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GOD AND THE STATE
WITH A NEW INTRODUCTION AND INDEX OF PERSONS by PAUL AVRICH PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, QUEENS COLLEGE
PUBLICATIONS, INC., NEW
Copyright © 1970 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and International Copyright Conventions.
Published in Canada by General Publishing Company, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd.
This Dover edition, first published in 1970, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the edi tion published in 1916 by Mother Earth Publishing Association, New York. been added. A new Introduction and Index of Persons, prepared by Paul Avrich, have
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INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION
This man was born not under an ordinary star but under a comet.
It was nearly a century ago that Michael Bakunin wrote what was to become his most celebrated pamphlet, God and the State. At that time, anarchism was emerging as a major force within the revolutionary movement, and the name of Bakunin, its foremost champio n and proph et, was as well known among the workers and radical intellectuals of Europe as that of Karl Marx, with whom he was competing for leader ship of the First Internatio nal. In contrast to Marx, Bakunin had wo n his reputatio n chiefly as an activist rather than a theorist of rebellion. He was born into the Russian landed gentry in 1814, but as a yo ung man abandoned his army com mission and noble heritage for a career as a professional revolutio nist. Leaving Russia in 1840, at the age of twenty-six, he dedicated his life to a struggle against tyranny in all its forms. He was not o ne to sit i n libraries, studying and writing about predetermined revolutions. I m patie nt for. action, he threw himself into the uprisings of 1848 with irre pressible exuberance, a Promethean figure moving with the tide of revolt from Paris to the barricades of Austria and Germany. Me n like Bakunin, a companio n remarked, "grow in a hurricane and ripen better in stormy weather than in sunshine.'" But his arrest during the Dresden ins urrec tion of 1849 cut short his feverish revolutionary activity. He spent the next eight years in prison, six of them in the darkest dungeo ns of tsarist Russia, and when he emerged, his sentence commuted to a life term o f Siberian exile, he was toothless from scurvy and his health seriously impaired. In 1861, however, he escaped his. warders and embarked upon a sensatio nal odyssey that encircled the globe and made his name a legend and an object of worship in radical groups all over Europe. As a romantic rebel and an active force in h istory, Bakunin exerted a perso nal attraction that Marx could never rival. "Everything about him was colossal," recalled the composer Richard Wagner, a fellow participant in the Dresden uprising, "and he was full of a primitive
Lampert, Studies in Rebellion
exuberance and strength."2 Bakuni n's "love for the fantastic, for u n usual, unheard-of adventures, which open up vast horizons, the end of which cannot be foreseen," to quote his own words, inspired extravagant dreams in others, and by the time of his death in 1876 he had won a unique place among the adventurers and martyrs of the revolutionary tradition. His broad magnanimity and childlike e nthusiasm, his burning passion for liberty and equality, his volcanic o nslaug hts against privilege and injustice-all this gave him e no rmous human appeal in the liber tarian circles of his day. But Bakunin, as his critics never tired of pointing out, was not a systematic thinker. Nor did he ever claim to be. For he considered him self a revolut ionist of the deed, " not a philosopher and not an inventor of systems, like Marx."3 He refused to recognize the existe nce of any pre conceived o r preordained laws of history. He rejected the view that social change depends upon the gradual unfolding of "objective" his torical conditions. He believed, on the contrary, that me n shape their own destinies, that their lives cannot be squeezed into a Procrustean bed of abstract sociolog ical formulas. "No theory, no ready-made sys tem, no book that has ever bee n written will save the world," Bakunin declared. "I cleave to no system, I am a t rue seeker."4 By teaching the workers theories, he said, Marx would o nly succeed in stifling the revo lutionary fe rvo r every man already possesses- "the impulse to libe r�y, the passion for equality, the holy instinct of revolt." U nlike Marx's "scientific" socialism, his own socialism, Bakunin asserted, was " purely instinctive."6 Bakunin's influe nce, then, as Peter Kropotkin remarked, was pri marily that of a "moral personality" rather than of an intellectual authority. Although he wrote prodigiously, he did not leave a single finished book to posterity. He was forever starting new works which, owing to his turbulent existence, were broken off in mid-course and never completed. His literary output, in Thomas Masaryk's descript ion, was a "patchwork of fragments." And yet, however erratic and unmethodi cal, his writings abound in flashes of insight that illuminate some of the most important social questions of his time-and of ours.
• E. H.
Carr, Michael Bakunin (New York,
• Iu. M. Steklov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin, • Carr, Michael Bakunin, p. • M. A. Bakunin, Oeuvres,
1961), p. 196. 4 vols. (Moscow, 1926-1927), III, 112.
175. 6 vols. (Paris, 1895-1913), II, 399; Steklov, Mikhail Alek sandrovich Bakllnin, I, 189.
and all t he exploiters of humanity-priests. human ity would have been condemned to perpetual bondage. man is the slave. and death. in vivid language and relatively brief compass. down to the smallest vendor of sweetmeats." Bakunin proclaimed an all-out war against the church and the state. A nd every church has been a loyal ally of the state in the subjugation of mankind. God and the State has become the most widely read and frequently quoted of all Bakunin's works. they must throw off t he double yoke of spiritual and temporal authority. poorly organized. politicians of all shades. e conomists. "the real world and men are nothing. all the oppressors. It is disjointed. evil. As a result. T hus if God really ex ists.INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION Vll God and the State is an excelle nt case in point." he calls them-are the church and the state. monopolists. man is falsehood. statesmen. jailers and execu tioners. officials of all sorts. If men are to be free. T he keynote of God and the State is Bakunin's repudiation of author ity and coercion in every form. inverting a famous dictum of Voltaire's. and packed with arresting aphorisms that testify to Bakunin's remarkable intuitive gifts. gendarmes. "God being everything. and life. To accomplis h this they must bri ng to bear the two "most precious qualities" with which they are endowed: the power to thi_n k with an act of thought and rebellion. God being master. power. religion is the negation of freedom and equality. Govern ments throughout history have used religion both as a means of keeping men in ignorance and as a "safety-valve" for human m isery and frus tration. But Satan-"the . I n a withering passage he vents his fury on "all the tormentors. But perhaps the mai n reason for its popularity is that. soldiers. goodness. and full of digressions and long footnotes that tend to softe n its polemical impact. policemen. More than t hat. ugliness. it is forceful and e nergetic." No less t han the state. it sets forth the basic elements of Bakunin's anarchist creed. beauty. impotence. God being truth. Bakunin concludes. repetitious. monarchs." But the leading institutions of man's enslavement-"my two betes noires. " it would be necessary to abolish him. If Adam and Eve had obeyed the Almighty when he forbade t hem to touch t he tree of knowledge. justice. the very essence of religion is the disparage ment of humanity for the g reater glory of God. then." Bakunin writes. public and private financiers. All the same. Every state has been an instrument by which a privileged few have w ielded power over the immense majority. inequity.
inhuman. warns Bakunin. exploiting. he insisted. For already a new class has emerged that aims to keep the masses in ignor ance in order to rule over them. drudgery. Carlo Cafiero and Elisee Reclus. The government of an educated elite. And once they are overthrow n there w ill dawn a new Eden for mankind. will not be easy. "cannot fail to be impotent. above all Marx and his followers. like the worst relig ious and political despotisms of t he past. was not to govern men but to rescue them from superstition. But it did not appear in print until 1882. "in order that t he masses. L ike capital. ceasing to be flocks led and shorn by privileged priests. ridiculous. "priests of science" ordained in a new privileged church of superior education. The rule of the intellectuals. or rather. oppressive. cruel. He refused to s hed the fictions of religion and metaphysics merely to see t hem replaced by what he considered the new fi ctions of pseudo scientific sociology. may take into their ow n hands the direction o f their destinies." W ith t h is warning Bakunin anticipated the "new class" label that later critics were to pin on Marx's heirs in the twentieth century. and disease. "science is the compass of life but not life itself.Vlll PAUL AVRICH eternal rebel. For it was only then that t he manuscript was discovered among his papers by two well-known anarchists. a new era of freedom and happiness. six years after Bakunin's death. " I n a word. according to Bakunin." he writes in God and the State. These would-be oppressors are t he intellectuals. would be no less oppressive than the rule of k ings or priests or holders of property." Such was t he powerful message of God and the State. when his . These same weapons-reason and rebellion-must now be turned against the church and the state. maleficent." For the true mission of science and learning." But how can this new form of despotism be avoided? Bakunin's answer was to wrest education from t he monopoly grasp of t he privileged classes and make it available equally to everyone. He assailed t he t heorists and system-builders whose so-called "science o f society" was sacrificing real life on the altar of scholastic abstractions. who had been closely associated with him during the last years of his life. But the task of liberation. against the government of science. He therefore proclaimed a "revolt of life against science. the first freethinker and the emancipator� of worlds" persuaded them to taste the fruit of knowledge and liberty. learning must cease to be the patrimony of the few and become the patrimony of all men.
bears but little relat io n to its contents. it still enjoys. on the eve of the Paris Commune. Part I. The "God and the State" section was written. . Rumanian. Italian. He himself called it h is "testament. ranging in characteristically discursive fashion over a wide assortment of subjects from history and politics to meta p hysics and religio n. believing it to be part of a letter or report. The Knouto-Germanic Empire the t itle derives from the unholy alliance between Russian and German authoritarianism to stamp out social progress-is one of Bakunin's longest and most important literary efforts. Spanish. and Cafiero and Reclus. apart fro m being unwieldy.Within a short time after its initial publication by Cafiero and Reclus. a distinction which. as t hey relate in their Preface. - . Federalism. and was published in pamp hlet form in 1871. It has been translated into many languages. and Antitheologism (written in 1867). undertook to search for the remainder.nor were they ever to learn-that t he manu script was actually an unpublished segment of The Knouto-Germanic Empire and the Social Revolution.INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION lX libertarian doctrines saw their fullest flowering. nearly a century later. including English." and devoted considerable energy to its composition. having g iven it the title of Dieu et l'etat (God and the State) by which it was to become famous. Dutch. written against the background of t he Franco-Prussian War." which. by the American anarchist Benjamin Tucker. They did not suspect. and they brought o ut the truncated text as a pamphlet in Geneva. and Yiddish. Czech. But their efforts were in vain. God and the State became the most widely circulated of Bakunin's works. and were to crop up again in his polemics with Giuseppe Mazzini after the fall of the Com mune in May 1871. but several of its themes-notably the idea t hat government and religion have always worked together to keep men in chains-can be traced to Bakunin's then unpublished essay. for which Bakunin's own title was "The Historical Sophisms of the Doctrinaire School of Com munism. an ambitious work on which Bakunin had labored fitfully between 1870 and 1872 but had never managed to complete. The manuscript breaks off i n mid-sentence. as we know from Bakunin's diary. Socialism. Russian. deals mainly with the resistance by the French to German imperialism. German. Polish. T he first English translation. W hat Cafiero and Reclus called "God and the State" was a fragment from the unpublished and unfinished Part II. in February and March of 1871.
Tucker's rendering suffered. however. it was not for another generation that the full text of The Knouto-Germanic Empire Parts I and I I. which appeared in London in 1910. of which the present volume is a reprint. was brought out by Emma Goldman's Mother Earth press in 1916. together with two additional fragments and the remainder of a long footnote-saw its way into print. revised to conform to Bakunin's actual text. while the remainder (pages 132-177) is a continuat ion of an attack by Bak unin on t he French liberal philosopher V ictor Cousin (1792-1867) that begins on t he final page of God and the State. of which pages 18-131 contain t he correct text of what Cafiero and Reclus had published under t he t itle of God and the State. Paragraph thirteen breaks off in mid-sentence. from a number of handi caps.x PAUL AVRICH appeared in Boston in 1883. The continuation of God and the State consists of thirteen numbered paragraphs. but they had transposed several passages and occasionally m isread Bakunin's handwriting. and no conclusion has been found. Still another edition. Bak unin's faithful Swiss d isciple. without the alterations of Cafiero and Reclus. The whole of Part II of The Knouto-Germanic Empire occupies pages 9-177 of the third volume. that is. there is the beginning of a footnote which also breaks off in mid-sentence but the remainder of which was d iscovered by Max Nettlau and published ( it runs to some sixty pages) in the first volume - . Not only had Cafiero and Reclus altered Bakunin's text in a few places to g ive his French a smoother and more l iterary quality. which was as chaotic as his other personal t raits. When the first correct French text was published in 1908. had drawn on a w ide variety of theories in what Bakunin regarded as a misguided attempt to prove the existence of God and to justify the existence of the state. it was followed by a new English edition. however. in which Cousin's doctrines are summarized and refuted. It finally appeared in the s ix-volume French edition of Bakunin's collected works (18951913). Cousin was the founder of the "eclectic school" and. While the God and the State segment first appeared in 1882. as the name implies. Pages 9-17 are prefatory remarks of little consequence. edited by the leading anarchist h istorian Max Nettlau (Volume I) and by James Guillaume (Volumes II-V!). and is identical with t he London version except for a few minor d ifferences in wording and punctuation. peppered with critical asides and footnotes. scarcely a year after the orig inal French edition. This was essentially the Tucker translation. Near the end.
" " I am a free man o nly so far as I recognize the humanity and liberty of all men around me. Kenafick. Part II." Resuming the attack. overlooks society. The whole of The Knouto-Germanic Empire. I n respecting their humanity. Philosophy. He refuses to accept even the smallest limita tion of human liberty. It is hardly surprising. "Every enslavement of men. 331ff. 7 Oeuvres."6 Apart from the continuatio n of God and the State and the footnote on Rousseau. A nimality. Humanity. (Melbourne. moreover. " is at the same time a limit o n my own freedom. The first of these is a loosely constructed "Appendix" with the grandilo quent title of "Philosophical Considerations on the Divine Phantom. J. Unfortunately. including the continuation on Cousin. at which the controversy between Marx and Bakunin reached a dramatic climax with the latter's expulsio n from the organization.7 The second. For a summary with extracts in English. which for Baku nin is the " natural mode of existence of people living together." The social contract. Man: Intelligence. that Marx should be the villain of the 'Oeuvres." he writes. III. Religion." was drafted in November and De cember of 1872.by which men surrender part o f their liberty to the state in exchange for security and harmony-as a shameless fiction and a subterfuge for tyranny. in which Rousseau is denounced as "a prophet of the doctrinaire state" and "the real creator of modern reaction. Nettlau apparently chose the title because t he footnote elaborates upon a passage from God and the State. while recognizing the individual and the state. therefore. God and the State. and the long footnote are conveniently brought together in a single volume of the Russian edition of Bakunin's 'collected works: Izllrannye sochineniia (Petrograd. 1922). Michael Bakunin and Karl Marx 179-405. 123-264. II. I respect m y own. pp. o n the Real World. Bakunin rejects Rousseau's notion o f social contract. there are yet two more segments of The Knouto-Germanic Empire which did not appear in print till long after Bakunin's death. called "An Essay Against Marx. 264-326. Science. i t is divided into five sections: System of the World. shortly after the Hague Congress of t he First Interna tional. for when sub sequent writers refer to "God and t he State" it is sometimes hard to tell whether they mean Nettlau's footnote or t he famous essay of the same name. I." Written in the autumn o f 1870. 1948). and on Man. . Will.INTRODUCTION TO THE DOVER EDITION Xl of Bakunin's collected works. Nettlau headed the note "God and the State." thereby adding to the confusion. see K.
Marx." Again and again they warned that political power is evil. has forgotten his own stirring words from the program of the International: "The emancipation of the workers must be the task of the workers themselves. 169-219. But for generations to come his disciples continued to proclaim his anarchist message and to shower abuse upon the proponents of "scientific socialism.xu PAUL AVRICH piece. 397-510. 1970 • Oeuvres. he says. they called for the overthrow of the church and the state. PAUL AVRICH New York January. impelled by his Teu tonic urge to dominate. that government of any kind stifles the revolutionary spirit of the people and robs them of their freedom. 1965)." and compares his worship of the state and centralized authority with that of his fellow German. from whose ruins they foresaw the emergence of a Golden Age of justice and equality."8 When Bakunin wrote this final segment of The Knouto-Germanic Empire. Like Bakunin before them. Bismarck. II. Bakunin assails him as "the dictator of the International. that it corrupts all who wield it. a shining era of freedom in which men would direct their own affairs without interference from any authority. IV. he had less than four years to live. Archives Bakounine (Leiden. .
J. Edmund Wilson. "Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty. 1966. 1948. Harper paperback. Richard Hare. Paul Avrich. 1946. 1953. The Russian Anarchists." in Continuity and Change in Russian and SO'lJiet Thought. A clear exposition of Bakunin's philosophy is Eugene Pyziur's The Doctrine of Anarchism of Michael A. and Alexander Gray. H.SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING The standard biography in English is Michael Bakunin by E. London.. Lampert. 1955. Meridian paperback. 1961. E. 1960. Studies in Rebellion. Anarchism. To the Finland Station. 1954. 1937. Socialist Thought: Marxism and Anarchism. Melbourne. 1967. ed. 1957. Milwaukee. Mass. 1939. Apostles of Revolution. . Bakunin. 1964. 1968. London. several works in English contain valuable chapters on Bakunin. In addition. E. London. Free Press paperback. Portraits of Russian Personalities Between Reform and Revolution. P. 1961. New York. 1850-1890. J. Franco Venturi.. London. ed. Roots of Revolution. Universal paperback. Universal paper back. New York. London. 1940. 1959. Cole. Boston. Collier paperback. for a selection of Bakunin's writings in English translation. Simmons. 1955. The Socialist Tradition. Cleveland. D. Finally. Michael Bakunin and Karl Marx. 1967. J ames J oll. 1962. 1953. The Political Philosophy of Bakunin. 1964. Cambridge. H. notably Max Nomad. see G. See also George Woodcock. Carr. Another useful study is K. The Anarchists. Kenafick. Vintage paperback. G. Princeton. London. Anchor paperback. Maximoff. New York. and Isaiah Berlin.
"If God really existed it would be necessary to abolish him." .
they know also with what lofty con t�mpt he looked down upon wealth. A Russian gentleman related by marriage to the highest nobility of the empire. in Germany among the insurgents of Dresden. a difficult task demanding all our efforts. and set their own comfort at naught. all the wretched ambitions which most human beings are base enough to entertain. In this case. in France. and his efforts left deep traces everywhere. his direct influence has been considerable. in Siberia among his brothers in exile. With them he fought the stern battle of life. Even that is perhaps too much to honor the memory of a worker who held vanities of His friends surely will raise to him They know with what a huge no ostentatious tombstone or statue. The originality of his ideas. in England. among all earnest men. but its general features are already sufficiently familiar. rank. his untiring zeal in propagandism. helped too by the natural majesty of his person and by a powerful vitality. aggravated by imprisonment. for among the revolutionists of the present generation not one has labored more fervently in the common cause of the Revolution. they knew. glory. had they spoken to him of a commemorative structure erected to his glory. the imagery and vehemence of his eloquence. in Italy. indeed. Friends and enemies know that this man was great in thought. that sort in such slight esteem.PRE FACE TO FIRST FRENCH EDITION One of us is soon to tell in all its details the story of the life of Michael Bakttnin. too. prejudices. . in Switzerland. persistent energy. in America. exile. all the dangers and all the sorrows that men of self-sacrifice have to undergo during their tormented ex istence. gave Bakunin access to all the revolutionary groups. A simple stone and a nam� mark the spot in the cemetery of Berne where was laid the body of Bakunin. that the true way to honor their dead is to continue their work-with the same ardor and perseverance that they themselves brought to it. will. he was one of the first to enter that intrepid society of rebels who were able to release themselves from traditions. In Russia among the students. race and class interests. laugh he would have received them.
incomplete though it be. wdtten to strengthen the timid. and some of these letters. arouse the sluggish. Composed in the same manner as most of Bakunin's other writings. century." is really a fragment of a letter or report. lac� of proportion. it has the same literary fault. nobility. honest opponents. amid the conflict of rival ambitions and intrigues. Bakunin demonstrates to them the emptiness of their belief in that divine authority on which all temporal authorities are founded. who are the pretenders and who are the real savants. not completed when others were already under way. finally. Never theless. are the smallest part of Bakunin's work. and that a method of election could be found which would not frul to lodge the power in the hands of those whose knowledge is authentic. Bakunin never had the One work was "My life itself time necessary to finish all the tasks he undertook." he said to those who criticised his writings. without stopping to discuss those bases of the State already condemned by public morality. moreover it breaks off abruptly: we have searched in vain to discover the end of the manuscript. a The questions discussed in it are treated decisively and with Rightly addressing himself only to his singular vigor of logic. and digious work of Bakunin in the revolutionary movement of the Italian. French. can . what guarantee could they offer us of the wisdom and honesty of their government? On the contrary. violence. however important they may be. His correspondence was most extensive. wealth. took on the proportions of veritable volumes. and however useful they may have been in spreading the new ideas. is a fragment. he passed entire nights in preparing long letters to his friends in the revolutionary world. after having welcomed him. he proves to them the purely human genesis of all governments. The present memoir. he does justice to the theory which would entrust science with the government of societies. These letters more than anything else explain the pro The pamphlets published by him. such as physical superiority. thrust him out because of a difference of object or method. "God and the State. Sup posing even that it were possible to recognize. the readers of "God and the State" certainly will not regret that Bakunin's memoir.6 GOD AND THE STATE even upon those who. and outline plans of propagandism or revolt. has been pub lished. in Russian.
the true or pretended "genius" has been trying his hand at wielding the sceptre of the world. since the doctrinaires made their appearance. For the rest. could he recognize truth in its essence. all these savants: the more hardened the more they have studied. to-day is but the know-nothing of to-morrow. the full-blown flower. all other hum� beings are destined for death in order that these gentlemen may become immortal! But we may reassure ourselves: all these academicians will not have the audacity of Alexander in cutting with his sword the Gordian knot. too." nations live and die in ignorance.GOD AND THE STATE 7 In we not foresee in these new masters the same follies and the same crimes found in those of former days and of the present time? the first place. only to raise up an elite of academi cians. The learned man of Let him once imagine that he has reached the end. the narrower in their viwes the more time they have spent in examining some isolated fact in all its aspects. because they have been unable to · participate in serious struggles and have never learned the true proportion of things. . worlds have been created. and death have been the queens of humanity. and people of unclean lives-who have constructed a whole cosmogony for their sole use? According to them. em pires have gone down in blood. Have we not recently witnessed the founda tion of a whole school of "thinkers"-wretched courtiers. of which all other men are but the manure. poverty. and we know what it has cost us. and for that very reason he sinles But. like all chiefs of State. keep them in ignorance in order to preserve quiet. he can only corrupt himself by privilege and corrupt To establish his government. they will not lift the blade of Charlemagne. Govern ment by science is becoming as impossible as that of divine right. without any experience of life. beneath even the babe just born. because they have long known no other horizon than the walls of their cheese. That these editors of the Temps and the Debats may have leisure to "think. We have seen them at work. societies have developed. to arrest the life of the masses moving below him. disease. revolutions have overturned nations. science is not: it is becoming. he must try. others by power. and gradu ally debase them that he may rule them from a loftier throne. childish in their passions and vanities.
. "human justice will be sub stituted for divine justice." from those of the revolutionists who hav. States are breaking up to give place to a new order. Elisee Reclus. in If it is allowable to cite anyone name which. they learn to In precipitating from the heights of the heavens Such is the revolution now him from whom all power is reputed to descend. to pitiless criticism." taken part in this im mense work of renovation. or brute force.8 wealth. govern themselves. there is not one that may be singled out with more justice than that of Michael Bakunin. Carlo Cafiero. in progress. societies unseat also all those who reigned in his name. GOD AND THE STATE All powers are henceforth to be submitted Men in whom the sentiment of equality is born suffer themselves no longer to be governed. as Bakunin was fond of saying.
very near relatives of gorillas. Yes. of true and disinter ested science. concur in proclaiming this grand truth. the ideal. and rational only because natural-at once historical and logical. Undoubtedly the idealists are wrong and the materialists right. is but a reflection of its economic history. humanity-is nothing other than the last and supreme development-at least on our planet and as far as we know-the highest mani festation of ani mality. funda mental and decisive: The social world. is but a flower. humanity is at the same time and essentially the deliberate and gradual negation of the animal element in man . the world of intellectual and moral convictions. the whole history of humanity. These faculties. endowed in a higher degree than the animals of any other species with two precious faculties-the power to think and the desire to rebel. facts are before ideas. whose root lies in the material conditions of existence. were. Yes.GOD AND THE STATE HO are right. But as every development necessarily implies a negation. our first ancestors. omnivorous. intelligent and ferocious beasts. ideas. intellectual and moral. that of its base or point of departure. yes. combining their progressive action in �� � �w . Yes. if not gorillas. and it is precisely this n egation. the human world-in short. political and so cial. as rational as it i s natural. as inevitable as the development and realization of all the natural laws in the world-that constitutes and creates the ideal. as Proudhon said. All branches of modern science. the idealists or the materialists? The question once stated in this way' hesitation becomes impossible. properly speaking. our Adams and our Eves.
that man. and set but a single limit to this complete enjoy ment. and. whose fore sight. He wished. which must weigh heavy on his hands in his eternal egoistic solitude. should have warned him of what would happen. But here steps in Satan. as children do when they get angry . Our Catholic and Protestant theologians look upon that as very profound and very just. He makes man ashamed o f his bestial ignorance and obedi ence . We know what followed. precisely . ex presses this truth very naively in its myth of original sin.10 GOD AND THE STATE history. stamps upon his brow the seal o f liberty and humanity. not content with smiting our ancestors themselves. man. striking himself so to speak in his own creation. The good God. he cursed Satan. his creator and his master. to satisfy we know not what caprice . which is a very interesting and here and there very profound book when considered as one of the oldest surviving manifestations of human wisdom and fancy. should remain an eternal beast. the most unjust. the most vain. or that he might have some new slaves. ever on all-fours before the eternal God. the most bloodthirsty. and the most hostile to human dignity and liberty-Jehovah had just created Adam and Eve. He generously placed at their disposal the whole earth. who of all the good gods adored by men was cer tainly the most jealous. i n urging him t o disobey and eat of the fruit of knowledge. destitute of all understanding of himself. Jehovah. the most despotic. He expressly forbade them from touching the fruit of the tree of knowledge. and the world created by himself. with all its fruits and animals. the eternal rebel. represent the essential factor. the first freethinker and the emancipator of worlds. therefore. he emancipates him. no doubt to while away his time. the most ferocious. he cursed them in all the generations to come. The Bible. and create con sequently all that constitutes humanity in man. flew into a terrible and ridiculous rage . innocent of the crime committed by their forefathers. the negative power in the positive development of human animality. which is one of the divine faculties.
GOD AND THE STATE II because it is monstrously iniquitous and absurd. at the express command of the government. always greedy for victims and blood. of the Ferdinands of Austria. to save them and reconcile his eternal and divine love with his eternal and divine anger. and of the Alexanders of all the Russias. after having tormented the existence of a few milliards of poor human beings and con demned them to an eternal hell. God. the basis of all the Christian religions. he took pity on the rest. ever good. in broad day. by those who dare to call themselves the guardians and the fathers of the people ? I return to the myth of original sin. and. re membering that he was not only a God of vengeance and wrath. if the divine Savior had saved the human world ! But no. ever just. in all the public schools of Europe. the elect will number very few. that he might be killed by men. In the meantime. will burn eternally in hell. Still. They call this civilizing the people ! Is it not plain that all these governments are systematic poisoners. in the paradise promised by Christ. the immense majority of the generations present and to come. undoubtedly that they may be the better able to fleece them. he recognized that . Then. hands over the earth to the government of the Napoleon Thirds. Of what consequence are the crimes of all the Tropmanns in the world compared with this crime of treason against humanity committed daily. in the full light of the nineteenth century. his only son. of the William Firsts. but also a God of love. to console us. he sent into the world. Such are the absurd tales that are told and the mon strous doctrines that are taught. The rest. as an expiatory victim. That is called the mystery of the Redemption. as we know. because anger gets hold of me whenever I think of the base and criminal means which they employ to keep the nations in perpetual slavery. such being the formal announcement. over the whole surface of the civilized world. interested stupefiers of the masses ? I have wandered from my subject. God admitted that Satan was right .
with his magnificent intelligence. therefore. active. to know good and evil . The latter. Man has emancipated himself . is. like all else existing in the world. theolo gians and metaphysicians. he has separated himself from ani mality and constituted himself a man . which necessa�ily belong to it-that thlS . To the first properly corresponds socia l and priva te o second. ." Let us disregard now the fabulous portion of this myth and consider its true meaning. the man is become as one of the gods. if you like. God himself said (see Bible) : "Behold. mat�er has nothing in common with the vile matter of the ldeahsts. liberty. prevent him. and his boundless aspirations. philosophers. imme diately they had eaten of the forbidden fruit. collective or individual. he has begun his dis tinctively human history and development by an act of dis obedience and science-that is.12 GOD AND THE STATE the devil did not deceive Adam and Eve in promising them knowledge and liberty as a reward for the act of disobedi ence which he had induced them to commit . Idealists of all schools. and ( 3 ) rebellion . for. only a product of vile matter. (2) thought. to the third. which is very clear. Three elements or. nothing but matter. three fundamental prin ciples constitute the essential conditions of all human de velopment. or poets. by rebellion and by tho ught. lest he become im mortal like Ourselves. not forgetting the liberal econo mists-unbounded worshippers of the ideal. matter chemically or organically determined and manifested by the properties or forces mechanical physical an}mal. politicians and moralists. from eating of the fruit of eternal life. religion ists. in history : ( 1) human animality. We may answer that the matter of which materialists speak. aristocrats and bourgeois. science. matter spontaneously and eternally mobile. a product of their false abstraction . his sublime ideas. as we know are much offended when told that man. productive. and intelligent.
and consequently in conformity . After which they gravely tell us that this matter is incapable of producing anything. and consequently must have been created by their God. always present and active in the world. the creator and organizer of worlds. as a necessary conse quence. an ugly fancy in contrast to the beautiful fancy which they call God. their matter. It is a wholly natural movement from the simple to the complex. from the inferior to the superior. then. a caput mortuum. "supreme Being. they have called this product of their imagination. this phantom. necessarily represents supreme nothingness. incapable of giving birth to the smallest product. motion itself. or let him be an idea. let him be considered as a per sonal being. is nothing. and manifestations to the imaginary being created by their ab stract fancy. life. leaving it nothing but impenetrability and absolute immobility in space. not even of setting it self in motion. They have taken away from matter intelligence. without which matter would not even have weight. they have attributed all these natural forces. properties. individually or socially. matter. as well as of organic animal life and of the historically progressive intelligence of man. all its de termining qualities. inanimate. have declared that the real being. Here I shall deal with one point only. stripped by them of all that constitutes its real na ture. infinite and divine. from the lower to the higher. active relations or forces. as the opposite of this supreme being." and. immobile thing. and always manifested by the totality of ma terial and definite beings. or even as impersonal. is perfectly conceivable. a kind of divine soul spread over the whole universe and constituting thus its eternal principle.GOD AND THE STATE 13 is indeed a stupid. this God who is nothing. a movement in conformity with all our daily exoeriences. The gradual development of the material world. the world. At the end of this book I exposed the fallacies and truly revolting absurdities to which one is inevitably led by this imagination of a God. matter. interchanging roles.
and all the systems of transcendental philosophy . and fron' the relatively simple to the more complex. The system of the idealists is quite the contrary of this. absolutely per fect. Very far from pursuing the natural order from the lower to the higher. and the first step that they take is a terrible fall from the sublime heights of the eternal ideal into the mire of the material world. with the distinctive laws of our mind. infinite. and from living being to thinking being-the idealists. probably weary of himself. and why the divine being. and which. blinded. They begin with God. past and present. take precisely the opposite course. instead of wisely and rationally accompanying the progressive and real move ment from the world called inorganic to the world organic. no poet. animal. and then distinctively human-from chemical matter or chemical being to living matter or living being. from absolute per fection into absolute imperfection. but the mental. either as a person or as divine substance or idea. from the complex to the simple. how. no theologian. nothing that has not stood the severest tests of experience or observation of things and facts-becomes the only serious basis of human knowledge. eternal. or rather. from supreme being to nothing. moreover. has ever been able to understand himself or explain to the profane. from thought to being. vegetables. from the superior to the inferior. no metaphysician. from the inferior to the superior. so to speak. They go from the higher to the lower. decided upon this desperate salta mortale is something which no idealist. It is the rev�rsal of all human experiences and of that uni versal and common good se�se which is the essential condi tion of all human understanding. which being formed and developed only by the aid of these same experiences. in rising from the simple and unanimously recognized truth that twice two are four to the sublimest and most complex scientific con siderations-admitting. is. When. obsessed.14 GOD AND THE STATE also with our natural logic. and pushed on by the divine phantom which they have inherited from theology. All religions. cerebral reproduction or reflected summary thereof.
* Holy men. messiahs. for at least thirty cen turies. The gigantic efforts of the most wonderful geniuses that the world has known. and nothing remains but the triumphant stupidity of faith. one after another. Great philosophers. because they could not explain it. have resulted only in rendering this mystery still more incompre hensible. and return. I call it unique. becaus e only the absurd admits of no ex planation. because all the other theological and metaphysical absurdities which debase the human mind are but its necessary consequences. inspired lawgivers. have written heaps of volumes and built systems as ingenious as sublime. from Heraclitus and Plato down to Descartes. and Hegel. Spinoza. it has devoured them. have searohed it for life. Leibnitz. if he can. to naive. But immediately there *1 call it "iniquitous" because. this mystery has been and still continues to be the consecration of all the horrors which have been and are being committed in the world. blind. . prophets. Kant. to repeat with Ter tullianus and all sincere believers these words. as unfathomable as before. in which they have said by the way many beautiful and grand things and discovered immortal truths. Then all discussion ceases.vhich sum up the very quintessence of theology : Credo quia absur dum. the principal object of their transcendental investigations. as I believe I have proved in the Appendix alluded to. but they have left this mystery. Schelling. absurd. and who. and found only torment and death. It is evident that whoever finds it essential to his happiness and life must renounce his reason. Fichte.GOD AND THE STATE IS hinge on this unique and iniquitous mystery. . Like the ancient sphinx. not to mention the Indian philosophers. stupid faith. Is it to be hoped that it will be unveiled to us by the routine speculations of some pedantic disciple of an arti ficially warmed-over metaphysics at a time when all living and serious spirits have abandoned that ambiguous science born of a compromise-historically explicable no doubt-be tween the unreason of faith and sound scientific reason? It is evident that this terrible mystery is inexplicable that is. have undertaken anew this labor of Sisyphus.
savior. curser. There is another reason which explains and in some sort justifies the absurd beliefs of the people-namely. should still prevail among the people. as one of the essential conditions of their own power. intellectually and morally as well as materially. confined in their life like a prisoner in his prison. These traditions surround them from infancy in all the situations of life. to the minimum of human ex istence. in short of all the means and a good portion of the stimulants that develop thought in men. without even a future if we believe the economists. are still very ignorant. The first two are the dram-shop and the church. judge. where it is more widespread than among the proletariat of the cities.16 GOD AND THE STATE arises another question: H ow comes an intelligent and well-informed man ever to feel the need of believing in this mystery! Nothing is more natural than that the belief in God. the people generally accept religious traditions without criti cism and in a lump. master. The people. too often more powerful even than their natural good sense. who con sider this ignorance. Reduced. debauchery of the body or debauchery of the mind. not without good reason. Weighted down by their daily labor. priests and laymen. the wretched situation to which they find themselves fatally con! demned by the economic organization of society in the most civilized countries of Europe. without horizon. and artificially sustained in their minds by a multitude of official poisoners of all sorts. of intellectual in tercourse. deprived of leisure. the people would have the singularly narrow souls and blunted instincts of the bourgeois if they did not feel a desire to escape. and are kept in ignorance by the systematic efforts of all the governments. but of escape there are but three methods-two chimerical and a third real . especially in the rural districts. regulator. the thiI"d is social revolu tion. and bene factor of the world. without outlet. the creator. un fortunately. are transformed therein into a sort of mental and moral habit. Hence I conclude this last will be muCh more potent . of reading.
as re·fined as they are real. There is a class of people who. nebulous. reject them in detail. the source of all the others. diaphanous. of humanity developed in each and all. all the oppressors. and all the exploiters of humanity . but have neither the courage nor the strength nor the necessary resolution to summarily renounce them altogether. "the people must have a re ligion. They abandon to your criticism all the special absurdities of religion. illusory being that van- . the existence of God. the social revolution alone will have the power to close at the same time all the dram-shops and all the churches. it would be necessary to invent him. policemen. too intelligent to take the Chris tian dogmas seriously. jailers and executioners. but they cling des perately to the principal absurdity . finally. politicians of all shades. the brutally positive God of theol ogy. Their God is not the vigor ous and powerful being. if they do not believe." For. and. all will repeat in unison those word� of Voltaire : "If God did not exist.GOD AND THE STATE than all the theological propagandism of the freethinkers to destroy to their last vestige the religious beliefs and disso lute habits of the people. Till then the people. you understand. There exists. if they have no reason to believe. It is a. officials of all sorts. must at least make a semblance of believing. to the miracle that explains and justifies all the other miracles. they will have at least a right. beliefs and habits much more in timately connected than is generally supposed. tax-leeches. lawyers. they turn up their noses at all the miracles. economists. comprising all the tormentors. contractors and landlords. will believe . priests. capitalists." That is the safety-valve. statesmen. sol diers. down to the smallest vendor of sweetmeats. taken as a whole. This class. monarchs. In substitut ing for the at once illusory and brutal enjoyments of bodily and spiritual licentiousness the enjoyments. gendarmes. public and private financiers. monopolists. a somewhat numerous class of honest but timid souls who.
. a philosophy which. Stuart Mill is English. And yet they hold fast to it. Michelet. great minds. we must discuss this question. Stuart Mill is perhaps the only one whose serious idealism may be fairly doubted. an adherent o f the positive philosophy of Auguste Comte. discussion is out of the question. in spite of its numerous reservations. if not absolutely the disciple. They are too puny. were it to disappear. and consequently of Socialism also. then. it is a mirage. and in England to proclaim oneself an Atheist is to ostracise onself. that Mr. pale phantoms eternally suspended between heaven and earth. even at this late day. With them. who have lost their reckoning in the present civilization. second. is really Atheistic . all would disappear with it. belonging to neither the present nor the future. But there are a few illustrious men of whom no one will dare to speak without respect. he is a passionate admirer. and believe that. or against them. they are all apostles of idealism and bitter despisers and adversaries of materialism. They have neither the power nor the wish nor the determination to follow out their thought. great writers. Against them. First.* Generous and strong souls. and the first the heroic and revolutionary re generator of a great nation. that. Quinet. In public life these are known as bour geois Socialists. and they waste their time and pains in constantly endeavoring to reconcile the irreconcilable. an ignis fatuus that neither warms nor illuminates. in philosophy as well as in politics. John Stuart Mill. let it be remarked that not one of the illustrious men I have just named nor any other idealistic thinker of *Mr. and occupying exactly the same position between the politics of the bourgeois and the Socialism of the prole tariat. and Whose vigorous health. strength of mind.18 GOD AND THE STATE ishes into nothing at the first attempt to grasp it. and that for two reasons: first. and good intention no one will dream of calling in question. great hearts. They are uncertain. sickly souls. I need only cite the names of Mazzini.
cannot be mistaken . it is clear that those who have the misfortune to doubt it. contrary to all science and all logic. as such. and. Joseph de Maistre and the great Italian patriot. Thus. for these thinkers and their logic. thinkers is against it. This imposing unanimity. they say. then. And since it has been established that all peoples. have believed and still be lieve in the existence of God. has always been considered the most triumphant testimony to its truth. and if the reasoning of a small number of logical and even v ery powerful. as sufficient and unimpeachable proof of its truth. are abnormal exceptions.GOD AND THE STATE 19 any consequence in our day has given any attention to the logical side of this question properly speaking. monsters. The fact is that they have neglected the theoretical demonstration of the existence of a God. Have they feared to approach this irreconcilable contradiction and despaired of solving it after the failures of the greatest geniuses of his tory. so much the worse. whatever the logic that led them to this doubt. it must have its root in a necessity absolutely inherent in the very nature of man. for universal consent. in the eyes of many illustrious men and writers to quote only the most famous of them who eloquently expressed it. and have developed only its practical motives and con sequences. They have treated it as a fact universally ac cepted. Not one has tried to settle philosophically the possibility of the divine saita martale from the pure and eternal regions of spirit into the mire of the material world. for sole proof thereof limiting themselves to the establishment of the antiquity and this very universality of the belief in God. no longer susceptible of any doubt whatever. but iso lated. The sentiment of the whole world. or have they looked upon it as already sufficiently well settled ? That is their secret. past and present. Giuseppe Mazzini-is of more value than all the demonstrations of science . a conviction that is found and maintained always and everywhere. the antiquity and universality of a belief should be regarded. V/hy ? . the general and primitive adoption of an idea.
the per secution of which those who first proclaim the truth have been and continue to be the objects at the hands of the official. . To us materialists and Revolutionary Socialists. on the contrary. in which we see the manifestation of a social law as natural. as necessary. Was not every body mistaken ? What is more ancient and more universal than slavery ? Cannibalism perhaps. Strong in our conscience. in that passion for logic which of itself alone con stitutes a great power and outside of which there is no thought . or wage-workers-by some dominant minority . is as universal or as ancient as rtle ini quitous and absurd . too. truth and justice. Nothing. in our love of truth at all hazards. lies the explana tion of a constant historical phenomenon-namely . after having tortured them. strong. serfs. Must it be concluded that this exploita tion and this oppression are necessities absolutely inherent in the very existence of human society ? These are examples which show that the argument of the champions of God proves nothing. and as invariable as all the other laws which govern the world. oppression of the people by the Church and by the State. and often also at the hands of the same masses who. the youngest features in the develop ment of human society . In this fact. always end by adopting their ideas and rendering them victorious. in fact. From the origin of historic society down to the present day there has been always and everywhere exploitation of the compulsory labor of the masses-slaves. finally. there is nothing astonishing or terrifying in this historical phenome non. in the mutual confidence and support given each other by the few who share our convictions-we resign ourselves to all the conse quences of this historical phenomenon. privileged.20 GOD AND THE STATE Until the days of Copernicus and Galileo everybody be lieved that the sun revolved about the earth. and interested representatives of "univer sal" and "ancient" beliefs. strong in our passion for j ustice and in our un shakable faith in the triumph of humanity over all theoreti cal and practical bestialities . are the least universal.
mal origin of human society . if not the . always at the end of history. never look back. all is explained. is never at the beginning. psychological. to turn back to study our past. freedom. has emerged from the profound darkness of animal instinct into the light of the mind. For behind us is our animality and before us our humanity. physiological.. relatively to the epoch in which we live. as well as in face of the exploits of the Germans conquering France. to lead us to suspect it. the only thing that can emancipate us. and historical proofs accumu lated at the present day. the only thing that can warm and enlighten us. which now furnish so striking a demonstration thereof. forward our salvation. of an idea. for forward is our sunlight. far from proving anything in its favor. of the past. and even useful and necessary. but. apathetic. So much for antiquity. now passionate and powerful. Whence it results that the antiquity of a belief. cousin of the gorilla. and realize fratern ity among us. a temporary condition be tween his animality and his humanity. he is now marching on to the conquest and realization of human liberty. It consists precisely in the progressive negation of the primitive animality of man by the development of his humanity. History then appears to us as the revolutionary negation. what we have believed and thought and what we must no longer believe or think. it is no longer possible to really doubt this origin. it is only in order to establish what we have been and what we must no longer be. Man. let us look ever forward. and passing through divine slavery.GOD AND THE STATE 21 This law is a logical. which explains in a wholly natural way all his past mistakes and partially consoles us for his present errors. But from the moment that this animal origin of man is accepted. a wiLd beast. it proves but one thing-the similarity. and happiness. As for the universality of an error. ought. on the contrary. then.. what we have done and what we must do nevermore. give us dignity. now slow. sluggish.ce of all the scientific. If it is j us tifiable. human light. He has gone out from animal slavery. for in fa. Let us. inevitable consequence o f the Qi1Pi.
whose absurdity will be scarcely beaten down by the blows of common sense before it will reappear in a new form no less nonsensical. It is not only in the interest of the masses. Condemned to a fruitless struggle. we shall always suffer ourselves to be more or less governed by the clamors of this universal conscience whose secret we have not discovered. at the present time. belief in God. we must simply conclude tlhat the divine idea. In vain shall we call and believe our selves Atheists. have believed and still believe in God. Spiritualism tends to establish itself upon the ruins of Christianity. for. until we comprehend these causes. because we shall never be able to attack it in the very depths of the hu man being where it had birth. it will never fail to bring forth new offspring. While the root of all the absurdities that torment the world. that we should strive to understand the historic genesis. remains intact. And. until then we shall never succeed in destroying it in the opinion of the maj ority. in certain sec tions of the highest society. since it is established that all peoples. we should for ever have to content ourselves with fighting it solely on the sur face. it is in that of the health of our own minds. Until we shall account to ourselves for the manner in which the idea of a supernatural or divine world was de veloped and had to be developed in the historical evolution of the human conscience. all our scientific conviction of its absurdity will be in vain. without issue and without end. in its innumerable manifestations. the succession of causes which developed and produced the idea of God in the con sciousness of men. Thus. at all periods of their life. is an error historically necessary in the de velopment of humanity. until then. and ask why and how it was pro duced in history and why an immense majority of the human race still accept it as a truth. considering the natural weakness of even the strongest individual against the all powerful influence of the social surroundings that trammel . and. of human nature in all ages and under all skies.22 GOD AND THE STATE perfect identity. an outcome of ourselves.
the sorrows. after having exaggerated and enlarged them beyond measure. but enlarged and reversed-that is. after the manner of children. in one way or another. but the development of the collec tive intelligence and conscience of mankind. their demigods. into the abyss of religious absurdity. discovers his own image. or of the divine origin of the world and of man. They are the instinctive and passionate protest of the human being against the narrowness.ay . with their gods. regarding the theoretical grounds of this belief. and I shall say only a few words. is nothing . As fast as they discovered. there is but one remedy-Social Revolution. Conse quently. solely from the standpoint of its moral and social utility. therefore. All religions. the platitudes. we are always in danger of relapsing sooner or later. a power. In the meantime I have endeavored to show the causes responsible for the birth and historical development of re ligious hallucinations in the human conscience. divinized. of the birth. a quality. either in themselves or in external nature. Examples of these shameful conversions are frequent in so ciety to-d. grandeur. For this malady. and their prophets. in the course of their historically progressive advance. These mystical tendencies do not signify in man so much an aber ration of mind as a deep discontent at heart. I have stated the chief practical reason of the power still exercised to-day over the masses by religious beliefs. and decline of the gods who have succeeded one anotfuer in human be lief. Here it is my purpose to treat this question of the existence of a God. I have already said. their messiahs and their saints. the religious heaven is notfuing but a mirage in which man. were created bv the credulous fancy of men who had not attained the fu il development and full possession of their faculties. to better explain my thought. or even any great defect whatever. tfuey attributed them to their gods. The history of religions. and the shame of a wretched existence. exalted by ignorance and faith.GOD AND THE STATE 23 him. by an .
while Christianity aspires to em brace entire humanity . for against the divine reason there is no human rea son. power. he can attain them only through a divine revelation. the more wretched became humanity and the earth.24 GOD AND THE STATE act of their religious fancy. the impoverishment. truth. the real world and man are noth ing. and life. God was all . his real creator. messiahs. But who ever says revelation says revealers. prophets. men must also be slaves of Church and State. to the fullest extent. This truth Christianity. necessarily exercise abso lute power. the richer heaven became. Incapable of finding justice. be cause it eJdbibits and manifests. after having un knowingly extracted him from the void. which is God being everything. once recognized as the representatives of divinity on earth. ugliness. and absolute disposer of all things : the world thenceforth was nothing. and legislators inspired by God himself . priests. worshipped him. . not excepting even the old Oriental religions. the very nature and essence of every religious system. God being truth. better than all other re ligions that exist or have existed. beauty. and man. Thanks to this modesty and pious generosity of believing and credulous men. Slaves of God. man is the slave. enslavement. iniquity. j ustice. heaven has grown rich with the spoils of the earth. impotence. and death. All men owe them passive and unlimited obedi ence . understood. and this truth Roman Catholicism. God being master. as the holy instructors of humanity. which included only distinct and privileged nations. by a necessary consequence. and against the j ustice of God no terrestrial j ustice holds. in so far as the State is consecrated by the Church. and these. and annihilation of hu manity for the beniefit of divinity. and eternal life by his own effort. arbiter. God once installed. and. man is falsehood. goodness. reason. Christianity is precisely the religion par excellence. and avowed himself his creature and his slave. chosen by God himself to direct it in the path of salvation. he was naturally proclaimed the cause. evil. bowed down be fore him.
They dishonor human labor. or poets : The idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice. the principal instrument of human eman cipation. then. he who desires to worship God must harbor no childish allusions about the matter. and reduce them to imbecility.· it is the most decisive negation of human liberty. and make it a sign and source of servitude. That is why Christianity is the absolute religion. legitimate. They kill the idea and sentiment of human justice. as the Jesuits desire it. in this mystical alphabet. why the Apostolic and Roman Church is the only consistent. With all due respect. He who. or Protestant Methodists desire it. ever tipping the balance to the side of triumphant knaves. has proclaimed and realized with rigorous logic. begins with A will inevitably end with Z . the essential condi tion of their slavery. philosophers. for all . man can and must be free.GOD AND THE STATE 25 alone among all the Christian sects. All religions are cruel. pietists. and necessarily mds in the enslavement of mankind. Is it necessary to point out to what extent and in what manner religions debase and corrupt the people ? They de stroy their reason. and divine church. therefore. must not make the slightest concession either to the God of theology or to the God of metaphysics. all founded on blood . then. I defy anyone whomsoever to avoid this circle . let all choose. protecting only the cringing and humble. man is a slave . then.' They kill human pride and dignity. filling it with divine cruelty instead. Unless. but bravely renounce his liberty and hu manity. both in theory and practice . now. we desire the enslavement and degradation of mankind. now. we may not. to the metaphysicians and re ligious idealists. politicians. They stifle in the heart of nations every feeling of human fraternity. privileged objects of divine in dulgence. as the momiers. God does not exist. the final religion . If God is.
then. great souls penetrated with a sincere and profound love for the welfare of humanity. It is the generic name of all that seems grand.z6 GOD AND THE STATE rest principally on the idea of sacrifice-that is. beautiful. nor the pantheistic god of Spinoza. They reject with indignation all solidarity with the God of positive religions and with his representa tives. if not in their hearts. in their minds ( and we know the fearful influence of either on the hearts of men ) -something cruel and sanguinary. But why. then. and. what is their God ? Not even an idea . That explains why the priests of all religions. None know all this better than our illustrious contempo rary idealists. They are learned men. the gen tlest. they have cursed and branded all these misdeeds. and very equivocal god of Hegel. nor even the at once immanent. feeling very strongly that any defini tion would subject him to the dissolving power of criticism. They will not say whether he is a personal or impersonal god. But. past. good. theologically or even metaphysically. Rousseau. He is neither the supreme being of Robespierre and J. All that might compromise him. but a man privileged by grace-is the divine executioner. in their imaginations.d not create the world . as they are at the same time living men. They take good care not to give him any positive definition whatever. is distinguished from the real gods of history pre cisely in this-that he is not at all a positive god. and on earth. present. In this bloody mystery man is always the vic tim. h uman to them. all these crimes of religion with an eloquence unparalleled. transcendental. the most humane. or whom they think they adore. and the priest-a man also. do they . the best. defined in any way whatever. whether he created or di. on the per petual immolation of humanity to the insatiable vengeance of divinity. They content themselves with saying "God" and nothing more. almost always have at the bottom of their hearts-and. noble. The God whom they adore. they will not even speak of his divine providence. J. who know history by heart . it is an aspiration.
This contradiction lies here : they wish God. They are not strong on logic. and one might say that they despise it. they call one divine and the other bestial. absolute master. and gives their ideas the character of a practical idealism. for life itself be comes sterile when paralyzed by a logical contradiction." Ah ! because King William of Prussia and Napoleon III. and they wish humanity. historical and collective as well as individual. How do they get over this ? Why. supreme. They either will not or cannot understand that these three terms are really but one. man is a slave . if God exists. and. now. They say in a single breath : "God and the liberty of man. but an appearance only . Real humanity presents a mixture of all that is most sublime and beautiful with all that is vilest and most monstrous in the world. equality. representing divinity and animality as two poles. They persist in connecting two terms which. who ever he may be and however liberal he may desire to show himself. fra ternity. prosperity of men"-regardless of the fatal logic by virtue of whicih. do they represent their God as ani mated by the tenderest love o f human liberty : a master. all these things are con demned to non-existence. "Man. flying in the face of good sense and all the teachings of history. of life. remains none the less always a master. once separated. nor prosperity are possible for him. drawing its in spiration much less from the severe development of a thought than from the experiences. That is what distinguishes them from the pantheistical and deistical metaphysicians. and that to separate them is to destroy them. he is necessarily the eternal. neither j ustice. and all their compeers are likewise men : which bothers them very much. His exist ence necessarily implies the slavery of all that is beneath . be tween which they place humanity. justice. nor equality. For. nor fraternity. In vain. if he is a slave." "God and the dignity.GOD AND THE STATE not say. if such a master exists. can come together again only to destroy each other. I might almost say the emotions. This gives their propaganda an appearance of wealth and vital power. if God is.
and say that. A jealous lover of human liberty. We may misunderstand them or not know them at all. What is authority ? Is it the inevitable power of the nat ural laws which manifest themselves in the necessary con catenation and succession of phenomena in the physical and social worlds ? Indeed. and deeming it the absolute condition of all that we admire and respect in hu manity. if God really existed. they envelop us. because they constitute the basis and fundamental conditions of our existence .GOD AND THE STATE him. To have dis regarded it. But in such slavery there is no humiliation. Perhaps. while these laws . penetrate us. For slavery supposes an external master. too. they give the term a meaning quite different from the conception enter tained by us. a legis lator outside of him whom he commands. In deed. The severe logic that dictates these words is far too evi dent to require a development of this argument. authority-a word and a thing which we detest with all our heart. they must have considered this inconsistency or logical license practically necessary to humanity's well being-. I reverse the phrase of Voltaire. against these laws revolt is not only forbidden-it is even impossible. And it seems to me impossible that the illustrious men. whose names so celebrated and so justly respected I have cited. we are absolutely the slaves of these laws. while speaking of liberty as something very respectable and very dear in their eyes. but we cannot disobey them . regulate all our movements. if God existed. even when we believe that we disobey them. should not have been struck by it themselves. and acts . rather. and should not have perceived the contradiction in which they involve themselves in speaking of God and human liberty at once. it would be necessary to abolish him. thoughts. materialists and Revolutionary Socialists. or. it is not slav ery at all. we only show their omnipotence. only in one way could he serve human liberty-by ceasing to exist. Yes. Therefore. they never speak of it without immediately adding an other word.
recourse be had to some subterfuge founded in its turn on some other natural law. and morally : we live. once recognized . or bourgeois economist to rebel against the law by which twice two make four. we breathe. which are quite as necessary. in gen eral. we are not. could we derive the power and the wish to rebel against them ? In his relation to natural laws but one liberty is possible to man-that of recognizing and applying them on an ever extending scale in conformity with the object of collective and individual emancipation or humanization which he pur sues.GOD AND THE STATE 29 are not outside of us . these attempts at or foolish fancies of an impossible revolt. indeed. intellectually. Once they shall have been recognized by science. be at bottom either a fool or a theologian or at least a metaphysician. it may be said that the mass of men. and then from science. are decidedly the exception . we think. that the major portion of the natural laws con nected with the development of human society. then. thanks to the watchfulness of these tutelary governments that exist. by means of an extensive system of pop ular education and instruction. have not been duly established and rec ognized by science itself. except. There is another difficulty namely. as we know. shall have passed into the . already established as such by science. or. of the sum of the natural laws generally recognized in an almost absolute fashion. we act. for. The great misfortune is that a large number of natural laws. Without them we are nothing. they constitute our being. jurist. invariable. But these revolts. These laws. Whence. in their daily lives. physically. exercise an authority which is never disputed by the mass of men. rather. only for the good of the people. remain un known to the masses. One must. we wish only tJhrough these laws. One must have faith to imagine that fire will not burn nor water drown. they are inherent in us . fatal. acknowledge the government of common sense-that is. as the laws that govern the physical world. for instance. our whole being.
Suppose a learned academy. and that. So that were we to try to force the practical life of men. divine or human. we may say that it is still in its cradle. I maintain. that such legislation and such organization would be a monstros ity. suppose this academy charged with legislation for and the organization of society. life ever remaining an infinitely greater thing than science. composed of the most illus trious representatives of science . collective as well as in dividual. and even should they conform to the system of natural laws-which has never been the case and never will be the case-are always equally fatal and hostile to the liberty of the masses from the very fact that they impose upon them a system of ex ternal and therefore despotic laws. not because it understood itself the rational character of this legislation ( in which case the existence of the academy would become . whether they emanate from the will of the sovereign or from the vote of a parliament elected by universal suffrage. inspired only by the purest love of truth. The second reason is this : a society which should obey legislation emanating from a scientific academy. for my part. which would soon end by dislocating and stifling them. and that. that human science is always and necessarily imperfect. and that for two reasons : first . The liberty of man consists solely in this : that he obeys natural laws because he has himself recognized them as such. it frames none but laws in absolute harmony with the latest dis coveries of science. collective or individual. three things which. Well. The most stubborn authorities must admit that then there will be no need either of political organization or di rection or legislation. into strict and exclusive conformity with the latest data of science. and not because they have been externally imposed upon him by any extrinsic will whatever. comparing what it has discovered with what remains to be discovered. we should condemn society as well as in dividuals to suffer martyrdom on a bed of Procrustes. the question of liberty will be entirely solved.30 GOD AND THE STATE consciousness of all.
was imposed in the name of a science which it venerated without comprehending-such a society would be a society. inevitably lapses into sluggish ness. even if it were composed of the most illustrious. But there is still a third reason which would tender such a government impossible-namely that a scientific academy invested with a sovereignty. such is the history of all academies. so to speak. his revolutionary hardihood. would be its own eternal perpetuation by rendering the society confided . The privileged man. not of men. whether politically or economically. but of brutes. he becomes corrupted. is a man depraved in mind and heart . an officially licensed savant. He loses his spontaneity. It is the law of equality. from the moment that he becomes an academician. ever called t o destroy old tottering worlds and lay th e foundations of new . the academy.GOD AND THE STATE 31 useless ) . as in the case of all established powers. He undoubtedly gains in politeness. the supreme condition of liberty and humanity. It is the characteristic of privilege and of every privi leged position to kill the mind and heart of men. That is a social law which ad mits of no exception. In a word. and is as applicable to entire nations as to classes. The greatest scientific genius. men. in utilitarian and practical wisdom. but because this legislation. would in falliby and soon end in its own moral and intellectual cor ruption. Even to-day. corporations. and that affair. emanating from . It would be a second edition of those missions in Paraguay which submitted so long to the government of the Jesuits. and that troublesome and savage energy characteristic of the grandest geniuses. what he loses in power of thought. absolute. and individuals. but to quite another affair. A scientific body to which had been confided the gov ernment of society would soon end by devoting itself no longer t o science at all. with the few privileges allowed them. The principal object of this treatise is precisely to demon strate this truth in all the manifestations of human life. It would surely and rapidly descend to the lowest stage of idiocy.
devoting themselves exclusively to the direction of the public affairs of a coun try. but this does not prevent the formation in a few years' time of a body of politicians. or rail roads. their character. privi leged in fact though not in law. Consequently. Does it follow that I reject all authority ? Far from me such a thought. to a certain extent and as long as . I have no abso lute faith in any person. But I allow neither the bootmaker nor the architect nor the savant to impose his authority upon me. their knowledge.32 GOD AND THE STATE to its care ever more stupid and consequently more in need of its government and direction. con sequently. I compare their opinions. no external legislation and no authority one. Witness the United States of America and Switzerland. finally form a sort of political aristocracy or oligarchy. being inseparable from the other. I listen to them freely and with all the respect merited by their intelligence. I consult several . it would immediately transform me into a stupid slave. even those chosen by universal suffrage. I refer to the au thority of the bootmaker . for that matter. and both tending to the servitude of society and the degrada tion of the legislators themselves. But that which is true of scientific academies is also true of all constituent and legislative assemblies. it is true. canals. whatever respect I may have for the honesty and the sincerity of such or such an individual. If I bow before the authority of the specialists and avow my readiness to follow. In t!he matter of boots. I consult that of the architect or engineer. and choose that which seems to me the soundest. an instrument of the will and interests of others. For suc!h or such special knowledge I apply to such or such a savant. who. to my liberty. reserving always my incon testable right of criticism and censure. even in special questions . Such a faith would be fatal to my reason. concerning houses. and even to the success of my under takings . But I recog nize no infallible authority. I do not content myself with consulting a single authority in any special branch . In the latter case they may renew their composition.
I receive and I give-such is human life. This same reason forbids me. it might transform into a charlatan even a real man o f genius. in all its details and positive develop ments. because. it is because their authority is imposed upon me by no one. constant. and if he wished to take advantage thereof to impose his authority upon us. it would be necessary to drive this man out of society. to recognize a fixed. voluntary authority and subordination. any very large portion of human knowledge. and. by the loss of my liberty and self-respect. but a continual exchange of mutual. I do not think that society ought to maltreat men of genius as it has done hitherto . tempo rary. second. because there is no uni versal man. their directions . through such a system of privileges. I bow before the authority of special men because it is imposed upon me by my own reason. above all. neither by men nor by God.GOD AND THE STATE 33 may seem to me necessary. but neither do I think it should indulge them too far. because his authority would inevitably reduce all the others to slavery and imbecility. all the branches of social life. Therefore there is no fixed and con stant authority. and universal authority. because it would o ften mistake a charlatan for a man of genius . for science as well as for in dustry. and that for three reasons : first. still less accord them any privileges or exclusive rights whatsoever . The greatest intelligence would not be equal to a comprehension of the whole. without which the application o f science to life is impossible. all the sciences. and bid the devil take their counsels. Each directs and is directed in his turn. And if such universality could ever be realized in a single man. and their services. for such scraps of truth. . certain that they would make me pay. no man capable o f grasping in that wealth o f detail. Otherwise I would repel them with horror. as they might give me. wrapped in a multitude of lies. the necessity of the division and association of labor. I am conscious of my inability to grasp. their indications and even their directions. then. Thence results.
Christ. finally. We recognize the absolute authority of science. science. will remain eternally unfinished." the truly uni versal science which would reproduce ideally. to its fullest extent and in all its infinite detail. as well-considered and systematic as possible. we declare all other authorities false. which must considerably take down the pride of his licensed represen- . In our church-if I may be permitted to use for a moment an expression which I so detest : Church and State are my two betes noires-in our church. intellectual. Our Christ differs from the Protestant and Christian Christ in this-that the latter is a personal being. are ever in the future : which is equivalent to saying that they will never be realized. There fore. and. in fact. we will suffer neither pope. we in no way compromise our liberty. while the completion and perfection of our Christ. of the natural laws inherent in the material. science . more logical even than the Protestants. \Ve recognize. the universe. I mean by the words "absolute science. like the Prot estants. and moral life of both the physical and the social worlds. ours impersonal . these two worlds constituting. already completed in an eternal past. the sublime object of all the efforts of the human Our mind. Outside of this only legitimate authority. presents him self as a perfect being. because it would establish a master over itself. but one and the same nat ural world. the Christian Christ. but we reject the infallibility and universality of the savant. and.34 GOD AND THE STATE demoralize him. because the sole object of science is the mental reproduction. then. and degrade him . in recognizing absolute science as the only absolute authority. nor conclaves of infallible cardinals. To sum up. nor even priests. arbitrary and fatal. we have a chief. legi timate because rational and in harmony with human liberty. the system or co-ordination of all the natural laws manifested by the incessant development of the world. nor bishops. then. the absolute authority of science. nor council. It is evident that such a science. as in the Protestant church. an invisible Christ. will never be fully and absolutely realized.
becoming directly an op pression and a falsehood. Although free from the traditional supersti tions of all the existing positive religions. and infallible authority of men of science. celestial or terrestrial. we willingly bow before the respectable. officially imposed as such. we ask nothing better than to see men endowed with great knowl edge. above all. whilst we real beings. even though arising from universal suffrage. asking n othing better than to consult them by turns. great hearts. we reject all legislation. strug gling. real life. aspiring. all authority. great experience. are its im mediate representatives. but none of right . although relative. official. of which he ( the Son ) is only a too imper fect expression.GOD AND THE STATE 35 tCl. and very grateful for such precious information as they may extend to us. In a word. we appeal to God the Father. enj oying. and never imposed in the name . Against that God the Son in whose name they assume to impose upon us their insolent and pedantic authority. convinced that it can tum only to the advantage of a dominant minority of exploiters against the interests of the immense majority in subjection " to them. working. on condition of their willingness to receive from us on occasions when. for every authority or every influence of right.tives among us. we are more learned than they. loving. The modern idealists understand authority in quite a different way. while rejecting the absolute. This is the sense in which we are really Anarchists. would inevitably impose upon us. great minds. and all privileged. living. and lel!al influence. as I believe I have sufficiently shown. freely accepted. We ac cept all natural authorities and all influences of fact. quite temporary. But.of any offi cial authority whatsoever. who is the real world. universal. and concerning matters about which. slavery and absurdity. In general. they nevertheless attach to this idea of authority a divine. licensed. and suffering. and very re stricted authority o f the representatives o f special sciences. an absolute mean- . and. exercise over us a natural and legitimate influence.
would restore to heaven. the grandest. endeavoring to commit a final religiously heroic larceny. directly consecrated by God himself. a last attempt to divinize all that constitutes humanity in men. and noblest of humanity's pos sessions. on the contrary. Their religion is. is their whole philosophy : a philos ophy of sentiments. becomes a priest.GOD AND THE STATE iug. a£ in the positive re ligions. They. abstractly poetical. In behalf of human liberty. dignity. the most complete negation of human liberty and dignity. to a large extent also on 'sentiment. . These are so holy that they can have been inspired only by God. and very barren doc trine hidden under the intangible vagueness of these poetic forms leads to the same disastrous results that all the posi tive religions lead to-namely. It is now the freethinkers' turn to pillage heaven by their audacious impiety and scientific analysis. ideally. in order to exercise greater authority among men. finally un masked. and the very precise. we be lieve it our duty to recover from heaven the goods which it has stolen and return them to earth. This authority is not that of a truth miraculously rt:: vealed. In this new religious cult every man inspired by these ideas. is considered divine. And the proof ? He needs none beyond the very grandeur of the ideas wlhich he expresses and the deeds which he performs. in few words. The idealists undoubtedly believe that human ideas and deeds. Such. nor that of a truth rigorously and scientifically dem onstrated. very narrow. not of real thoughts. How is this sanc tion manifested ? Not by a miracle. as it were. whatever is beautiful. but it is not so at all. finest. and to a large extent on vaguely religious faith. must be invested with a divine sanction. They base it to a slight extent upon quasi-philo sophical reasoning. a sort of m eta physical pietism. This seems harmless. This is j ust the opposite of the work that we are doing. by these deeds. but by the very grandeur or sanctity of the ideas and deeds : whatever is grand. and prosperity. that divine robber. whatever is j ust. what ever is noble.
the elect. * But here we are again fallen back under the yoke of *In London I once heard M. and social consequences of the positive re ligions. May we not suppose that all men are equally inspired by God ? Then. the perfect and su preme being. abandoned to itself. political. in the world." . called them. divine mediators. that. the virtuous geniuses. as the illustrious Italian citizen and prophet. and govern in his name the human race. just. follies. its own nature is miserable.GOD AND THE STATE 37 To proclaim as divine all that is grand. "would be that which would invariably call men of virtuous genius to the control o f affairs. is posited face to face with humanity. But perhaps. base. iniquitous. But this supposition is impossible. It would compel us to attribute to divine inspiration all the absurdities and errors which ap pear. unaided by any divine inspiration. Giuseppe Mazzini. the inspired of God spring from the earth to enlighten. there is no further use for mediators." said he to me. surely. Louis Blanc express almost the same idea. it becomes necessary to admit also all the theo logical. the great men of history. and all the horrors. Imme diately inspired by God himself and supported upon univer sal consent expressed by popular suffrage--Dio e Popolo such as these should be called to the government of human societies. and ugly. From the moment that God. noble. then. because it is too clearly contradicted by the facts. to the disparagement of humanity for the greater glory of divinity. Thus_ we come back to the essence of all re ligion-in other words. base deeds. are admitted. and beautiful in humanity is to tacitly admit that humanity of itself would have been unable to produce it-that is. to the comprehension of just and true ideas. And from the moment that the natural inferiority of man and his fundamental in capacity to rise by his own effort. and cowardly actions which are committed. direct. "The best form of government. only a few men are divinely inspired.
as greedy. overflowing with love. It is not without reason. unless he preaches by example ? Is not the number of men who find supreme enj oyment in sacrifice and devotion exceedingly limited ? Those who sacrifice themselves in the service of a great idea obey a lo fty passion. while those who teach doctrine usually forget to translate it into action. and ." "And what will the people be taught in these schools ?" "The duties of man-sacrifice and devotion. that among the people of all countries the$e phrases have become by-words : As licentious as a priest. like all the old political organiza tions. and renunciation belie their teachings by their example. were full of contempt for the pleasures and goods o f this world. satisfying this personal passion. and. as a necessary concession to the spirit of modern times. the Church will no longer call itself Church . of action. but because of several centuries' experience. the pupil confessedly forever incompetent to pass his examinations. "will be the foundation o f schools for the people. are very rare exceptions.GOD AND THE STATE Church and State. and j ust as in the preambles of the imperial decrees of Napoleon I l L-on the ( pretended) will of the people. What matters it ? On the benches o f this School will be seated not children only . abstinence. "The first measure. who have really practised. once his triumphant unitary re public had been definitely established. holy men. have preached and still preach the doctrines of chastity. It is true that in this new organization. which no one has the right or power to teach. indebted for its existence. rise to the knowledge of his teachers. in whom doctrine and action form an admirable unity. as glut tonous as a priest. Men like Mazzini. selfish. or who." he answered. But the immense majority o f Catholic and Protestant priests who. as ambitious as a priest. but supported this time-at least so far as fonn is concerned. they generally think o f something else than building their action into doctrine. have passionately tried to practice all that they preached. to the grace of God. and whose hearts. there will be found the eternal minor. In Christianity also there have been great men. the living spontaneity.* The State will no longer call itself Mon*One day I asked Mazzini what measures would be taken for the emancipation of the people. it will call itself School. and dispense with their discipline -the people. for the simple reason that doctrine kills the life. at least." But where will you find a sufficient number of professors to teach these things. by trade. outside o f which life itself loses all value in their eyes.
GOD AND THE STATE 39 archy . a flock. show that the fault is n o t t o be attributed t o them as in dividuals. shepherds. it will call itsel f Republic : but it will be none the less the State-that is. and even entirely annihilated by the constant influence of some potent intellectual and moral passion . in the immense majority of cases. when they are not satisfied in a regular and normal way. established that the pro fessors o f the Christian virtues. men of virtuous genius or talent. impossible and contradictory in itself. suppressed. This very majority. have practised quite the contrary o f what they have preached. then. who will watch and guide the conduct of this great. The people. that is to the priests of the modern Church. a tutelage officially and regularly es tablished by a minority of competent men. The professors of the School and the functionaries of the State will call themselves republicans . and the people will remain what they have been hitherto from all eternity. in which these individuals are placed. but which are so fundamentally inherent in our nature that sooner or later they always resume their rights : so that. But a master who . wholly fictitious. may bt forgotten and neglected for some time by a large mass of men at once . but to the social position. in this system. the people. and terrible child. that between the doctrine o f abstinence and renunciation and the positive tendencies and needs o f human nature-tendencies and needs which. Beware of shearers. which at certain moments of collective exaltation. But there is another contradiction common to the priests of both sects. it grasping as a priest. consecrated b y the Church. incorrigible. for where there is a flock there necessarily must be shepherds also to shear and devour it. under the disastrous action o f which inevitably fall all Christian priests and especially those of the Roman Catholic Church. will be the perpetual scholar and pupil. always very rare. oppresses. The position o f the Christian priest involves a double contradiction. A master who commands. It cannot apply to the professors. in some individual cases. This is a natural and consequently fatal and irresistible law. but they will be none the less tutors. they are always re placed at last by unwholesome and monstrous satisfaction. the priests. It is. may indeed be continually held back. and exploits is a wholly logical and quite natural personage. I n the first place. the universality o f this fact. unless they are also obliged to preach Christian abstinence and renunciation. This contradiction grows out of the very title and position of master. In spite of its sovereignty.
there is an abyss. and. among the privileged classes as well as among the masses . in the first place. Must we. eliminate from society all instruction and abolish all schools ? Far from it ! Instruction must be spread among the masses without stint. Yes. Between this situa tion and what we call liberty. so well personified by the Pope. teachers of the doctrine of popular sacrifice to the power o f the State and to the profit o f the privileged classes. in order that they may become schools of emancipation and not of enslavement. It will. reason : the divine evaporates and rises to its own country. while the brutal alone remains actually on earth. brutishness.40 GOD AND THE STATE will continue to serve as the instrument o f thoughts. They will necessarily become. the necessary consequence of theoretical idealism is In deifying human things the idealists always end in the tri·umph of a brutal materialism . let us understand each other . absolute and in fallible master of the world. will exist only for children and not for adults . far from sacrificing themselves to the flocks con fided to their care. real social materialism. into so many schools of human emancipation. The whole education o f children . he even washes once a year the feet of twelve Roman beggars proclaims himself at the same time vicar of God. And this for a very simple sacrifices himself to those who are subordinated to him by hi. the eternal and absolute enslaver. and consequently interests not its own. exploited them. divine or htunan privilege is a contradictory and quite impossible being. others with full knowledge of the cause. have always sacrificed them. wills. this fiction of God. and kept them in the condition of a flock. then. in a normal society founded on equality and on respect for human liberty. It will be the old oppression and old slavery under new forms . transforming all the churches. following the example of Christ. first of all. and where there is slavery there is misery. But. who. partly to satisfy their own personal passions and partly to serve the omnipotence of the Church ? Like conditions. Do I need to recall that the priests of all churches. be the same with the professors of the modern School divinely inspired and licensed by the State. then. while calling himself the lowest servant of the servants of God-in token whereof. some without knowing it. schools. properly speaking. This is the very constitution of hypocrisy. heaven. all those temples dedicated to the glory of God and to the slavery of men. like causes. always produce like effects. the only real liberty. it will be necessary to eliminate.
implies the gradual negation of the point of departure. Which is the most materialistic. From these schools will be absolutely . it is legitimate. necessary. if the school takes in fants scarcely able a s yet to stammer a few words. and above all on respect for humanity. and in all society so far as it allows itself to be dominated by idealistic doc trines. should be that of the greatest authority and an almost entire absence of liberty . Therefore the first day of the pupils' life. becomes a monstrosity. a source of slavery and intellectual and moral depravity. the final object o f education necessarily being the formation of free men full of respect and love for the liberty of others. constitutes the natural point of departure . a flagrant denial of humanity. But as the development o f everything. on the deveIopment of personal dignity and independence. undoubtedly. this principle must diminish as fast as education and instruction advance. not on that of piety and obedience . giving place to increasing liberty. The principle of authority. but which explains itself naturally enough upon further reflection. Un fortunately. but its last day should be that of the greatest liberty and the ab solute abolition of every vestige of the animal or divine principle o f authority. whose intelligence has not yet openly developed itself. when applied to children of a tender age. The principle o f authority. but for the people themselves. To demonstrate this general fact. which must replace always and everywhere the worship of divinity. applied to men who have surpassed or attained their majority. not. and their instruction must be founded on the scientific development o f reason. and consequently of education. among those who sincerely preach it-the usual result as far as they are concerned being that they are constrained to see all their efforts struck with sterility-but among those who try to realize their precepts in life. on the worship o f truth and justice at any cost. not on that o f faith . which may appear strange at first. in the educa tion of children. historical proofs are not lacking.GOD AND THE STATE 41 practically the most brutal materialism . All rational education is at bottom nothing but this progressive immolation of authority for the benefit o f liberty. paternal governments have left the masses to wallow in an ignorance so profound that it will be necessary to establish schools not only for the p eople's children. Compare the last two civilizations of the ancient world the Greek and the Roman.
This. They will seek to de ceive it. then. where the people will come freely to get. The power of collective sentiment or pUblic spirit is even now a very serious matter. wholly human. and in which. in which neither pupils nor masters will be known. certainly. far from en slaving them. than all your divine. free instruction. and the most hu manly ideal in its results ? Undoubtedly the Greek civiliza tion. including that of Rome. the only one which we may respect. certain that. however powerful he believes himself. It will be a thousand times more powerful. it will emancipate men. at once natural and rational. political. and the natural development of human society to the abstraction of the State-and which became nevertheless the most brutal in its consequences ? The Roman civilization. they will be popular academies. They will be schools no longer . the former none eliminated the smallest applications or manifestations of the princi ple of authority. in its point of departure. i f they need it. to t"lpenly affront it. be sure of it. your jailers. It is true that the Greek civilization. they will teach in their turn many things to the professors who shall bring them knowledge which they lack. No man. more powerful than your criminal codes. but will take care not to be rude with it unless they feel the support of a minority larger or smaller. was exclusively national and based on slavery. in spite of these two immense defects. will be that of the collective and public spirit of a society founded on equality and solidarity and the mutual human respect o f all its members. and j udicial authorities. this is an authority which is not at all divine. But. theological.GOD AND THE STATE the most natural. will ever have the strength to bear the unanimous contempt of society . no one can live without feeling himself sustained by the approval and esteem of at least some . The men most ready to commit crimes rarely dare to defy it. Which on the contrary. The real school for the people and for all grown men is life. represented by the abstraction of j udicial law. and your executioners. rich in their own experience. but before which we shall bow willingly. The only grand and omnipotent authority. metaphysical. established by the Church and by the State . Yes. an act of intellectual fraternity between the educated youth and the people. will be a mutual instruction. like all the ancient civilizations. is the most abstractly ideal in its point of departure-sacrificing the material liberty of the man to the ideal liberty of the citizen.
At the close of the Middle Ages. And to this end there is but one means : Destroy all the institutions of Inequality . And the name of the Roman civilization ? Conquest. on the worship of divinity. if this social power exists. it created free thought. With political and social liberty. establish the economic and social equality of all. not on respect for humanity . Make all needs really solidary. portion of society. as each of us can verify daily. its influence is mischievous and baleful. has constantly exercised a dis astrous and depraving influence. the fact that some Greek emigrants brought a few of those immortal books into Italy sufficed to resusci tate life. buried in the dark dun geon of Catholicism. not on j ustice and truth. an immortal philosophy. and the primary concepts of human respect. it created through liberty the sciences. not on equality . always in contradiction of the humani tarian theories which it professes. it has not been humanized because the social life of which it is ever the faithful expression is based. Human emancipation. it transformed human herds into free associations of free men .GOD AND THE STATE 43 the less conceived and realized the idea of humanity . the arts. that is the name of the Greek civilization . with all its brutal consequences. on authority. Do you wish to render its authority and influence beneficent and human ? Achieve the social revolution. It does not repress vices and crimes . Nothing proves more clearly than this fact the natural and inevitable solidarity-this law of sociability-which binds all men together. on the exploitation. . and never will a selfish. the solidary humanity of all. it creates them. not on the brother hood of men . But. and cowardly man have such courage. anti-human authority . depraved. it ennobled and really idealized the life of men . thought. Its authority is consequently a div ine. humanity. why has it not sufficed hitherto to moralize. liberty. on privilege. the most important question of Socialism. not on liberty . and cause the material and social interests of each to conform to the human duties of each. A man must be urged on by an immense and very sincere conviction in order to find courage to speak and act against the opinion of all. Consequently its real action. on iuiquity and falsehood. as we know. a poetry. during the period of the Renaissance. the morality. to humanize men ? Simply because hitherto this power has not been humanized itself . I shall return to this. both on himself and on all the men whom he knOWs. and on this basis will arise the liberty.
it is true. not of the Ger many of the proTetaires-her heroes are quite the opposite of Mazzini and Garibaldi : they are William 1. Bismarck and Moltke. most pure. Italy. Which means the degradation and enslavement of nations and of men. in all European countries. To�day even. materially. Compare now two modern civilizations-the Italian and th e German. philosophically explained and ac cepted by a great people with deliberate resignation and free will. liberty and humanity ? It is the triumph of the Cresarian or Roman principle. Messrs. she reappears to-day. what is it that kills. on the contrary. Crushed since by three centuries of imperial and papal despotism. the positive sciences. in its general character. Her heroes-I speak always of present Germany. And yet how much she differs from Germany I In Italy. of aristocratic. . that fero cious and ingenuous representative of the Protestant God. the arts. poetry. in a very de graded condition in comparison with what she once was. bureau cratic. and most transcendental form. not of the Germany of the future . in spite of this decline-temporary let us hope-one may live and breathe humanly. what is it that crushes brutally. com merce. political and bourgeoise Germany. The first undoubtedly represents.44 GOD AND THE STATE And its last word ? The omnipotence of the Cresars. Generals Manteuffel and .. surrounded by a people which seems to be born for liberty. and free thought. repre sents idealism in its most abstract. Let us see what are the practical fruits of the one and the other.In Germany one breathes the atmosphere of an immense political and social slavery. can point with pride to men like Mazzini and Garibaldi. the second. and to restore to humanity its titles to nobility : industry. She was the first to resuscitate and widely apply the principle of liberty in Europe. Italy has already rendered immense services to the cause of human emancipation. and dragged in the mud by her governing bourgeoisie. even bourgeois Italy. materialism.
In a11 her international relations Germany. systemati ca11y invading. power ever discovering and creating new sources of wealth. conquering. who are at the same time their spiritual chieftains. in the ideal sense. one needs only to cite the example of a11 the Christian Churches. I speak. We must do her the j ustice to acknowledge that she was the first to discover. more separate from all the interests of this earth. and both assuring. the economic exploitation and the political oppression of the masses. her revenues first. than the doctrine of Christ preached by that Church ? And what is there more brutally materialistic than the constant practice of that same Church since the eighth century. from the beginning of her existence. the success of the Christian propagandism. in modern history. this incon testable but scarcely Ch ristian truth that wealth and power. not of the subjected churches of Germany. better than divine grace. their temporal sovereigns. more dis interested. and the Protestant Churches do not fail to recognize it either. To show how theoretical idealism incessantly and inevit ably changes into practical materialism. ever ready to extend. first of all. and. of the independent churches of England. The latter have no initiative of their own . nat ura11y. and Switzerland. and then her temporal power. her political privileges. It is well known that the Protestant propagandism.GOD AND THE STATE 45 Werder. they do what their masters. from which dates her definitive establishment as a power ? What has been and still is the principal object of all her contests with the sovereigns of Europe ? Her temporal goods. are the two inseparable terms of the reign of divine ideality on earth : wealth consolidating and augmenting power. This is a historical truth. of course. better than the martyrdom and faith of the apostles. order them to do. a danger to the liberty of entire Europe. and. has been slowly. What is there more sublime. she has become a menace. To--day Germany is servility brutal and triumphant. . since her definitive establishment as a unitary power. that o f the Apostolic and Roman Church. her own voluntary enslavement into the territory of her neighbors . America.
that all the States. as we know. who are to-day the most obstinate defenders of idealism ? In the first place. who have so completely idealized and saved France . With the exception of the great hearts and great minds whom I have before referred to as misled. and probably to accelerate and consolidate the suc cess thereof. from Rouher and Bazaine to Fleury and Pietr! . and his wife. it is not at all difficult to prove. that the Church. and it is known also that the objects of the latter propagandism is not at all the enridhment and material prosperity of the countries into which it penetrates in company with the Word of God. until lately. that all the Churches. which in their own country are very covetous and very pious at the same time. have likewise had principally in view this same exploitation for the benefit of lay minorities indirectly sanctioned by the Church . history in hand. in founding the prosperous ma terialism of the few over the fanatical and constantly fam ishing idealism of the masses. all their fonner min isters.GOD AND THE STATE especially in England and America. which originally. all the sovereign courts. We have a new proof of this in what we see to-day. is very intimately con nected with the propagandism of the material. Napoleon III. have been only temporal branches of these various Churches. that the action of the good God and of all the divine idealities on earth has ended at last. always and everywhere. finally and in general. the men and women of this imperial world. but rather the exploitation of those countries with a view to the enrichment and material prosperity of certain classes. In a word. have never neglected to organize themselves into great corporations for the economic exploitation of the masses under the protection and with the direct and special blessing of some divinity or other . with all their political and judicial institutions and their dominant and privileged classes. . and ex-marshals. Madame Eugenie . by the side of their spiritualistic propa gandism. commercial interests of those two great nations . Christian and non-Christian. In France. courtiers.
How does it happen that our illus trious contemporary idealists. William 1. the doctrinaire liberals. of shameless material exploitation . has j ust con quered France in that ideal way we know so well. the Mouravieffs and the Bergs. is raised by the practical idealism of the oppressed and famishing masses. the Leverriers. and who have devoted their entire existence to the service of humanity-how does it . it would seem. and the Jules Simons. the Veuillots. all his generals. all the butchers and pious proselyters of Poland. which. In Russia. and brutal force. further. the black phalanx of Jesuits and Jesuitesses in every garb . in short. Pomeranian and other . of human reason. Everywhere. the present royal demonstrator of the good God on earth . and the liberals without doctrine-the Guizots. that in defending the doctrines of idealism one finds himself enlisted perforce in the ranks of the oppressors and exploiters of the masses.GOD AND THE STATE 47 their j ournalists and their savants-the Cassagnacs. strong in its religious faith. the Duvernois. the Girardins. the Dumas . in Germany. 8. serves to-day as the flag of material. Who are the real idealists-the idealists not of abstrac tion. the Czar and his court .. the flag of theoretical materialism. the one being but the more or less free translation of the other. religious or philosophical idealism. every great heart. the whole upper and middle bourgeoisie of France . the red flag of economic equality and social j ustice. the Thiers. We see. from idealism. nor heart. nor good will. on the contrary. the renunciation of science. all obstinate defenders of the bourgeoise exploitation. not of heaven. the Jules Favres. In Prussia. while. tending to realize the greatest liberty and the human right of each in the fraternity of all men on the earth.11 his army. all his officers. should be sufficient to drive every great min d. but of earth-and who are the materialists ? It is evident that the essential condition of theoretical or divine idealism is the sacrifice of logic. These are two great reasons which. the Pel letans. who certainly lack neither mind. but of life. bloody.
GOD AND THE STATE happen that they persist in remaining among the representa tives of a doctrine henceforth condemned and dishonored ? They must be influenced by a very powerful motive. It cannot be logic or science. the ne gation must be necessarily ideal. no doubt. and on the ruins of every liberty founds authority. on the con trary. materialism starts from animality to establish humanity . implies the negation of its point of departure. Whatever human question we may desire to consider. it logically arrives at the real idealization-that is. idealism. or from what is abstractly called matter. under the form of Church and State. ac cording to the materialistic school. And if the truth were j ust the opposite ! Every development. it ar rives necessarily at the materialization of society. in the idealistic system it can be nothing but a continuous fall . Materialism rej ects the . at the humanization. Which ? There can be but one. that idealistic theories or beliefs are essentially necessary to the moral dignity and grandeur of man. Thus. Starting from the totality of the real world. be a powerful moral motive. at the full and complete emancipation--of so ciety. is a progressive ascension . No more can it be personal interests. Per contra and for the same reason. the basis and point of departure of the idealistic school being ideal. idealism starts from divinity to establish slavery and condemn the masses to an endless animality. at the or ganization of a brutal despotism and an iniquitous and ignoble exploitation. since logic and science have pro nounced their verdict against the idealistic doctrine. The historical development of man according to the ma terialistic school. as I have already observed. These illustrious men think. The basis or point of departure. being material. It must. Materialism denies free will and ends in the establishment of liberty . then. we always find this same essential contradiction between the two schools. since these men are in finitely above everything of that sort. in the name of human dignity. and that materialistic theories. reduce him to the level of the beasts. proclaims free will. I have said.
even the most material. simple or compound chemical substance. because it rightly considers it as the corollary of animality. the theologians and metaphysicians. the triumph of humanity. History. And into what kind of matter ! Not into the matter which is eternally active and mobile. impenetrability. in vain endeavoring to grasp some vague memory o f itself. deprived of all action and movement of its own. and never more recovers it. The fall is so terrible that divinity. And there this poor Divinity. mineral. full of properties and forces. is a miracle. represents. In a word. the divine person or idea. into the matter which. while you will see the materialists pursuing and realizing the most grandly ideal aspirations and thoughts. on the contrary. inertia and immobility. In this way it passes through all degrees of materiality and bestiality-first. to their God. as we see it in the real world . but into abstract matter. And in this desperate situation it is still forced to work miracles ! For from the moment that matter becomes inert.GOD AND THE STATE 49 principle of authority . and because. loses consciousness of itself. a new formation. who have stripped it of everything to give everything to their emperor. you will always find the idealists in the very act of practical materialism. every movement that takes place in the world. in opposition to the divine idea. from which they never recover-by the salto mor tale from the sublime regions of pure and absolute idea into matter. it then spreads over . as I have said. can be realized only through liberty. in the system of the idealists. degraded and half annihilated by its fall. can be nothing but a continuous fall. impoverished and reduced to abso lute misery by the regular looting of these Prussians of thought. They begin by a ter rible fall. nothing but absolute stupidity. the object and chief significance of history. and every move that it makes in this direction upon matter becomes a creation. then awakens slowly. gas. a new miracle. of life and intelligence. lies some thousands of centuries in this swoon. from the action of God upon matter. is flattened out. can result only from a providential intervention.
and the greatness or smallness of mind depends absolutely on the greater or less material perfection of the human organism. But each man considered individually is infinitely too limited. mind is only the working of the wholly material organism of man. It follows that the divine being. a particle of its own divine being. than that one particle should be limited by another and be smaller than the whole. however. indeed. too small. his im mortal soul singularly imprisoned in a mortal body. again. that passionate and stupid affirmation of the absurd. the im mortal soul. To be limited.50 GOD AND THE STATE the earth as vegetable and animal organization till it con centrates itself in man. the absolutely immaterial being. If God entire could find lodgment in each man. lost and scattered in the matter which it animates and sets in motion. This focus is man. . each limited by all the others and yet none the less infinite--a contradiction which would imply a mutual de struction of men. is one of those questions which faith alone. an impossibility of the existence of more than one. Divinity. paralyze pure spirit ? This. is divisible like matter. it is true. finds a point of support. limit. then each man would be God. noth ing more rational. it can contain only a very small particle. to enclose the divine immensity . It is the great est of miracles. not of mind. the practical consequences of this miracle. After thousands of centuri�s of vain efforts to come back to itself. for it lights in every human being an angelic spark. H ere it would seem as if it must become itself again. Only. immortal like the whole. According to the materialists. As for the particles. mind. but infinitely smaller fuan the whole. here another contradiction confronts us. enclose. to be greater and smaller are attributes of matter. Here. Another mystery whose solution must be left to faith. a sort of focus for self-concentration. can solve. How did it manage to lodge a thing absolutely imma terial in a thing absolutely material . We should have an immense quantity of Gods. how can the body con tain. that is another matter . we have only to establish the effects.
mind existing independent of mat ter. races. from above to below . which looks for itself in men. had not had pity on it. continuous relations established. now in a piece of wood. it commits folly after folly. Beginning with fetichism. or in the celestial regions. in in finitely small particles. To add that the infinitely small and limited particles which consti tute human souls are at the same time immortal is to carry the contradiction to a climax. they seek their whole. i f the o ther divinity which was not al lowed to fall into matter and which is kept in a state of pure spirit in the sublime heights of the absolute ideal. and it is so demolished by this multitude of human prisons in which it finds itself strewn. in the midst of this state of barbarism and wholly animal brutality. they seek each other. ages. abso lutely immaterial mind. both equally infinite. Here is a new mystery-that of Divinity dividing itself into two halves. for there is only one mind-God. between these two Divinities separated from each other. retain as it were a vague remembrance of their primitive divinity. that. in looking for itself. scat tered and lost in the natural world. now in a rag. It is quite likely that it would never have succeeded in get ting out of the rag. and colors. There can be neither greater nor smaller nor any limit among minds. human souls. This is an excessively in convenient and unhappy situation. But this is a question of faith. these divine particles. Moreover.GOD AND THE STATE 51 But these same attributes of relative limitation and grandeur cannot be attributed to mind as the idealists conceive it. We shall see di rectly. and the other-God the Son-falls into matter. Here then we have Divinity torn up and lodged. in an immense number of beings of all sexes. and are irresistibly drawn towards their whole . It is Divinity itself. Let us pass on. now in a stone. of which one-God the Father-stays in the purely immaterial regions. it searches for and adores it self. for the divine particles are so little acquainted with each other at the outset of their human existence that they begin by devouring each other.
and Saint John before all. Voltaire and Rousseau. limited whole. Saint Paul. Luther also. and these relations. his "men o f virtuous genius. is the great. considered as a single eternal and constant act. according to some. and many other great and holy historical personages. is so plunged and lost in matter that even having reached human state he has not yet recovered himself. then Charlemagne. Saint Peter.. but among whom I. But immediately God appears. all the apostles. Robespierre and Danton. Moses. beg that Saint Nicholas may not be forgotten. seeing from the height of his eternal splendor that the poor God the Son. Buddha. as a Russian. compared with it.52 GOD AND THE STATE and from below to above . Lycurgus. Gregory VII. is a quantity. Con3tantine the Great. is necessarily in finitely small. Pardon me ! I admit that a particle of a definite. Socrates. divine. in which God the Son has disseminated himself so thoroughly that he does not know himself. the terrible mystery of the Christian Trinity. man is reduced to nothing." the great benefactors and legislators of humanity : Zoroaster. and infinitely small. But let us lose no time in abandoning these heights to see what is going on upon earth. decides to come to his aid. picks his inspired per sons. Multiply milliards of milliards by milliards . his prophets. Confucius. Such. will constitute the Holy Ghost. From this immense number of particles at once immortal. It will be said that he is not reduced to noth ing. flattened out and astounded by his fall. the complete realization of God the Son. however small it be. Dante. God the Father chooses those most pleasing to him. Mahomet. Solon. all of whose names it is impossible to recapitulate. since he is himself a particle of God. and above all Jesus Christ. God the Father. Then we have reached at last the manifestation of God upon earth. a positive greatness. at last collected and concentrated in a single human person . and. the divine Plato. in its veritable theological and metaphysical meaning. But a particle of the infinitely great.
constant. ennoble us. man is reduced to nothing . dignity. In talking to us of God they pur pose. They are so jealous of the glory of . which immediately es tablishes a fixed. Now we have a fall which interests us more-that of man. the more miserable becomes humanity. AU are equally insignificant before God. With the name of God they imagine that they can establish fraternity among men.GOD AND THE STATE 53 of milliards-their product compared to the infinitely great. Of all despotisms that of the doctrinaires or inspired re ligionists is the worst. it is true . on the contrary. they create pri de. and with it the two fundamental institutions of slavery : Church and State. That is the history of all religions . they establish slavery. war . and prosperity of man. reason. they sow discord. caused solely by the appari tion of God manifested on earth. con tempt . less in spired. therefore man and all the real world with him. on the contrary. hatred. In history the name of God is the terrible club with which all divinely inspired men. that is the effect of all the divine inspirations and legislations. and. because inequality in fact is lost in the collectivity when it cannot cling to some legal fiction or institution but by the divine right of inspiration. and. See in how profound an error our d ear and illustrious idealists find themselves. will be infinitely small. humanity is divided into men highly inspired. they crush and degrade us. God is everything . compared with each other. petri fying inequality. are nothing. God appears. and the greater Divinity becomes. For with God come the different degrees of divine inspira tion . some are greater than others ." have beaten down the liberty. they desire. but. the universe. and the infinitely small is equal to zero. emancipate us. and the less inspired by the uninspired. the great "virtuous geniuses. We had first the fall of God. not only in fact-which would be of no conse quence. uninspired. to elevate us. You will not escape this conclusion. Thus we have the principle of authority well established. The highly inspired must be listened to and obeyed by the less inspired.
Divine zeal. are replaced by others likewise passing. which steadily developing. the most compassionate hearts. in really living men. that which is permanent in their continual transformations -but never their material. their relations.S4 GOD AND THE STATE their God and of the triumph of their idea that they have no heart left for the liberty or the dignity or even the suffer ings of living men. Science comprehends the thought of the realtty. the moment of this dissolution being an enormous dis tance in the future. preoccupation with the idea. once passed. to serve undoubt edly as an element of some new formation in the system of the universe. The general idea is always an abstraction and. of real men. who. with reality and life. since everything which has begun must nec essarily end--our planet once decomposed. in some sort a negation of real life. their laws-in short. in conse quence of this. I have stated in the Appendix that human thought and. not life. so to speak. Consid erin� all that is. all that happens in the world from the point of VIew o f eternity or of the abstract idea. I say relatively eternal. but the whole life of real men. Alone permanent or relatively eternal in men is humanity. we may properly consider :humanity. but never to return in person. That is its . our planet once destroyed-it cannot fail to perish sooner or later. relatively to the short duration of human life. not reality itself . of men of flesh and bone. as eternal. because. ing matters with disdain . palpitating. for that very reason. the sources of human love. and not through its gen eral idea. and therefore fugitive and . science can grasp and name only the general significance of real facts. they treat pass. grows richer in pass ing from one generation to another. individual side. the thought of li fe.in tangible. But this very fact of progressive humanity is real and liv ing only through its manifestations at definite times. they themselves are only passing beings. which alone is really eternal. in def inite places. is composed only of passing matters . who knows what will become of our whole human development ? Neverthe less. finally dry up the tenderest souls.
Life is wholly fugitive and temporary. needs. not to gov ern it. it fixes. The mission of science is. and passions. by observation of the general relations of passing and real facts. exploiting. science is the compass of life. it arrogantly claims the right to govern life. in sensible. the ped antic disciple of the immortal Doctor Faust. the brain) . through its official licensed representatives. bloodless and lifeless. disciples of Auguste Comte. joys. It follows that the only mission of science is to enlighten life. the unchangeable landmarks of humanity's progressive march by indicating the general conditions which it is necessary to rigorously observe and always fatal to ignore or forget. like the homunculus created by Wagner. abstract. but also its vital impotence and even its mischievous action whenever. general. its only really insuperable limit. cruel. aspirations. op pressive. disciples of the doctrinaire school of German Communism. but also wholly palpitating with reality and in dividuality. emerging from their abstract world. In a word. which is the only organ of sCIence.GOD AND THE STATE 55 limit. Science creates nothing. but it is not IHe. cannot fail to be impotent. And every time that scien tific men. The government of science and of men of science. it establishes and recog nizes only the creations of life. impersonal. ridiculous. so to speak. inhuman. We may say of men of . It alone spontaneously creates real things and beings. Upon this nature are based the indisputable rights and grand mission of science. because it is founded ox: the very nature of thought. sensibility. sufferings. again. maleficent. ridiculously abstract. still-born. like the laws of which it is but the ideal reproduc tion. to establish the general laws inherent in the development of the phenomena of the physical and social world. reflected or mental-that is cerebral ( using this word to remind us that science itself is but a material product of a material organ. all that they propose or create is poor. even be they positivists. mingle with living creation in the real world. or. Science is unchangeable.
the reason is that" they are not exclusively men of science. In so far as they are men of science. but which incarnates them by an artifice of *Here three pages of Bakunin's manuscript are missing. for it is the natural consequence of their profession. they have to deal with and can take interest in nothing except generalities . in their researches and experiments are not treating men actually as they treat animals. Scientific abstraction is their God. is peculiarly concerned also with general types and gen eral situations. but are also more or less men of li fe.GOD AND THE STATE science. the savants form a separate caste. If they cannot perform experiments upon the bodies of indi viduals. monopolizing science and remaining thus outside of social life. Science cannot go outside of the sphere of abstractions. may submit living men to scientific experiments. they will ask nothing better than to perform them on the social body. undoubtedly less cruel but none the less disagreeable to their victims. in many respects analogous to the priesthood. and that is what must be absolutely pre vented. as such. . but are also more or less men of life. living and real individuals are their victims. . In this respect it is infinitely inferior to art. and they are the consecrated and licensed sacrificers. we must not rely too much on this. it remains always to be feared that the savants as a body. if not interfered with.t Nevertheless. which. in its turn. what I have said of theologians and meta physicians : they have neither sense nor heart for individual and living beings. We cannot even blame them for this. that do the laws* . tThe lost part of this sentence perhaps said : "If men of science. In their existing organization. they are not exclusively men of science. Though we may be well nigh certain that a savant would not dare to treat a man to-day as he treats a rabbit.
science. it reca11s to our minds the living. the real object of history. is the humanization and emancipation. It knows. being equa11y indifferent to both. then. the last and most perfect animal of earth. fugitive. is as it were the return of abstraction to life . or even by a narrow scientific pride. and consequently permanent and immortal. none the less excite in our imagination the mem ory and sentiment of life . It knows that in rising from the animal species to the superior species the principle of individuality becomes more pronounced . on the con trary. when it is not deaf to the instincts and spon taneous aspirations of life-it knows ( and this is its last word) that respect for man is the supreme law of Human ity. concrete. It knows that man. finally. tempo rary. a fiction always founded on the systematic sacrifice . Not that it is ignorant of the principle of individuality : it conceives it perfectly as a principle. presents the most com plete and most remarkable individuality. the universal law.GOD AND THE STATE 57 its own in forms which. but not as a fact. real individualities which appear and disappear under our eyes. the individuals appear freer and more complete. and that the great. It knows very we11 that a11 the animal species. which it has the power to create. because of his power to conceive. including the human species. as it were. the real liberty. art in a certain sense individual izes the types and situations which it conceives . if we would not fall back into the liberticidal fiction of the public welfare represented by the State. Science is as incapable of grasping the individuality of a man as that of a rabbit. is the perpetual immolation of life. its only legitimate object. Art. in his so cial and private existence. have no real existence outside of an indefinite number of individuals. born and dying to make room for new individuals equally fugitive. the prosperity and happiness of each individual living in society. personify. when it is not vitiated by theological or metaphysical. if they are not living in the sense of real life. on the altar of eternal abstractions. political or judcial doctrinairisme. but real. For. by means of the individualities without flesh and bone.
Abstractions ad vance only when borne forward by real men. the general causes of their pros perity. but in reality of flesh and blood. It cannot grasp the concrete . Now.GOD AND THE STATE of the people. I repeat. it would abdi cate. do not. such a people. either of the human species in general. but not with Peter or James. science has no heart : it considers them at most as material for m·tellectual and social development. we must clearly recognize that collective lib erty and prosperity exist only so far as they represent the sum of individual liberties and prosperities. . not by abstract individuals. to govern Peter and James. Provided it accomplishes this task broadly and rationally. Its individuals. not in idea only. or of such a race. it would annihilate itself. not with such or such a one. such a class or category of individuals . it concerns itself with individuals in general. And it would be ridiculous to wish it to do so. Since its own nature forces it to ignore the existence of Peter and James. Abstraction being its very nature. so far as it is concerned. have any existence. it must never be permitted. and the best general methods of secur ing their progress in all ways. Its mission is to busy itself with the situation and the general conditions of the existence and development. But it would be equally ridiculous. but it can have no dealings with real and living individuals . living and passing individuals. but by acting. it will do its whole duty. are only abstractions. it can move only in abstractions. and it would be really unjust to expect more of it. Science knows all these things. cannot. nor must any body be permitted in its name. but it does not and can not go beyond them. their decline. history is made. who. For these beings made. it can well enough conceive the principle of real and living in dividuality. What does it care for the particular conditions and chance fate of Peter or James ? It would make itself ridiculous. if it wished to concern itself with them otherwise than as examples in support of its eternal theories. it would be disastrous to entrust it with a mission which it is incapable of fulfilling. for its mission lies not there.
would finally fleece other men in the name of science. should give its consent. What I preach then is. ever nourished upon human blood. of judicial Right. yielding to the pernicious influence which privilege inevitably exercises upon men. country. spontaneous. judicial rights. but its licensed representatives. the vampires of history. Such has been up to-day the natural. of the State. Its only mission is to justify . and inevitable movement of human societies. historical rights. Or rather. we have to recognize that no minority would have been powerful enough to impose all these horrible sacrifices upon the masses if there had not been in the masses themselves a dizzy spon taneous movement which pushed them on to continual self sacrifice. politicians. in the name o f God.GOD AND THE STATE 59 For it were capable o f treating them almost as it treats rabbits. now to one. national honor. but on the contrary in very active life and having very substantial interests. Until now all human history has been only a perpetual and bloody immolation of millions of poor human beings in honor of some pitiless abstraction-God. it would continue to ignore them . the revolt of life against science. or rather against the government of science. We must believe that that was the only possible way to educate the human race.tinual immolation of the people. For we must not deceive ourselves : even in attributing the larger part to the Machiavellian wiles of the governing classes. and jurists. and lawyers. public welfare. political liberty. We cannot undo it . as we submit to all natural fatalities. Priests of these ab stractions. power of State. now to another of these devouring abstractions. to a certain extent. politicians of all shades. N or is it more surprising that metaphysics. they live only by the con. not to destroy science-that would be high treason to humanity-but to remand it to its place so that it can never leave it again. We readily understand that this is very gratifying to the theologians. too. we must submit to it so far as the past is concerned. just as they have been fleeced hitherto by priests. men not at all abstract.
This separates it profoundly from a11 preceding doctrines. By a judicious criticism. it posits true abstractions which express the general nature and logic of things. and the general laws of their development. it would understand. constituted outside of life. on the contrary. because. and in the second place. recog nizing its absolute inability to conceive real individuals and interest itself in their lot.fact which we must deplore while we estab lish it. But there is one aspect in which it resembles a11 these doctrines : its only possible object being abstractions. outside of whom the truest abstractions have no existence.60 GOD AND THE STATE and rationalize as far as possible the iniquitous and absurd. metaphysics. But that positive science itself should have shown the same tendencies is a . The immense advantage of positive science over theology. because thus far it has posited itself as an absolute and final object of all human development. which. and who die. on earth. and judicial right consists in this that. politics. it is forced by its very nature to ignore real men. and will assure it for ever a great position in society : it will constitute in a certain sense society's collective consciousness. To remedy this radical de fect positive science will have to proceed by a different method from that fo11owed by the doctrines of the past. by the way. for if it should meddle therein. it is repre sented by a privileged body . who live. Positive science. That it has done so is due to two reasons : in the first place. that it is only a means for the realization of a much higher object-that of the complete humanization of the real situation of a11 the real individuals who are born. must definitely and absolutely re nounce all claim to the government of societies . in place of the false and fatal abstractions set up by these doctrines. their general relations. The latter have taken advantage of the ignorance of the masses to sacrifice them with delight to their abstractions. it would only sacrifice continually the living men whom it ignores to the abstractions which . which it can and fina11y will be forced to pass upon itself. are always very lucrative to those who represent them in flesh and bone.
which is capable of expressing abstractions only . bear in mind. would never show anything beyond general and consequently abstract estimates. or even by human speech. alas ! ) of living individuals to abstract generalities-at the same time showing us the general conditions necessary to the real emancipation of the individuals liv�ng in society. that is all. beyond which the action of social science can be . by reflection. dismal by the immense hecatomb of human victims "crushed under its car"-those milliards of obscure individuals without whom none of the great ab stract results of history would have been obtained-and who. those are its limits. have never benefited by any of these results-will find no place. resthetic. what could it give us ? It would ex hibit a faithful and rational picture of the natural develop ment of the general conditions-material and ideal. in our annals. political and social. They have lived and been sacrificed. and scientific-of the societies which have a history.GOD AND THE STATE 6r constitute the sole object of its legitimate preoccupations. for instance. religious. not even the slightest. But suppose it were definitely developed. Shall we blame the science of history ? That would be unjust and ridiculous. The true science of history. economi cal. There fore social science itself. philosophical. the science of the future. crushed for the good of abstract humanity. does not yet exist . The milliards of individ uals who have furnished the living and suffering materials of this history at once triumphant and dismal-triumphant by its general results. however detailed it might be. they cannot be grasped in the present day any more than in the past. But this universal picture of human civilization. All that we have a right to demand of it is that it shall point us with faithful and sure hand to the general causes of individual suffering among these causes it will not forget the immolation and subordination ( still too frequent. will nec essarily continue to ignore them. scarcely do we begin to-day to catch a glimpse of its extremely complicated conditions. Individuals cannot be grasped by thought. That is its mission .
we want them no longer. Thereby. the conditions and fixed relations of individuals and things. who would henceforth be his own priest. even if they call them selves Social Democrats. being incapable of in teresting itself in that which is real and living. every man. it must spread among the masses. nor good God. and while continuing to concern itself exclusively with general causes. it must not interfere with the real or practical organization of society. The world of scientific abstractions is not revealed . having at last succeeded in swallowing his good God. the sole mission of science is to light the road. nor of judicial right things all theologically or metaphysically revealed.GOD AND THE STATE only impotent and fatal. Beyond those limits being the doc and governmental pretentions of its licensed repre sentatives. on the other. and all alike indigestible. science is indispensable to the rational organization of society . being called upon to henceforth represent society's collective consciousness. Once more. and given full liberty of action. nor of political liberty. Science. its priests. Only Life. of which it can never divest itself without ceasing to be science. But here the question is not of Jesus Christ. delivered from all its governmental and doctrinaire barriers. thanks to the invisible intervention of the Lord Jesus Grist alone. This contradiction can be solved only in one way : by the liquidation of science as a moral being existing outside the life of all. can create. How solve this antinomy ? On the one hand. it will become one in fact with the immediate and real life of all individuals. As trinaire . without losing anything. must really become the property of everybody. of which it is only the general or abstract expression and representation.of its universal character. It is time to have done with all popes and priests . and represented by a body of breveted savants. That will be a movement analo gous to that which said to the Protestants at the beginning of the Reformation that there was n o further need of priests for man. it is inherent in the real world.
and d(Jctrinaire pedantry. reserving for its licensed representatives the office of priests. will wed itself in a certain sense to the immediate and real life o f each. ambition. ceasing to be flocks led and shorn by privileged priests. the spontane*Science. The savants always presumptuous. will not prevent men of genius. they will be ambitious for no other social influence than the natural influence exercised upon its surroundings by every superior intel ligence. from devoting themselves exclusively to the cultivation of the sciences. * But until the masses shall have reached this degree of instruction. in becoming the patrimony o f everybody. better organized for scientific speculation than the maj ority o f their fellows. and from the social point of view the most haughty and insulting such would be the power established in the name of science. and for no other reward than the high delight which a nohle mind always finds in the satisfaction of a noble passion. and such a government would necessarily be aristocratic. Only. Life. because the existing scientific institutions are essentially aristocratic. This regime would be capable of paralyzing the life and movement of society. specially represented by the savants as a body. may take into their own hands the direction of their destinies. equal for all in all things. It would be better for them to dispense with science than allow themselves to be governed by savants. It will gain in utility and grace what it loses in pride. This. in order that the masses. . ever self-sufficient and ever impotent. An aristocracy of learning ! from the practical point of view the most implacable. creates life . not science. and the sources of life would dry up under the breath of their abstractions. The first consequence of the gov ernment of these men would be to render science inaccessible to the people. however. will it be necessary to leave them to the govern ment of scientific men ? Certainly not. this ideal world threatens to take the place of a good God to the real world. Once more. That is the reason why it is necessary to dissolve the special social or ganization of the savants by general instruction. and rendering great services to humanity. would desire to meddle with everything.GOD AND THE STATE tong as it fonns a separate region.
It may. all the more should they provide against that of the inspired idealists. but it will never yield. as I have already said. and cowardice of the bourgeoisie to find courage to turn their backs upon it. Not in vain have they traversed a long historic career. After all. these practical ideal ists of Germany. and the result. I have said. If the people should beware of the government of the savants. The scientific abstraction. is a rational abstraction. which destroys and decomposes life. just as the lieutenants of Prussia. falsifies and kills it. is slavery. God. the conscience. . the more dangerous they become. as that of faith. is invincible and in exorable : it may. But better an absence of light than a false and feeble light. Undoubtedly it would be a very fortunate thing if science could. the end but little different. if one prefers. true in its essence. fraternal instructors of the people . it must be. which in certain respects is worth as much as theoretical science. kindled only to mislead those who follow it. The more sincere these believers and poets of heaven. Last of all. and passion enough to unreservedly embrace the just and human cause of the proletariat-those will be. The faith is the same. would like to see the people crushed under the spurred boot of their emperor. injus tice. hypocrisy. of which it is the theo retical representation. the people will not lack light. a portion of the youth-those of the bourgeois students who feel hatred enough for the falsehood. and paid for their errors by centuries of misery. die. The pride of the idealists. is a corrosive poison. necessary to life. absorbed and digested by life. and while it has a breath left it will try to subject men to its God. thanks to them. illuminate the spontaneous march of the people towards their emancipation.GOD AND THE STATE ous action of the people themselves alone can create liberty. it must. or. from this day forth. there will be no occasion for the government of the savants. not being personal but divine. The ideal istic abstraction. The practical summary of their painful experiences constitutes a sort of traditional science.
GOD AND THE STATE It is at the same time the triumph of the ugliest and most brutal materialism. we establish it likewise in men. the facility of thinking. the source of all our knowledge. The mind.* which is the sole origin. In all animals. But I think it is still necessary to demonstrate it in the case of divine idealism. must be clearly distinguished from universal faith. one would have to be blind to avoid seeing it at the present hour. the second is only a supposition of facts which nobody has seen. the power. The latter of these results o f universal experience is not applicable only to the different animal species . that all intelli gence is always attached to some animal body. on which all science rests. and finally of forming ideas by grouping and combining concepts according to different methods-intelligence. by the experience of all. Universal experience. We know this certainly. sole creator of our whole ideal world. on which the idealists wish to support their beliefs : the first is a real authentication of facts . animal intelligence develops in proportion as the organization of a species approaches that of man. and which consequently are at variance with the experience o f everybody. *Universal experience. is a property of the animal body and especially of the quite material organism of the brain. of comparing and distinguishing them. we find a certain degree of in telligence. of receiving and reflecting upon different external and internal sensations. . of this animal function depends upon the relative perfection of the organism. There is no need to demonstrate this in the case of Germany . like all the rest of nature. in the series of species. of remembering them when they have passed and reproducing them by the imagination. in a word. but that in man alone it attains to that power of abstraction which properly consti tutes thought. without excepting the wholly inferior species. and we see that. therefore. of abstracting determinations common to them and thus creating general concepts. and that the intensity. is an entirely material being. Man. shows us. which no fact has ever contradicted and which any man can verify at any moment of his life.
for a general belief. as a class.* On the other hand. foolish even to idiocy. such a one might have very fine organs at his disposition. According to this. at least very general. But if no person has seen it. it is certain that no man has ever seen or can see pure mind. existing separately from any animal body whatsoever. Unless we suppose that the various divine particles have been irregularly distributed. that it is not nec essary to insist upon this point. necessarily appearing .66 GOD AND THE STATE whose intellectual and moral power depends so clearly upon the greater or less perfection of their organism as a race. and as individuals. all those who believe in the immateriality and immortality of the human soul. and as such it is entirely worthy of our closest attention. The explanation of this belief. how is it that men have come to believe in its existence ? The fact of this belief is certain. exercises too potent a sway over the destiny of men to war rant us in ignoring it or putting it aside. some more capable than others of serving as an organ for the pure intellec tuality o f soul. as all the idealists pretend . and individuals. moreover. as a nation. how is this difference to be ex plained ? Un fortunately there is a considerable number of men wholly stupid. are unequal. and if not universal. during *The idealists. shows us that man may use his mental faculties for a long time before accounting to himself for the way in which he uses them. material. for in the presence of absolute immateriality o f soul all bodily differ ences disappear. Could they have received in the distribution a particle at once divine and stupid ? To escape this embarrassm ent the idealists must necessarily suppose that all human souls are equal. peoples. before becoming clearly conscious of it. The example afforded us by children and young people. but that the prisons in which they find them selves necessarily confined. Dur ing this working of the mind unconscious of itself. all that is corporeal. such another very gross organs. and even by many men long past the age of majority. is rational enough. detached from all material form. human bodies. But these are distinctions which idealism has not the power to use without falling into inconsistency and the grossest materialism . however foolish it may be. must be excessively embarrassed by the difference in intelligence existing between races.
become idealized also. ob sessed by the external world. existing by themselves and in themselves. and much less ex pressed in any degree whatsoever by the absolutely material. The abyss which separates seul from body. these ideas. wholly independent of him. In a word. the gods. Of all the gross and materialistic (using the word in the sense attached to it by the idealists) imaginations which were engendered by the primitive ignorance and stupidity of men. and recognized themselves as their crea tures. they worshipped them . the most stupid. - indifferent.GOD AND THE STATE 67 this action of innocent or believing intelligence. these concepts. is infinite. should be to the soul null and void. Not having yet the consciousness of his own intelligent action. Consequently all differences. they attributed omni potence to them. created their gods. considering them as real beings infinitely superior to themselves. Having created them. he must naturally consider them as objective beings. that of an immaterial soul im. and ideas necessarily very imperfect at first and conforming but slightly to the reality of the things and facts which they endeavor to express . absolute immateriality from absolute materiality. creates a quan tity of imaginations. As fast as human ideas develop. by the way inexplicable and logically impossible. imprisoned. human-origin. pushed on by that internal goad called life and its mani fold necessities. the absolutely immaterial cannot be constrained. At first gross fetiches. emerging slowly from their animal innocence. and nothing better proves the omnipotence exercised by ancient prejudices even over the best minds than the deplorable sight of men endowed with lofty intelligence still talking of it in our days. ideal. who. their slaves. were never anything more than a fantastic. ignoring their wholly su bjective that is. and neither can nor should exercise any influence over it. poetical reverberation or an in verted image. as I have already stated. not knowing yet that he himsel f has produced and continues to produce these imaginations. . It was thus that primitive peoples. as real beings. not suspecting that they themselves were the real creators.prisoned in a material body is certainly the grossest. in matter. man. equally and absolutely gross. which may exist on the other side of the abyss. concepts.
Every man is en veloped in it from his birth . and another in our doctrinaire materialists-the German Communists. all that he sees. and because its origin is lost in the most remote antiquity. outside the world. re ligion is a collective insanity. He is so exclusively fed upon it. so natural from the physiological point o f view and consequently necessary i n t h e history of humanity. In every development. and at last. that later. the rest follows naturally as a necessary consequence. existing outside o f the visible world. the more powerful because it is traditional folly. As collective insanity it has penetrated to the very depths of the public and private existence of the peoples . on the contrary. The difficult step in the historical development of this terrible re ligious insanity which continues to obsess and crush us was to posit a divine world as such. was not accomplished at a single stroke. it is always the first step. it has become. just or false. We have one proof of this in our modern idealists. once established. collective or individual. That step once taken. This first act o r madness. I know not how many centuries were needed to develop this belief and make it a governing influ ence upon the mental customs of men. creator and master of the worlds. the first act that is the most difficult. and that. in the course of a long historic evolution. But. absolute Spirit. are confounded in a single Divine Being. however powerful his nat ural mind. so poisoned and penetrated by it in all his being. whatever the object of his madness -you will find that obscure and fixed idea which obsesses him seems to him the most natural thing in the world. absorbs it with all that he touches. the collective soul and thought. so to speak. as each insane notion necessarily becomes when it takes possession of man's brain. it became omnipotent. Well. pure. it is incarnate in society . eternal. he sucks it in with his mother's milk. Take a madman. he has to make unheard-of efforts to deliver him self from it. the real things which contradict this idea seem to him ridiculous and odious follies. real or imaginary.68 GOD AND THE STATE they gradually become pure spirits. . and even then never completely succeeds.
in the world of re ligious fancy. often stupid. and more palpable. from the religious materialism of the pagans to the spiritualistic faith of the Christians.GOD AND THE STATE They have found no way to shake off the religion of the State. once well es tablished in the imagination of the peoples. their sole God. more material. more human. undoubtedly the most difficult next to the establishment of a separate divine world. its entire history. Jehovah himself. Thus has the collective and historical insanity which calls itself religion been developed since fetichism. The second step in the development of religious beliefs. they were only a fantastic exaggera tion of them. the God of Moses and the prophets. conforming. We have seen how much this transition cost the Jew ish people. was precisely this transition from polytheism to monotheism. the faithful reproduction and divine consecra tion. The supernatural world. the development of the various religious systems has followed its natural and logical course. passing through all the stages from polytheism to Christian mono theism. rather. al�ays gross and cruel. into the ancient and comparatively much more natura and conveni 1 ent faith in many good gods. to reward and punish his faithful follow ers his chosen people. The pagan gods-and this was their principal characteristic -were first of all exclusively national gods. used material arguments. In vain did Moses and the prophets preach the one god . the people always relapsed into their primitive idolatry. who. was still an extremely na tional God. or. in all things to the contemporary development of economical and political re lations of which it has been in all ages. so to speak. diversity being one of the principal attributes o f the real world. the divine world. Very numer ous. they were so numerous because they were material. moreover. The pagan gods were not yet strictly the negation of real things . It does not even appear that faith . they necessarily retained a more or less material char acter. constituting.
GOD AND THE STATE
in his existence implied a negation of the existence of earlier gods. The Jewish God did not deny the existence of these rivals ; he simply did not want his people to worship them side by side with him, because before all Jehovah was a very jealous God. His first commandment was this : "I am the Lord thy God, and thou shalt have no other gods before me." Jehovah, then, was only a first draft, very material and very rough, of the supreme deity of modern idealism. More over, he was only a national God, like tne Russian God wor shipped by the German generals, subjects of the Czar and patriots of the empire of all the Russias ; like the German God, whom the pietists and the German generals, s\!bjects of William I. at Berlin, will no doubt soon proclaim. The supreme being cannot be a national God ; he must be the God of entire Humanity. Nor can the supreme being be a material being ; he must be the negation of all matter pure spirit. Two things have proved necessary to the real ization of the worship of the supreme being : ( I ) a realiza tion, such as it is, of Humanity by the negation of nation alities and national forms of worship ; (2) a development, already far advanced, of metaphysical ideas in order to spiritualize the gross Jehovah of the Jews. The first condition was fulfilled by the Romans, though in a very negative way no doubt, by the conquest of most of the countries known to the ancients and by the destruc tion of their national institutions. The gods of all the con quered nations, gathered in the Pantheon, mutually can celled each other. This was the first draft of humanity, very gross and quite negative. As for the second condition, the spiritualization of J e hovah, that was realized by the Greeks long before the con quest of their country by the Romans. They were the creators of metaphysics. Greece, in the cradle of her his tory, had already found from the Orient a divine world which had been definitely established in the traditional faith of her peoples ; this world had been left and handed over to
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her by the Orient. In her instinctive period, prior to her political history, she had developed and prodigiously human ized this divine world through her poets ; and when she actually began her history, she already had a religion ready made, the most sympathetic and noble o f all the religions which have existed, so far at least as a religion-that is, a lie--can be noble and sympathetic. Her great thinkers and no nation has had greater than Greece-found the divine world established, not only outside of themselves in the people, but also in themselves as a habit of feeling and thought, and naturally they took it as a point of departure. That they made no theology-that is, that they did not wait in vain to reconcile dawning reason with the absurdities o f such a god, as did the scholastics o f the Middle Ages-was already much in their favor. They left the gods out of their speculations and attached themselves directly to the divine idea, one, invisible, omnipotent, eternal, and abso lutely spiritualistic but impersonal. As concerns Spiritual ism, then, the Greek metaphysicians, much more than the Jews, were the creators of the Christian god . The Jews only added to it the brutal personality of their Jehovah. That a sublime genius like the divine Plato could have been absolutely convinced of the reality of the divine idea shows us how contagious, how omnipotent, is the tradition of the religious mania even on the greatest minds. Be sides, we should not be surprised at it, since, even in our day, the greatest philosophical genius which has existed since Aristotle and Plato, Hegel-in spite even of Kant's criticism, imperfect and too metaphysical �hough it be, which had demolished the objectivity or reality of the divine ideas-tried to replace these divine ideas upon their trans cendental or celestial throne. It is true that Hegel went about his work of restoration in so impolite a manner that he killed the good God for ever. He took away from these ideas their divine halo, by showing to whoever will read him that they were never anything more than a creation of the human mind running through history in search of it-
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To put an end to all religious insanities and the divine he left nothing lacking but the utterance of those grand words which were said after him, almost at the same time, by two great minds who had never heard of each other -Ludwig Feuerbach, the disciple and demolisher of Hegel, in Germany, and Auguste Comte, the founder of positive philosophy, in France. These words were as follows : "Metaphysics are reduced to psychology." All the meta physical systems have been nothing else than human psy chology developing itself in history. To-day it is no longer difficult to understand how the divine ideas were born, how they were created in succession by the abstractive faculty of man. Man made the gods. But in the time of Plato this knowledge was impossible. The collective mind, and consequently the individual mind as well, even that of the greatest genius, was not ripe for that. Scarcely had it said with Socrates : "Know thysel f !" This self-knowledge existed only in a state of intuition ; in fact, it amounted to nothing. Hence it was impossible for the human mind to suspect that it was itself the sole creator of the divine world. It found the divine world before it ; it found it as history, as tradition, as a sentiment, as a habit o f thought ; and it necessarily made it the object of its lof tiest speculations. Thus was born metaphysics, and thus were developed and perfected the divine ideas, the basis of Spiritualism. It is true that after Plato there was a sort o f inverse movement in the development of the mind. Aristotle, the true father of science and positive philosophy, did not deny the divine world, but concerned himself with it as little as possible. He was the first to study, like the analyst and ex perimenter that he was, logic, the laws of human thought, and at the same time the physical world, not in its ideal, illusory essence, but in its real aspect. After him the Greeks of Alexandria established the first school of the positive scientists. They were atheists. But their atheism left no mark on their contemporaries. Science tended more and
This was very brutally done by the Romans who. This was the school of neo-Platonists. infinitely more influential. confounding in an impure mixture the monstrous imaginations of the Orient with the ideas of Plato. of the Chris tian dogmas. could not spring" into existence suddenly. But faith in the existence of such a being. of all countries. and later the elaborators. Another school. A God thus raised above the national differences. which were the first to establish in a philosophical manner the notion o f the divine idea. or. but they had no effect upon the masses. this was done by the Epicureans and Skeptics. the autonomy of the various nations composing the pagan or ancient world had to be destroyed first. No logical and serious metaphysics being able to rise. and the metaphysical ideal speculation of the Greeks. materialized by contact with the Orient.GOD AND THE STATE 73 more to separate itself from life. by conquering the great est part of the globe known to the ancients. must necessarily be an imma terial and abstract being. the not less brutal and gross Roman conquest. These. But the divinity conceived and created by Greek philosophy was an impersonal divinity. were the three historical elements which made up the spiritualistic religion of the Christians. divine ideas were rejected in metaphysics themselves . was formed at Alexandria. . two sects who contributed much to the degradation of human aristocracy. as I have demonstrated in the Appendix. were the true originators. and in a certain sense the direct negation of them. so difficult a matter. material and social. laid the first foundations. After Plato. of hu manity. Consequently. a model eternally creative and always repro duced by the visible world. Thus the personal and gross egoism of Jehovah. it went through a long course of preparation and development at the hands of Greek metaphysics. Before the altar of a unique and supreme God was raised on the ruins of the numerous altars of the pagan gods. quite gross and negative ones no doubt.
spontaneous fact was needed. This fact was not lacking in Christianity : it was the propagandism. In spite of his national. a living. to whom they re:. To impregnate the historical elements. and ferocious exclusivism. had become in fact. N evertheless theology alone does not make a religion. therefore. He was found in the very brutal. He married her. By historical elements I mean the general conditions of any real development whatsoever-for example in this case the conquest of the world by the Romans and the meeting o f the God of the Jews with the ideal o f divinity o f the Greeks. to the idea o f a personal God. selfish. The neo Platonists of Alexandria are known to have been the prin cipal creators of the Christian theology. to descend. it became necessary. In Alexandria this terrible god of the Jews made the per sonal acquaintance of the metaphysical divinity of P1ato. jealous.74 GOD AND THE STATE rather. and from this marriage was born the spirit ualistic-but not spirited-God of the Christians. long before the birth of Christ. martyrdom. and cruel person of Jehovah. the national God o f the Jews. i n spite o f that exclusive national spirit which distinguishes them even to-day. to imagine a God who was one and very personal at once. We know almost nothing o f this great and saintly per- . the most international people of the world. Some of them carried away as cap tives. mained all the more faith ful the more he abandoned them. and death of Jesus Christ. without which they might have remained many centuries longer in the state of unpro ductive elements. he could not long resist the graces of this ideal and impersonal divinity of the Greeks. to cause them to run through a series of new historical transformations.. carrying everywhere the worship of their Jehovah. they had spread through all countries. already much corrupted by Oriental contact. and corrupted her still more by his own. but many more even urged on by that mercantile pas sion which constitutes one of the principal traits of their character. But the Jews. any more than historical elements suffice to create history.
too absurd from the standpoint of human reason. and of the women. a strict and cruel intellectual and political aristocracy. by the representatives of the official morality and public order o f that period. and naturally also the most ignorant classes of the ancient world. as a matter of course. of the slaves. He promised eternal life to all who are oppressed. to all who suffer here below . its incontestable merit. o f the igno rant. Everywhere they were received with open arms by the slaves and the women. For even such few proselytes as they made in the privileged and learned world they were indebted in great part to the influence of women. unfortunate and degraded by slavery. Otherwise it never could have spread. His disciples and the disciples of his disciples succeeded in spreading. most suffer ing. wholly consoling as it may have seemed to the unfortunate. ever to have been accepted by enlightened men . the friend and consoler o f the wretched. This was the first awakening. But it is certain that he was the preacher of the poor. He was hanged. the two most oppressed. denied even the simplest rights o f humanity. and that by these last he was much loved. and so fabulous that we can scarcely seize upon a few real and vital traits. the first intellectual revolt of the pro letariat. Their most exten sive propagandism was directed almost exclusively among the people. was too revolting. According with what j oy the apostle Paul speaks of the scandale de la foi and of the triumph of that divine folie re j ecte d hy the powerful and wise of the . and the number is immense.GOD AND THE STATE 75 sonage. all that the gospels tell us being contradictory. The doctrine taught by the apos tles of Christ. and the whole secret of its unprecedented and yet thor oughly legitimate triumph. thanks to the destruction of the national barriers by the Roman conquest. The great honor of Christianity. lay in the fact that it appealed to that suffering and immense public to which the ancient world. and propagated the Gospel in all the countries known to the ancients.
to secure the acceptance of the Christian absurdity. But it has not the arlded character of voluntary and deliberate negation which distinguishes Christianity . and an al most absolute poverty of thought. and the substance vanishes like a shadow. but all the more passionately accepted by the simple. absolutely void o f all contents. the ignorant. corrupted. that caput mortu. of all human reason. it was *I am well aware that in the theological and metaphysical sys tems of the O rient. That abstraction. of will and of liberty. the triumph of credulous stupidity over the mind for the masses . a very intense thirst of heart. rests in contemplation of his emptiness and absolute immobility.um. far beyond existing' things. the true nothing'.* All this was audacity and absurdity unspeakable. the ideas of space and time. all-powerful being. social. and especially in those of India. The real All is declared nothing. the true scandale de la foi. even beyond the most general determinations of the living being. . having noth ing left to advance beyond. the last and supreme abstraction in which this faculty. the most audacious and mon strous of all religious absurdities. The shadow be comes the substance. and the weak-minded ! Indeed there must have been a very deep-seated dissatis faction with life. and-for a few-the trium phant irony of a mind wearied. had not reached that stage of development wh ich was afterwards seen in the Greek and Roman civilization. the real world. and the absolute nothing the All. inclttding Buddhism. the world of human thought. i s proclaimed the only real.GOD AND THE STATE century. were considered thereafter as nothing . The living being. eternal. when those systems were conceived. and religious institutions of antiquity : it was the absolute overturn of common sense. we find th e principle of the annihilation of the real world in favor of the ideal and of absolute abstraction. whereas the product of man's abstractive faculty. and disgusted in honest and serious search for truth . God. disillusioned. This was not only the negation of all the political.
precisely and mainly. its slavery. spiritualism. because it is absurd. its necessities.GOD AND THE STATE 77 that necessity of shaking off thought and becoming brutally stupid so frequently felt by surfeited minds : Credo quod absurdum. which still slept and therefore could know nothing about logical contradictions and the evidence of the absurd. its suffer ings. In the same way many dis tinguished and enlightened minds in our day believe in ani mal magnetism. as a logical consequence o f this absolute absurdity. eternal. not to its reason. not to its mind . there being in this body itself a portion which. the idea of a personal God. it is known that they were elaborated in a series of theological and literary works and in the Councils. to its eternal aspirations. The Greek mind had fallen so low that. was unanimously accepted by the Church Fathers . it then became natural and necessary to believe in the im materiality and immortality of the human soul. and-why go so far ?-believe still in Christianity. in idealism. existing outside of the world. less haut gout. tipping tables. As for the Christian dogmas. pure. like that of the modern. in the fourth century of the Christian era. when the kingdom of God would come. and must be resurrected with it. the period of the first Council. I believe in it. principally by the converted neo-Platonists of the Orient. absolute mind. creator and supreme master. As for theo logical dogmas. I believe in the absurd . The Christian propagandism appealed to its heart. It was interested solely in knowing when the hour of promised deliverance would strike. The belief of the ancient proletariat. is immortal like the soul. The proletariat con verted to Christianity constituted its growing material but not its intellectual strength. it did not trouble itself about them because it understood nothing about them . lodged and imprisoned in a body only partially mortal. in God. We see how difficult it was. was more robust and simple. to conceive . even for the Church Fathers. while material.
it penetrated and became incarnate in all the institutions. never that dogma itself. it alone taught. But. but they were much less systematic and pedantic than these last. and. It had no competitors. because outside of the Church there were neither thinkers nor educated persons . they affected only the theologi cal or practical developments of the fundamental dogma. debase. it is the character of every meta physical and theological argument to seek to explain one absurdity by another. brigands who had stood every test. less learned. urged on by a great necessity of life and a great capacity for it . So that. it was not difficult to convert them theoretically to Christianity.GOD AND THE STATE pure minds outside of any material form. is it surprising that this belief has lived until . as indifferent to all questions of theology and metaphysics as the ancient slaves. belonged to their race. like their successors. as are the bourgeois of modern Germany. For ten centuries Christianity. and the masses as well. moreover. It alone thought. The latter were worthy people. they were nothing but barbarians-that is. was able to deprave. pure spirit and creator of the world. This double belief became the ideal basis of the whole Occidental and Oriental civil ization of Europe . a great number of whom. armed with the omni potence of Church and State and opposed by no competition. and the belief in the immateriality of the soul remained untouched. above all. the Germans of to-day . It should be added that. it alone spoke and wrote. much less moralistic. in general. in spite of all their great qualities. Though heresies arose in its bosom. full of natural force. all the details of the public and private life of all classes. The belief in God. capable of science and not incapable of liberty. and on the other hand much more independent and proud. It had another piece of good luck in the invasion of the Barbarians. After that. It was very fortunate for Christianity that it met a world of slaves. their practical repugnance once overcome. capable of devastating and gobbling up anything. and falsi fy the mind of Europe.
The human mind. and Galileo. such as those of Mazzini. of the Catho lic or Protestant priests. tried to become its high priest. Rousseau and Robe spierre. the other the most doctrinally despotic will. Al though drowned in the noise. ]. one the falsest mind. in the latter half of the eighteenth century. He may be considered as the real creator o f modem reaction. Having heard the saying of Voltaire that. tumult. Not at all. all confidence in whom had been l ost. Giordano Bruno. Quinet. it made use o f lay priests. To all appearance the most democratic writer o f the eighteenth century. he bred within himself the pitiless despotism of the statesman. The first is the perfect type of narrowness and suspi cious meanness. boldly waving the flag o f atheism and materialism. Michelet. among whom the principal rOles devolved upon two fatal men. which produced heroes and martyrs like Vanini. then. one might have supposed. and so many others ? We have seen that the first attack upon it came from the renaissance of the free mind in the fifteenth century. of exaltation without other obj ect than his own person. if God did not exist. was at last about to deliver itself from all the divine obsessions. continuing to exercise its disastrous in fluence even upon select minds. of the ravens consecrated by the Church. o f the falsehood of modem ideal ism. The divine falsehood upon which humanity had been feeding for eighteen centuries ( speaking of Christian ity only) was once more to show itself more powerful than human truth. his worthy and faithful dis ciple. and passions of the Reformation. short-robed liars and sophists. No longer able to make use of the black tribe.GOD AND THE STATE 79 the present day. as Robespierre. until at last. it noiselessly continued its invisible work. it again reappeared in broad day. it would be . of the last century-J. be queathing to the noblest minds of each generation its task o f human emancipation by the destruction of the absurd. He was the prophet of the doc trinaire State. o f cold enthusiasm and hypocrisy at once senti mental and implacable.
J. Lamartine. For the rest. It was the literature of the tender. of the kings against the peoples. in Germany. After this great triumph. as I have just said. And it was in the name o f the Supreme Being.80 GOD AND THE STATE necessary to invent him. took the side o f the Church against the insolence of the freethinkers. In France. Danton. established the modem romantic school . that Robespierre guillotined first the Hebertists and then the very genius of the Revolution. the Tiecks. under the leadership of these masters. and living on earth as if in spite of themselves. nearer to the diminished stature of the actual bourgeoisie. the Werners. and of all the aristocrats against the vile rabble of the streets. less terrible. It could not stand the sunlight . and o f the hypo critical virtue commanded by this Supreme Being. the republican. the idealistic reaction sought and found servants less fanatical. but when perchance it referred to them. It had a horror and contempt for the politics and questions of the day . The literature created by this school was the very reign of ghosts and phantoms. delicate. the abstract and sterile God of the deists. the quasi-socialist of to day ! and after them the whole melancholy and sentimental company of poor and pallid minds who. Amid the clouds in which it lived could be distinguished two real points the rapid development of bourgeois materialism and the un governable outburst of individual vanities. the democrat. the Schlegels. the twilight alone permitted it to live. thus preparing the way for the thenceforth necessary triumph of the dictatorship of Bona parte 1. Chateaubriand. aspiring to heaven. the dominant feature of the school of romanticism was a quasi-complete indifference to politics. and s o many others besides. whose names do not even deserve to be recalled. it showed itself frankly reactionary. the Novalis. the Schellings. J. Rousseau invented the Su preme Being. distinguished souls. . in whose person he as sassinated the Republic. No more could it stand the brutal contact o f the masses. and-shall I say it ? Why not ? All must be said if it is truth-Victor Hugo him self.
Those are its titles to glory . and the apostles of human emancipa tion. in France. they are im mortal ! Soon it split. although always Voltairean. at least in Italy. From its bosom sprang most of the freethinkers of the fifteenth century. but on the major portion of the peasants of France.GOD AND THE STATE 8I To understand this romantic literature. the religious reformers of the two following centuries. in England. this portion of the bourgeoisie then began to see that it was n eedful to the maintenance of their situation and the preservation of their newly-acquired estates to appease the unsatisfied hunger of the people by promises of heavenly manna. the re-establishment of public order. and the foundation of a strong and regular government. of th e past cen tury. in Switzerland. the reason for its existence must be sought in the transformation which had been effected in the bosom of the bourgeois class since the revolution o f 1793 . well known and thoroughly authentic-which sheds . was the hero and representative of the revolutionary genius of history. these also hav ing become landed proprietors. the fraternity of the peoples. by the way. i f not in Germany. Then it was that Chateaubriand began to preach. and. in Holland. the rights of man and of the citizen. A considerable portion of the purchasers of national property having become rich. From the Renaissance and the Reformation down to the Revolution. naturally supported by the powerful arm of the people. made the revolution of I 789 and '93 . did not view with displeasure the Concordat with the Pope and the re-estab lishment of the official Church in France : "Religion is so necessary to the people !" Which means that. It there fore welcomed with j oy the dictatorship of the first Bona parte. It proclaimed the downfall of royalty and of the Church. who had faith in it. had no aspiration left but for peace. including this time those of Germany. It alone. the bourgeoisie. satiated them selves. and supporting themselves no longer on the proletariat of the cities.* *It seems to me useful to recall at this point an anecdote-one.
. Chat eaubriand submitted to a publisher a work attacking faith. Courier expressed this new tendency perfectly. Voltaire.GOD AND THE STATE Napoleon fell and the Restoration brought back into France the legitimate monarchy. that the reading public cared no more for it. a very clear light on the personal value of this warmer-over of the Catholic beliefs and on the religious sincerity of that period. at once a freethinker and a deist. The publisher called his attention to the fact that atheism had gone out o f fashion. and with the revolutionary spirit that of skep ticism also was re-awakened in it. but it did not go so far as Diderot : its debilitated nerves could not stand nour ishment so strong. and that the demand. a type which never fails to appear immediately the parvenu acquires a little wealth and power. The bour geoisie did not hear them. Lamartine. It set Chateaubriand aside and began to read Voltaire again . at least a considerable portion of their former in fluence. This reaction threw the bourgeoisie back into the Revolution. suited it very well. and with it the power o f the Church and o f the nobles. to be sure. at once liberal and democratic. on the contrary. We know that every bourgeois in France carries within him the imperishable type of the bourgeois gentleman. but a few months later came back with his Genius of Christianity. was for religious works. Beranger and P. Chateau briand withdrew. sketched against the majestic and thenceforth inoffensive background of the Em pire's gigantic victories-such was at that period the daily in tellectual food of the bourgeoisie of France. i f not the whole. The revolution of July resulted in lifting its tastes. But his songs resounded only in aristocratic salons. excited by a vain and ridiculously envious desire to rise to the poetic height of the great Byron. who regained. had begun his coldly delirious hymns in honor of the God o f the nobles and o f the legitimate monarchy. on the contrary. Beranger was its poet and Cour ier was its political writer. L. The "God of the good people" and the ideal of the bourgeois king. In 1 830 the wealthy bourgeoisie had definitely replaced the old nobility in the seats of power.
An aris tocracy of capital first of all. Further. It was necessary to remand it to its place. first o f all. began to become incon venient. must also be induced to morally recognize its right. But man is so singuarly constituted that this argu ment. The pro letariat had rendered it a final service in once more aiding it to overthrow the nobility. of good manners and delicate sentiments. The first. after having been reduced by the power of the State. thenceforth useless. the triumphant argument of the needle-gun. It became necessary to re strain this indignation . It was also a necessity of its position . Now. where find it if not in religion. and political opposition. This was not on its part simply an aping of aristocratic customs. and for it. th� . wholly eloquent as it may appear. is not sufficient in the long run.GOD AND THE STATE It naturally tended to establish a new aristocracy. is the right of force. It began to feel religious. thenceforth the regular institution of the exclusive power of that class. but also an aristocracy of in tellect. which naturally could not be done without provoking great in dignation among the masses. In the name of what ? In the name of the bourgeois interest bluntly confessed ? That would have been much too cynical. in protest and in revolu tion. The State is force. The bourgeoisie now had no further need of its co-operation. There are only two ways of convincing the masses of the goodness of any social institution whatever. who. The more unjust and inhuman an interest is. this sanction must be at once so simple and so plain that it may convince the masses. of the chasse pot. philo sophical. Some moral sanction or other is absolutely necessary to enforce his respect. for it felt itself firmly seated in the shadow of the throne of July. the greater need it has of sanction. that good protectress of all the well-fed and the useful consoler of the hungry ? And more than ever the triumphant burgeoisie saw that religion was indispensable to the people. and the alliance with the people. it at last became the dominant class and thereby even the defender and preserver of the State. After having won all its titles to glory in religious.
the abolition of the organized political exploitation of the ma jority by any minority whatsoever-would be the direct and complete satisfaction of the needs and aspirations of the people. The bour geoisie could not abruptly go back under the yoke of Roman Catholicism. hannful only to the peo ple. however practical and wise one becomes. having become the governing class of the State by its triumph of 1830. hence it is useless to talk about them. precious in its salvation of bourgeois privileges. The only way. moreover. the governing class contents itself with dividing among all its members-very unequally. the presi dent of the great republic. Take the freest States in the world-the United States of America or the Swiss Confederation. be sure that he is getting ready to shear once more his people-flock. There is not. Moreover. be he Wil liam 1. much more reserved. there cannot be. but detrimental to bourgeois in terests . but also the most difficult to adopt-because it implies the abolition of the State.GOD AND THE STATE only real one. or Grant. driven by temperament to a positivism ( not to say a materialism) singularly narrow and brutal. in other words. But whenever a chief of State speaks of God. again. which would be equivalent to the complete liquida tion of the political and economical existence of the bour geois class. a State without religion. That is the eternal mirage which leads away the masses in a search for divine treasures. on the contrary. is no other than religion. including their political and social liberty. while. and. or. Between it and the Church of Rome was an abyss of blood and hatred. to the abolition of the State. had to give itself an official religion. the Knouto-Gennanic emperor. It was not an easy thing. or. for instance-and see what an important part is played in all official discourses by divine Providence. and always giving most to him who possesses most-the miserable goods of earth and the plunder taken from the people. it is never possible to repress a passion de veloped by history. The French liberal and Voltairean bourgeoisie.. that supreme sanction of all States. Bene ficial means for the masses. the French bourgeoisie .
a return to Catholicism was impossible on account of the insolvable contradiction which separates the invari able politics of Rome from the development of the economi cal and political interests of the middle class. the French bourgeois could not go over to Protestantism with out putting himself in conflict with the Catholic routine of the majority of the French people. But that would have led too far. Several attempted it. it is true. To pass from one religion to another-unless it be done deliberately. by the whole bourgeois class. there is no room for faith. Now. He professes the most profound indiffer ence for all questions which touch neither his pocket first nor his social vanity afterwards. There was still one way left-to return to the h umani tarian and revolutionary religion of the eighteenth century. without too much ridicule and scandal. So the bourgeoisie was obliged. It accords just as much liberty as is necessary to the bourgeois. . On the other hand. Finally.GOD AND THE STATE 85 would have covered itself with ridicule if it had gone back to the Church to take part in the pious ceremonies of its worship. It is the bourgeois religion par excellence. to create a new religion which might be boldly proclaimed. as sometimes in the case of the Jews of Russia and Poland. But it was impossible for the French bourgeoisie to become Protestant. In this respect Protestantism is much more advantageous. He is as indifferent to Protestantism as to Catholicism. in the exclusive positive heart of the French bourgeois. and finds a way of reconciling celestial aspirations with the respect which terrestrial conditions demand. an essential condition of a meretorious and sincere conversion. who get baptised three or four times in order to receive each time the remuneration allowed them-to seriously change one's religion. Consequently it is especially in Protestant countries that commerce and indus try have been developed. a little faith is necessary. which would have been great imprudence on the part of a class pretending to gov ern the nation. but their heroism was rewarded by no other result than a fruitless scandal. in order to sanction its new State.
condemned several g-en erations one after the other to a cerebral indigestion. for the use of the studious youth of France. and naturally to the advantage of the latter. . incapable of any original concep tion. to use the language of the school. . the existence of a personal God. which he confounded with common sense.86 GOD AND THE STATE Thus was born doctrinaire Deism. of natural science. the use of which. and moral education of the bour geois youth of France. a metaphysical dish of his own making.. . the taking away of popular liberty for the benefit of bourgeois rule. Villemain. or. in phil osophy. A superfi cial and pedantic talker. of any idea peculiar to himself. as con temptuons as it is complete. a mixture of Fathers of the Church. Descartes and Pascal . and proving. its real founder was Royer-Collard . Others have told. the father of French eclecticism. this il lustrious philosopher learnedly prepared. We have only to deal here with the latter. o f the principle o f liberty with that of author ity. by an ignorance. . but very strong on com monplace. made compulsory in all schools of the State under the University. scholastic phil osophers. We know that this philosophy was specially elaborated by M. the deliberate submission of free reason to the eter nal principles of faith. Kant and Scotch psycholo gists. Cousin. and many others. It dates from Benjamin Constant and Madame de Stael . Guizot. just as two times two make five. . which had so decisive and-we may well add-so fatal an influence on the political. a�companied. " . . intellectual. all this a superstructure on the divine and innate ideas of Plato and covered up with a layer of Hegelian imma nence. the story of the birth and development of this school. Its boldly avowed object was the reconciliation of Revolu tion with Reaction. its apostles. repre sented by the monarchical and constitutional State . This reconciliation signified : in politics. of course. Cousin. Im agine a philosophical vinegar sauce of the most opposed sys tems. much better than I could tell it.
15 FLEURY. 82 COUSIN. 47 DUVERNOIS. 18n. FRAN!. French journalist. JOHANN GOTTLIEB (1762-1814). PIERRE JEAN DE (1780-1857 ). 52 CON STANT. 82 DUMAS. 1835-1848). GIORDANO ( 1548-1600). 80 . VICOMTE DE (17681848). 47 CHARLEMAGNE (768-814). Pope (1073-1085). 52 GUIZOT. French journalist. French cardinal and statesman. Emperor of Austria (r. 47 GREGORY VII. C. 44 GIRARDIN. BRUNO. NICHOLAS ( 14731543). 11 ARISTOTLE (384-322 B. 44 BLANC. 86 CONSTANTINE I . ACHILLE FRAN!. DENIS ( 17 13-1784). 80 DESCARTES. PAUL LOUIS ( 17721825).52 DANTON.OIS ( 1811-1888).INDEX O F PERSONS ALEXANDER I I. 47 BISMARCK. 47 FERDINAND I . 47 EUGENIE (1826-1920). CLEMENT (18361879). Tsar of Russia (r.). GEORGE GORDON. 52 COPERNICUS. French politician. 7 1 BAZAINE. JULES ( 1809-1880). French poet. 47. GIUSEPPE (18071882). LORD ( 1788-1824). AUGUSTE ( 1798-1857). Russian marshal and governor of Poland. 86 DANTE. 52. 46 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642). RENE ( 1596-1650). 52 CHAtEAU BRIAND. EMILE DE (18061881). LUDWIG (1804-1872). 72 CONFUCIUS (55 1-479 B. French marshal. C.OIS ( 1787-1874). ALEXANDRE ( 1802-1870). 1855-1881). 55.). 72 FICHTE. OTTO VON ( 18151898). BERNARD ADOLPHE GRANIER DE (1806-1880). ( 17931874). FRAN!. 306-337). 82 CASSAGNAC. 80-82 COMTE. 20. LOUIS (1811-1882). French pamphleteer. French statesman. 86 HEBERT. 15. BENJAMIN ( 17671830). 46 BERANGER. 20 COURIER. 82 BERG. 86 DIDEROT. ANDRE HERCULE DE (1653-1743). VICTOR (1792-1867). COUNT FYODOR F. 37n..OIS RENE. GEORGES JACQUES ( 1759-1794). 11 FEUERBACH. 79 GARIBALDI. ALIGHIERI ( 1265-1321). 46 FAVRE. ROMAN EMPEROR (r. 79 BYRON. Empress of the French (1853-1870). JACQUES RENE ( 17571794).
52. 86 HERACLITUS (535--475 B. 19 MANTEUFFEL. 52. 52. EDWIN. 80. 46 NOVALIS. 1852-1870). Prussian field marshal. IMMANUEL ( 1724-1804). French historian. 44. 18. Russian minister and governor of Lithuania. VICTOR (1802-1885). BLAISE (1623-1662). Emperor of the French (r. 80 JESUS CHRIST. MARTIN (1483-1546). 46 PLATO (427-347 B. 71-73. 80 PASCAL. JOSEPH DE (17541821). 26. 46 ROUSSEAU. 71. ( 1796-1866).88 INDEX OF PERSONS HEGEL. 47 PIETRI. pseudo of Georg Friedrich Philipp von Hardenberg ( 1772-1801). JOHN STUART (1806-1873). 59 MAHOMET (570-632). JULES (1798-1874). French politician and journalist. 26.) . 18-19. NICCOLO ( 14691527). 86 PELLETAN. 52 MAISTRE. MAXIMILIEN ( 1758-1794). 1804-1814). 80-82 NAPOLEON I I I . N. 44 MAZZINI. EDGAR (1803-1875). 86 . PIERRE PAUL (1763-1845). 40n. 44 MOSES. 79 ROBESPIERRE. 79 MILL. 86 PROUDHON. 37-38. 15. 82 LEIBNIZ. 15. PIERRE MARIE ( 18091864). 52. 47 LUTHER. 62. 79-80 ROYER-COLLARD. Emperor of the French (r. 74 KANT. BARON VON (1646-1716). EUGhNE (1814-1884). 15 LEVERRIER. GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH ( 1770-1831). PIERRE JOSEPH 1809-1865).. GIUSEPPE (1805-1872). HELMUTH VON (1800189 1). 47 NAPOLEON I. 15 HUGo. French politician. 11. 79-80 ROUHER. CHARLES CAMILLE ( 1846-19 15). 18. Prussian field marshal. French statesman and philosopher. 69 MOURAVIEFF (MURAVIEV). FREIHERR VON (1809-1885). 34-35. 52 MACHIAVELLI. COUNT M. C.). URBAIN J EAN JOSEPH ( 1811-1877). ALPHONSE MARIE LOUIS DE ( 1790-1869). 9 QUINET. 52. 15. French politician. 27. 18 MOLTKE. 79 MICHELET. GOTTFRIED WILHELM. 86 LAMARTINE. J EAN JACQUES (1712-1778). 52 LYCURGUS. 71-72. German poet. 26. French astronomer. 38. C.
LUCILIO (1 585-1 619). 84 . French statesman and philosopher. BARUCH (1 632-1 677) . 52 SCHELLING. WERDER. 52 SAINT NICHOLAS. 52. FRIEDRICH LUDWIG ZACHARIAS (1 768-1 823). French minister and critic. German writer. 75 SAINT PETER. 52 SPINOZA.). JEAN BAPTISTE (d. 81-82. German poet and dramatist. FRIEDRICH VON SIMON. 47. 52. 86 VOLTAIRE. RICHARD (1813-1883). C. 79. 52 SAINT PAUL. 72 SOLON (639-559 B . 1 861-1888).INDEX OF PERSONS 89 SAINT JOHN. 80 (1 772-1829). SCHLEGEL. Italian philosopher and martyr. JULES (1814-1896). 26 86 THIERS. ABEL FRAN�OIS (1 790-1 870) . 52. 47 SOCRATES (469-399 B. 80 VANINI. 80 WILLIAM I. 28. French journalist. 1 7. KARL VON (1 808-1 887 ) . LUDWIG (1 773-1 853). Prussian general. 27. 84 WAGNER. 47 VILLEMAIN. ADOLPHE (1 797-1 877) . FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH VON (1 775-1 854) . 1 1 . 55 15. Emperor of Germany (r. 80 TROPPMAN. 47 TIECK. MADAME DE (1766-1 81 7). FRAN�OIS M ARIE AROUET DE (1 694-1 778) . STAEL. 79 VEUILLOT. 45 WERNER.). 1 1 70. C. 1 5 . 1870) . LOUIS (1 813-1883). French assassin. 44.