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fundamentals of prest,ressed coocrccc design
o
175 west Jackson Boulevard Chicago, Illinois 60604 Phone 3127860300 Fax 3127860353
Copyright by the
PRECAST/PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE INSTITUTE
All rights reserved, No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in U.S.A. Second Edition, Eighth Printing, 1991 PUBLICATION NUMBER MNL11568 ISBNO937040029
ACKNOWLEDGMENT The original edition of this publication was developed by Jack R. Janney and Richard C. Elstner t principals of the firm Wiss, Janney, Elstner and Associates, consulting structural engineers of Des Plaines, Illinois based on notes prepared for a series of short course lectures sponsored by the Prestressed Concrete Institute. Basic revision of this publication became necessary with the adoption of Buildin Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318in 19 3 and this revision was primarily accomplished by Tom D'Arcy, a structural engineer, while serving as Publications Director on the PCI staff. > This revision has been reviewed by A. H. Gustater ro, Chairman of the PCI Technical Activities Committee, by Messrs. Janney and Elstner, by several representatives of the PCA Structural Bureau and by H. Kent Preston of CF &1 Roebling. PCI appreciates the contributions and additions made by the above individuals, Paul Mast and John Sbarouni s of PCA, and by Mario Suarez of Stressteel, Inc. Final editing and assembly was accomplished staff of the Prestressed Concrete Institute. by the
Examples are based on outdated codes and specifications. Men applied to design problems, use basic principles with codes and specifications currently in effect.
it must be assumed that his grasp of structural engineering fundamentals is sound. properties that affect prestressed emphasizing the physical concrete. general considerations factors affecting the design of prestressed connections and tolerances. Fourth. First. the salient features of the and disand prominent guiding documents and codes are illustrated cussed throughout the text. flexure and shear. the properties concrete design are  of the two basic materials concrete and steel. are presented. the two primary design considerations. are explored. concrete such as 1 . Second. Fifth.INTRODUCTION The purpose of this publication is to acquaint practicing engineers with the fundamental principles of designing prestressed structural elements. Third. concrete In order to provide the reader with an adequate background so that he may feel qualified to make use of prestressing as a possible solution to some of his daily problems. are discussed. Fi ve broad areas important to prestressed covered. typical design examples with respect to buildings and bridges are discussed.
one of our most economical struct is capable of resisting relatively high compressive However. ural materials. Prestressed In steel we have a material that is concrete combines these materials of its compressive strong in tension. Typical prestressed concrete members do this by using concrete that is approximately twice as strong as is usually used and steel that is approximately six times stronger than normal reinforcing. superior materials also have properties force. One way to increase efficiency is to use superior basic materials. in their most effective capacities. By stretching the steel compressive forces before it is bonded to the concrete (prestressing) 2 . stresses.prestressing com bines them in the most efficient manner. its tensile strength is only 10 to 15 per cent strength. Concrete.. But just using superior materials is not enough .Prestressing nent stresses has been defined as the intentional creation of permain a structure or assembly. for the purpose of improving its behavior and strength under various conditions of load. These which are necessary to These properties are dis prevent the loss of the prestress cussed later. Prestressed concrete has been described as a structural concept  that combines the best of two well known construction materials concrete and steel.
of concrete may vary from 1. cold On the other hand. fine inert materials or admixtures which modify the characteristics properties and other additives of concrete. the modulus of elasticity Average proper alloy steel. Thus the steel which is strong in and the concrete which is strongest in And if the steel and the compression is precompressed. the modulus of steel is approximately 29 x 106 psi whether it is low carbon steel or whether it is a high strength. plus air. and equations or 3 . For instance. of concrete will vary over wide ranges as materials. It is inevitable.0 x 106 psi. cement and water. The of the aggregate may vary over a wide range but still purposes. therefore. 5 to 7. salts. tension is stretched. we have used these materials in the most efficient manner and have produced a prestressed member. resultant compressive portion are located in the member where tensile forces occur under load. MATERIALS CONCRETE Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture of sand.are placed in the concrete. that the physical properties compared to other structural of elasticity hot rolled. rolled. The cement produce desirable concrete for structural can be manufactured from a variety of clays combined with numerous types of calcareous materials. gravel. ties should be compared with local concretes.
Compressive Compressive compressive character strength of the stress. It is essential that the designer be familiar A designer may insist upon 9000 psi a 300% concrete with a modulus of 7 x 106. and knowledge of the loadcarrying havior is an important prerequisite concrete. d. The basic physical properties of concrete and prestressing steel must be understood before the loadcarrying behavior of prestressed be concrete attains meaning.numbers should be modified accordingly. b. Economy is a primary advantage of concrete because gravel and sand or other aggregates as well as cement are available abundantly in nearly all localities. the judgment of such a demand may be subject to question. but if it requires increase in concrete costs. The properties to intelligent design of prestressed of concrete with which one should be familiar before concrete design are: attempting to make use of prestressed a. with the local materials. c. e.strain relationship modulus of elasticity creep and shrinkage tensile strength Strength strength must be established in design so that the may be set and to a lesser extent 4 limiting values of working stresses .
1* * Numerals correspond to references in the bibliography.so that the loadcarrying predicted. must be properly controlled to insure not Since the mechanical properties strength. ventionally reinforced concrete beams. Although plant inspection is a subject in itself. this property only quality. obvious that prestressed accurate control. the need for it is emphasized here. may produce considerable variations in camber and deflection which must be considered undesirable. of concrete are related to the compressive is the prime consideration in the control of the finished product. It becomes concrete demands close supervision for and plant Proper inspection of materials operation either by the producer or buyer is an important means of achieving the uniformity demanded of prestressed concrete. particularly in the production of concrete. but also uniformity. 5 . even though in excess of the design minimum. The manufacture prestressed capacity of prestressed units might be of concrete. Too often designers and producers feel that if strength requirements are met or exceeded the job is successful. In prestressed concrete wide variations in strength. Controlling In con strength is equally as important as meeting strength. excessive concrete strength could be considered beneficial.
forseeable future designs requiring concrete strengths of 10. 7000 psi may be an economical strength in plants where such strength can be met and controlled. The use of lightweight aggregates in structural cially concrete for precast structural concretes. 20 year s ago 2500 was considered good concrete. economics.Concrete strengths for prestressing should not be less than 4500 From the design viewpoint usually reducing the required as strength psi except for unusual circumstances.000 psi will not be considered unreasonable. the strength covering these subjects in this document. placement. A few years ago the normal design strength was In the 3500 psi. required in prestressed concrete demands proper mix design and proper control of mixing. Space does not permit However. Since concrete costs increase the choice of design strength generally depends upon In most localities 5000 psi has become the accepted However. curing. there is reason to believe that normal design strength. Concrete strength depends upon many factors such as mix design. is increasing. volume of concrete. increases. materials and control. espeThere units. placing and curing. In time the improvement of equipment and production techniques will bring about an increase in the normal design strength. is a tendency to associate lightweight aggregates with low strength 6 . higher strengths are more desirable.
Many prestressed concrete or plasticizing find the use of water reducing retarders agents of high quality beneficial to placement and early handling. they can be a source of trouble.concretes. 2 Admixtures are sometimes added to concrete mixes to modify the physical properties of the concrete.strain curve obtained from an ordinary cylinder test is 7 . are important to the intelligent use of lightweight structural concretes. what is now known provides an ample basis for design. duce the high strength required for prestressed Knowledge and control. chloride or admixtures containing calcium chloride should not be used.strain curve for concrete has been developed in recent laboratory tests. In addition proper airentrainment is beneficial to prestressed Calcium concrete which is to be exposed to freezing and thawing. Many modern lightweight aggregates are used to proconcrete economically. years and has been substantiated by may modify or refine Although future research the recent work. StressS~rain Relationship An accurate configuration of the stress. A stress. When used properly. ad mixtures can be advantageous. producers When used without proper control.
The stressstrain relationship as determined by Hanson. 2. This work has revealed some interesting facts about the stress. 4.) The relationship of gation. 8 . Ec * .shown in Fig. Hognestad and McHenry has led to * For notations see listing at end of text. A generalized stress. 0. 3 indicating the various physical constants which are important in design such as modulus of elasticity. the flexure that the differences Although the work by Hanson.except Eo which remains fairly constant. u . are different for light However. ultimate strain.f k3f~. the area The test work indicates that all of these constants are a function of concrete strength alone . Hognestad and McHenry3 is presented in Fig. 1.002. the strain at maximum stress. of strains on test columns and test beams indicate strains in the concrete which fails in much higher compressive compression. Measurements Failure occurs at a unit strain of about 0.strain relationship. it will be shown in the discussion on are of minor significance. the maximum stress as related to a test cylinder. type of aggregate these constants to concrete strength are shown in Fig. mix design and age were variables in the investiwas not a varrable.strain curve is shown in Fig.s. More recent tests indicate that these relationships weight aggregates. (Although strength.
I CURVES 9 .STRAIN CONCRETE FIG.4000~~~~ _ 2000t/~·U) Q. 500 1000 1500 STRAIN .MILLIONTHS TYPICAL FOR STRESS .
8000 . .. 2 en I t w a: o en en I I I IkI :5 f~ Eu k2 Eu I I ~ I I I I I Eo Eu Ec STRAIN GENERALIZED STRESS·STRAIN FOR CONCRETE FIG.67 o 1000 2000 3000 4000 EC STRAI N ~MI LLI ONTHS EXTENDED STRESS·STRAIN CURVES FOR CONCRETE FIG... Q:: I 4000 en w/c: 2000 0.6000 en en en w I a. 3 10 CURVE .
4 11 .:s:.4 k2 > « = 0.psi ULTIMATE STRENGTH FACTORS FOR CON CRETE FIG.fc/26000 I ..6 en :::> _J  0 w 0. 0.82fcf~2/26000 I I rt) .0 3 = 3900 + 0.2 O~~~o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 f~ COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH.8 kl c . u 0.:JJe o N = 0.50  fe /80.35 f c 3000+0.:s:.k 1.000 I 0.94 . .
a curve departs from a straight line relationship modulus of elasticity which is a straight line relationship established. cannot be Fig.first clear understanding of the true stressstrain concrete. 12 . until research further advances our knowledge. designs must be based upon the short time stress.strain at low stresses. 50f as Shown). the stress. 5. For higher strength concretes the stressstrain to approach a straight line relationship curve tends c for a larger range of stresses This condition is so that the two moduli become nearly identical. However. creep permits the assumption that the long time stressstrain curve will be different. the initial slope of the curve will be decreased. relationship Of primary of concern is the stressstrain curve under long time loading condiPresent knowledge of tions which was not a variable in these tests. Fig. the full picture has not been completed.strain relationships while problems associated with creep must be solved on the basis of sound engineering judgment. 6 indicates two moduli. the maximum strength will be lowered. and the maximum strain will be increased. the tangent modulus and the secant modulus (generally determined at a stress of O. experience and laboratory tests indicate that creep has little effect upon strength of unrestrained structural members. Therefore. Modulus of Elasticity Since concrete is not an elastic material. that is.
1  80 STRAIN DEFINITIONS OF ELASTIC MODULUS FIG. 6 13 .RAPID LOADING Ec  STRAIN EFFECT OF LOADING RATE ON CONCRETE STRESSSTRAIN CURVE FIG. 5 en en (/) a: ~ I _u 't 11.
6. 8 x 106 + 500 f~ 1 :::: 0. 3. (University of Illinois) (Adrian Pauw) Ibs/ft. ACI 318. :::: 8 x 106 + 460 f'c 1. throughout The second.6) to provide a single equation suitable both for normal and lightweight concretes the presently utilized range of compressive strengths. :::: .50f~ is normally used for design purposes.63 adopted Adrian Pauws equation (No. Practice) 3.ffc 6 :::: 3 Jw3f~ 3 5.Building Code Requirements) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) :::: x 106f~ 6 f~+ 2000 Ec Ec Ec Ec (Jensen's Equation) (Lyse's Equation) (ACI 323 Rec.3 Where W = unit weight of concrete. 14 . Various equations have been proposed to estimate the Ec:::: W1. 2.000. third and fourth equations are reasonably accurate for average concretes of average materials. 533 fie (ACI 31863 . Predicted moduli tend to be too high when f~ exceeds 5000 psi. 4. A secant modulus determined at O. The fifth expression reasonably predicts moduli over the full range of intended for normal weight concretes. concret e strength but is primarily Equation (1) reduces to Equation(5) when W :::: 150 lbs/ft.generally the case for concrete encountered in prestressed concretes. modulus: 1.
is restrained A straintime to the loss of water Shrinkage occurs without stress unless a member from movement. point to Creep allows the high stress at one thus relieving the concentrations.strain relationship stress has not been established.Creep and Shrinkage Creep and shrinkage present an advantage and a disadvantage to prestressed concrete. no longer exists under at high loss. members. They reduce the prestressing force. At usual working stresses creep is directly proportional to . flow to nearby areas. creep prevents concrete from being a brittle material which would shatter when subjected to a high concentration of stress at any point. The proportionality overload conditions. provided the creep does not produce undesirable in fully or partially restrained deflection or stresses the applied unit stress. Creep is defined as the increase in strain with time under constant load. On the other hand. The advantage of this stress relieving outweighs the disadvantage of prestress camber. curve for both creep and shrinkage is exponential in 15 . but the stress. Drying shrinkage strains are defined as strains resulting from volume changes which take place with time due in the concrete.
necessary material However. and f to reduce creep 3040%. typical of prestressed plants. for an infinite length of time. although for design purposes the values predicted for from 6 months to 1 year are sufficient. 16 .30% and shrinkage 10. are being considered for an application of prestressed Typical time and load dependent deformation characteristics commonly used in prestressed for several types of concrete concrete are shown in Figs. it often becomes to obtain more exact creep and shrinkage data for a given . and shrinkage 2540% for Type III cement when compared to moist cured samples. 7 and 8. Recent studies by]. Large strains occur at early ages. A. creep and shrinkage are high watersoft aggregates and improper curing. Hanson 4 reveal appreciable reductions of curing methods. high slumps.character..especially if lightweight aggregates concrete.20<J0or Type I cement. decreasing Strains continue to increase in rate as time increases. Factors tending to increase cement ratio. has been found to reduce creep 20. Atmospheric creep and shrinkage by accelerated steam curing. The creep and shrinkage properties for a given concrete are not on arbitrary often pursued specifically by designers who rely rather design values suggested in the literature.
'" t~ (I) en en 1600 f.____. eeoc LTWT.___.__.. f~.___. 7000 pil NLWT. en o 1200 0 0 N NLWT. 7 17 CREEP CURVES . _. CONe.. p. &II ~ 400 '" o o. CONC. 5000 p.._~ o 50 100 200 150 TIME AFTER LOADINGDAYS TYPICAL FOR CONCRETE FIG.1 t C en tZ I :t: 800 _..1 A. 2 A. CONe. 0 t~.
8 18 . f~ • 5000 pil (/) 2 .. CONe. J « :.:::: z 0:: :J: (/) C!) ~ 400 NLWT. CONe.. 7000 pil o 0:: z . f~.200 > o~~~~~~ o so 100 150 200 TIME OF DRYING .J z o ~ 600 CONe.DAYS TYPICAL SHRINKAGE CURVES FOR CONCRETE FIG..J .800~~~~ LT WT. f~.. 5000 pil NLWT.
19 . Modulus of elasticity increases with age Creep and shrinkage must be taken into account Reduction in prestress force must be taken into account The deflection from a given load at the instant of loading is calculated using the modulus of elasticity time. especially with lightweight structural concretes. 5 Modulus of elasticity. depending largely upon the aggregate materials. creep and shrinkage are important consider ations when calculating cambers and deflections of prestressed concrete members. for each strength shown. Such calculations become difficult because there are many factors to be considered: 1. For example. 2. based at time of release To determine the initial camber the modulus of elasticity is used. of concrete at that particular two forces are applied.These relationships concretes to illustrate should not be used as representative They are presented of all merely of concrete. the for all of the creep and shrinkage relationship concrete is much the same. upon the concrete strength at time of release loads are applied time as a result If no other with to the member the camber will increase of creep and shrinkage. general character However. the general creep and shrinkage character The magnitude of deformation due to creep and shrinkage may vary considerably. 3.
camber growth resulting from creep and shrinkage is lessened by the reduction in prestress force. at 1 year To determine resulting cambers after all creep and shrinkage has taken place. 0. number is also used to reduce the modulus of elasticity. other method employs a factor known as a creep coefficient. the modulus of elasticity at the time of loading should be used. such as the applica When additional load is applied to the member. Long time deflections from dead load are calculated The reduction on the basis of the reduced modulus of elasticity.As a rule for a given stress. Therefore of elasticity can be assumed to be 1/2 to 1/3 of the initial modulus of elasticity in deflection calculations. tion of dead load. it is necessary to use the reduced modulus of elasticity in place of the initial modulus of elasticity. However. able values for a creep coefficient are: 2. is usually referred to This modulus of elasticity AnThi s as the reduced modulus of elasticity. it should be remembered that force. factor to be used is related to the age of the concrete at the time the 20 . It would appear that the final camber would be two to three times greater than the initial camber. creep and shrinkage will produce than strains resultthe modulus final strains in concrete 2 to 3 times greater ing from initial application of the stress. Reason at 30 days 2. creep and shrinkage will also reduce the applied prestress Thus.5.
5 6 ft ft = = K .dead load is applied. (9) Eq (8) is based upon the best knowledge presently be used in preference It should to Eq (7). For instance. concrete. instantaneous values of modulus of elasticity consistent with the strength of the concrete in computations.strain curve of concrete has not been established.ffc (ACI 318. With live loads of relatively short duration such as snow loads. Consequently it has not received as much as other properties.63) available. 15 7.08 to O. Tensile Strength The tensile strength of concrete is a property that is usually ignored in conventionally reinforced concrete with the notable exception of pavements and dams. is approximately Tensile strength becomes important in prestressed The following equations have been used to relate tensile strength: (7) (8) strength or modulus of rupture to compressive ft = Kfc where K varies from 0. should be employed attention in the laboratories the tensile stress. Tensile strength is often relied upon in working stress design of 21 . although indirect analyses indicate the relationship a straight line. Eq (9) is recommended in Section 2605 of ACI 31863 with provisions made via Section 104 of ACI 31863 to exceed this value provided substantiating evidence is produced..
o 200 en o z en ::J cl' o . 9 23 .005 0.fy• 90. 33. 0.I.300~~~~ en u.020 TYPICAL STRESSSTRAIN 'OR CURVES CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT FIG.010 UNIT 0015 STRAIN 0._ Z AllOY STEEL BAR..0KSI. z 00 00 UJ 100 INTERMEDIATE GRADE BAR.0 KSI . ex • 45.0KSl t oo STRUCTURAL GRADE BAR  f". c.
300~~~~~
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\IRE
(E '29::.5~XI_O·_P_S_1 )1
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200
STRAND (E· 27.S)(IO·PSI)
o
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~
I
o
~
Z
(/) (/)
ALLOY STEEL (E· 29.5)(10' PSI) 100 
w
~
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0.00364
0.005
0.010
UNIT
0015 STRAIN
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TYPICAL
STRESSSTRAIN
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PRESTRESSING STEELS
FIG. 10
24
basic differences are obvious between the stress strain relationship of prestressing used by structural
1.
steels and those of other steels normally engineers. These are: steel
the high tensile strength of the prestressing
2.
the absence of a well defined yield point on the high  strength steel curve, and
3.
the reduced modulus of elasticity of stranded wire. of steel which are of significance in the concrete are:
The physical properties
design and production of prestressed a. b. c. d. tensile strength
one per cent strain under load (ASTM A416 & A421) modulus of elasticity. bond properties
Tensile Strength Curves in Fig. 10 show stressstrain characteristics of stranded
wire which is most widely used for pretensioned prestressed concrete, of straight wire which is used in some pretensioning and
a great deal of postt ensioning, and of high tensile strength alloy steel bars which are used in posttensioned prestressed concrete.
These steels all have high tensile strength and show a gradual deviation from linearity with no distinct yield point.
25
These high strength steels achieve their strength largely through the use of special chemical compositions in conjunction with coldworking. Recently newer high strength strand has been developed with This produces additional
an ultimate strength of 270,000 psi. economies by requiring fewer strand. Yield Strength
As seen in Fig. 9, steels normally encountered in structural exhibit definite yield points.
design
High strength wire, however, does not
and the one per cent extension under load has been selected arbitrarily as the yield strength for design purposes, ASTM A416. This
definition of yield strength has supplanted the "0. 2% offset" yield strength which was formerly used. Modulus of Elasticity Tests on stranded wire yield values of modulus of elasticity which deviate from values obtained from other steels. this deviation is understandable The reason for
when the fact is considered that a
number of wires twisted together are acting as a unit when they are tensioned. Prestressing strand is made by combining wires from and stranding them which has
different reels after they have been colddrawn, together on a stranding machine.
This group of wires,
been stranded together is stretched as a unit, and although the modulus of elasticity of the individual pieces of steel is unchanged, the
26
the stress. strain properties twisted together. can yield as consistent stress as we actually experience. and may vary as much as one or two per cent within This inconsistency arises a single reel from any manufacturer. if the strain gage is placed over a given length of the strand. Considering the problems involved. appears in any of the design expressions 27 . If a strain gage is placed along the axis of a single wire in a strand being tested. tendons The significance of the modulus of elasticity of prestressing is confined primarily to the act of prestressing. it is rather amazing that a group of 7 wires.strain properties of that wire are found to be very similar to those obtained from the test on a straight piece of wire. This quantity is utilized to establish or check the magnitude of the initial tension placed into the tendons. However. for prestressed concrete. the apparent modulus of elasticity resulting from a tensile test will be found to be lower. The variation is even greater from reel to reel. This apparent modulus of elasticity of stranded wire is somewhat inconsistent. the modular ratio. Neither "E" nor "n".group which has been twisted together will tend to stretch more than solid steel because the wires tend to untwist. from variation in the tightness with which the helical wires are wound together.
Bond Bond serves a dual function in pretensioned prestressed The first of these functions is to transfer concrete to accomplish the prestressing.They are indirectly considered in evaluation of the prestress arising from elastic. concrete. This is termed "flexural bond". steel within the concrete attempts to return to its original unstressed diameter. The bonding characteristics of conventional reinforcement are a 28 . it not only elongates but When a pretensioning tendon is stressed. "prestress transfer bond". reduces in diameter. allowed to harden. a burst ing force of great magnitude is applied to the surrounding concrete. This force is so great that a very large frictional force is developed which prevents movement of the steel into the concrete. If concrete is placed around the stressed the tendon.section. As the diameter of the tendon tends to increase. distributing the steel stress to correspond to the magnitude of the change in moment at any cross. transfer bond becomes achieved primarily Thus as a consequence of friction rather than adhesion or mechanical anchorage. losses creep and shrinkage shortening of the concrete. and then the stress is released. load from the steel to the This function is termed to that The second function is similar required for conventional reinforcement.
size. An abrupt cutting of strands will probably result in a long zone. The curve on the right shows the stress transfer for steel on which a light film of oil was placed. These representations are shown for comparative purposes only lengths and should not be viewed as absolute values of transfer for the conditions shown. and values shown on the horizontal scale give the di stance in from the end of the block of concrete in which the steel is embedded. similar representation of rust. friction. mechanical anchorage and to a minor degree.function of adhesion between the concrete and steel. and concrete embedment with the exception of the surface characteristics shown on the vertical scale represent of the steel. Fig. 11 shows the stress transfer relationship for 7/16 inch diameter prestressing strand which is the same in every respect with regard to tension. 29 . The values the percentage of full stress in the steel at any point. The method of release of prestress force can also significantly affect the length of the transfer zone. and the left hand curve is a for steel on which there was a light coat It may be seen that the full stress from the rusted steel to the concrete in 20 inches while the steel which is transferred was coated with the oil required 80 inches for full transfer. the center curve is the stress transfer for steel as recei ved from the manufacturer.
..... "" '" a: Z o 10 10 20 30 40 INTO 50 80 70 80 LENGTH MEMBER BOND TRANSFER LENGTH ~.20" ~ c:r w . z c( c:r '__""_ooSTRAND AS RICEIVED 01 LED STRAND (/) a m "o z o ~4 c( t 0." STRAND FIG. II 30 .
flex is at high level at the time the precompression ural bond is not called upon to develop the full strength of the steel.2/3 fse)D one a long span building member. It should be noted that the significance of the transfer zone should be evaluated in terms of the member under consideration. are of very low magnitude until after Therefore. zone length is an average value based on a clean strand surface. dependent on the care taken in A value of 50 diameters for the transfer the burning process. (ACI 31863.Gentle slow release will result in a shorter transfer zone. Therefore a long transfer zone may be of no real significance in The expresston (fsu . 31 . Section 2611) for flexural bond is an empirical based on tests conducted at the Portland Cement Association. Because the stress in the steel is overcome. Methods such as cutting the strand by burning can result in variable transfer zone lengths. nearest to develop their ultimate can be confined to the the beam end. that are required In cantilever beams the capacity. investigations sections of the beam. When using the equation. flexural bond stresses are insignificant in prestressed concrete through all stages of loading to service loads and become significant only in considering the ultimate flexural capacity. Flexural bond stresses flexural cracks develop.
32 . and creep of the concrete should be based on results of tests made with the lightweight aggregates to be used.ASCE 323 report suggests that unless specific data representative of the materials and design contemplated are available. losses due to elastic shortening. the initial prestressing diminishes. reflected in the cracking load and amount of camber.000 psi for posttensioning. steel stress losses may be assumed to be 35. Losses due to friction steel and ducts must be added to the 25.section at the support should be investigated. is rapid at early ages and gradually reaches a stable assumed to be permanent. The ACI. shrinkage.000 This method of estimating losses generally satisfies the re quirements of Section 2607 of ACI 31863. Loss of Prestress Because of elastic shortening. prestress This decrease is termed loss of prestress.000 psi for pretensioning and 25. creep and shrinkage of concrete and force gradually Loss of stress relaxation of steel. The condition of effective prestress magnitude of prestress loss does not significantly affect the ultiAn error in estimating the loss is mate capacity of a member. between posttensioned psi. For lightweight concrete.
is relied upon entirely to resist As a result a sizeable volume of concrete is occupying space without being considered as contributing to the load carrying ability of the flexural member.FLEXURE Design for Working Stresses The tensile strength of concrete is ignored in reinforced concrete design and steel reinforcement internal tensile forces. These compressive concrete is to induce in some into the member before are concentrated in stresses stresses the regions where tensile stresses the member is loaded. through this manipulation of internal we are permitted to take advantage of the entire cross section in the analysis of flexural members to resist working or service loads. stresses are anticipated to occur after Thus. of a prestressed nonprestressed Consequently. This is usually accomplished by tensioning steel 33 . the net area and moment of inertia member are greater than those quantities in a member of the same dimensions. stresses imposed In the case of flexural members the compressive to resist eventual tension are created by the application of sufficient force located so that it is most efficient in bringing about the compressive stresses. The basic principle of prestressing manner permanent compressive it is loaded.
stranded wire. created by the prestressing 34 . or rods). One method is solely through bearing tendons are anchored mechanically. Here the forces can be transferred concrete one of two ways. pretensioning. by any method for all thereby providing for transfer The flexural analysis of a member prestressed stages of loading from fabrication through full design service loads is built around the combined stress formula f =~+ A Mc I (9) Normally. from the pretensioned In this steel to the is called after the to the This type of prestressing The tendons may also be posttensioned concrete has hardened. tendons through tubes devices to which the prestressing Another method is by passing the posttension or ducts. The prestressing tendons may be preten sioned before the concrete is placed around them and then released to the concrete after it has attained sufficient strength. After the tendons are stressed they are also anchored' mechanically. case the loads are transferred concrete member by bond. The reaction of the force applied to these elements is eventually taken by the concrete member by bond or anchorages. the internal loads and moments tendons become fundamental features of direct loads and moments. the use of this formula involves only externally applied However. The ducts are then pumped full of a cement grout of stress by bond.elements (wire.
12 B. (11) the force required to produce a final bottom fiber stress o= F + Fe AS.ML S S 2 wDL 18 bh2/6 = 196 .5 Kips 35 . If an eccentric load were applied to the ends of the beam so that the resulting stress in the bottom fiber at mid span equals 821 psi or greater. compre s F. with the greatest eccentricity of the prestressing becomes 13 inches. bottom fiber) 940000 1500 . The at mid span under this loading is (10) bottom fiber stress =  MD . In order to achieve the greatest sion in the bottom fibers with the least force. no tension would ever be expected to exist in the concrete at mid span. the eccentricity Solution of the following expression yields of zero.:.the analysis and design of prestressed example is presented to demonstrate concrete. it must be applied Allowing 2" to the center steel for concrete cover. Fig.300 _F + 13F f5UO 292000 1500 F = 68. possible.625 = 821 psi This stress would likely exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. The following of design: the basic principles A simple beam in Fig. ~ ~ o (Dead + Live. 12 A is made of plain concrete having a compressive strength of 5000 psi and is loaded as shown.
Iff f LIVE LOAD I KI FT. til 04::"F F +196  25'0" CLl I 196 625 1:J+~ +625 196 +625 +196 196 '+'821 V a 196 l+~ a +821 +625 ~ MIDSPAN STRESSES FUlL LOAD MIDSPAN STRESSES WITHOUT LIVE LOAD FIG. f2 B PRESTRESSED BEAMSTRAIGHT TENDONS 36 . 1 t t 10" MIDSPAN STRESSES 1 625 821 196 FIG. 12 A PLAIN CONCRETE BEAM +tt tLlVE LOAD= IK/FT.
or by unbending some of the elements in the end regions. top fiber) (12) = 170 psi example only. if the live load is not acting.span. Therefore.However. At the ends of the beam. the flexural stresses load of beam do not exist. down at the center and up at the ends.1 in. in the top fiber. arising from the dead are present forces tensile stresses At the ends the center of the prestressing must be within the middle third of a rectangular the kern of any cross. 94 Kips = 8. i . we are permitting Therefore. 37 .0 in Eq (12) the simultaneous solution of Eq (11) and (12) for F and e yields: F and e ::. however. the top fiber stress at midspan is: ft ::. section or within These conditions may be satisfied by locating the force in the example beam with an eccentricity of 5 inches plus increasing the prestressing required amount. or draping.+f ~e M (Dead only.section. the stressing elements. and increase the prestress Setting ft ::. force the additional They can also be satisfied by deflecting. These values satisfy the requirements at mid. to meet we For purposes of this illustrative no tensile stresses under any conditions of loading. must reduce the eccentricity this requirement.
211 strands ••••• . stresses Limiting tensile and compressive Example: will be covered in the subsequent material. Mid Span ~@211 t Cross .Section 38 . 000 psi Area (1/2" strand) Allowable bottom fiber tension = O. Design data fc f~ = = 5000 psi 250.Obviously decreasing the eccentricity ing force does not represent Tensile stresses and increasing the prestress the economical solution. 143 in2 = 425 psi I 1/". are permitted by codes in the top and bottom fibers but for purposes of illustration no tensile for design conditions. stresses were permitted in the above example..J i!. Determine the allowable uniform load that the rectangular beam shown below can carryover a simple span of 36'0".• • • v'oY.
* 39 . necessary ultimate strength computations are of safety. shrinkage and creep of concrete and relaxation of steel stress.326 1444 plf ULTIMATE STREN GTH Determination of the ultimate flexural capacity of prestressed part of design procedure.. 143 (250. The reduction of 35. to insure the proper factor Stress in prestressing tendons immediately after transfer is O.35.7 . Even though concrete is an important the designer does not expect the application of load of such magnitude as to cause failure.000 psi (recommended by ACIASCE Joint Committee 323) allows approximately 20% for losses due to elastic shortening.%2 = 425 F F 10 x O.000 x 0. allowable superimposed wL weight of beam = = 326 plf load: = = 1770 .000)* 200 k _ 425 = + 200 + (200) (10) _ w (36)2 12 312 1352 8 (1352) wt = 1770 pounds per foot 312_ x 150 144 Thus.7Of~ (ACI 31863).Section Properties A = 26 x 12 2 S = 12 x 26 = 312 in2 6 = 1352 in 3 Load Determination f bf =+~+ = =: !i.
The other is based on the assumption that plane sections always The conditions of stress and concrete concrete and remain essentially plane.The analysis of prestressed concrete for service load. The diagrams are shown for both conditions to illustrate that the significance 40 . the behavior of a member at failure is much the same as that of a conThe primary difference in the ventionally reinforced beam. computation predicting the ultimate flexural strength of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete lies in the difference between the stressstrain reinforcement. Also the analysis is not complicated by the assumption of cracks in the concrete. Two sets of equations are involved in the derivation of the expressions predicting ultimate flexural strength of conventionally reinforced as well as prestressed One set expresses concrete. When one witnesses a test to failure of a prestressed concrete beam it becomes obvious that these assumptions are no longer valid at the time failure occurs. prestressed In fact. strain at ultimate moment capacity for prestressed conventionally reinforced concrete are depicted in Fig. presented in the foregoing section. 13. presumed complete elasticity of the concrete. the conditions of equilibrium which are independent as well as whether it is prestressed or properties of prestressing steels and conventional of the type of reinforcement not.
t+b1 I T PRISTRESS STRAIN IN CONCRETE CONDITIONS AT ULTIMATE MOMENT PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ~ b . 13 41 .1 T r cu1 E CONDITIONS AT ULTIMATE MOMENT ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE FIG.
. Flanged sections in which the neutral axis falls outside the flange: 42 .59. or flanged sections in which the neutral axis lies = with:inthe flange: = <p [Asfsud (10. The ultimate flexural strength formula is presented a slightly different manner: 1.~)] (264) 2. x As ) bd (16) Another more convenient form for Eq (16) is: (17) index. 59q)} 4> [Asf su (d . where q is the reinforcement percentage in ACI 31863 in Rectangular sections. ~. ACI 31863 k2 k1k3 uses k1k3 = 0.of the prestress is rather minor because it influences the strain are: (13) diagram only slightly. The equations of equilibrium and Mu = = fsuAs (d.k2c) compatibility of strains is: (14) The equation expressing fcu tu(1ku) (15) ku Solving Eq (13) for c and substituting into Eq (14) the expression for ultimate moment becomes: Mu = Af su d (1  k2 x fsu kl k3 r. The problem fc now reduces to one of evaluating fsu and the ratio ~.
67. is common throughout the code applying to both normal reconcrete. For conventionally reinforced concrete fy may be used for fsu' for of the required area of st eel and its lf q does not exceed 0. For ease of calcula inforced concrete and prestressed tion the required ultimate moment can be found by dividing by <t> making the determination location straightforward. ~. A trial and error process must be used until the selected value of t cu agrees with the calculated value of fsu on the stress. Assuming well bonded steel curve and a value for € cu is selected from the stressstrain Eq (15) is solved for ~ setting E u = 0. Eq (17) produces predictions ultimate moment capacity which are in close agreement with test results.4.strain 43 .85 f~ (bb') tlfsu The equations are the same as developed previously except for the addition of the capacity reduction factor <b. This reduction factor.Where Asr = O. The determination of fsu for prestressed concrete is the stress not so simple. Then Eq (13) is solved for fsu substituting kud for c and letting kl k3 = O. strain curve for steel must be used. For the most accurate computations.003.
of 1 kip per lineal foot.curve. Other designer s prefer to use ultimate strength only as a check on factor of safety.section. Total Design Moment MO ML 250 lb/ft = = (250) (50)2 (l. the expressions presented in the ACIASCE JOint Committee 323 Report and the ACI 31863 Building Code Requirements pf' = f~ (10. exclusive of its own weight. For most design purposes. Example: Design a rectangular beam to span 50 feet and to carry a total load. ultimate strength design procedure the writers feel that the can be used to good advantage at the outset of a design problem for selecting cross. The following examples illustrate the use of the ultimate strength procedure as an initial design tool. 2608) Unbonded reinforcement (ACI 31863 Sec. 2608) = fse + 15000 psi Suggested Initial Design Procedures Contrary to the practice of most designers. lb. in.000 in. Design data f~ f~ = = 5000 psi 250. (1000) (50)2 (l. lb. 000 psi == Est. 5~) fc fsu are satisfactory: Bonded reinforcement (ACI 31863 Sec. 5) = 3.sections or to determine the feasibility of a proposed cross. beam wt. 5) = 940.760. however.000 44 .
46 in2 use 101/2 in.170. lb. Mu/ <p q For purposes Ifq = 10.000) (ACI 31863) + 1.Let d Try q = = = 2. 15 1. section and solve Eq (17) for q. k = O.450 in. OOOp = p fsu = = = 0'lt7 5.9 (6.000 psi.080. 59q) Eq. the Once the dimension 4S .000) = = 8.000 in.000 = . 50 + 1. 25)b3 127/8" 35" ::: 9.000 psi r: purpose (31) (13) fsP) This is close enough for the present As = = (0. 17 modified by the capacity reduction factor in ACI 31863 8.000/0.5 228. higher than estimated value) h Adjust the moment for the added beam weight of a 13 x 35 in. (0. 170. bd2fCq (10. strands and steel requirements are established. Ib.5 b O.000 (0. 167 of estimation 230. 5 (940. = O. 0036 f~ (10.91) = = (5000) b = = d = 31" (Beam wt. 15) in. 167 ° assume fsu = 230.0036) 1. 8L = 1.760. 8 (3.
(5000)q (10. The architect has re quested that the beam be no larger than 10 in. b d = 3.000 in. 5) 144 l.000 psi 10 in. is omitted here because it is covered in the design examples in the appendix.000) = = (10) (27)2 and = 0.760. 8 (3.000 in. lb.000 in.170.000) = = = = 1.510.3 (ACI 31863 Sec. 5 (1. 10 (30) x 150 (50)2 (l. 9.170. Some adjustment for the various conditions of loading.760. 8. lb. x 30 in. for a total load of one kip per foot exclusive of weight of beam. lb.26 < 0. Design data fT C = 5000 psi f~ = = = 250. Example: Design a rectangular beam spanning SOfeet. 2609) 46 . 000 in. code provisions to set limiting in the location and number of strands The working stress analysis usually results from this analysis. 59q) + l.section is analyzed elastically making use of the appropriate stresses. 27 in. 480. lb.
3 (section in dimension unsati sfactory) The beam must be increased or possibly a composite Tbeam using a 47 .000 psi :::12 in.Est. 2 use 131/2 in. 68 in. :::21 in.5) (250. Design data f~ f's b d :::5000 psi :::250. 000 in. fsu p :::210. 59q) q :::0.000 psi And As :::(0.000) (5.000) (. strands some difficulty may be encountered With this high value of ~p fc in meeting the design stress of loading.000 psi _ O.0062) :::250.000 :::209.0062 (10. 26 42 :::0. :::8) 850. beam dimension 12 x 25. . for a load of one kip per foot exclusive of the weight of the beam. Example: Design a f limitations for the several conditions rectangular beam spanning 50 ft. lb.0062) (10) (27) ::: 1. :::(12) (21)2 (5000)q (10. Architect's Iimita tion.47 > O.
possible. The proupon and prestressed visions for shear in the ACI Building Code (ACI 31863) rest this foundation of research with some attempt to simplify equations to ease the task of the designer.cast . 48 . Simplified design expressions. SHEAR Extensive research basic understanding reinforced topping might work during the past fifteen years has led to a of the phenomenon of shear in conventionally concrete flexural members. Consequently. simplified equations with the knowledge that in some cases they may be overly conservative. though run the risk of being overly conservative in some cases or possibly too liberal in other cases. The design expressions of the ACI Building Code are in many respects However. nothing forbids too cumbersome for general design usage.in place concrete satisfy the conditions. falling back upon the more complicated equations when a detailed analysis may prove to be more economical. designers from using conservative. Probably the most important finding by researchers is the fact that the phenomenon of shear is very complicated and involves many variables.
14 DIAGON AL SHEAR CRACK 81 FLEXURAL CRACK d 8' FOR V CI THEORY FOR EQUATION (2612) FIG.FLEXURE CRACKS ~ FLEXURE CRACKS ~ TYPE (I) TYPES OF DIAGONAL CRACKS OCCURING IN A PRESTRESSED CONCRETE MEMBER FIG. IS 49 .
where ft :S fv + Jr pc: fv)2 + vew Because this expression is cumbersome for the designer. Type 1. formation of the shear crack immediately pal stress equations to determine The mode of suggests the use of princi the principal tensile stress at the stresses centroid of the crosssection. if strands are draped. stress is expressed as: ft = _fpc.section. progressing upward and downward diagonally till failure occurs. is generally called the flexuralshear is called the shear crack (or diagonal tension crack). They originate near the centroid of the cross. crack. and the shear force. Type 2 The shear crack occurs in regions of high shear and low moment. The horizontal and vertical at the centroid result from the prestress force and its vertical comThe principal ponent. the ACI 50 .The diagonal crack that forms in the shear areas of a concrete flexural member results from the weakness of concrete in tension. Research studies show there are two types of diagonal cracks. see Fig. 14.
AI The corresponding cross.Building Code offers an alternate Vcw Flexuralshear moderate shear. if the formation of the flexof the flexuralshear crack suggests a means of solution. 5 K+ 0. Vci :.63. research has indicated that even though flexural cracks nominal shear in occur at a section.3 fpc) + Vp (2613) cracks occur in regions of moderate flexure and They originate as vertical flexural cracks at the As they progress upward with increasing extreme tensile fiber.section. 51 . the section can still resist addition to flexural considerations.6 b'd~ Therefore. With minor exceptions this expression for Vci and the corresponding expression for Mcr are identical to those appearing in ACI 318. load. f)1 fc + pe M/V However.( Ifc 6 + fpe> _ F + Fey where fpc .:Vcr + O. the formation Thus. at any crosssection Mcr ~ t..7V = Mcr Y I (6. they bend over diagonally up to and sometimes through the compression zone.[f. or Vcr shear is directly related to the M/V ratio of the ="M. is prevented. solution: = b'd (3. Again the mode of formation immediately that is. ural crack is prevented.
It is necessary respect..) The terms fd and Vd the flexural crack originates. the Vci equation is partially rational and partially Vcw and Vci expressions are completely independent and are related to two different regions of the member with different stress conditions. to point out that the Mcr equation is rational in every However. refer to stress due to dead load and shear due to dead load respectively. 7 b'd . the realized by the addition of d/2.. f and V are not signi ficant and they are an additional burden to design calculations. 15. The shear crack. empirical. the step from the Mcr equation to the Vci equation data.Vci =. Vcw' governs in regions of maximum shear and minimum flexure such as near the supports in a simple beam or near the points of contraflexure in a continuous beam. Whereas the Vcw equation is empirical based upon research is a simplification intended to replace the principal stress expression. The flexural 52 . 0 6 b'd where Mer vrr + IC (6 ~ Mcr MjV d/2 + Vd ~ 1.fd) The term d/2 was added by the Code Committee on the basis that the critical shear section is located a distance d/2 from the section where (See Fig. Because of the conservative refinements nature of shear equations in general.JTf'c' 1" = I Y + fpe .
supported can be conserva case of a uniformlyloaded (V ci) at the quarterpoint beam. are uniformlyloaded simplyflexural flexural members For this type of member the critical shear section is neither in regions of maximum flexure nor in regions of maximum shear. 3L.63: A v is designed to carry excess shear by equation = (Vu<j>Vc)s ~fyd by the Also ACI 31863 specifies minimum shear reinforcement equation 26. flexuralshear tively estimated by the equation Vci = O. 6 btd~ WI L + O. C.shear crack. 25 WdL + O. of uniformly loaded simple beams. Vci : governs in regions where both shear and simultaneously such as near concentrated or between the flexure are acting loads. near the supports of continuous beams. supports and centerline Most prestressed supported beams. between O.11: *This equation was derived from Eq (2612) with conservative assumptions by R. simply. Elstner. 2L and O. 53 . but lies. 40WIL* where Wd = = = dead load in pounds per foot li ve load in pounds per foot length of beam in feet Shear reinforcement 2610 of ACI 318. within tolerable limits For design purposes the quarterpoint can be assumed to be the critical For the particular section without ser ious error.
in pre ACI 31863 does permit omission of shear reinforcement stressed beams if "it is shown by tests that the required ultimate flexural and shear capacity can be developed when web reinforcement is omitted" (Par.4> Vc). 2610(c). whereas shear reinforcement inforced concrete. Extensive mathematical investigations of simply. reinforcement can be omitted in conventionally rea specified minimum shear Eq 2611 requires in all prestressed beams. reinforcement The following equation expresses prescribed by Par. On the other hand.OOI5b's Comparison of this equation and Eq 2611 shows they are very different. 1706(b) the minimum web Av =O. In conventionally reinforced concrete the minimum shear steel requirements only become effective when the shear to be is relatively low. Furthermore carried by web reinforcement Eq 2611 is effective over a wide range of(Vu .• f's • s fy The procedures d Jf d b' for shear reinforcement design are essentially the same as those used for conventionally reinforced concrete (Chapter 17 of ACI 31863) except for provisions pertaining to minimum shear reinforcement.supported uniformly loaded beams by the Portland Cement Association show that Eq 2610 54 .
1ft.050 650 0. can serve only as a guide with about 10 per cent maximum deviations from the exact values.037 700 0. w (lb.supersedes Eq 2611 only in extreme cases. 6 ft. height: 24 in. 1ft. than with this load. 100AsiA 0.043 950 0. ) hlL 550 0.045 650 0. to 36 in. web reinforcement mum will be required. and furthermore that Eq 2613 (Vcw) is rarely critical in Ibeams. They. hence. web. 83/4 in. Tables 1 through 3 are summaries in shear design except from the PCA mvestigatione ' at which the required and give those values of h/L and AsiA web reinforcement just equals the minimum amount specified The tables also give the corr es by Equation 2611 of the Code. topping w (lb. Strands draped at midspan and anchored near CGC.5 0. Table 1 Single tees. ponding superimposed live load. wide. beyond the specified mini in accordance with Equations 2512 and/or Equation 2613 of ACI 31863. ) which the member can If the member is loaded heavier carry at the quoted parameters. 1ft. It should be noted that the quoted figures are averages taken from extensive load tables6.045 2600 0.074 55 . ) h/L w (lb.3 0.7 No topping 2 in.
except for strands draped at midspan with end anchorages near the CGC.3 1200 0. ft. 2 in. to 40 in.065 1650 0.3 1700 0. 4 ft. parallel strands. ) h/L w (lb. topping w(1b. to 20 in.059 900 0.067 O. with taper 1:12) 10 to 14 inches. web (at flange).09 Table 3 Double tees. flange.ft. 10. in height and from 6 in.055 0. height: 14 to 18 inches. 1ft. 100As/A No topping w(lb.5 2000 0. In that case. 5 ft. was investigated. in width. web (at flange height. wide.065 O. ) h/L 0. varying from 20 in. 100As/A No topping 2 in. wide. It was found that the critical b /L values were always above O.7 2000 0. 6 in. ) h/L 2 in.09 Inverted Tees and Ledger Beams A large variety of inverted tees and ledger beams. the critical hjL ratio could 56 .069 >2500 ::>0. ) h/L 0.068 > 2000 >0. 41/2 in.5 1500 0.065 1200 0. parallel strands.051 0. flange. ft.069 2100 0. topping w (lb.Table 2 Double tees. 2 in.7 1650 0.
The following is a sample problem indicating the use of the previously given tables. ) floor member is to carry a live load of 175 lb/sq. is only about 700 lb/ft. The strands shall be draped at mid. The load is w = 6 x 180 = 1080 lb/ft.drop to 0. will practically always suffice for these types. The flexDoes suffice in ural analysis will show that this load can be carried with less than 0. A 2 in. topping is to be considered in composite action. The shear capacity according to Table 1.span and anchored near the CGC. will have to do one of the 57 . This is still unusually high for prestressed so that minimum web reinforcement concrete construction.5% prestressing steel. on a span of 50 ft. minimum web reinforcement this case? ANSWER The h/L ratio is 30/50 x 12 ::. wide single tee (h =: 30 in. ft. 05. for this reinforcing therefore. One. PROBLEM A 6 ft. however. ratio.07.O.
Critical Sections For Shear I Simple Beam ..Concentrated Load Vci at distance from support. Table 4 . sections of At many of these points the designer has the option of using a rigorous application of code equations. or S modification of (2612). the following tabulation serves to establish the critical flexural members requiring examination for shear. 5%.. Elstner r the PCA summaries when applicable.following things in order to avoid extra stirrups: a) Shift the drape point towards the third or quarterpoint or: b) Lower the end anchorages as much as possible stresswise. 58 . Vcw at support d. Use (2612)* Use (2613) II Simple Beam . c) Increase or: steel to slightly the prestressing more than O..Uniform Load Vci at quarterpoint Use (2612) or Elstner modification Use(2613) v cw * MjV :eo: at support the longest length in inches from a support to the load point minus d. Although examples of design problems contained within this publication show shear calculations rigidly following ACI 31863.
Concentrated Vci at di stance d from support v cw IV at point of contraflexure Vci at support Continuous Beam ...II Simple Beam .Uniform or Concentrated Vci at support *Using L in equations to be distance between points of contr aflexure.! L in 2 inche s.Uniform Load (continued) OR Vci and Vcw Use PCA Summaries Load Use (2612) Use (2613) Use (2612) III Continuous Beam . ** M V = .. 59 ..Uniform Load Vci at quarterpoint between points of contraflexure Use (2612) or Elstner ' s Modification * Use (2613) Vcw at point of contraflexure OR Vci and V cw above Vci at supports V Cantilevers Use PCA Summaries* Use (2613) Load Use (2612)** .
The draping of the strands is important to the shear capacity. thereby decreasing the amount of shear steel. Vci can be increased by keeping the strands close to the tension face throughout the member even though flexural requirements allow more concentric prestressing. concrete in the area be consulted. and engineers' At the same time. it is recommend ed that the producers of prestressed Dimensional Tolerances 1. or in any Tight becomes a matter of compromise. were developed by the Workmanship Committee of the Prestressed Concrete Institute. Crosssectional dimensions sections less than 6 inches + 1/8" 60 . might In the case of draped strands both V ci and V cw reach an optimum with strands draped near the quarterpoint. to satisfy architects' tolerances must be established requirements. They are considered as being typical for a wide concrete building sections. concrete. tolerances must be established The following tolerances that are attainable at a reasonable cost. If specific job conditions require closer tolerances. TOLERANCES The entire subject of tolerance in prestressed material for that matter. They are intend variety of prestressed ed for use as a guide to indicate a reasonable standard of performance.
the simplest. This connection usually consists of a precast prestressed supporting member. of length camber between adjacent units after installalength and cross tion. 4. + 3/4" Maximum limitations 3. assuming a design producing minimum camber ± 5. Deviation from specified design camber after installa tion. Deviation from straight line (sweep) 1/8" per 10 ft. castin place concrete. Differential 1/8" per 10 ft. gravity.6 inche s to 18 inche s 18 inches to 36 inches over 36 inches 2. member resting on a Flexible bearing pads can be used to provide 61 . The more typical methods are: and posttensioning. to be limited to a maximum of onehalf the allowance for deviation from design camber in 4 above. Over all length + 3/16" + 1/4" + 3/8" + 1/8" per 10 ft. Gravity connections are. of course. members can be accomplished welding. CONNECTIONS Connections between prestressed in a variety of ways. assuming sections of similar section.
When unusual conditions of the steel is exposed tendons may be used if deterioration prevented by some specific means. dictate. The conduits in accordance with manufacturers' containing the tendons should be grouted. Castinplace connections between precast prestressed members They can have the appearance and behavior of monolithic concrete. When prestressed beams. and if the supporting frame is inflexible. connections are good for the resistance of high mo All posttensioning anchorage and devices should be installed recommendations. make tack welds during erection and provide full fillet welds after all in the welds. any If heavy dead loads are to be placed on the beam. or other members are rigidly attached 62 . be constructed and designed to distribute live loads or both superim posed dead loads and live loads. tees. Since dead loads are in place.even load distribution. and are inex pensive insurance against adverse stress conditions occurring in the bearing area. thus reducing stresses prestressed beams usually tend to shorten slightly over a period of one end of each beam time. Posttensioned ments. Welded connections can be quickly completed in essentially weather. should be free to slide. provide for joint rotation.
should be investi this problem seldom develops. Shortening in in should be considered. In any detail. shrinkage. and temperature the effects of future creep. If. the bars which are attached to the steel bearing plates or angles must be designed to resist tensile forces. but in this case. Therefore. either before placing the members in the structure or before attaching both ends of the member to the supporting structure. one end of the member is allowed to move and is not rigidly tied down. the members due to these factors will create tensile stresses a member problem. stability. because the supporting walls or columns are usually limber enough to bend slightly to relieve the tension forces. ACI. shrinkage and thermal changes are virtually eliminated. can be approached in several ways. if its ends are rigidly held down. 63 . gated. but drops off rapidly with time.to supporting columns or girders. these effects can be minimized by providing for an amount of time.ASCE Committee 512 has completed a report7 that suggests methods by which joints and connections for use in precast concrete construction may be designed. The solution to this however. The rate of both creep and shrinkage is rapid when the members are newly cast. the problems due to future creep. however. In single bay structures. where lateral loads must be resisted.
The Prestressed
Concrete Institute has published a report8 by the PCI
Committee on Connection Details which is a collection of details, schematically represented, of types of connections which have
proven successful under field conditions. PARTIAL PRESTRESSING This is a method of design that consists mainly of designing the prestressed stresses. member for behavior rather than for limited tensile The necessary steel is provided to take ultimate loads.
However, the strands either are not stressed the normal amount or some of them are stressed keep the strand straight. of the necessary than strand. With this method of design, the behavior of the member mainly, as pertaining to camber and deflection, can more easily be controlled and predicted. only to a nominal tension sufficient to Another method used is to provide some
steel in the form of mild reinforcing rods rather
Dr. P. W. Abeles, English consulting engineer,
concrete tensile stress of 750 psi under
suggests a permissible
working load as a reasonable figure to use in designing by this method. SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS This publication makes no attempt to cover such special design considerations as occur in areas subject to hurricanes, tornadoes,
64
earthquakes or other exceptional conditions which require special engineering attention. consultants particularly It is recommended that the services of qualified to handle these specialized
designs be obtained for these problem areas.
65
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. AASHOPCI Committee on Inspection, "Manual for Inspection of Prestressed Concrete", Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute, V. 7, No.6, December 1962. Shideler, J. J. , "Lightweight Aggregate Concrete for Structural Use", Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, V. 54, No. 16, ACI Journal, October 1957. Hognestad, Eivind; Hanson, N. W.; and McHenry, Douglas, "Concrete Stress Distribution in Ultimate Strength Design", Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, V. 52, No. 58, ACI Journal, December 1955. Hanson, J. A., "Prestress Journal of the Prestressed April, 1964. Loss as Affected by Type of Curing" , Concrete Institute, V. 9, No.2,
2.
3.
4.
5.
Hanson, J. A., "Optimum Steam Curing Procedure in Precasting Plants", Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, V. 60, No.1, ACI Journal, January 1963. Mast, Paul E., "Shortcuts for the Shear Analysis of Standard Prestressed Concrete Members", Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute, V. 9, No.5, October 1964. ACIASCE Committee 512, "Suggested Design of Joints and Connections in Precast Structural Concrete", Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, V. 61, No. 51, ACI Journal, August 1964. PCI Committee on Connection Details, Connection Details for PrecastPrestressed Concrete Buildings, Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1963.
6.
7.
8.
66
: Compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress Ultimate tensile strength of steel Effective steel prestress Stress in prestressing after losses :.: = :.: Gross cross.: :.NOTATIONS A As Asf Asr Av b b' c CGS CGe d = = = = = = = = = = :.sectional area of reinforcement Area of reinforcement Area of reinforcement to develop overhanging flanges to develop web Area of web reinforcement Width of compression face of flexural member Average width of web of flanged member Distance from neutral axi s to extreme fiber Centroid of prestressing steel Centroid of concrete section Depth from extreme compressive Eccentricity of applied prestressing to neutralaxi s Modulus of elasticity of concrete.: = = steel at ultimate load 67 . Applied prestressing Stress in concrete Compressive strength of concrete force fiber to eGS with respect e Ec F f f' c f~i f' s fse fsu :.: = :.sectional area of concrete Cross.
68 . when cracking is the result of excessive principal tension stresses in the web Shear due to specified ultimate load Strain in concrete Capacity reduction factor (ACI 318.steel ratio fsup/fc reinforcement Section modulus Spacing of web reinforcement Shear carried by concrete percentage index I k = = = = = = M Mu p q S s Vc Vci Vcw = = = = Shear at diagonal cracking due to all loads. when cracking is the result of combined shear and moment Shear force at diagonal cracking due to all loads.fy h = = Yield strength of reinforcement Total depth of beam Moment of inertia of gross concrete section With various subscripts denotes coefficients describing stress block at ultimate flexural capacity Applied moment Ultimate moment capacity As/bel .63) = = Vu Ec = = q.
000 69 . GIRDER: TOTAL D. 2400 7000 "'1FT. PROPERTIES TOTAL LOAD = 7 KIPS 1FT.ROOF.S. CONCRETE (ORIGINAL 5000 4000 f'c :: • fci :: f's = P. 4600 6' . P.L.1. L. P.INSUL.APPENDIX .S.S. 341 .1 820*1 FT.I.. ASSUMPTIONS) NORMAL WT.I . ROOF SLABS.DESIGN EXAMPLES 20" I 20" r'"'_ I2" I~ 32" DESIGN ABOVE LEDGER BEAM FORTHE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS: t LOADS D. 3780 :It/FT. 250.l.L. L.
8 = = 4800 3830 In.760 = 68.075 91685 11. SHEAR 01AGRAM 16.3 In.4 1.71 M=868'k ~ 126.345 y I Sb St = = = = 11. 3 .2 68..k 70 .105 .730 J.240 864 d 1. I 04 l 56.105 17.5' I I Mmax.2" 56.615 1.8 .8 8. 68! 105 14.2 Ad2 2.SECTION PROPERTIES A 20x 32 640 144 784 Y 16 6 J Ay 10.760 20X327J2 12XI20/12 Io 2 x 6 x 12 = = 54.345 Yt = 17. = 950· k MOMENTDIAGRAM 11.104 784 J = + 14. in.
USED ABOVE FOR PRETENSIONING.000 P. 7 WIRE STRANDS ULT. .425 WHERE: Ff A MT = TOTAL FINAL PRESTRESSFORCEAFTER ALL LOSSES = AREA OF UNCRACKED SECTION = MAXIMUM TOTAL MOMENT. THE TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS SUGGESTED THE P.ESTIMATE FINAL PRESTRESSING FORCE ALLOWABLE TENSILE STRESS IN PRECOMPRESSED TENSILE ZONE::: 6 Rc = 6 J5000 = 425 P. 2 STRAND::: 0.211 Sb ::: BOTTOM FIBER SECTION MODULUS TRY 29 AREA OF 1/211 DIA.1.0::: 11.S.144) ( 175. STRENGTH=250.70 (250.I.!.I. SECTION 2607 OF THE CODE DOES NOT SPELL OUT THE VA LUES FOR PRESTRESS LOSS.144) (FORCE AT JACKING) (175.000 = 585 KIPS. .000 PS.000)= Fo Ff 175.000) (0) = 730 KIPS (29) (.2 .3.35. CONCRETE LOSSES WILL BE 71 . = = 29 (. STRAND. (0 L + L L ) e =ECCENTRICITY OF APPLICATION OF PRESTRESS FORCE ASSUME e::: 14.144 .000 FOR 270 K PS. A 20% LOSS FOR 250 K 35.000 THIS REPRESENTS STRAND AND L I GHTWE IGHT HIGHER THAN 18.5"0 35.1. I.S.000) . In 2 INITIAL TENSIONING STRESS::: .S..
.... U ~~ .2" Y= 7(2)+6(4)+I6(23) 29 SAY 0 = 14 II e DETERMINE POINT OF MAX IMUM TENSJLE = ..6" I........ 16 '..2" STRESS BOTTOM FIBER STRESS UNDER FULL DESIGN LOAD ZONE OF NET TENSILE STRESS UNDER FINAL PRESTRESS AND FULL DESIGN LOAD.S ZONE OF COMPRESSIVE STRESSUNDER PRESTRESS PLUS FULL DESIGN LOAD.. t~ . END I 16 @ 2"32"J ..... . ... .2 .. Ff Ffe +A Sb X (P... ]. • SPA~. . 72 .A:14.. .. •• • ~ ~ L V I EW SECTION AA e=11.~. 23'6" ~l ~ ..STRAND PATTERN TRY SINGLE POINT DEPRESSION Fj I...~~.
585 fbMAX.2170 .15 x  72X2] ss A Ff (11.7') = 73 ..) = 6 J6000 AT SAME POINT CHECK ULTIMATE MOMENT M u = 1.5 In.7 ()11.I.400 + 1.8 4. FOR SIMPLE AND UNIFORM SPANS e= WITH 11. 2 ..68 :: 11.I.=.. CENTER POINT DEFLECTED NET STRANDS TENSILE LOADING. Sb 16..784 = + 747 : IF + 11.8 J + 910 ..fir = 465 P.400 11.5 S b (585) 84x = x= 983 84 ~ x = 1 I. THE POINT OF MAXIMUM THE HAVE : STRESS WILL BE NEAR EXAMPLE WE COULD PT..5 x 4:. dfb _ 0 dx  dfb dx  [l157x 12 [ Sb 1380 "j + + . + I. 2. > 425 P.!. = 6 . (POS.. MOM.S.. 16.7 16.@ 2.5 FOR fb __ MAX.S.71) AND HAVE BEEN SUFFICtE NTL Y CLOSE.50 = 1.IF fb = NET TENSILE STRESS IN BOTTOM FIBER fb THEN :=~..2).2 Ff _ 0 16.650"k.. fe =6000P.8 x 16.7' ~. TO FIND THE MAXIMUM STRESS IT IS ALSO POSSI BLE NOTE THAT GRAPHICALLY.___. 4. THE ONLY TIME THE POINT OF MAXIMUM MOMENT IS WHEN STRESS IS AT THE STRAIGHT STRANDS 7 (11.7' 1 11. 8 L fb (ALLOW.9 .7 r. OF THE SPAN.7)2 POINT OF MAXIMUM ARE USED.2 = 7.SJ.:.4 x 10.S.5 (112) 585 12 ~15·11..6 x 10. IN THIS USED THIS APPROXIMATION (12.+ ~ + 12 r.4 5 3 P..= + .
900uk < 16. 8 = 25. 5 I pfs f~ ) = 250 .7 ( 1.9 ( 4> = .L BE USED. 3 BUT THEN IF fsu fie = 6000 (I  LBS.7 .17.700" k > 16.S.3 P As bd = 4.28 D 16. . 74 .3 AND pf:~=.59 q)] p = = = 4> flC bd 2J DEPENDING ON WHETHER f f~: (I IS LESS THAN OR GREATER THAN .203) 199 5 = 199 KIPS fsu T = .7)2] 14.S.M u = 4> OR Mu [AS fsu d [. 00 8 I 2 c =.25 (1.9 = [4.00812 f su = f s (I .00812 x 250 5 ) = 250 P (I .9 [25 = x 5 X20X(25.5 .18 20d d = e + Y t = 7.59 FOR FLEXURE) x .1.18 x 207 x 25.650" k ONE POSSIBLE ASSUME 5000 SOLUTION IS TO RAISE P..9 +.008122~7 FOR f ~ = 6000 Mu = .650" k FOR Mu= t'c = 5000 . CONCRETE WILL fc I TO 6000 P.. 32 3 >.28 <.17 ) = 250 = = 207 KIPS .
19'6" 5 INGLE PT . 45 f ~ 75 ..S.2) _ 4.TRY 2 POINT DEPRESSION OF STRANDS Ej I.2) 3..L _ Sb Sb + 585 . +_M_f_ Sf (ftf =FINAL TOP STRESS) Sf = + + 585 .83 = = + 201 5 P.8 1365 2375 950 (12) 4.5' BY INSPECTION.7' NO LONGER CRITICAL AT MIDSPAN Mt (fbt :: FINAL BOTTOM STRESS) + = FAt +.1. < 2250 = .I. 7'0" . PATTERN ..I....83 1710 + 2980 + 950 (12) 3.784 745 _ 585(11.8 :: + 745 + = _ 265 =+Ff_Ffe A < 425 P. ~ 13'6" •• . j f pC+ fpe II.2.S... 7' 16.784 + 585 (11.. CHECK FINAL fbf= SECTION STRESSES a 11.
S.80 1 . ALONE fbi = + . LAST TWO TERMS IN ABOVE EQUATIONS DROP OUT.68 9 BARS) STRESSES AT ENDS BY INSPECTION SINCE e = 0 AND Mo = 0.5· FROM LT.8" +2140 STRESS DIAGRAM AT 13.. x 20 x 7.I.4 4.784 + . BUT IS ACCEPTED HERE FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PUP POSES. I.THE AUTHOR RECOMMENDS FOR MOST CASES THAT THE TENSILE STRESS NOJ • EXCEED 500 P. S..688 > AC I 31863 PLACES NOLIMIT ON THIS VALUE.83 I =+ 885  .r. OR 190 P.6 KIPS = 2.S.51 FROM LT. 53. 2 _ (16. <:::: = .82 x 13.83 2030+457 3.365 2400 = fti + 2 140 P.80 K X 13.5 2 2 ) 12 = + 885 + 1620 .5 4. 76 .INITIAL fbi STRESSESAT 13.I.2 (USE 2 1 = 3'" 53.8 x in.2 + 3. 688 = +885 = .6 20 688 ~J.95x 730x II. END (HOLD DOWNPOINT) = + i:F' + Fie Sb Mo Sb t f bi =INITIAL BOTTOM STRESS) WHERE Fi = INITIAL PRESTRESSINGFORCEAFTER ALLOWINGFOR ELASTIC SHORTENING (ESTIMATED HERE AT 5 % ) MD=MOMENT AT SECTION DUE TO GIRDER WT. TENSILE FORCE: As' = INITIAL O.95 x 730 x 11. 60 f c i 1750 3.K.95 x 730 .
.00122 > 5 ..5 585 . +  .250 AT CANT I LEVER SUPPORT e d fbf = = + 6 19.18 20(29) 250  .ULTIMATE MOMENT AT MIDSPAN Mu = 1.18X205X29 >] Ilk WITH ~ = .2) = 3.23.8 + 315 + 126 (12) 4.00122~ 250 q = = 205 (.!.5) 3.5 (11.296>J = 18.5 x 4:.296 <.5 . 585 (3.8 x 1: 2:.7in.83 1& 186P.400 CHECK STRESSES llk >18.9 [4.8 = : a + 427 + 1481 P.4 x 950 936 + 586 = MOMENT CAPACITY AT MIDSPAN p= 4.6 x 950 + 1.83 425 3.S.9 (1.5) 4.< 77 .( 2250 126(12) ftf C 585 .00722 )=205ksi (I .3 USE M u = 4> [AS fsud ( 1.45 14.784 +145 + = to.59 x .SJ.59q Mu = .784 _ 585 (3.
25 x 5 x 32 x 10...00428) Mu = • 9 (2.CHECK ULTIMATE Mu:: :: = 1.0122) r. . 59 x .5 (.:. (233) in 2 = 16.19 <: .30 16.0122 x 250 tsu = 250 L .. ~I' d@ SUPPORT = 3" + :..8" P = 32i~~.9 = x .4 (126) + 78 2021 k = 242511 k MOMENT CAPACITY AT CANTILEVER P = 4.30 x 22 3 x 16.43 > .8 II As = 16 ( . 78 .OO428~250 = 221 q = g.7) = .5 ..5 124 MOMENT AT CANTILEVER SUPPORT 4:. 19 ) .144) = 2.(. .. .00428 )=223ksi tsu = 250(1...3 cp [25 f~ bd 2J WITH 2 ~ = . 5 J = 174 ksi q= :: USE Mu= 5 174 . 8 2:.6 (126) + I.0122 .8) = .18 32(10.9 = .7 >2425 11k 4120llk ASSUME TOP ROW OF STRANDS ONLY ARE EFFECTIVE .3 = 6880"k >2425"k ANDOVER60%>4120 Ilk COMPUTED USING ALL STRANDS. .8 (I .
OR d = • 8 (32 ) = 25. 2 Kj' b' = 20" 11 d = 29 @ <t.784 + 20x 25. 7211 = WHERE 6511 < TO SUPPOR T OF STRAND 0 IS DIAMETER SHEAR COMPUTE I I.3 A ) + Vp == 20 x 25.5vTC +.6 I f c = 5000 P. Wu = = 1.1.4 K/.3 + 162" (585) II.S.6x.6 K/' 19· WL = 2.6) + 1. 71 ) REQUIRED BOND LENGTH = 5 (fsu  '3 2 fse) 0 = (223  2 "3 ( 140).5 (4.5 Jsooo .4) II. _~ Ff II Vcw = b d (3. 2 34' ULTIMATE SHEAR W D = 4.8 (2. Ff = 585 KIPS .6 x 3.CHECK fsu fse BOND AT CANTILEVER SUPPORT = = 223 ksi (SEE 140 ksi P. 2" 585 = 281 k 79 .
3 fpe) AT SECTION 5' Vu FROM LEFT END 184 .li 2 4200 + 52.2 = = 2 = 1280 k I = 15. 2 4...8 _ 7'2 v II . (425'" + 585 (4..11.8 .M.6 x 20x 22 J5000 19 140k + 73.+ .2 (5) = 128k (5 ) (128) 128 11.400" k 80 .M. ) Mo Sb + f pe Ff fd = Sb(6 Ve w ++} e A Sb + Vp Ffe = = b'd (3._Jl V Mer 2 + Vd BUT NOT LESS THAN 1.15" Mo ~ 4.15) _ 3850 4...8 + 68 + 53 = AT SECTION 10' FROM LEFT END 72k 102 Vu = Mu 184 11.2 (10) 184 (fO) .5 ['f.8 4.3850 ) 2040 T 3580 4200" k + 2430 Vei = = .6 (9400) Mer = 3850 585 ..784 " K = = = 48 .7 b'd WHERE ~ (Slfc If.6 b'd [i'. __ e = 9400 r3~5 (l1.11.2'1)= II. + .2(5)2 Mu = 184 2 ~ k Vo V = ~:~ = 52.Vei = .
400 ~'. FOR PLOTTINGTHE CURVE. + 585 .784 + 585 (8.Vo M V = = 4.~ = 8.3) 4.6 (72) II.5k 214 II e: Mo I~~ (II.400 72 = = 29. 7 (20) (29) J 5000 = 70 k Vcw 184K MIN Vci=70 I< TO OBTAIN THIS 3RO PT.3 II = = 6300"k Mer = 4 8 (425 .8 ) :: 2040 T 3580 = 417011 Vci = = = OR Vci = 281K + 4850 .NOTE THAT ONLY THE 1st TERM 10' IS' 16. 2") 5 15. 2 15.6 x 20 x 26 x/SOOO + 21: ~7~ 2 + 29. 26 .8  6300 4.5' OF EQ.6300 k .12 IS NECESSARY 81 .5 22 + 21+29.5 73k I.
2" THEN = PT.( Vu  4> Ve) 5 y 4> d A v® 10 '= f WHERE ~ .. GOVERNS S ~ id ~d = USE 1t.2 In FURNISHED Ln) = CHECK REGION OF CANTILEVER SECTION ~ SUPPORT PT.22 .0135 40 5 V 20 129 = :.22 in.85x29x40 S  .3 WITH OR . d • 250 r. OF CONTRA FLEXURE (APPROX.85x73) . MIN. SINCE APPROX. @ Av = = .) =APPROX..Vb' •~ 29 4.85 FOR SHEAR (72.18 80 .O .2 . 00 v« i = 82 . REQ.:: ..0135 2 (16) = .0102 S MINIMUM REQUIREMENT 80 Av = = As • fy f~ • 2. V .75 ~ 24" (29) :: 2211 U STIRRUPS @ 16" FULL LENGTH 3 @ 8" EACH 16" END Av REG. OF CONTRAFLEXURE CRITICAL SECTION  d "2 M= 0 •M d .
.4.COMPOSITE SECTION ..F. P .. 2820 1500 254..F. IN.. 47 25 P... 83 .t t 12 II 11011 I" 412 l" I I ~ 210" 1 I 'J 110" PROPER TIE S AREA WEIGHT I 2864 4460* IN.O.. 75 ) 4460 ~4 QQQ .000 135.:t 600 3600 *I: 54. S..000 1I:t.1. 2~ 1 ft = 4460 ( 4....I. MAX. I.75'* IN....00 ) 2864 8 8 P..".. SHEARCOMP..... flc 5000 3000 P. SHEAR DEAD LOAD TOPPING SLAB CEILING LIVE LOAD a MOM.. AND A LIVE LOAD OF So..1.O.. = = P..00 11.. 2.S.. 1= 4203 . I.000 324....5.2.MOM.".lJ.0~(P... ( II..000 P.I...25) 54000 ftc • 4460 fb = 54000 = 142 27 51 P.O. SHEAR PRECASTMOM... '* IF CORRECTED DESIGN FOR CONCRETE STRENGTHS.5.:}_ = 886 2864 ft TOPPING SLAB: = 254000 2864 (4.4 PRECAST COMPOSITE 180 96 SQ.S. Yb= 11.45" THE COMPOSITE SECTION ABOVE FOR A C EI LING LOAD OF 10 P. ON A SIMPLE SPAN OF 30'0"..00) = 354 P...S. P.S..I.....1..0.. USE 31S"STRAND WITH 15 =250.5.S...1..5. J ft CEILING: = I 35 000 (4 .S. Yb 10. . fb .S.I.S.DOUBLE TEE AND SLAB 2 A'_ ii'rf 2 .F....0..00) 2864 = = 471 P.000 11# DEAD LOAD: fb:l: .135000  (10.
25) 324000 4460 (4..I.94) 2864 74 5 37 3 = P.. USE 886 354 t 471 '88 2352 0. 164 = = 2352 2250 733 fb = ft   = = 1928 P.75)= 4460 (2. t' + 853 P. 51 + 309 "'27'" + •9 6 & or 360 +191 + 360 373 t354 : 19 +188 • +169 + 27 • ..!.S. I. = 164 P.00) ft = 1 _ 6 (I 12 00 ) ( 7. P.. 00 ( I. S. :: ::[+ 2232 (1.LI VE LOAD: fb = ft = ftc 324000 (11. 25) :.3/8 " STRANDS PER STEM DEPRESSION AND 1 1/2" CLEAR. DEAD LOAD: .!' = fc .1 . T 22 3 2 P.733 =  1517 P'S. + O.S.1.886 84 + 1904 . = 2352 fb = ft MIN.94) 2864 200/a LOSS) :: 6 (11200) 180 6 (11200 180 372  1" 6 (11200) (10.!' 309 P. 5. I. 1875) II MID . 3 . (T ENS ION ) . 424 733 = + .45 . 5..466]'" = 1I 2 P.25 324000 4460 142 27 6~ 853 P..25) = t 2790J..S.00) 3 7 2 +' I 8 6 0 = :. MAX. I.SPAN AFTER == (ASSUME (7.94 e= AT fb + O..S.886 • +1346 471:.S. 50 WITH CENTER POINT = 7.. 375 LOSSES. . TOPPING & 164+ 164 • .S.. (CO MPRE S5 ION ) (4. 10. I. CEILING IS "'2232 .. +875 142 1" 733 853=120 AT TRANSFER :: AT MID SPAN: 354 fti fbi t 373 (I.
08) 48 (13. AT TRANSFER fb= 1.I.59 q ) ] [/0.7 S8 fs ) I 35 = 0. 5 0 + I.8 (3600) = 13. 5 (443.50 t 1. = fs u = f 5 (I = 242.S.4dq= 1.90 (0.5.4 P. = 3200 P.000 # 11 1.I.00" ( 1860) (745) = 372 + 937 372 . SEC. 8 ( 324. fti ffc: RELEASE USE STRAND f ~i STRENGTH 2 = ( I 13 ) 2 = 611 MINIMUM AT ENDS. ** = 000) T I.5 P.94 = = AT TRANSFER.7 (250)35 = 2 f su ..STRENGTH REQUI RED AT TRANSFER: fbi = 0.S.00 .8 L = I.00072 [ I . APPLY) = 0.S.058 ] = 1. I 400 P.340.5 )= 250. D ( 11 X 0.00072 3 (242. 2 ( 140 3 )J = 56 140 ksi II <192 II 1/2 (SPAN1' BEARING) J ULTIMATE SHEAR: (NOTE: THESE CALCULATIONS ARE FOR A LONG SHEAR INVESTIGATION THE SHORTER INVESTIGATION OUTLINED IN THE SECTION ON SHEAR ARE RECOMMENDED.0.500 q = pf's fc 0.60 = 3 f'ci fCi I = 1904 0.94) 0. DEPRESSION 85 . ULTIMATE STRENGTH: P = bd I As = 6 (0.00 7.1. = 3 P.500)(13.!.058 Mu = 4l fsu d ( 1.00 372 372 = 4.!.94 4.S.I.) Vu = 1. S.000 0.13" (<4":.59 1. .94) (0.60 = 3180 P.3' f =3 8" r~ 5L242. ::.25(1309)=+1635P.00072 ( 250) 3 J pfsu flc = [A 5 0. BOND DISTANCE: DIST.S.0. FORMULAS FOR RECT.95*= J.375 1309 P.48 670 = 0.I.5) = 0.S.I.6. 000 ) fse = 0.5 (4920) + 1. +  4.000 # U =.410.00 7.I. OF SPACING 311   911 e= fb = ft = 10. 247 t 700 .860# * REDUCTION FACTOR FOR MID· PT.48){242. 8 L = I.
05 12. . GO 200 100 z ~ lLI VdJ __ 12' ~ 0 ::e SUPPORT 4' 8' ct.8 151..2' (0:> 4 4' 4" = 2" "'C SUPPORT 6' t 1...625 = 925 1800 ...~..__. z <.02 0./ / / .. fpe 1 I . o y...15 I _ _./ .84 M/V 56. 12 II fpe ... ...08 1. 500 z 400  .. / . 800 700 GO ~ .... 5.fd = @ 8. .52 6.. <.. 300 . Ch z  <. <.<.10 13... fd _ 50 x3/S I./ 'It ""'(Md+e »: /' _.. o 6" = too lLI 0:: ..8000 7000 6000 C\I o o <.__ ~ 2000 z (f) 'It 1000 / / /"'"  Md »> ..._<. 600~ z ~ ~ 5000 y <.. <...i LOADS  en LI NG V* 3.. 180/4" 1 8' _... 14..58 SLA B POINT 41 8' 12' *DUE TO EXTERNAL M 175 296 363 * 2800 0:: d=e+6']1 _t6~4"(ASSU~~'2" ~ 2400 ~ ~  :E 2000 o _.05 6..__ _ W ~ 1600 en o z CI) CI) 1200 800 400 I /~TRANSFER I 10"~ 8 II ~E~~~L _ ./' ...17 2.»>:  .86 + DUE TO BEAM ~ I I . @ 12 1550 ...0 +LL 3..0 432. ~  ~ 4000 ~ 3000 0:: o C\I ".10' 12' 14' (f) « ..1065 = 735 2050 ..1300 = 750 86 .96 0.
48 80 0. @ ULTIMATE ALLOWABLENh = 1. ST EM CHECK Q N"h AT CONTACT (3.046 250 40 TOTAL 12 13.14000 12000 en 4» = 0.94 = /'3.029 11/ E SH = 0 ". As f's s 0.25) 9540 4460 PLANE (NO SHORES USED) V=VuVd==138604320=9540 == 2 (48) VQ Ib = = 312 I'\Th = (312) (48) (40) = 76 14 P.I.1..S.023 O..94 7. 05 ST 1RRUPS . 87 .10 .0 DII/ STEM 0 ST E M = #2 6x6 0. Av 8' 10' 12' 14' i.9 = P'S.80 fy d = 0.85 Vci ~Vc 14000 c o Q.6000 « 4 000 "'" :z: en 2000 v cw 2' OFF CHART 4' 6' SUPPORT MIN. ZIOOOO ~ 8000 8000 6000 z 0: . 10M @ 12 II = 0.
05) = + = Vci @ 8' = 0.0 ) ( 11.6 ( 7.94 V P = 15 (12) (6) ( I 1200) ~d Vew = bid =0.300* 441000 145 = 8 J 650 tt10.0) (13..I.10) Jsooo J5000 V5000 .7 (7.94) J5000 V5000 .0)( (7.5 = 12. V5000+ I L6 (fpefd) J = 380 PO I NT [424'" (f f pe 4' 8' 12' Vci .3 + 1470 = 29.3 145. 2016 MIN.1470 +3 = 208 3. Vci @ 8' Vei ~ = I.I 69) = MIN. I 0) 12' = 0.6 bid ffi + V"2 :c~ x 380.7) (MIN.6 (7.fd)= pe .0) 13.200* 446000 425. Vci @ 12'= 1..fd 925 735 750 + 424 1349 1159 I I 74 = Vci 0.8" 0.5 = 5810 .15) (13. Vci ® 4' = 1. Vei @ 15'= 1.S.5 Vci .0) (11.MeR = I y (6 V rtr f~ T fpe . fpc) "d"USEO) TV (208)J = (7.8) @ ffi t [3. = 169 + 2i~5 (875 = ) P.0 425. 11. 7 ( 7.05) J 5000 /5000 + 513000 51. 1.75 r. 2 50'" 5 UPPOR T 88 .8 (16) (3..f d ) ] 4460 11. @ SUPPORT = 3+ 2'1~5 ( 1309 _ +t.5 (12. S.0) ( I 2 .7 (7.0)(12.3 (70.6 (7. P.080* II t 750" 282 + 3 168 MIN.7 bid 3168 2016 864 + Vd @ 4' = 0.: M cR 513000 441000 446000 Vd 51.0) + 0.450" 9.15) + + 864 MIN.. I.3 = 16.7 = fpc CO <t.
S. AFT ER 200/0 LOSS. INVESTIGATE: I. ON A SIMPLE SPAN OF 8010". CA PA C J T Y 4.610 t 000 538. S.) 25. AREA IS 0. PER STRAND..600 MOMENT (" .000 THIS SECTION WAS DESIGNED FOR A ROOFING LOAD OF 7 P.15 .f:[. THE TENSIONING La A D PER ST RAN DIS 2 5..11/2" 3" r . 2 00 tt. F. U L TIM ATE AT FL E X U R A L MID ..SHEAR MOM. SHEAR CAPACITY AND STIRRUPS 10' FROM SUPPORT. F.160"'. DEAD LOAD ROO FING LIVE LOAD a SHEAR (tt) 23. (NO CEI LI NG ) AND A LIVE LOAD OF 30 P.400 2. 3.9 tic (psi) 5000 f's(psi) 250.200 9.305. IN.SPAN.~2" STRANDS WITH 2 POINT DEPRE SSION AT QUARTER POINTS 36" 'r: 12" LL I ARE 4" "7 2" CLEAR I A I 561 I WT (p sf) 73 I (in 4) 68750 Y b (In.144 SQ.000 89 . CLOSED" 3 STIRRUPS ARE SPACED AT 20" FOR THE FULL LENGTH OF THE MEMBER. • ~ ~ TEE BEAM e'o" ~Ir ~ 3 ooo~TRANO SPACING 000 AT SUPPORTS 000 000 0" 0 " cq III 1. DESIGN LOAD IS 20.000 2.. STRESSES MIDSPAN UNDER AFTER FULL LOAD LOSSES.) 5. STRESSES QUARTER AT TRANSFER POINT. AT AT 2. MAX.
S.I.3/4 (2 I I 5 ) = + 23 20 P5.9) = + 2580 P.I. 5.50 20% T = +3118 LOSS.I .1. S. :: + 3 I I 8 RE LEA SE: (.S.I. S.S.1) 68750 = = 203 2 II5 825 P.9) 68750 230 5 000 (10.1) :: 68750 2305000 (25.65" MID . P. ft ROOFI NG : fe = ft = P.S.I. RS. = 339P.SPAN AFTER = 15 (20160) 561 538 (22. = ft = 470 15 (20 160) 561 5 38 . = 4 70 (J • 2 5) = 5 8 8 + 374 ( 8 2 5) =+ 3 I P.00 + 0.POINT AT TRANSFER: fti fbi MIN. +79 +825 = +355 = +434 T 339 = +773 +DEAD LOAD= + ROOFING= +LIVE LOAD= t 3118 2115 = + 1003 203= + 800 . 90 .9) 68750 = 5610000 (IO. ft e :: AT fb 25.60 = 3870 t SAY :3 900 P. 79 LIVE LOAD: f b = = = 869 P.I ) 68750 =  4 70 P.I.I) 68750 538000 (25.. .50 + 0. 2 5) = + 3 900 .65) 68750 (25.1.9  2. 65) ( 10.1.25) = 22.S.I0 0 8 15 (2 0 I 6 0) ( 2 2.I. S.I. 15 (20160) + 0.DEAD LOAD: f b = 5610000 (25.9) = 68750 538000 (10. 2320 f c i = 0.869= 69 AT QUARTER .
144) P fsu = bd = = f's As 96 (32. 0) '12 ( SPAN J ': + 76" < _::) 2" 49 BEAR I NG ) SHEAR: vu = = MCR 1.1.911 fb = f t 538 538 + ( 2580) = 538 + 671 = + 1209 P.5 (25. 5 0 II.000 I. 000) T I.00069 5 (250) ] = q= Mu = 245. (I . 0.16) : U 15.8 (9 600) = f (6 25.371. 8 L = 1.000 = 0. 75) p f'c) = = 2. 8 L 11 = 13. e 5. =  ( 100 8) = 5 3 8 . q )] (32.262 :.I.25(1209):t 1510 P.) = 1. + 276 P.fd ) = 68750 = 2665 j50ao + (fpe + (fpe fd)] [424 fd >] 91 .I.59 x 0.000 pfsu 4> P'S.S.00069 5 (245) :.20.9 22.AT SUPPORTS.0338 1. 5 (6.0 = 5.S.305.90 [< + f sud 2.0338>J = I.16 3140 250.50"50 USE EQ.65 = 25. fb=1.S. ULTIMATE STRENGTH: 15 (0. fc = [A s 0.000) BOND DISTANCE: 01 ST.9 .9 22.4dq = 0.0.5 fs r: 0. @ TRANSFER.S. 59 < 245.00069 (10. 8 (2.75) (CLOSE TO 1. SECT.I.000) = I.680* I.5 0 + 55.65 5.9 Ifc +f [6 p e. @ TRANSFER = + 345 P.5 ~ 0.56" ( I . ULTIMATE =0 ( 2 f su "3 f se) = 21 [24 5  2 ( '.I.O. 600) + 1.000 * 148.200.FOR RECT.
000 (I) c 40. 10.000 LLJ :I: (I) 20..._~= 0..... 50. SUPPORT 10' 20' 30' As MIN..000 <......... 50. Av = 80 • 17· d • 250 40 fs I s = 2.85 .000 ~ z Q..000 20. <. ~VC <.000 . "<...000 10.000 Vcw ..75 = 0" 20" ** 3 (] STIRRUPS @ = 0.... ....16 80 0.000 OFF CHART <....000 30. 0 z Q: <[ 30.209 20 32.. 40. <.220" 92 . .
....... <.ROOFING + LL + DUE 0::: 3500 ~ 3000 tL. z oct ~ 25 0::: l: (I) ./ /' /"'" 35 (I) .".85 d/2 12.....70 5.. .. ..37 TO EXTERNAL LOADS .~ 50 X 1f211 _... .._  3000 ...../ 1 10' d :: e + 10.18 16......... /' / ..( / <...85 5......... .....40 Md+e)... /" /" »: r:.........._ It) 0 .._ .... . ..... 10' 20' 30' i d 24..... ...... u 5000 ~ 4000 0 (C) Z . 13"(ASSUMED /211BEARING) ~ 2500· o z en (I) ~ 2000~~ .....37 32..90 2. <. . z ILJ ~ C\I ..... .. 9000 8000 rt) v CD (\I 7000 ~ 6000 ~ l: a. /' <......  2000 ~ 1000 . <.1} .. 1. 30 .> >< .......... / .............75 32......... __<..... ILJ (I) a::: I SUPPORT 20' 30' @ 10'.. @ 20'............fpeJ 35" 30" »< > > fdJ_ __  _ _ _ 25" 20 15" 10" 501 m""'"1500 1 000 500 IrTRANSFER=25 _. 20 V / 1LJ15 10 5 ~ SUPPORT If) . ...:: . Md\_... @> 30'.55 11.~.. f pe  fd :: 2 163 3118 3118  922 1585 1980 = :: I 241 1533 :: 1138 93 ...Vd+e /' .....75 TO BEAM ONLY POINT 20' 30' *DUE la' M* 1250 2133 2660 V* 8..95 M/v 141 360 903 Vd+ 17.
. Vei MIN.6 (8) ( 32. 500 tt T 4 I 50000 887 = 21.1 36 ( I 209 = 538 Vp = ( 15) ( 20 J I 60 ) = f 2 I .7 ( 8) (24. 6 (8) J5000 V5000 + 5200000 + 11700 MIN. d" USE0 ) C> V ew support = (a) = b'd (3.5 (28.7 ( 8 ) (32. [3.6 *' .200.7 ( 8) ( 32.POINT 1 10 20' 1 30 fpe ...75) ( 32.000 4.f 1241 1533 I 138 d + 424 1665 1957 1562 x 2655= MCR 4.1 50.500# .3 a.400 344 =37.75 J 5000 V5000 (1003  = = 355) @ 40' = 1.420.37) ( 3 2 ..S.7 bid ffc (8) (24.I..5 @ Pe ) + Vp (538)J (70. + 17550 MIN.l. 75 ) V5000 (g> 20 I = O. a (3 6) = + 2 0.000 5. 100 d = O.2" 129 344 887 Vd 17550 11700 5850 (SEE SHEAR SECTION FOR DISCUSSION OF SHORTER INVESTIGATION) Vei = 0.500 31. = 355 = + 36 276 T 10.900'" = 3 I . Vel @ 30'=1. @ SUPPORT 16.620'" 31.37) V5000 T 4420000 129 = 60. 100 = 23.276) .. I = .6 bid If'. 000" 94 . Vei Vel @ 20' = I. a" (M IN . Vei @ 101= @ 0. P. Vei Vel io' = 1.75 20 (12) 10.75 Jsooo ) + 5850 MIN. S.100 = I I 5 .7 (8) @ 30' = 0. 53 7 P. T '12: MCR Md + Vd Vei = 1.3 + 21.000 d M .7) SU PPORT + 0.75) f Pe ® r: 't.8) J(.
USING BOX BEAMS 3'0" 5" 5" . 5096 5227 in 3 in 3 I 85. ASSIGNMENT 6 STD. SPEC. SLABS USING STRUCTURAL CONCRETE REFERENCE CRITERIA: A.I53in4 95 . COMMITTEE 8.E.5 ..2 In 16.R.B" ~ <.DESIGN OF THRU .71 in.In 52 " / J A Yt yb Zt Zb = = = = = = 620.VOIDED LIGHTWEIGHT BOX GIRDER R. " _f_ 5 .29 in. FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE TRESTLES FOR RAILWAY LOADING. 16. II 33 " . R.A.
25% OVERAGE P'S.S.8 x 10 AGGR EGATE A 15 % E 6 105~2 P. x 10 P.F.I. P. 6 f~ = 5000 4000 STRESSES: P'S.S.!.S. 20 DATA FOR LlGHTWE IGHT THERE WAS ABOUT E VS.DRY DESIGN WEIGHT OF CONCRETE E c :: 33 = 33 x NOTE: BASED ON TEST W 3/2 Fe J6250 = 2.1.S.1.) f' c THE = 4000 ASSUME FOLLOWING: WT.S.DAY AIR .DATA ON LIGHTWEIGHT 28 .F. = = 110 105 110 P. (NBS MONOGRAPH 74) REDUCTION IN MEASURED CALCULATED ASSUM E Ec FOR DESIGN PURPOSES Ec = 10 6 25 P. OF PLASTIC 6250 WEIGHT P. (DESIGN RELEASE MIX CONCRETE: = 5000 FOR P.!.5 x f~i = ALLOWABLE E c =2.C. COMPRESSION: TENSION 0 96 .do. F.!.I.5 x I06jf = 2.I.C. CONC.5.!.!.C. 5.2 X 10 6 TEMPORARY 2400 0 P. 28. P. NO. OR 6250 P. P. DESIGN 2000 P'S. = 2.S.I.
808 97 .153) STRAND AFTER INITIAL AFTER FINAL LOSS = x 27 2.93x 1173 513.54 0/0 646 x 110 150 SUPERIMPOSED D.000 P.1438 170.1. 513. LB.  = = 484 474 LB.200 = 170. 2 x 12= 518.000 2 = 21 x 0.970.S.000 6.000 14.000 in. BOX GIRDER DIAPHRAGMS L. = = 0.5 85.lFT. LOSSES LOSSES f fs 5 i= 170.5 LB.OOOin.r lb. OIA M. INITIAL STEEL Pi STRESS f X si = 170. = E 72 AT MOMENTS MID .lb.000 P.2 = 0.S.400 ./FT. in.S. fs fsi = 123 152.1.017 .S.I.L. STRAN OS e = 81/2 = in.!. 4.3400 = 152.000 ( = I 620.) = = M M (SUPERIMPOSED = "8 x I aX 1 484 474x x 27 27 2 x 12 = 529.S.) = = in.L.L. 1173 + 8.S.2 = 14.L.47.SPAN: D.000 relaxation = 2% .000 P.L. P. fc @ C.!.000 = ESTIMATE ASSUME OF PRESTRESS A AND WITH 7 0/0 21 LOSSES: LOSS ELASTIC Y2 in.400 P.g. lb.Ib. (BOX GIRDER D.000 = 123. = NONE I M PACT = 33.SUMMARY OF DESIG N TOTAL LOADS AND MOMENTS: D.
000 5227 [.808 x (37) + REQUIRED NO.. 10 BUT f + MT Zb :: o+ 6~~5 352.0 h h FROM END DUE TO GIRDER D.000 :: 459.1.500 @ 1. lb. S.000 in.000 21.37 P'S.29X lb.h. 5. 16. L. I 150 P.000 98 .lb.474 M IOh x 2" x :: x 2.500 6.500 5227 + 37 P. :: 371.I. P.000 SELECT 21 :: 20 STRANDS '/2 THEN Fj:: F 21 x O. = :: 33 = ft 211.1438 x 152. J 438 :: 21 x 0.STRESSES AT 1.1.500 5096 189.37 = . diam.75 27 ft. b FT f. 474 = 2. lb. = 33 = in. xftE Sl Fi G + Yt peA's RIC 34 FORM.500 MG Zt :: = 189. fb THEN ::  36 f FiG 0 . 33 .0 h @ I. OF STRANDS N = As fs F = 352 J 500 QI438x 123.75 x ""2 in. 0 h tE :: 189.S. REQUIRED PRESTRESSING FORCE: F = f ~[y h bE FG :: = b x.200 x 123.017. 9 FORM.6.l.71 x 1150J THEN F = = 0.
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