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Zeros between other digits are significant. Eg. 52.004 has 5 sd and 40.001 has 5 sd; 0.9005 has 4 sd 3.For numbers having a value greater than one, all zeros (written down) to the right of a decimal point are significant. The degree of accuracy is indicated by these zeros. They should not be appended (written down) unless they are significant. Eg. 3.6 has 2 sd, 3.60 has 3 sd, 3.600 has 4 sd, 3.00600 has 6 sd 4.For numbers having a value less than one, all zeros to the right of the decimal point but preceding a non-zero digit are not significant. All zeros (written down) to the right of the last non-zero digit are significant. Eg. 0.0056 has 2 sd, 0.0307 has 3 sd, 0.0020 has 2 sd, 0.00030700 has 5 sd 5.All zeros between the decimal point (if written down) and the first non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point are significant. Eg. 67000 has 5 sd, 7020000 has 7 sd 6.If the decimal point is not written, the zeros to the right of the last non-zero digit are not significant unless otherwise stated. Eg. 67000 has 2sd, 100 has 1 sd, 600 (2 sd) has 2sd, 600 (3sd) has 3 sd
7.In scientific notation, the quantity is written in the form M x 10n where 1 ≤ M <10
and n is a positive or negative integer. The number of significant digits is expressed by the value of M. Eg. 4.4 x 105 has 2 sd, 5 x 102 has 1 sd, 5.0 x 102 has 2 sd 8.Numbers that are exact counts (counted quantities) are considered to be free of error (perfectly precise), as are defined fractions. Scientific digits do not apply to them. Eg. 122 marbles, 115 people= these numbers have an inifinte number of significant digits (%=0.500 has an infinite number of sd)
9.When measurements are added or subtracted, the result is expressed with the same precision as the least precise measurement (the measurement with the least number of digits to the right of the decimal point). Eg. 28.7cm + 75cm= 104cm NOT 103.7cm 21.92 + 42.3= 64.22 should be 64.2 since 42.3 has one decimal place
10.When measurements are multiplied or divided, the result is expressed with the same number of significant digits as the measurement with the fewest significant. Eg. 198 x 89= 17622 18000 42.3 x 21.92- 927 (not 927.216 since 42.3 has only 3 sd) Rounding of Significant Digits a)When the first digit discarded is less than 5, the last digit retained should not be changed. Eg. 3.141326 rounded to 4 digits is 3.141 b)When the first digit discarded is greater than 5, or if it is a 5 followed by at least one digit other than zero, the last figure retained should be increased by one unit. Eg. 2.21372 rounded to 4 digits= 2.214 4.168501 rounded to 4 digits is 4.169
c)When the first digit discarded is 5, followed only by zeros, the last digit retained should be increased by one if it is odd, but no change made if it is even. Eg. 2.35 rounded to 2 digits is 2.4 -6.35 rounded to 2 digits is -6.4 2.45 rounded to 2 digits is 2.4
d)Numbers that are exact counts are considered to be perfectly precise, as are defined fractions. They do not influence decisions regarding rounding.
Unit 1: Motion From everyday experience, we recognize that motion represents the continuous change in the position of an object. Scientists call the study of motion kinematics. Uniform motion: movement of an object at a constant speed in a straight line Non-uniform motion: movement of an object that involves change in speed or direction or both Uniform motion examples: a particle moving in one dimension or walking in a straight line Non-uniform examples: a car making a turn as it is in motion or a roller coaster A scalar quantity has only magnitude and no direction. A scalar is a quantity that is completely specified by a number with appropriate units. Eg. Distance (m), time (s), speed (m/s), # of apples, and mass (kg) As seen from the specific examples, each scalar quantity consists of units. These units tell us specific information of an object being studied but lack direction. A base unit is a unit from which other units are derived or made up. There are seven base units, and in this course, we will concern ourselves with the following five. QUANTITY Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature SYMBOL l m t I T UNIT NAME metre kilogram second Ampere Kelvin ABBREVIATION m kg S A K
A derived unit is a unit that can be stated in terms of the base unit. Eg. Energy is measured in Joules (J). 4.8 joules in calorie J= kg x m2/ s2 Force is measured in Newtons (N). N= kg x m/s2
Average Speed represents the total distance travelled divided by the total time of
travel. Vav= d/t Instantaneous Speed represents a speed at a specific moment in time. Measure Time Accurate measurements of time can be obtained using stop watches, stroboscopes, and ticker tape timers. For example, ticker tape timers represent the number of cycles per second. This type of measurement is known as frequency (f) which is given the derived unit Hertz (Hz). A typical ticker tape timer in Canada will produce 60 dots per second. This means the ticker tape gives off a frequency of 60 Hz or 60 cycles/ second. The period (T) of this ticker tape is the reciprocal of the frequency. This represents the time intervals between dots. T= 1/f Uniform Motion Uniform motion is the movement of an object at constant speed in a straight line. However, when studying motion, direction must be considered. A vector quantity is one that has both magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors: i)Position describes the distance and direction of an object from a reference point. A vector quantity is indicated by a symbol with an arrow above it and the direction is stated in square brackets after the unit(s). ii)Displacement represents the change in position of an object in a given direction. ∆ d → Average Velocity Average velocity is also a vector quantity which represents the rate of change of an object’s position from its origin. Vav → = ∆ d → ∆ t → / = df → di → OR d 2 → d →
Note: Speed is a scalar quantity (no direction). Position-Time Graph
= slope =
∆ d → ∆t /
Velocity-Time Graph: The slope of the line represents acceleration which is zero. The area under the graph represents displacement. Relative Motion: The velocity of a body relative to a particular frame of reference is called relative velocity. Generally, Earth will be the frame of references but it does not have to be. Uniform Acceleration The rate at which an object’s velocity increases or decreases is called its acceleration. Uniform Acceleration occurs when an object changes its velocity (speed and direction) uniformly over time. In uniform acceleration, the instantaneous acceleration and average acceleration will be the same. → Aav = ∆ v → ∆ t → /
Velocity-Time graphs for Non-Uniform Acceleration: The velocity does not change → consistently with time. We can find a instantly using a tangent line at a specified time. Solving Uniform Acceleration Problems 1. State the given facts and equations. 2. Substitute for the variable to be eliminated. 3. Simplify the equation to a convenient form. Refer to pg. 44 Table Forces in Nature A force is something that pushes or pulls on an object. There are four fundamental forces in nature: 1) Gravitational Force which is an attraction between objects because of their masses (Relative strength 1). 2) Electromagnetic Force is between charges at rest or in motion (Relative strength 1036). 3) Strong Nuclear Force occurs between sub-atomic particles. It holds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom (Relative strength 1038).
4) Weak Nuclear Force is responsible for the interactions between other elementary particles. This force causes neutrons to become protons and radiation is released (Relative strength 1025). Forces We Experience Daily 1) Force of Gravity which pulls objects vertically downwards. 2) Normal Force which is perpendicular to the surfaces of the objects in contact. 3) Friction which is in the opposite direction of an object’s motion (drag). 4) Tension is a force exerted by ropes or cables (pulling). Measuring Forces We will use spring scales to measure forces. As seen earlier, the unit of force is Newton (N). F=ma Force= mass x acceleration
N= kg x m/ s2 Drawing Force Diagrams Free-body Diagrams (FBD) show only the object being analyzed with arrows showing all of the forces acting on the object. Each force vector is labelled with the symbol F → and subscript. The positive direction is chosen for convenience.
= force of gravity
F → = normal force N
= applied force
F → = friction F
Newton`s First Law of Motion The Law of Inertia Inertia: The property of matter that relates to the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in uniform motion. Inertia causes a body to resist changes to its motion. For example, the greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia. Net Force: Since forces are vectors, they can be added and subtracted to obtain a
→ resultant force. We will refer to the resultant force as the net force ( F net). The First Law of Motion: If the net force acting on an object is zero, the object will maintain its state of rest or constant velocity. What it means to us: 1) Objects at rest stay at rest. 2) Objects in motion remain in motion. 3) If v → is constant, then the net external force is zero.
→ 4) If v is changing (in magnitude or direction), the external forces are unbalanced ( Fnet → ≠ 0). Newton’s Second Law of Motion If the net external force on an object is not zero, the object accelerates in the direction of the net force. The magnitude of the acceleration is proportional to the magnitude of the net force and is inversely proportional to the object’s mass. To derive an equation for the second law of motion When mass (m) is kept constant, this tells us that as force increases, so does acceleration. When net force is kept constant, this tells us that as mass increases (or decreases), acceleration decreases (or increases). The acceleration is proportional to force over mass. If the units are in N, m, kg, s, then k=1. → →
Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every action force, there is a reaction force equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction. F →
→ = - F reaction
This law is equivalent to stating that forces always occur in pairs, or that a single isolated force cannot exist. The force that body 1 exerts on body 2 is sometimes called the action force, while the force of body 2 on body 1 is called the reaction force. Either force can be labelled the action or reaction force.
Gravitational Force on Earth’s Surface A force field is a space around an object in which the object will exert a force on a second object. The gravitational force between two masses can be considered as a force field. That is, the two masses interact even though they are not in contact with each other. An alternative approach in describing the gravitational interaction is to introduce the concept of a gravitational field strength, g, at every point in space. The gravitational field strength represents the amount of force per unit of mass on objects within the gravitational field. It is a vector quantity with direction towards the centre of the earth (or other large body) and is measured in N/kg (acceleration). → F → (force from gravity) = m g (gravitational field strength/ acceleration) g Mass and Weight Mass is a measure of the quantity of matter in an object. Weight takes into account the force field, so it is a measure of the force of gravity on an object. Weight is measured in N, and mass is kg. Since an object’s weight depends on field strength, we weigh less in space even though our mass remains constant. Universal Gravitation Law of Universal Gravitation states that the force of gravitational attraction between any two objects is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the objects, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres.
F → = the force of gravitational attraction between any two objects (N) g M1 = mass of object 1 (in kg) M2= mass of object 2 d= distance between centres of two objects (in metres) G= universal gravitational constant= 6.67 x 10-11 N x m2/ kg2
Forces of Friction When a body is in motion on a rough surface, or through a viscous medium such as air or water, there is resistance to motion because of the interaction of the body with its surroundings. Friction resists motion and acts in a direction opposite to the direction of motion. Static Friction represents the force that tends to prevent stationary object from starting to move.
→ → µs= F s / F N
→ = µs x F N
= µs x mg µs (Greek letter “Mu”) represents the coefficient of static friction and has no units. Kinetic Friction represents the force acting on an object in the opposite direction of motion of the object. → → µK = F K / F N or F → = µ x F → K K N = µK x mg µK represents the coefficient of kinetic friction. There are several types of kinetic friction: 1. Sliding Friction- sled 2. Rolling Friction – wheels 3. Fluid Friction- boats or planes
Unit 2: Energy, Work, Power Energy and Energy Transformations Energy represents the capacity to do work. Forms of Energy: 1. Thermal Energy 2. Electrical Energy 3. Radiant Energy 4. Nuclear Potential Energy 5. Gravitational Potential Energy 6. Kinetic Energy 7. Elastic Potential Energy 8. Sound Energy 9. Chemical Potential Energy Energy Transformation The energies listed above may change from one form into another. For example, roasting a turkey in the oven. Electrical energy Thermal Energy Radiant Energy Thermal Energy Work Work is the energy transferred to an object by an applied force over a measured distance (lifting a dumbbell). W= F ∆ d Units of Energy and Work Work is measured in N x m or Joules (J). It is a scalar quantity. Positive, Negative or Zero Work If force and displacement are in the same direction, work done is positive. If force and
displacement are in opposite directions, work done is negative. If force and displacement are perpendicular, zero work is done. Mechanical Energy The total mechanical energy of a system is defined as the sum of the kinetic energy (EK) and potential energy (EP): ET = EK + EP (or EG) The stored energy of an object, a certain distance from the ground, has the potential to do work when it is released and is called potential energy; it is an energy associated with forces of attraction, or repulsion between objects. Gravitational Potential Energy (EP) represents the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to a lower position. W= F ∆ h W= mg ∆ h or EP = mgh (h=height)
Where h is relative to a reference level such that hi = 0 Kinetic Energy (EK) represents the energy of a moving object. The kinetic energy of an → object is related to its mass (m) and velocity ( v ). EK = ½ m ET = ½ m v 2 → v 2 → +m g → h
Law of Conservation of Energy and Efficiency Law of Conservation of Energy: When energy changes from one form to another, no energy is lost (Energy cannot be created or destroyed). Efficiency The efficiency of a system is a ratio of the useful energy you get out of a device compared to the amount of energy you put in. It is usually expressed as a %. Efficiency = energy output/ energy input x 100% Power Power (P) is the rate at which work is done. It is determined by dividing the work done by the time required. If the work is in joules and the time in seconds, the power will be in Watts (W).
P= W/ ∆ t = ∆ E/ ∆ T Watt (W) = J/s The unit of power is the Watt (symbol W). Don’t confuse the W for Watt with Work. Horsepower: The amount of energy a good horse can transfer continuously for a working day (750 W = 1 hp). Energy Resources Energy Resources are raw materials that can be used to do work. Non-Renewable Energy Resources are not renewed during a normal human lifespan. 1.Fossil Fuels (crude oil, natural gas, and coal; require millions of years to replenish) 2.Nuclear Fission (large nucleus splits releasing large amounts of energy <uranium>) Renewable Energy Resources are renewed during a normal human lifespan (75 years). 1.Solar (radiant energy from the Sun) Passive Solar Heating refers to designing and building a structure to take advantage of the Sun’s energy year round. Active Solar Heating is absorbing the Sun’s energy and converting it into other forms of energy. 2.Hydraulic (harnessing the potential energy of water) 3.Wind (harnessing the kinetic energy of wind) 4.Tidal (occurs because of gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun on Earth; Canada’s Bay of Fundy has among the highest tides in the world) 5.Biomass (chemical potential energy stored in plant and animal waste) 6.Geothermal (thermal energy or heat taken from beneath Earth’s surface; results from radioactive decay) 7.Nuclear Fusion (small nuclei fuse together at extremely high temperatures to become larger nuclei; some mass is lost, changing into large amounts of energy; energy source of all stars)
Thermal Energy and Heat Thermal Energy: the total kinetic energy and potential energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance Heat: the transfer of energy from a warmer body to a cooler one Temperature: a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance Methods of Heat Transfer: 1.Conduction: heat is transferred through a material by the collision of atoms 2.Convection: heat is transferred by a circulating path of fluid particles 3.Radiation: energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves Different substances require different amounts of energy to increase the temperature of a given mass of that substance (different capacities to hold heat) Specific Heat Capacity ( c ): a measure of the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 kg f a substance by 1.0°C Q= mc ∆ T Q= heat gained or lost by a body; m= mass; c= specific heat capacity; ∆ T; change in temperature Principle of Heat Exchange: when heat is transferred from one body to another, the amount of heat lost by the hot body equals the amount of heat gained by the cold body. Qlost + Qgained = 0 Or m1c1 ∆ T1 + m2c2 ∆ T2 = 0 Qgained = -Qlost
Unit 3: Waves and Sound Vibrations A wave is an energy transport phenomenon, which transports energy along a medium without transporting matter. Sound waves, visible light waves, radio waves, microwaves, water waves, sine waves, cosine waves, telephone cord waves, earthquake waves, waves on a string, and slinky waves are just a few of the examples of our daily encounters with waves. Period refers to the time which it takes to do something. When an event occurs repeatedly, then we say that the event is periodic and refer to the time for the event to repeat itself as the period. The period of a wave is the time for a particle on a medium to make one complete vibrational cycle. The frequency of wave (f) refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium. f= number of cycles/ total time= 1/period= 1/T (Hz) The period of a wave (T) is the time for a particle on a medium to make one complete vibrational cycle. T= total time/ number of cycles = 1/frequency =1/f (s) A cycle is one complete vibration or oscillation. The amount of energy carried by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave. A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude. The amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in which it transports. Two waves are said to be in phase if they have the same period and pass through the rest position at the same time. Two waves are said to be out of phase if they do not have the same period or do not pass through the rest position at the same time. There are three basic types of vibrations. 1.A transverse wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave moves. 2.A longitudinal wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction which the wave moves.
3.A torsional (twisting) vibration is a wave in which particles of the medium undergo a circular motion around an axis. A medium is a substance or material which carries the wave. In a longitudinal wave, the particles vibrate parallel to the direction of motion of the wave, and not at right angles to it. A sound wave is a good example of a longitudinal wave. A compression is a region where the particles are closer together than normal whereas if the particles are further apart from each other is known as a rarefaction. The Universal Wave Equation Speed (v)= distance/time Where v= ƛ/T Since f= 1/T then V= f ƛ Transmission and Reflection The source of a wave determines its frequency. Once the wave is produced, its frequency will not change even if its wavelength and its speed does. Note: that speed and wavelength are directly related, therefore, for any given frequency if the waves speed increases, so will its wavelength (or vice versa). Reflection a)Fixed End Reflection The speed of the reflected pulse is the same as the speed of the incident pulse. The wavelength of the reflected pulse is the same as the wavelength of the incident pulse. The amplitude of the reflected pulse is less than the amplitude of the incident pulse. b)Free End Reflection The reflected pulse has similar characteristics as the fixed end reflection except that the reflected wave is NOT inverted. Transmission When a wave travels to a different medium, a partial reflection occurs. Some of the
energy is transferred to the new medium. a)Fast to Slow Medium A wave travelling from a less dense to a more dense medium will be reflected off the boundary and transmitted across the boundary into the new medium. The reflected pulse is inverted. The transmitted pulse (in the more dense medium) is travelling slower than the reflected pulse (in the less dense medium). The transmitted pulse (in the more dense medium) has a smaller wavelength than the reflected pulse (in the less dense medium). The speed and the wavelength of the reflected pulse are the same as the speed and the wavelength of the incident pulse. b)Slow to Fast Medium A wave travelling from a more dense to a less dense medium will be reflected off the boundary and transmitted across the boundary into the new medium. There is no inversion. Transmitted Pulse vs. Reflected Pulse - The transmitted pulse (less dense medium) travels faster than the reflected pulse (more dense medium). - The transmitted pulse (less dense medium) has larger wavelength than reflected pulse (more dense medium). - The speed and wavelength of the reflected pulse are the same as the speed and the wavelength of the incident pulse. Waves in Two Dimensions The study of waves in two dimensions is often done using a ripple tank. A ripple tank is a large glass-bottomed tank of water which is used to study the behaviour of water waves. The Law of Reflection states that regardless of the angle at which the wavefronts approach the barrier, the waves will always reflect in such a way that the angle at which they approach the barrier (Θi) equals the angle at which they are reflected off (Θr) the barrier. The angles of incidence (Θi) and reflection (Θr) for wave rays are measured relative to a straight line perpendicular to the barrier, called the normal. The wave front represents the leading edge of a wave and a wave ray is a straight line drawn perpendicular to a wave front that indicates the direction of the transmission. Upon reflection off the parabolic barrier, the water waves will change direction and head
towards a point. It is as though all the energy being carried by the water waves is converged at a single point- the point is known as the focal point. Refraction and Diffraction Reflection involves a change in direction of waves when they bounce off a barrier; refraction of waves involves a change in the direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another at an angle. Refraction, or bending of the path of the waves, is accomplished by a change in speed and wavelength of the waves. Previously, it was mentioned that the speed of a wave is dependent upon the properties of the medium through which the waves pass. So, if the medium is changed, the speed of the waves is changed. Thus, if water waves are passing from deep water into shallow water, it moves more slowly and its wavelength decreases as well (ƛ ∞ v). Diffraction of waves involves a change in direction of waves as they pass through an opening or around a barrier in their path. Water waves have the ability to travel around corners, around obstacles, and through openings. This ability is most obvious for water waves with longer wavelengths. The amount of diffraction (the sharpness of the bending) increases with increasing wavelength and decreases with decreasing wavelength. Reflection, refraction, and diffraction are all boundary behaviours of waves associated with the bending of the path of the wave. Interference of Waves When waves meet each other, they have an effect on the medium for a brief moment, then continue on as if nothing happened. There are two types of wave interference. Constructive Interference occurs when 2 crests (or 2 troughs) meet, which results in the medium having a larger amplitude. Destructive Interference occurs when a crest meets a trough. If both crest and through have the same amplitude and wavelength, then they will cancel each other out resulting in the formation of a node. When a crest meets a crest (or trough meets a trough), a supercrest is formed (or a supertrough). Principle of Superposition: At any point, the resulting amplitude of the two interfering waves is the algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual waves. Mechanical Resonance All objects have a natural frequency at which they will vibrate. The transfer of energy from one object to another having the same natural frequency is known as resonance
or mechanical resonance. When an object vibrates in resonance with another, it is called sympathetic vibration. For example, if both tuning forks have the same resonance frequencies and one is struck with a rubber mallet, the other tuning fork will vibrate soon after. This is an example of sympathetic vibration. Standing Waves A standing wave pattern is a vibration pattern created within a medium when the vibration frequency of the source causes reflected waves from one end of the medium to interfere with incident waves from the source in such a manner that specific points along the medium appear to be standing still. Sound A sound wave is a mechanical wave which results from the longitudinal motion of the particles of the medium through which the sound wave is moving. If the sound wave is moving through air, then as one air particle is displaced from its equilibrium position, it exerts a push or pull on its nearest neighbours causing them to be displaced from their equilibrium position. This particle interaction continues throughout the entire medium, with each particle interaction causing a disturbance of its nearest neighbours. A mechanical wave is a wave that requires a medium for which energy is transported through. Because of the longitudinal motion of the air particles, there are regions in the air where the air particles are compressed together and other regions where the air particles are spread apart. These regions are known as compressions and rarefactions respectively. The wavelength of a wave is merely the distance which a disturbance travels along the medium in one complete wave cycle. The normal human hearing can detect sounds in the range of 20 to 20000 Hz. Sound requires a medium to travel through. Otto Von Guericke (1602-86) showed that as air is removed from a jar, the intensity of the sound decreases. Once all the air was removed from the jar, no sound can be heard. He also discovered that sound can be transmitted clearly through other mediums such as water or through solids. Note: Particles of air only vibrate locally; they do not move from the source to the receiver. Since a sound wave consists of repeating pattern of high pressure and low pressure
regions moving through a medium, it is sometimes referred to as a pressure wave. The Speed of Sound The speed of any wave depends upon the properties of the medium through which the wave is travelling. There are two essential types of properties which affect wave speedinertial properties and elastic properties. 1.Density of a medium is an example of an inertial property. The greater the density of the individual particles of the medium, the slower the wave. If all other factors are equal (and seldom is it that simple), a sound wave will travel faster in a less dense material than a more dense material. So then why does sound travel faster through solids? 2.Elastic properties are those properties related to the tendency of a material to either maintain its shape and not deform whenever a force or stress is applied to it. Rigid materials such as steel are considered to have a high elasticity. The phase of matter has a tremendous impact upon the elastic properties of the medium. In general, solids have the strongest interactions between particles, followed by liquids and then gases. For this reason, longitudinal sound waves travel faster in solids than they do in liquids than they do in gases. The speed of a sound wave in air depends upon the properties of the air, namely the temperature and the pressure. The pressure of air (like any gas) will affect the mass density of the air (an inertial property) and the temperature will affect the strength of the particle interactions (an elastic property). At normal atmospheric pressure and 0°C, the speed of sound increases by 0.59 m/s per 1°C temperature change. V= 332 m/s + (0.59 (m/s)/°C ∆ T The Human Ear The audible hearing range of a healthy young adult is approximately 20 to 20000 Hz; the structure of the auditory canal magnifies frequencies between 2000 and 5500 Hz by a factor of 10. The human ear consists of three sections: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear See pg.250 Figure 1 for diagram The ear drum in the middle ear is forced to vibrate by successive compressions and
rarefactions coming down the ear canal. The vibrations caused by the ear drum are then transmitted by the hammer, to the anvil, and then the stirrup. This is then further transmitted to the inner ear and finally to the auditory nerve. Intensity of Sound Sound intensity is measured in Watts per square metre. Sounds can vary from the slightest whisper (10-12W/m2) to levels that cause pain to your ears (10 W/m2). Due to wide range of intensities, a more common scale used for measuring sound is the decibel scale (dB; based on the bel, B). This is a logarithmic scale, not a linear scale. The Reflection of Sound Waves Sound waves also obey the law of reflection. For simple reflections, the incident wave angle equals the reflected wave angle, measured to a normal line. The parabolic reflectors can direct or concentrate sounds from or to the focal point. Sound reflection can be used in SONAR (sound navigation and ranging) devices, echolocation (bats + dolphins), and ultrasound which is used for imaging and many other forms of medical treatment. Diffraction and Refraction of Sound Waves Diffraction makes it possible to hear sounds around a corner. Refraction causes sounds to bend more in a less dense medium. Doppler Effect and Supersonic Travel The Doppler Effect can be described as the effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for the observer and the source when the waves are approaching. There is also an apparent downward shift in frequency when the observer and the source are receding. The Doppler Effect can be observed to occur with all types of waves- most notably water waves, sound waves, and light waves. Because of this shift in frequency, scientists use the Doppler Effect to detect the speed of stars, radar devices, and infrared detectors. F2 = f1(vsound/Vsound ±Vsource) Where f2 = shifted frequency of source F1 = frequency of the source Vsound = speed of sound in the medium
Vsource = speed of the source through the medium Supersonic Travel When objects travel at speeds greater than the speed of sound, then they are travelling at supersonic speed. This speed is given a Mach number which represents the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in air; Mach number = speed of object/ speed of sound When an object exceeds the speed of sound, you hear a sonic boom (crack or explosion). Interference of Sound Waves and Beat Frequency Interference between identical sounds waves produces lines of constructive and destructive interference (antinodes and nodes). This interference between nearly identical sound waves produces beats. Beats are periodic changes in the sound intensity. Beat frequency can be calculated by subtracting the lower frequency from the higher frequency. Beat frequency = number of beats/ total time = |f1 – f2| Music What’s the difference between music or noise? Noise is a random mix of constantly changing frequencies. On an oscilloscope, there is no pattern. Music is a combination of notes or pure tones. There is a pattern to the display of an oscilloscope. The three main characteristics of musical sound are pitch, loudness, and quality. All of these are subjective characteristics. A pure tone is where only one frequency is heard. Musical notes have several single sounds. These sounds are harmonious if their frequencies differ by a simpler ratio. Such a note would be said to have a high consonance. Sounds that do not sound right together have a high dissonance. An octave is a frequency ratio of 2:1. For example, one octave higher than “A” at 440 Hz is also an “A”, but at 880 Hz. A musical scale is a set of notes that are attained by simple ratios of their frequencies
(high consonance). Vibrating Strings The frequency of a vibrating string is determined by 4 variables. Length: the frequency it emits varies inversely to the length of a string. The longer the string, the lower the note. F1 / f2 = l2 / l1 Tension: the frequency a string emits varies proportionally to the square root of the force of tension acting on it. The higher the tension, the higher the note. F1 / f2 = f1/ f2
Diameter: the frequency of a string is inversely proportional to the thickness of the string. The thicker the string (higher diameter), the lower the note. F 1 / f 2 = d2 / d1 Density: the frequency of the string is inversely proportional to the square root of the density of the string’s material. The less dense the material, the higher the note. F1 / f2 = D2 / D1
Modes of Vibration- Quality of Sound A vibrating string acts as a standing wave when fixed at both ends. In the fundamental mode of vibration (first harmonic), only one antinode is produced which produces only one frequency called the fundamental frequency, which is the lowest frequency (fo). If more than one antinode is produced, which is the case with all musical instruments, the resulting modes of vibration are called overtones. These various frequencies are called harmonics where only one antinode would be the first harmonic etc. The fundamental frequency is the first harmonic and the second harmonic is the first overtone. The frequency of the first overtone is twice that of the fundamental frequency. The quality of a music note depends on the number and relative intensity of the overtones along with the fundamental frequency. F0 = fundamental frequency (1st harmonic)
Resonance in Air Columns Closed Air Columns When a tuning fork is struck, the sound waves are allowed to go down a hollow tube. They reflect off the closed end forming a node there. If the tube is adjusted to the right length, a loud sound will emerge from the opening, and this is called resonance. Resonance occurs when the tube length is ¼ the wavelength of the sound because maximum constructive interference occurs at ½ of the wavelength, or ¼ times 2 (to the bottom and back). This occurs at every successive ½ wavelength after ¼ (i.e. ¾, 5/4). Open Air Columns This works the same way as closed air columns, however, since there is no reflection off the bottom, the resonance occurs where the length of the tube is ½ wavelength of the sound wave and every ½ wavelength after (1, 3/2, 2, etc.).
Unit 4: Light & Optics Propagation of Light Visible light is a narrow part of the electromagnetic spectrum and in a vacuum, all electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light. C = 2.99792458 x 108 m/s C = fƛ In a material medium, the effective speed of light is slower and is usually stated in terms of the index of refraction of the medium. Light propagation is affected by the following phenomena; refraction, reflection, diffraction, and interference. It is common practice to define pure colours in terms of the wavelengths of light as shown. This works well for spectral colours but it is found that many different combinations of light wavelengths can produce the same perception of colour. In a rainbow or the separation of colours by a prism, we see the continuous range of spectral colours (the visible spectrum). A spectral colour is composed of a single wavelength and can be correlated with a wavelength as shown in the chart below (a general guide and not a precise statement about colour). Cue colour wavelength in nanometers (10-9m) chart…
Law of Reflection A light ray incident upon a reflective surface will be reflected at an angle equal to the incident angle. Both angles are typically measured with respect to the normal to the surface. The law of reflection gives the familiar reflected image in a plane mirror where the image distance behind the mirror is the same as object distance in front of the mirror. The Plane Mirror The plane mirror or looking glass in your bathroom uses the same image characteristics as the pinhole camera: Size: smaller, same, or larger than object Attitude: upright or inverted
Location: in front or behind the mirror Type: virtual or real Normal: the line perpendicular to the reflecting surface (mirror) Incident Ray: the light that enters the mirror Angle of Incidence (Θi): the angle between the normal and the incident ray Reflected Ray: the light that leaves the mirror Angle of Reflection (Θr): the angle between the normal and the reflected ray Refraction of Light Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where its speed is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light ray toward the normal of the boundary between the two media. The amount of bending depends on the indices of refraction of the two media and is described quantitatively by Snell’s Law. The light incident upon a surface will be partially reflected and partially transmitted as a refracted ray. Fast medium has a smaller index of refraction. As the speed of light is reduced in the slower medium, the wavelength is shortened proportionally. The frequency is unchanged; it is a characteristic of the source of the light and unaffected by medium changes.
Index of Refraction The index of refraction (n) is defined as the speed of light in a vacuum ( c ) divided by the speed of light in the medium (v). n = c/v c is constant; c=3.00 x 108 m/s The indices of refraction of some common substances are given below. Vacuum = 1.000 Air = 1.000277 Water = 1.33 ethyl alcohol = 1.362 glycerine = 1.473 ice = 1.31
Carbon disulfide = 1.63 Methylene iodide = 1.74 Diamond 2.417 Law of Refraction
polystyrene = 1.59 crown glass = 1.50 – 1.62 flint glass = 1.57 – 1.75
Snell’s Law relates the indices of refraction (n) of the two media to the directions of propagation in terms of the angles to the normal. The sine of the angle of refraction varies directly with the sine of the angle of incidence. The ratio of sin Θi to sin ΘR is a constant. The incident ray and the refracted ray are on opposite sides of the normal at the point of incidence, and all three are in the same plane. n1sinΘ1 = n2sinΘ2 Total Internal Refraction When light travels from an optically dense medium into less dense medium, the reflected ray becomes stronger at higher incident angles. At a critical angle (Θc), the angle of refraction reaches 90°. Beyond this, all light gets reflected and no light gets refracted. This is known as Total Internal Reflection. The critical angle is the minimum angle at which total internal reflection occurs.
Images Formed In Lenses PA (Principal Axis): a horizontal line down through the optical centre C or 2F (Center of Curvature) O (Optical Centre): the geometric centre of all lenses OA (Optical Axis): the vertical line through the optical centre F (Principal Focus): the point on the principal axis through which a group of rays parallel to the principal axis is refracted FI (Secondary Focus) Images Formed By Converging Lenses
1.Rays travelling parallel to the PA refract through the principal focus. 2.Rays that travel through the secondary focus refract parallel to the principal axis. 3.Rays that travel through the optical centre do not refract. Note: Only 2 of these rules (rays) need to be used to locate an image point. Magnification: larger, smaller, or same Attitude: upright or inverted as object Location: side of lens, less than F, between F + 2F, or beyond 2F Type: real or virtual Sign Conventions 1.Object and image distance are measured to the centre of the lens (from O). 2.Object distance is positive if it is a converging lens (positive if it’s on the side of the lens from which the light is coming). 3.The image distance is positive for real images and negative for virtual images. M = h i / ho or M = -di / do
Hi = image height Ho = object height Di = image distance Do = object distance 4.Object and image heights are positive if measured above the principal axis and negative if below the PA. 4A converging lens has a real principal focus and therefore, a positive focal length. 5A diverging lens has a virtual principal focus and therefore, a negative focal length. 6Magnification is positive if image is upright, and negative for inverted image. Images Formed By Diverging Lenses
1.A light ray travelling parallel to the principal axis refracts in line with the principal focus (F). 2.A light ray that is aimed toward the secondary principle focus (FI) refracts parallel to the principal axis. 3.A light ray that passes through the optical centre goes straight through, without refracting. The Thin Lens Equation 1/ do + 1/ di = 1/ f (f is positive for converging lenses)
The Human Eye Nearsightedness (Myopia) A nearsighted (myopic) eye focuses the light rays from a distant object too strongly. The image is formed in front of the retina. Myopia can be corrected with diverging lenses.
Farsightedness (Hyperopia) The farsighted eye focuses the light rays of nearly objects behind the retina. The image is formed behind the retina. Hyperopia can be corrected with converging lenses.
Unit 5: Electricity & Magnetism Electric Fields and Electric Charge The region of space around a charged object where attractive or repulsive forces are observed is known as the Electric Field. The Electric Field is represented by linear lines which are radially outwards from a positive point charge and radially in toward a negative point charge. A)Repulsion: Repulsion occurs because neither point charges are able to accept the outgoing field lines. B)Attraction: Attraction occurs because the outgoing field lines from the positive point charge are attracted (entering) to the negative point charge since the field lines move towards the negative point charge. Coulomb’s Law The force of attraction or repulsion between two charged objects varies directly with the charge of the objects and inversely with the square of the distance between the objects. F = kΘ1Θ2 / d2 F= force of attraction or repulsion K = proportionally constant Θ1 and Θ2 = charges d= distance between charged particles The fundamental unit of electric charge was named the coulomb ( C ) after the French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736 – 1806). One C is the amount of charge that goes through a 100 W light bulb in 1 second (@ 100 V). Direction of Current Flow a)Conventional Current (old school) flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. b)Electric Current: the electrons in a metal wire flows from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. Direct and Alternating Current
Direct current (DC) is a current supplied from dry cells that does not change in magnitude or direction. Alternating current (AC) is a current from a wall receptacle which changes in both its magnitude and direction. An ammeter must be placed in series so that the current will pass through it, also it must have a low resistance so that it does not affect the circuit. Potential Difference In order to get charges moving, a push must be applied to them. Work must be done on them which gives them kinetic energy- this is done by the voltage source. The change then follows a circuit and energy is lost at a resistor, or other devices that may use energy. The source itself determines how much energy is given to the charge passing through it, and therefore how much push is applied to the charge. The Electrical Potential Difference is the potential difference VB – VA equals the work per unit charge that an external agent must perform to move a test charge from A to B without a change in kinetic energy. Voltage = work or energy / charge = W/Q = ∆ E/ Q = (VB – VA) / Q Since potential difference is a measure of energy per unit charge, the SI unit of potential energy is joules per coulomb, defined to be equal to a unit called the volt (V). Volt = Joule/ coulomb = J/C ∆ E = VQ and Q = I ∆ t and ∆ E= VI ∆ t A voltmeter measures potential difference between two points in a circuit. It must be arranged in parallel, not in series. Ohm’s Law Charges experience a resistance to their flow as they pass through a device (loss of electrical potential). From Ohm’s experiment, it can be seen that 1.When voltage increases, the current increases proportionally. 2.V vs. I graph the slope is constant
V/I = constant (called R) V/I = R (Ω ohm) Or V = IR Ohm’s Law Ω = V/A
Statement of Ohm’s Law The potential difference between any two points in a conductor varies directly with the current between the two points of the temperature remains constant. 1Ω is the electric resistance of a conductor that has a current of 1A through it when the potential difference is 1V. Kirchoff’s Laws for Electrical Circuits Series Circuit A circuit in which charge has only one path to follow. Parallel Circuit A circuit in which charge can move along more than one path. Law of Conservation of Energy As electrons move through an electric circuit (DC), they gain energy at the source and lose energy at the loads (resistance), but the total energy gained in one trip through a circuit is equal to the total energy “lost”. Law of Conservation of Charge Electric charge is neither created nor lost in an electric circuit, and does not accumulate at any point in the circuit. Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) At any junction point in an electric current, the total electric current into the junction = total electric current out.
V = IR Current (I)
Series I0 = I1 = I2 , etc.
Parallel I0 = I1 + I2 + I3
V0 = V1 + V2
V0 = V 1 = V 2 = V 3
Resistance ( R )
R 0 = R1 + R2
1/ R0 = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) Vrise = Vdrop Egained = Elost Potential Increase = Potential Decrease Around any complete path through an electric circuit, the sum of the increases in electric potential = sum of the decreases in electric potential. Power in Electric Circuits The amount of energy used in an electrical device or appliance can be calculated with the formula ∆ E = VI ∆ t The amount of electrical power used can be found by calculating the rate at which it uses energy. P = ∆ E/ ∆ t If you substitute E = VI ∆ t, you get P = VI ∆ t/ ∆ t P= VI The unit would be a volt-ampere, but since 1 volt = 1 Joule/coulomb and 1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second, then 1 volt-ampere = 1 Joule/second = 1 Watt (W). Ohm’s Law states I= V/R and V = IR Substituting in the Electrical Power formula, we get P = I2R or P = V2/R The Cost of Electricity
Energy = Power x time ∆ E = P ∆ t in kilowatt hours Factors That Affect Field Strength of Coil 1.Current: field strength varies directly with current.
2.Number of Loops in the Coil: FS ∞ # of loops
3.Type of Core Material: k = magnetic FS in a material/ magnetic FS in a vacuum Ferromagnetic Materials (ie. Fe, Ni, Co) become strong induced magnets (large k). Paramagnetic Materials become only slightly magnetized (ie. O2 + Al) – low k Diamagnetic Materials have k values less than 1 (Cu, Ag, H2O) Solenoid: a coil of wire that acts like a magnet when an electric current passes through it The Motor Principle A current carrying conductor that cuts across magnetic field lines experience a force perpendicular to the magnetic field and the direction of current flow. The amount of force depends on both the magnetic field strength and the current as well as the angle between the conductor and the magnetic field lines. Right Hand Rule for the Motor Principle If the fingers of the open right hand point in the direction of the external magnetic field (NS), and the thumb points in the direction of current flow, the force on the conductor will be in the direction the palm faces. Faraday’s Discovery Recall: Electric current causes a magnetic field to be produced around a conductor. Therefore, a magnetic field should cause current to flow (WRONG). Faraday studied 3 situations: 1.Moving a wire through the jaws of a horseshoe magnet 2.Moving a bar magnet in or out of a coil
3.Touched the iron core of a coil with a magnet and pulled it away. In all cases, current only flowed when magnetic field was changing. Law of Electromagnetic Induction An electric current can be induced in a conductor when the magnetic field around the conductor changes. Factors that affect the magnitude of the induced current: 1rate of change of the magnetic field 2strength of the magnetic field 3number of turns on coil Direction of Induced Current Lenz’s Law For a current induced in a coil by a changing magnetic field, the electric current is in such a direction that its own magnetic field opposes the inducing field.
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