBalbe H nanan Bp3 1feCTa na )KeHCKHOT nen Oil: HeroBOTO ceMejCTBO, aKO npa p;OMalliHa secemia, aexoj Oil: npacyrmrre MalliKH roCTH H3BJIe1fe HO)K Oil: rrojac H ro 3a60ll:e BO 1l:0MalliHOTO oramnre. BP_30CHOsa na ryxa rrpeTCTaBeHHOT xoanerrr H 1l:06po nosaarara penanaja oiuutu-

11 Haycanac, H. (2002),343 - 346.

12 Harepecaa naparrena aa osaa CJIHKa (osojnar nOeKCnJIHLUiTHa, 6e3 CHM60JIH'lKOTO nocpencrso aa CPQeTO) aaoraae aa HeOJIHTCKHOT QPTe)l{ Bpe)l{aH BO Kapna OA To- 6YCTaH BO Aaepoejnaa (T.III: 5). BHAH: Valou, D. (1999),18 - CJI. 19.

13 lJaycHAHc, H. (2002), 343-346.

142

Apxeonotuja - /lUK09Ha CeMUOlUUKa - ucuxonouqa

iIle-8YJl8a-MaiIlKa, jacao MaHaHcpeCTHpaH npexy KYJITOT aa aHTHqKHTe 60- )Ian~H aa orHHIIITeTO (xeJIeHCKaTa XeCTHja, pmrcxara Becra, npaacxara Ta- 6HTH), MO)Ke na ce 3aKJIyqH geKa BO HaBegeHHoT HerrO)KeJIeH qHH, HO)KOT ro HOCH aaaseaero sa CPaJIYc, gogeKa ynapor co Hero BO OrHHIIITeTO - KOHTYC co )KeHCKHTe CTaHapH na raa KYKa,l4 Anysaja na CPaJIYCOT He rrpeTCTaBYBaJI casro 06JIHKOT aa HO)KOT H aerosara CPYHKn;Hja na 60gelbe, T.e. npooasaa,e, TYKY H MeCTOTO Kage IIITO 6HJI nocea - nojacor aa Ma)KOT, BO nerrocpeaaa 6JIH3HHa sa reHHTaJIHHTe.

Bo KOHTeKCT na nperxonmrre aHaJIH3H, KYJITypHHOT cpeHOMeH noeetee co KOUje, ciIlpe.tla UIlU dpyio up06U8a'lKO opy3ICje, MO)Ke ga ce ccpaTH KaKO nepaeprapaaa, rpaacpopsrapaaa T.e. anarrrapana cpopMa aa MaIIIKHOT HarOH H MexaHH3aM na rrOJIOBO ornnreae, rrpH IIITO sa 06eTe aKTHBHOCTH e 3aegHHQKO roa IIITO QHHOT (a co Hero H 3agoBOJICTBOTO) ce OCTBapYBaaT, raxa IIITO cy6jeKToT (JIOBen;-Ma)K) co rrOMOIII na gorrOJIHHTeJIeH eJIeMeHT (opyxje-rpanyc), npexy OTBOP (paHa-BYJIBa) ce nporiasa BO nenra (JIOBeHO )KHBOTHO-)KeHa). Bp3 OBOj CHM60JIHQKH CHCTeM Ke ce aaxaJIeMH YIIITe enaa ccpepa aa QOBeKOBaTa KYJITYpa - BoeHHTe nejnocra KOH, KaKO H JIOBOT, Ke 6HgaT rrpHAPY)KeHH co pa3HH MeXaHH3MH na pa36Y)zyBalbe H sajaxnyaarse aa "Jby60BHHOT )Kap" (rrOJIOBHOT HarOH) aa Ma)KHTe H aerosOTO npeaacosyaaae BO ,,)Kap sa nojynarse". Orryxa, BO apXaHQHHTe, rra H BO COBpeMeHHTe KYJITYpH e QeCTa npaxrnxara na ceKCYaJIHO B036Y)zyBalbe na BOHHHTe npen Ba)KHH BoeHH cyirapa (npexy 06pegHH nrpa, rrpHCYCTBO na )KeHH ... ).15 Maory cpeHOMeHH rrOBp3aHH co BoeHHTe TPagHn;HH g06HBaaT BHCTHHCKa CMHCJIa H KOHTeKCT, gOKOJIKY ce Ha6JbygYBaaT HH3 TYKa npenJIO)KeHHOT xonuerrr:

30lUiIlo 60i08uiIle ua 80jHaiIla ce 80edHO upeiIlciIla8eHU KaKO ioneMU Jb y608HUqU, a UOKP08UiIle.tlKUiIle U 3alUiIluiIlHU'lKUiIle ua 80UHUiIle ce 603ICuqu - oeeuuu U UOKP08UiIle.tlKU na ii.flodHociIla?

30lUiIlo 80 iIlpaduquoHaJlHuiIle KYJliIlypu, 80UHuiIle 'leciIlo HaciIlauy- 8aaiIl ionu?

30lUiIlo cUllaiIla ua 80UHOiIl ce udeHiIlUf/JUKY8a co 8HaiIlpelUHa 3ICelUiIluHa-iIloii.fluHa-3ICap?

. 14 3a HaBeAeHHOT npaseep OA reBreJIHCKO: TaHOBHh, C. (1940), 130; aa perrauajara oinuruiiie-By.nBa-MaiiiKa: Haycaaac, H. (1996),44,45.

15 Osaa nojasa JYHr ja aapexysa iipeMeciiiYBalbe na .nu6uOoiiio: Jung, K. G. (1978), 113-118. 3a OBa BHAH H: ,IJ;bID<OHOB, 11. M. (1990), 146.

143

Huxoc tfaycu9uc

30Uliiio oopoenuiiie u C6aOOapCKUiiie uipu ilOKa3ICY6aaiii iiiO.!lKa6 ciiieilen ua O.!luCKociii?

KopHCTejKH ro OBOj KOHI.J;eIIT, ce 06H]!;OBMe il:a rparaxe H rro OHOj esearyanea acnexr aa JIOBelbeTO xoj 6H 6HJI crreQH<pWIHO )KeHCKH, O)l;HOCHO rro CBOHTe MeXaHH3MH 6H mrreppepnpan co rrpHHQHrrOT sa )KeHaTa BO paMKHTe aa rrOJIOBHOT aKT. Ilaror He nosene il:0 pa3HHTe BH]!;OBH .!l06e.,Ku ciiiailullU, xaj KOH, 6e3 pa3JIHKa aa KOHKpeTHHOT BH]!; (noxpaeaa java, jaaxa Oil: jaxe, Mpe)Ka, xarpes ... ) ce nosropysa )KeHCKHOT acnexr sa KOHTYCOT. Kaj CHTe HHB, 1JHHOT aa noseae (a CO Hero H caracpaxnajara) ce ocrsapyaa raxa IlITO ueniiia ce ilpwta60 ceiet». 60 opyoueiiio sa .!l06. Cenax, eBH]!;eHTHHOT )KeHCKH KOHQeIIT na oaaa aKTHBHOCT, BO nexoja H)l;Ha npnrona, Ke rpeoa noapryueaTHpaHO na ce noxaxe npexy KOHKpeTHH MaHH<peCTaQHH, rrpHCYTHH BO onpeil:eJIeHH KYJITYPH).

3eMjoAeJICfBOTO H narnaare

CJIWIHa arrreppepemreja, T.e. rpaaopep aa HarOHCKHTe MexaHH3MH, MO)l{e il:a ce npenosaae H BO paaare <pOpMH na 3eMjOil:eJICTBOTO, nojaseao BO eil:eH 3Ha1JHTeJIHO rroil:OQHe)KeH nepnon (HeOJIHT - MJIail:0 KaMeHO npexe, aa DarrKaHOT 3arrOQHaTO OKOny 7 000 r. rrpeil: H.e.), xora ce aepysa il:eKa H QOBeKOBHOT MeHTarreH arrapaT ce Haorarr Ha eil:eH rrOBHCOK pa3BoeH CTa)l;HyM. COceM e CHrYPHO il:eKa HeKaKOB KYJITYpeH 0il:HOC na QOBeKOT H pacreaajara 6HJI socnocraaea BeKe BO rrpeTXO)l;HHOT rrarreOJIHTCKH nepaon, xora TOj, cnopen ceraurmrre cosaaaaja, HHB rraCHBHO rn cooapan BO npaponara sapana csoja npexpaaa, Bepojarao ynrre BO roj nepaon, 6HOJIOlliKHOT naroa sa ncxpaaa H orrCTaHOK ja MOTHBHparr BO neroanor YM penanajara Mefy )l{eHaTa

. . .

H 3eMjaTa KaKO XpaHHTeJIKH - eil:HaTa KaKO MajKa xojaurro co MJIeKOTO H3JIa-

. ..

QeHO Oil: CBOHTe il:OjKH ro xpaaa nerero H, sropara, xoja co pacreanjara IlITO

pacrar Oil: sea ro oil:p~a BO )KHBOT QOBeKOT. Haxo 6e3 il:0BOJIHO il:OKa3H, He MO)l{e il:a ce HC~H MO)KHOCTa nexa HeKOH rrpaMeXaHH3MH na H]!;HOTO 3eMjOil:eJICTBO 6HJIe BocrrOCTaBeHH YIIITe BO rrarreOJIHTOT. THe cexaxo ce cocroeJIe BO rrpecanysatse na pacreanjara Oil: enao MeCTO aa npyro (sa npavep, ira rrOrrOBOJIHa JIOKaQHja, rr06JIHcKY no )KHBearrHllITeTO), rrpn IlITO 6HJI HHryHTHBHO nocernar H MexaHH3MOT aa HHBHOTO pa3MHo~albe (ceaxara KaKO YCJIOB sa nojasara aa 6HJIKHTe Oil: 3eMjaTa).

144

Apxeonoiuja - IlllK06Ha ceMuoiUliKa - acuxonoiuja

Co ornen aa 6HOJIOllIKaTa rrpe)];HCrrOHHpaHOCT aa )l(eHaTa sa CTaTHqHHTe ccpepH aa KYJITYpaTa, O)];HOCHO CPYHKIJ;HHTe OKOJIY )l(HBeaJIHrrllITeTO, orHHllITeTO H rrO)];MJIa)];OKOT, coceu e sepojarao )];eKa TOKMY raa 6HJIa maBHHOT peaJIH3aTOp na OBHe aKTHBHOCTH. llMajIill ja npensan HH)J;eHTHcpHKaU;HjaTa

. .

na 3eMjaTa H )l(eHaTa, qHHOT na caneae, T.e. C03)];aBaIbe nynxa BO 3eMjaTa,

MO)l(eJI )];a anreprpepapa co neaerpauajara aa CPaJIYCOT, a crryurrarsero aa ceMKaTa - co eaKYJIaU;HjaTa T.e. OrrJIO)J;yBaIbeTO.

)J;OKa3HTe sa BaKBHOT O)J;HOC na qOBeKOT KOH 3eMjO)];eJICTBOTO ce 6pojHH H YHHBep3aJIHH sa Tpa)];HU;HOHaJIHHTe KYJITYpH 0)]; u;eJIOTO qOBellITBO.

E)];eH 0)]; HajeKCrrJIHu;HTHHTe e npaxepor llITO ro rrpHJIO~Ba K. f.

JYHr, 06jaCHYBajKH ro cpeHOMeHOT aa "iipeAteciiiY8albe ua .f1,uouaoiiio". CTaHYBa 360p sa nponeraara uepeaoaaja aa rrJIeMeTO Ba'lanaa, rrpa llITO BO 3eMjaTa ce xona H3)];OJI)I(eHa jaaa OKOny soja ce Ha60)];YBaaT 6HJIKH, raxa llITO ce 3ae)];HO npnnera na )l(eHCKH rrOJIOB opraa, HaTaMY Ma)I(HTe TaHI.J;yBaaT OKOJIY nea, )];p)l(ejIill ra xonjara KaKO CPaJIYCH BO epexnaja, 3a60)J;yBajKH ra noroa BO jauara H BHKajKH: "He e )J;yIIKa, He e nynxa, TYKY BYJIBa". Ce pa60TH sa otipen na OrrJIO)J;yBaIbe aa seajara xoj, rnenarro 0)]; rrCHXOJIOllIKH acnexr, HMa aa uen npeaaco-ryaaae sa JIH6H)];OTO KOH Hea.16

Bo Tpa)];Hu;HHTe aa norrynauaare 0)]; HH)];OeBpOrrCKHOT KOMIIJIeKC, OBOj CHM60JIHqKO-MHTOJIOllIKH xonuerrr e aajjacno H3pa3eH BO ja3HKoT, Ka)];e llITO Ha3HBHTe sa eJIeMeHTHTe 0)]; pacrenajara KOH ce YCJlOB sa HHBHO HHKHYBaIbe HMaaT HCTa OCHOBa (rra )J;ypH ce H CHHOHHMH) co Ha3HBHTe aa )l(HBOTHHCKHOT H qOBeqKHOT eaKYJIaT (CJIOB. ceue, rps. sperma, JIaT. semen). DBa e BOe)];HO H jacea )];OKa3 sa paaoro pasoapaae na OCHOBHHOT MexaHH3aM aa rrOJIOBOTO paaaaoxyaaa,e.

Bp3 OCHOBa aa apXeOJIOllIKHTe HaO)J;H H eraorparpcxnor KOMrrapaTHBeH MaTepHjaJI, MO)l(e )];a ce 3aKJIY~ )];eKa npnare opynaja ynorpeoyaaaa npa caneaero na pacreanjara HMaJIe H3rJIe)]; 6JIH30K aa cpaJIycoT. CTaHYBa 360p aa pa3HH KJIHHOBH KOH ce 3a60)J;yBaJIe B3eMH H BO nnanxara, llITO npa raa ce orsopana H ce Bca)J;yBaJIO ceaero. )J;YPH H MOTHKaTa H nonarara, KaKO penaTHBHO HOBH 3eMjO)];eJICKH aJIaTKH, ce CMeTaaT sa yconpurerra )];epHBaTH na ciiiaiioiii sa KOiialbe, KOj ce )];0 MaCOBHaTa npaveaa na )l(eJIe30TO, <PYHKU;HOHHPaJI KaKO rnaana pasna 3eMjO)];eJICKa aJIaTKa. DBHe opynaja H HHBHHOT 06JIHK noxaxysaar )];eKa nonro spesre sa cYllITHHaTa na osaa aKTHBHOCT He

16 lung, K. G. (1978),113.

145

HUKOC '{aycuouc

ce cxerano Tlpe8pfllY8albefllo na seuiaiua, TYKY 06pe~HOTO 3a6u8albe ua cauui 80 flea. Oaaa eBOJIYWIja aa 3eMjO)l:eJICKHOT cran BO MOTHKa 6H MO)l(eJIO )l:a ce rrofiapa H BO CJIOBeHCKaTa JIeKCHKa T.e. KOHKpeTHO MoiiiUlca KOj noxa~Ba penauaja co MoiiiKa (eran), lliTO )l:06HBa CMHCJIa, 3eMajKH ro rrpe~H)l: <paKTOT ~eKa 06eTe ce CMeTaaT sa eJIeMeHTH sa rrpHMapHOTO ()I(eHCKO - eKCTeH3HBHO) 3eMjO)l:eJICTBO, aapeseao ymre H "MOTWIKO 3eMjO)l:eJICTBo".17

AHarrOrHO aa JIOBet{KHTe nejaocra, 3eMjO)l:eJICTBOTO aareppepapa co yurre HeKOH, HeCBeCHO 6a3HpaHH t{OBeKOBH 6HOJIOlliKH aaroaa O~rJIe~Baaero sa HHKHaTOTO pacresae, BO rrOTCBeCTa (ocoeeao sa )l(eHaTa) ce ~eHTH<pHKYBa co HHCTHHKTOT sa saurrara H npexpasysaae aa ~eTeTO, npa lliTO cexaxo H O)l: raa «pepa snese )l:OrrOJIHHTeJIeH HMrryJIC BO B~ aa a<pHHHTeT H MOTHBa~Ja.

Cexcyanaaor xoanerrr e ~JIa60KO H3pa3eH H BO sropara - nocospmeaa <pa3a aa 3eMjO)l:eJICTBOTO, xane lliTO KaKO OCHOBeH eJIeMeHT ce nojasysa panoro. Ce paeorn sa MexaHH3aM KOj rro CBOHTe <pH3Ht{KH 6apalba H MarncKHOT MO~eJI e eMHHeHTHO MalliKH. Jlosmrajara sa opasor BO O~OC na panoTO H sa panoro BO O~OC aa seajara, ro HaMeruysa CTaBOT ~eKa H 3a~ OBOj, O)l: )l:eHellieH acrrexr cocesr yrnmrrapea t{HH, croen 06pe)l: aa MarnCKO OIIJIO~sarse sa 3eMjaTa, npa xoe panoro ro npercrasysano CHM60JIIf1IKHOT <PaJIYC xoj ja oraopa 3eMjaTa (= )l(eHa) aa ~a ce crrynrra BO 6pa3~aTa ( = BYJIBa) cesreTO (= eaKYJIaT). Bo npanor sa TOa rosopar <paKTHTe cnopen KOH panoro BO npso speve He 6HJIO ~3ajHHpaHo )l:a ja npespryaa no-mara, TYKY KaKO H BO rrpeTXO~OT CJIYt{aj, npercrasysano cran xoj ce 3a60~Barr BO noxsara H noroa ce BJIet{eJI HH3 HHBaTa (T.III:l0; noycospmesa npaxepa. 6-9). Cnopen roa, npen ~a ce npersopa BO patiora r.e. YTHJIHTapHa nejaoer, opaisero <PYHK~oHHparro KaKO peJIHrH03eH t{HH BO KOj oepemraor peKBH3HT (parro) rrp~p~aH o~ CBelliTeHHKOT, 6HJI saecyaaa BO Majxara - 3eMja H BJIeqeH O)l: rrOCBeTeHHTe )l(HBOTHH, KaKO t{HH sa Hej3HHa nonrorosxa aa OIIJIo)l:YBalbe.18

E)l:eH O)l: aajrpaacnapearaare )l:OKa3H sa OBa e HH)l:HCKHOT 360p Iangala, KOj osaasyaa pano, HO HCToBpeMeHo H <PaJIYc.l9 He nouanxy jacaa ce

17 3a )l(eHCKOTO - MOTH'lKOTO 3eMjogenCTBo: Mumford, L. (1986),136,187; ManHHOBa,

P. ManHH, 51. (1988),50; Matic, V. (1972),144,199. .

18 Mumford, L. (1986), 136, 187; Manaaosa, P. ManHH, 51. (1988),52; Jung, K. G. (1978), 113 - 118; Matic, V. (1972), 144, 199; Marie, V. (III), 54, 93; Matic, V. (1976),25,134, 222; Mapa30B, 11. (1992), 29, 58, 111, 137, 172; BeHegHKoB, 11. (1992), '226; Berreuxosa, M. (2000),29 - 38; 'l{aYCHnHC, H. (1994), 156, 157.

19 Chevalier, J. Gheerbrant, A. (1987),351,3$2.

146

Apxeonotuja -IlIlKOBHa CeMIlOtUUKa - ucuxonoiuia

HeKOH cpOmrnOpHH TPaWfQHH aasyaaaa aa DaJIKaHOT H BO MaKe):,(OHHja. fJIaBHO, me npanaraar na CJIO)KeHHOT KOMrrJIeKC nejcrsa, Bp3aHH OKOJIY oopenaara yrrora aa paJIOTO H pa3HHTe nocranxa aa 06pegHo saopysaae, npaaraxysaaa BO paMKHTe aa xaneanapcsnor QHKJIYC. II03HaTH ce npauepa xora yqeCHHK aa 3HMCKHTe MacKHpaHH noaopxa (uaxanapn, BaCHJIHqapH, KYxepa) ro acnpaaa PaJIOTO aarope (= epexnaja) H xasea na Hero H3BHKYBa epOTCKH necaa, Oc06eHO ce xecra nejcraara npa KOH MaCKHpaHHTe ~aMaJIapa rn 6pKaaT HJIH ra 6YQKaaT HeBeCTHTe co H3g0JI)KeHaTa paxxa 0):,( PaJIOTO, co QeJI me ga 6HgaT rrJIOgHH H 3gpaBH. Bo xareropajara eporcxa necaa co oopenea xapaxrep, PaJIOTO ce nojasysa KaKO gHpeKTHa MeTacpopa sa cparryCOT.20

Ilocpenea ):,(OKa3 sa HarOHCKaTa rrOJIOBa OCHOBa na 3eMjogeJICKHTe nejaocra ce pa3HH 06pegH 3ag KOH CTOH CT}'eMe)K sa rpaaopep, T.e. HHBecrapaae, na rrOJIOBaTa MOK og nyrero Hag nonaaara, co QeJI ):,(a ce pOgH rro- 06HJIHa JIeTHHa:21

- Ma)KOT-3eMjogeJIeQ, cnpora oparsero HJIH ceeisero, ancrnaapa og rrOJIOB KOHTaKT co )KeHa.22 Haxo BO HaYKaTa gOMHHHpa CTaBOT geKa 3ag osoj norer CTOH )KeJI6aTa aa pHTYaJIHa ~CTOTa aa 3eMjogeJIeQOT, CMeTaMe geKa TYKa MO)l{e ga ce rrOCTaBH YUITe egeH - noapxamea H rr06a3HqeH MOTHB - TOj

.. .

ga ja sasysa cBoJaTa nnonoaocaa CHJIa H CJIegHHOT geH ga Ja HHBeCTHpa BO

HHBaTa;

- Bo pa3HH KYJITYpH H erroxa, aa onpeaenea geH (aajsecro rrOqeTOKOT aa rogHIIIHHoT sererarasea QHKJIYC) gOMaKHHHTe (conpyror H conpyrara) onene BO csojara HHBa H TaMY nernara aa 3eMja HJIH BO npsara 6pa3ga H3BegyBaJIe KOHTYC, BepYBajKH geKa co roa Ke 06e36egaT nonooap rrpHHOC na nermrara. Bp3 6a3a sa OBOj KOHQeIIT, KOHTYCOT aa HHBaTa ce HarnOJI KaKO reaa H BO MHTOBHTe.23 Bp3 OCHOBa na JIHKOBHHTe npercrasa, H3rpaBHpaHH aa 6pOH3eHHTe KyJITHH canoan, nosnara KaKO cuiiiYJlU (T.lV:1-4), g03HaBaMe geKa OBOj KOHQerrT HMaJI Ba)KHO MeCTO BO nyxosanre TPagHQHH na crapoce):,(eJIQHTe aa ArreHHHCKHOT IIOJIyoCT}'oB H aa sananaare pa60BH na EaJIKaHOT

20 CBeTHeBa, A. (1998), 10; BeJIelU(OBa, M. (2000),29-34.

21 lJaYCHAHC, H. (1996-a), 58 - 66; BeJIelU(OBa, M. (2000),29-38. 22 Feopraeaa, 11. (1983), 44; BeJIelU(OBa, M. (2000), 30.

23 JJ:baKOHOB, 11. M. (1990), 89, 104, 162, 165, 227 - CPycHoTa 113; Chevalier, 1.

Gheerbrant, A. (1987),786 - 788; Elijade, M. (1983),33 - 43; Mapa30B, 11. (1994),71; Mapa30B, 11. (1992), 173, 177; BeHeAHKoB, 11. (1992), 169; Mati?, V. (II), 240; lJaycHAHc, H. (1994), 156, 157.

147

(ErpYPQH, BeHeTH).24 Henocpenaara BpCKa aa nJIOp;HOCTa aa qOBeKOT H HHBHTe H KOHKpeTHO penananre Mefy KOH'ryCOT H OpaIDeTO ce cornenyaaar aa CJIHKHTe sa opaae H KOH'ryC npHKIDKaHH napaJIeJIHO BO naere CJIHKaHH 30HH sa Cap;OBHTe (T.IV:l, 3). Co TeKOT aa apexero, 06pep;HHoT KOH'ryC aa HHBaTa ryoen op; csojara eKCnJIHQHTHOCT, nperaopajxa ce BO HMHTan;Hja na KOH'ryC H na xpajor - BO nonpaeroea qlfH aa otipemro TPKaJIaIDe no HHBaTa, H roa Hajnpao sa conpyxaannre, a nop;On;Ha H aa npym npHnap;HHn;H aa 3aeWIHIJ;aTa.25

- Bo CJIOBeHCKHOT H 6aJIKaHCKHoT <pOJIKJIOP BIDKHO MeCTO 3a3eMaJIa xareropajara 06pep;H npa KOH rpyrm p;eBojKH (= p;eBHll;H) npen HJIH aa noseTOTKOT op; npOJIeTTa, H3BeP;YBaJIe pa3HH aKTHBHOCTH sa HHBHTe (nocern, nponecaa, TaHQH, BJIeqeIDe aa PaJIOTO ... ), npOCJIep;eHH co 3Han;H KOH BO TPap;HIJ;HOHaJIHHOT CeMaHmqKH CHCTeM ja 06eJIe)l()'BaaT xeaara KaKO "oTBopeaa" H "nop;roTBeHa sa cexcyanea aKT" (06JIeqeHH caao no KOIIIYJIa, pacnalIIaHH, 60CH, co paCnJIeTeHH KOCH).26 3ap; OBHe nOCTanKH MO)J(e p;a ce nOCTaBH ep;eH 3aep;HJfqKH CTPeMe)J( - npexy npHcYCTBoTO na p;eBoJKHTe, HHBHaTa HenOTPolIIeHa )J(HBOTHa, nOJIOBa T.e. nJIOp;OHOCHa CHJIa p;a ce HHBeCTHpa BO HHBHTe.

113pa6oTKa aa opy~ja

l1p;eHTHcpHKan;HjaTa Mefy HarOHCKHTe H npoaaaoncrseaare, HJIH,

. .

nOlIIHpoKO, KYJI'rypHHTe p;eJHOCTH aa qOBeKOT e cnOHTaH qHH KOJ He MOPaJI

cexoram p;a p;06He KOJIeKTHBHH ~MeH3HH. Bo HeKOH CJIyqaH, onaa Hp;eHTH<pHKaQHja OCTaHYBaJIa BO c<l>epaTa aa JIWlHOTO HCKYCTBO sa emra HJIH aa noMaJI 6poj HHp;HBH)J;yH, 6e3 npereasaa aa BJIeryBaIDe BO crpepare na MHTOT H penarajara. Cnopen name MHCJIeIDe, osaa c<l>epa OP;JIH~O ja HJIYCTPHpa emra npenacropacsa KaMeHa cexapa (narapaaa BO 6aKapHOTO apexe), OTKpHeHa aa reparopajara aa CJIOBeHHja (KOP06'1U, xaj MypCKa Co6oiiia). Cneua<pH~a e no roa lIITO aa ennara op; Hej3HHHTe 60qHH CTPaHH, BO penjetp e npercraseaa OTBOpeHa BYJIBa, BO qHe cpemnnre e H3Bep;eH KpY)J(eH OTBOP, HaMeHeT sa BMeTHYBalbe aa npseaara pasxa (T.IV:5).27 MOTHBOT sa noc-

24 Ilpassep: Frey O. - H. (1957), Taf. 4: 2, Taf. 8, 68: Abb. 1,70: Abb. 3.

25 Frejzer, D . D . (1977), TOM. 1, 174 - 175; PbI6aKoB, E. A. (1987),724 - 736.

26 BeJIeIU<OBa, M. (2000), 29 - 38. .

27 Stalna (1997), 13.

148

Apxeonotuja - AUKOBIUl ceMuolliuKa - ucuxonoiuia

roersero na osaa npercrasa MO)l(e)];a ce pasfiepe aKO ce 3eMe rrpe)];BH)]; TeXHOJIOrnjaTa na npofiasarse OTBOPH BO rrpe)];HCTOpHCKHTe KaMeHH opynaja. CTaHYBa 360p sa H3BOHpe)];HO 6aBHa H MaK01prrHa paoora xoja sa H3pa60TKa na e)];eH e)];HHCTBeH OTBOP MO)l(eJIa )];a rpae H nosexe )];eCeTHWI )];eHOBH. Ce H3Be)l;yBaJIa raxa IIITO Ha)]; MeCTOTO onpeneao sa npotiasaae ce rrOCTaBYSaJIO opY)];He sa nyrrseae (KpeMeHOBO ce'IHJIO HJIH nea-re HarrOJIHeTO co rrecox 0)]; TBP)]; MHHepaJI) H noroa co Kpy)I(HH )l;BH)I(eIDa ce rrpe)];H3BHKYBaJIO nocreneao atieae aa aJIaTKaTa (T.lV:6). 3eMajKH ro rrpe)l;BH)]; KapaKTepOT na oaaa rrocranxa, CMeTaMe )];eKa npercraaara na BYJIBa Bp3 HaIIIaTa cexapa ce rrojasnna KaKO rrJIO)]; na aCO:QHja:U;HjaTa Mefy nponecor na nyrrsersero H KOHTYCOT, 6a- 3HpaH na KOMIIOHeHTHTe "rrp06HBalhe" co ,,)];OJIr npemrer", rrpOCJIe)];eHO co ,,1pHelbe". Ileaec e TeIIIKO )];a ce OTKpHe aBTeHTH'IHHOT KOHTeKCT na osaa npercrana, O)];HOCHO )];aJIH e raa rrpHCYTHa na cexnpara KaKO pe3YJITaT na Maraja, nepsepsnja HJIH nrera. Ee3 pa3JIHKa 0)]; KOHTeKCTOT, MO)l(eMe )];a Bepysa-

. .

Me )];eKa BO TeKOT na )];OJIr01pajHaTa H MOHOTOHa )];ejHOCT, npercrasara na

BYJIBa na H3pa60Tysa'IOT MY BJIeBaJIa )];OrrOJIHHTeJIHa MOTHBa:QHja, eaeprnja H CMHCJIa, npnejxa BOJIja 0)]; aerosare ce yurre He COceM OCBeCTeHH HarOHCKH

ccpepH. .

*

*

*

Bo OBOj TPY)]; ce 06H)l;OBMe HeKOJIKY <pOPMH aa 1pa)l;H:QHOHaJIHaTa KYJIrypa na ra CTaBHMe BO penaunja co crpepara na 'IOBeKOBHTe 6HOJIOIIIKH aaroHH H, nocefiao, nerosara ceKCYaJIHOCT. CMeTaMe nexa co roa ja oCTBapHBMe

. .

HaIIIaTa npmrapna uen - sosenyaaae na HeKOH 0)]; aajnpeaaare MaTepHjaJI-

HH OCTaTO:U;H na 'IOBeKOBaTa KYJITYpa BO epepare aa rrCHXOJIOrnjaTa. He MHCJIHMe nexa BO cJIY'IajoB 6H 6HJIO aeonxonao TOJIKYBalheTo aa OBHe peJIa:U;HH, BO KOHTeKCT aa aexoj 0)]; 6a3H'IHHTe rrCHXOJIOIIIKH KOH:u;errTH (aa npnxep, <l>POj)];OBHOT HJIH JYHrOBHOT). Haxo BO cnysajos KaKO nosepojarea HH ce 'IHHH BTOPHOT, cenax osaa patiora ja OCTaBaMe aa nexoja H)l;Ha nparona, H, YIIITe noaexe - HM ja nperryurrane aa OHHe KOH Ke ce no-ryacraysaar KaKO rrOKOMrreTeHTHH BO O)l;HOC aa OBa rrpaIIIalhe.

149

JIMTEPA TYPA

Anati, E. (1999). Zapisi na Stenah. Glasnik Unesco, 52, Ljubljana, 12 - 17. AHHCHMOB, A.<p. (1959). KOCMOJIOrHqeCKHe npe;O;CTaBJIeHWI aaponos cesepa.

MOCKBa - Jleaaarpan: AKa;o;eMH~ HaYK CCCP.

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151

Huxoc Haycuouc

SUMMARY

ARCHAEOLOGY - PICTORIAL SEMIOTIC - PSYCHOLOGY INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE OF PHENOMENON "THE TRANSFER OF LIBIDO"

This article is dedicated to the phenomenon known as "The transfer of libido" within the frames of the ancient and modern traditional communities and especially its manifestations in material culture. In the introduction, there is a little elaboration about relation between archeology and physiology and the role of artistic semiotic as their mediator. Afterwards there is a criticism of the concepts in which, after explanation of primary cultural's genesis and especially manufacture products, the active rationality of archaic man included during the explanation is baseless. Instead of this, we suggest another concept in which genesis of primary forms of productions are seeking in the spheres of "mutated" and "perverted" instinctive mechanisms of the humans. In addition, there is attempt for proving (based mostly on artistic illustrations) that human's libido is invested in the hunt during the time of the Paleolithic period and cult objects are included too. Also there are parallels with analogical phenomenon in the later cultures, in which those ones from Balkan's folklore also take part. Due to this, we are emphasizing symbolic identification of the weapon with phallus, of the hunted animal with women and of the hunt with coitus. With the same analogy is treated the investment of the libido in the spheres of agriculture, based upon the symbolic identification of the soil with the Women and of the agricultural tool with the phallus, where the act of cultivation of the soil is becoming act of coitus. This identification (presented above) is manifested through few traditions, beginning from late prehistory to the modern folklore (artistiC illustrations, traces in the languages, myths and rituals). At the end is presented the example of investment of the libido in production of the Bronze Age's stone ax (procedure of perforation of the hole for handle is identified as coitus).

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