Weld Quality Issues

Session 12

water absorbed in coating on SMAW electrode is a common cause Slag inclusions pieces of slag trapped inside solidified weld pool.Weld Defects   Porosity gases dissolved in weld pool form bubbles when weld pool freezes. or failure to remove slag from prior weld . may result from excessive stirring in weld pool.

Weld Defects (cont)   Incomplete fusion weld pool did not wet surface of workpiece Incomplete penetration insufficient heating during welding for weld pool to penetrate to opposite side (or centerline) of weld. results in a gap behind/under weld .

and residual stresses are sufficient to cause cracks hours/days later .Weld Defects (cont)  Cracks may result from hot tearing or cold cracking   Hot tearing occurs when shrinkage during solidification tears mushy (liquid solid) weld physical constraints against shrinkage may exacerbate the problem Cold cracking typically occurs after weld freezes.

Weld Defects (cont)   Residual stresses may cause cracks and/or distortion. caused by thermal imbalance during welding Warping often caused by residual stresses .

Weld Defects (cont)  Surface damage  several types   Spatter of molten metal from arc or weld pool Arc pit from inadvertent contact between electrode and workpiece. or where ground clamp contacted workpiece Dropping tool onto workpiece. or rough handling of workpiece .

may result from poor quality of base metal. plus thermal stresses during welding .Weld Defects (cont)  Lamellar tears delamination of base metal.

may result from excessive welding velocity Undercut combination of underfill and overly aggressive arc. leaves a sharpedged hole in surface .Defects in Weld Profile   Underfill insufficient filler metal used in welding.

Defects in Weld Profile (cont)  Overfill excessive filler metal used in welding. overfill must be ground away . sometimes. may interfere with intended function of welded part if contour of overfill extends too high above surface of part. velocity too low.

Defects in Weld Profile (cont)   Overlap weld pool spills over onto surface of part Improper alignment between components prior to weld may cause loss of functionality .

Testing Welds/Welded Parts  Destructive testing     Make extra parts. and test randomly selected parts in simulated service to failure Cut up for laboratory evaluation Wasteful Presumption that part(s) destroyed in testing represent entire lot of parts .

a sampling plan may be employed Tests may not represent actual service Tests may not defect potentially fatal flaws .Testing Welds/Welded Parts  Nondestructive testing      Doesn t require sacrifice of good parts Test 100% of parts produced. or 100% of length of welds produced Alternatively.

Testing Welds/Welded Parts  Nondestructive testing (cont)    Load parts to design load. plus safety factor Liquid penetrant (zyglo) to detect surface cracks Magnetic particle (magnaflux) nonuniform pattern of magnetic particles on surface may indicate subsurface flaws .

out-of-place reflection indicates a flaw Acoustic methods sound waves may be generated during loading. if there is a flaw .Testing Welds/Welded Parts  Nondestructive testing (cont)   Ultrasonic inspection sound waves are reflected from surfaces (including internal surfaces) of finished articles.

radiation darkens photo film. can detect void space equivalent to 5-10% of thickness of part . dark area within outline of article indicates void space within article.Testing Welds/Welded Parts  Nondestructive testing (cont)  Shoot x-rays or gamma rays through finished article.

which may be detected by coating painted on surface .Testing Welds/Welded Parts  Nondestructive testing (cont)   Eddy current testing make conductive workpiece act like secondary of a transformer. equipment detects imbalance caused by defect in workpiece Thermal inspection internal flaw may produce unbalanced heat flow.

Testing Welds/Welded Parts     Design test plan concurrently with design of part/assembly Avoid procedures subject to fudging Keep track of test results during production run The objective is verifying quality of parts. not generating paperwork .

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