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1 Jose Rizal: A Biographical Sketch http://www.joserizal.ph
BY TEOFILO H. MONTEMAYOR
JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of fathers," came from Biñan, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. In the same year, he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878, he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. On May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent." Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian. He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent. Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6, 1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong. While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes- taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts. The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his pupils, he constructed water dam and a relief map of Mindanao - both considered remarkable engineering feats. His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies. When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing him down. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted
now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the hero’s great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. sedition and of forming illegal association. 1818. 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. he was convicted of rebellion. Domingo Lam-co. and nine sisters and one brother. Batangas. In his prison cell. Rizal. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan. TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan. religious. Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese. Laguna. from November 3. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese. After a mock trial. became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. studied in San Jose College. PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Died at the age of three. Born in Biñan. he wrote an untitled poem. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child. to the date of his execution.Rizal Family The Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time. 1896. Thus. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30. Studied at San Jose College in Manila. married Antonio Lopez at Morong. the family's paternal ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy. died a spinster. She was born in Santa Cruz.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo.1896. UP Mindanao 2 by him. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. died in 1887 from childbirth. FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Manila. . courteous. Rizal. 2 The Mercado . Spanish. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. Manila on November 14. a teacher and musician. Married Matriano Herbosa. Laguna on April 18. She was a business-minded woman. was shot at Bagumbayan Field. An epileptic. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a Chinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa. In the cold morning of December 30. OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. and died in Manila. hard-working and well-read. Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents. he was again committed to Fort Santiago. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave. 1986. Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda.
1869 At the age of eight. concerned himself with the physical development of his young nephew and taught the latter love for the open air and developed in him a great admiration for the beauty of nature. taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin. 1865 – 1867 During this time his mother taught him how to read and write. instilled into the mind of the boy love for education. Laguna. Laguna. His parents planned to transfer him to Manila where he could continue his studies. Instruction was rigid and strict.reading. 28 September 1862 The parochial church of Calamba and the canonical books. his sister Conception. UP Mindanao 3 SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero. characterized by the four R’s." The poem was written in tagalog and had for its theme "Love of One’s Language. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teacher’s whip. the eight child in the Rizal family. In this town he also learned the art of painting under the tutorship of an old painter by the name of Juancho Carrera. He advised Rizal: "Work hard and perform every task very carefully. were burned.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. Early Education in Calamba and Biñan Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Biñan. Rufino Collantes with Rev. It may be said that Rizal. Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. His father hired a classmate by the name of Leon Monroy who. be independent in thinking and make visual pictures of everything. Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mother’s life. Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother. including the book in which Rizal’s baptismal records were entered. learn to be swift as well as thorough. 3 In Calamba. Pedro Casañas as the sponsor." 6 June 1868 With his father. arithmetic. 1864 Barely three years old. died at the age of three. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having shed real tears for the first time. writing." In Biñan. Rizal returned to Calamba on board the motorboat Talim. From there they proceeded to Manila and visited his sister Saturnina who was at the time studying in the La Concordia College in Sta. 22 June 1861 He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of Calamba by the parish priest Rev. while Uncle Gregorio. for five months until his (Monroy) death. He was placed under the tutelage of Justiniano Aquino Cruz. studying Latin and Spanish. Ana. Uncle Manuel Alberto. was born in Calamba. seeing Rizal frail in body. rose to become an intellectual . Laguna 19 June 1861 JOSE RIZAL. the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos. Laguna 1870 His brother Paciano brought Rizal to Biñan. who was born a physical weakling. and religion. It was a typical schooling that a son of an ilustrado family received during his time. 1865 When he was four years old. 17 December 1870 Having finished his studies in Biñan. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education. At about this time two of his mother’s cousin frequented Calamba. Rizal wrote his first poem entitled "Sa Aking Mga Kabata. a scholar.
"I remembered my home town. became the boy’s tutor. The teacher sharply stopped all noises and begun the lessons of the day. The teacher asked him: "Do you know Spanish?" "A little. and understanding. Ah. a former classmate of Rizal’s father. "In the moonlight. an old man named Leon Monroy. UP Mindanao 4 giant not because of. especially Pedro. Paciano knew the teacher quite well because he had been a pupil under him before. who was a remarkable woman of good character and fine culture. On her lap. and he used to wear a sinamay shirt." As tutor. He knew by the heart the grammars by Nebrija and Gainza. the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime. It was almost night when they arrived. "taught me how to read and to say haltingly the humble prayers which I raised fervently to God. perhaps vague. conscientious. he did not lived long. Accordingly. she related many stories. That same night. long-necked. he learned at the age of three the alphabet and the prayers. This old teacher lived at the Rizal home and instructed Jose in Spanish and Latin. Immediately. she encouraged him to write poems. but rather in spite of. Later. The two brothers rode in a carromata. "Do you know Latin?" "A little. To lighten the monotony of memorizing the ABC’s and to stimulate her son’s imagination. my idolized mother. my own town. which was a small nipa hut about 30 meters from the home of Jose’s aunt. Maestro Lucas Padua. Jose. sir. 4 The Hero’s First Teacher The first teacher of Rizal was his mother. thin. He died five months later. He introduced Jose to the teacher. Unfortunately. "My mother. who acted as his second father." he recounted. the teacher’s son laughed at Jose’s answers. that I have made of him. how sweet to me was Calamba. Jose became depressed because of homesickness. Jose was assigned his seat in the class. Doña Teodora was patient. with sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward. He was accompanied by Paciano ." First Day in Biñan School The next morning (Monday) Paciano brought his younger brother to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. in spite of the fact that was not as wealthy as Biñan. the hero’s parents decided to send their gifted son to a private school in Biñan." . and my solicitous sisters. Jose described his teacher in Biñan as follows: "He was tall. but I remember only this. The school was in the house of the teacher. with his cousin named Leandro. It was she who first discovered that her son had a talent for poetry. his parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. They proceeded to their aunt’s house. went sightseeing in the town. After a Monroy’s death. woven by the skilled hands of the women of Batangas. Add to this severity that in my judgement was exaggerated and you have a picture. 1869. left Calamba for Biñan." The boys in the class. As Jose grew older. after which he departed to return to Calamba. Instead of enjoying the sights. after kissing the hands of his parents and a tearful parting from his sister. The first was Maestro Celestino and the second. and the moon was about to rise. Jose Goes to Biñan One Sunday afternoon in June ." wrote Rizal in his student memoirs. reaching their destination after one and one-half hours’ drive. where Jose was to lodge." replied the Calamba lad.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. sir. Jose.
producing a brilliant effect! With what joy did he talk to his father. Jose beat all Biñan boys. who was a boarding student in the Concordia College. Jose took a walk around the town in the light of the moon. Best Student in School In academic studies. and left him after introducing him to the teacher. admiring the grandeur of the water and the stillness of the night. And visited his elder sister. he became popular among his classmates. lean and long-necked. and other subjects. Oh. although he was seized with a superstitious fear when he saw a water snake entwine itself around the bamboo beams of the katig. For this feat. As darkness fell he spent the hours by the katig. They embarked in a casco. a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match. They went to a sidewalk of a house and wrestled with their arms. Some of his older classmates were jealous of his intellectual superiority. having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel. how it saddened him to leave for the first time and live far from his home and his family! But he felt ashamed to cry and had to conceal his tears and sentiments. he experienced the sweetest emotions upon seeing the gay banks of the Pasig and the towns of Cainta and Taytay. His brother took him to the house of his aunt where he was to stay." he explained. His teacher in Biñan was a severe disciplinarian. To him the town looked extensive and rich but sad and ugly. To this add a severity which. Pedro. which is all I remember. At night. The latter readily accepted. Saturnina. his father sent him to Biñan to continue studying Latin. when the teacher was having his siesta. Jose challenged Pedro to a fight. At the age of seven he traveled with his father for the first time to Manila and thence to Antipolo to fulfill the promise of a pilgrimage made by his mother at the time of his birth. and Jose bade his parents and sisters good-bye with tears in his eyes. much to the glee of their classmates. in Santa Ana. It was the first trip on the lake that Jose could recollect. and even told lies to discredit him before the teacher’s eyes. with a sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward. kneeling before the image of the Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage. Latin. "O Shame. because his first teacher had died. He used to wear a sinamay shirt woven by the deft hands of Batangas women.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. for he had not uttered a word during the night! When they proceeded to Antipolo. When he was nine years old. He surpassed them all in Spanish. the great metropolis . He was not quarrelsome by nature. Then he saw Manila. They wickedly squealed to the teacher whenever Jose had a fight outside the school. "how many beautiful and pathetic scenes the world would witness without thee!" They arrived at Biñan in the evening. The two boys wrestled furiously in the classroom." . With what joy did he see the sun at the daybreak as its luminous rays shone upon the glistening surface of the wide lake. In succeeding days he had other fights with the boys of Biñan. defeated the bigger boy. After the class in the afternoon. Consequently the teacher had to punish Jose. 5 Early Schooling in Biñan Jose had a very vivid imagination and a very keen sense of observation. lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk. in my judgement I have made of him. He was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher in the morning. but he never ran away from a fight. of whom he would later sing in elegant verses. having the weaker arm. Jose. thinking that he could easily beat the Calamba boy who was smaller and younger. His name was Justiniano Aquino Cruz. In Antipolo he prayed. in company with his aunt’s grandson named Leandro. "He was a tall man. His brother Paciano took him to Biñan one Sunday. a very ponderous vessel commonly used in the Philippines. Jose. Jose met the bully. He knew by memory the grammars of Nebrija and Gainza. with its Chinese sores and European bazaars. UP Mindanao 5 First School BrawlIn the afternoon of his first day in school.
From him he took his first two sons. its principal purpose was to mold the character and the will of the boys to comply more easily with the percepts of the Church. and succeeded in surpassing many of his older classmates. he might look in the orchard for a mambolo fruit to eat.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. His way life was methodical and well regulated. Decurion. he returned to his hometown now and then. his friends would invite him to play in the street in company with other boys. drawing. While he was studying in Biñan. which was opened and closed with prayers. then he took his breakfast. and his solicitous sisters. writing. two nephews. Paciano who accompanied Jose. To enter the Ateneo a candidate was subjected to an entrance examination on Christian doctrine. After that he would go to class. begotten by friars. was called the Ateneo Municipal. Jose spent his leisure hours with Justiniano’s father-in-law. fearful that he might not see it again upon his return. he thought with tears in his eyes of his beloved father. the first surname of the family. from which he was dismissed at ten. a master painter. Centurion. in the house of a spinster situated on Calle Carballo. and so. Ah. but Intramuros looked gloomy to Jose. He ate with his aunt and then began at ten. the privilege of founding colleges. had come under suspicion of the authorities because it was the name used by Paciano when he was studying and working with Father Burgos. the Carthaginian Empire. consisting generally of a plate of rice and two dried sardines. UP Mindanao 6 The boy Jose distinguished himself in class. grammar. he became acquainted in that house with various mestizos. He studied his lessons. reading. although their power to administer parishes was restricted except in the remote regions of Mindanao. though silently and secretly. how sweet was his town even though not so opulent as Biñan! He grew sad and thoughtful. such as music. Rare was the day when he was not stretched on the bench for a whipping or punished with five or six blows on the open palm. Rizal. Its discipline was rigid and its methods less mechanical. and painting. a flower that he touched. In each empire there were five dignitaries: Emperor. then home again. then home again. He heard mass at four if there was one that early. and how he wept. and elementary arithmetic. It was a sad but delicate and quite pain that possessed him. found him a house in Walled City. He ate with his aunt and then began to study. and mechanics as a religious institute. In the first two terms the classes were divided into groups of interns and externs: the first constituted the Roman Empire and the second. secret joy filled his breast. It also establishes vocational courses in agriculture. even without reason. The students heard mass before the beginning of the class. These dignities were won by means of individual competitions in . commerce. At half past two he returned to class and left at five. district of Santa Cruz. and he later found lodging outside. 6 Life and Studies at Ateneo The Jesuits were considered the best educators of Spain. He might play for a short time with some cousins before returning home. in spite of his progress. or studied his lesson at that hour and went to mass afterwards. for which. in whose house he lived. Jose’s reaction to all these punishments was one of intense resentment in order to learn and thus carry out his father’s will. a stone that attracted his attention he gathered. when he saw the calesa that was flower that him Biñan! Then everything looked sad. Since Mercado. Returning home. when they were permitted to return to the Philippines. Tribune. and perhaps of Europe. How he looked for pretexts to remain longer at home! A day more seemed to him a day spent in heaven. drew for a while. Jose did not take his entrance examinations Jose did not remain in Manila but returned first to his town to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint. How long the road seemed to him in going and how short in coming! When from afar he descried the roof of his house. his idolized mother. it was then that his father changed his mind and decided to send him to the Ateneo instead. he received many whippings and strokes from the ferule. It introduced physical culture as part of its program as well as the cultivation of the arts. The Jesuitical system of instruction was considered more advanced than that of other colleges in that epoch. Jose adopted the second surname. That is why the college which began to function in the year 1865. Whenever he remembered his town. they accused him before the teacher. and then prayed and if there was a moon. Some of these were so wicked that. and a grandson. and Standard-Bearer. they had to apply to the City of Manila for subsidies. As if chance would furnish him data for his future campaigns.
At the end of the term he obtained a medal. The rejoicing that her release produced in his spirit had much influence on the result of his studies in the third year. sometimes he was hard and little tolerant and at other times he was gay and playful as a child. and from that time on he did not cease to cultivate it. At the end of the term he obtained marks of excellent in all the subjects and in the examinations. but he was soon promoted and kept on being promoted so that at the end of one month he had attained to the rank of Emperor. The empires considered themselves in perpetual warfare. but the case had no remedy because it was already on appeal. Jose describes him as a model of rectitude. Jose was at first put at the tail of the class. The judge. and Gonzalo Marzano. told her that if she confessed her culpability he would release her at once. who was a blind partisan of the friars having been a domestic of theirs. she pleaded guilty. but instead of lodging outside the City. lean body. sunken eyes. who was a great friend of his father. he again visited his mother in jail alone. a solicitude. He also asked his father to buy him a copy of The Universal History by Cesar Cantanu. From the first days Jose learned to systematize his work. very talented but not very studious. rhetoric. and his studied mathematics. who saw in Jose great aptitude for study. An incident which demonstrates Jose’s independence of character took place at this time. About that time he devoted himself to reading novels. This fraternity met on Sundays and after mass held public programs in which poems were recited or debates were held. and love for the student. UP Mindanao 7 which it was necessary to catch one’s adversary in error three times.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. Fr. He was cultured but at the same time timid and tender. Leoncio Lopez. a point was counted in favor of the latter. the points in favor of each were added and the empire. decided to place him as intern or boarding student in the college the following year. The sufferings of the hero of the twelve years. to which only those who distinguished themselves in the class for their piety and diligence could belong. In the fourth year of his course he had Fr. bent forward. sharp Grecian nose. who heard this. ascetic physiognomy. Jose had the same professor as in the previous year. small. and upon returning to his town. he fixed a program of what he had to do in the twentyfour hours of the day and did not in the least deviate from it. convicted her. Francisco Sanchez as professor. and he must have progressed much. The first professor Jose had was Fr. His aptitude for poetry revealed itself early. With all these inducements it was only natural that should be a spirit of emulation. This was three months before her release. He had reason to feel proud of his advancement. and when an individual of one empire was caught in error by one belonging to the enemy empire. Francisco G. which pleased him immensely because with them I could repay my father somewhat for his sacrifices. for he began to win prizes in the quarterly examinations. Jose. He must have uttered this exclamation on learning from his mother that they had played her a mean trick. endowed with a poor memory but with much talent and industry. There was a fraternity of Mary and Saint Louis Gonzaga. Among Jose’s classmates were Peninsulares and sons of Peninsulares. In a few months the judge asked her forgiveness for what he had done because according to him his conscience hurt him. One day Jose’s mother showed Father Lopez a poem of his young friend and that the latter must have copied it from a book. At the end of each week or two. which obtained more point. instead of releasing her. 6 Calle Magallanes. The second year. also liked Jose as a little friend. was declared winner. answered the priest violently. Oliva. Jose Bech. parish priest of the town. he resided at No. and Greek. and according to himself he profited much from its perusal. he ran alone to see his mother in the prison and tell her the happy news. who occupied the throne of Emperor. whom he describes as a man of high stature. but the judge. Thus he disciplined his will and subjected it to the commands of his reason. a striving to surpass ones colleagues found in the Ateneo. As a newcomer. for . Joaquin Garrido. quick gait. and so when he went home on vacation that year. In the corner of the dormitory facing the sea and the pier Jose passed his two years of internship. for at the end of the year he-obtained five medals. The family." He was somewhat of a lunatic and of an uneven humor. With the desire to see her children again. and one of those he enjoyed most was Dumas’ (father) The Count of Monte Cristo. severe and inspired. thin lips forming an arch with its sides directed toward the chin.
and a dialogue. However. Vilaclara and Mineves. and. communications and education languishing under its most backward state. made a trip to Manila expressly to apologize to Jose. This stimulated and shaped Rizal’s life phylosophy to be to contain if not eliminate these social ills. 7 Philosophies in Life PHILOSOPHY may be defined as the study and pursuit of facts which deal with the ultimate reality or causes of things as they affect life. inquiring into the wherefores of things. Rizal claimed that only through education could the country be saved from domination. apathy or indolence as claimed by the rulers. Father Sanchez. in spite of his age. the mission of education is to elevate the country to the highest seat of glory and to develop the people’s mentality. Educational Philosophy Rizal’s concept of the importance of education is clearly enunciated in his work entitled Instruction wherein he sought improvements in the schools and in the methods of teaching. he surprised his family with his skill in handling the sword when he gave an exhibition bout with the best swordsman of the town. Rizal’s philosophy of education. Being one of the prominent representatives of Filipino personalities. Since education is the foundation of society and a prerequisite for social progress. which made him cry. timidity and false pride pervaded nationally and contributed to the decay of social life. . but his devotion to poetry was such that his professor in philosophy advised him once to leave it. Afterward Father Lopez came to know from the Jesuits themselves that Jose was a pupil who excelled in poetry. That gesture of Father Lopez’ won him Jose’s esteem and they became good friends again. But in his rest hours he continued cultivating the Muses under the direction of his old professor. to create in the youth an innate desire to cultivate his intelligence and give him life eternal. In drawing and painting he was under the guidance and direction of the Ateneo professor. For Rizal. physics. which was enacted at the end of the course. the Peninsula Don Augustin Saez. The philosophy of a country like the Philippines is made up of the intricate and composite interrelationship of the life histories of its people. who honored him with his affection and consideration because of his progress. just and serve. centers on the provision of proper motivation in order to bolster the great social forces that make education a success. cowardice. Pitiful social conditions existed in the Philippines as late as three centuries after his conquest in Spain. He also devoted time to painting and sculpture. He studied philosophy. the philosophy of our nation would be strange and undefinable if we do not delve into the past tied up with the notable life experiences of the representative personalities of our nation. Romualdo de Jesus. who felt proud in the last years of his life of having had such an excellent pupil. Jose was considered small of stature and he tried to correct this defect by applying himself regularly to gymnastics in the college. with agriculture. physics. Jose Rizal is a fit subject whose life philosophy deserves to be recognized. Jose had then written a short story (leyenda). alluding to the collegians’ farewell. in other word. drawing back the veil that divine drama of nature was enacted. interested him as much as poetry. It was because of this social malady that social evils like inferiority complex. which was only slightly corrected by his professor. philosophy. Having been a victim of Spanish brutality early in his life in Calamba. In the fifth years Jose had other professors: Frs. Rizal had thus already formed the nucleus of an unfavorable opinion of Castillian imperialistic administration of his country and people. commerce. chemistry.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. In sculpture his instructor was a Filipino. UP Mindanao 8 which his mother reprehended him. but to the neglect of the Spanish authorities in the islands. natural history seemed to him somewhat uninteresting although he much liked the shells and sometimes imagined seeing a goddess in each shell he was on the shelf. He maintained that the backwardness of his country during the Spanish ear was not due to the Filipinos’ indifference. and natural history. He also engaged in other physical exercises. therefore. such as fencing. lending each other the books they had. After his baccalaureate.
and 5. He also lambasted the superstitious beliefs propagated by the priests in the church and in the schools. Ethical Philosophy The study of human behavior as to whether it is good or bad or whether it is right or wrong is that science upon which Rizal’s ethical philosophy was based.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. the Spanish government’s requirement of forced labor and force military service upon the n natives. observation. UP Mindanao 9 Religious Philosophy Rizal grew up nurtured by a closely-knit Catholic family. This trend was much more needed at that time because the Spaniards and the Filipinos had different and sometimes conflicting morals. Why the change? It could have been the result of contemporary contact. This is shown in his Annotation of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. one with predominance of foreign masters. thus discouraging the formation of a national sentiment. Rizal: . he should have been a propagator of strictly Catholic traditions. medals. what with justice being stifled. a profound thinker and a zealous reformer. limited or curtailed and the people not enjoying any individual rights. Political Philosophy In Rizal’s political view. Rizal had recognized not only the forces of good and evil. Nor did he believe in the Catholic observation of fasting as a sacrifice. 2. the extension of human rights. sensitiveness and self love. Dr. educated and trained in the science of self-government. homage and racial habits. was educated in the foremost Catholic schools of the period in the elementary. However. a conquered country like the Philippines should not be taken advantage of but rather should be developed. devotion. 4. logically. the bondage and slavery of the conquered . he made use of the practical method of appealing to the better nature of the conquerors and of offering useful methods of solving the moral problems of the conquered. companionship. The moral status of the Philippines during this period was one with a lack of freedom. All of these and a lot more are evidences of Rizal’s religious philosophy. he developed a life philosophy of a different nature. secondary and college levels. This led to moral confusion among the people. the abuse of power by means of exploitation. the government ruling that any complaint against the authorities was criminal. rosaries and the like in order to propagate the Faith and raise church funds. civilized. Rizal’s guiding political philosophy proved to be the study and application of reforms. nor in the sale of such religious items as the cross. therefore. brutality. To bolster his ethical philosophy. He bitterly assailed and criticized in publications the apparent backwardness of the Spanish ruler’s method of governing the country which resulted in: 1. Rizal did not agree with the prevailing Christian propagation of the Faith by fire and sword. destitute and fanatic. research and the possession of an independent spirit. but also the tendencies towards good and evil. one with an imposition of foreign religious worship.Being a critical observer. Making the people ignorant. The fact that the Philippines was under Spanish domination during Rizal’s time led him to subordinate his philosophy to moral problems. To support his ethical philosophy in life. 3. As a result. inhumanity. the training for self government and the arousing of spirit of discontent over oppression. a philosophy of a different Catholic practice intermingled with the use of Truth and Reason. in later life. salvation was not possible even if Catholics composed only a small minority of the world’s religious groups. Rizal did not believe in the Catholic dogma that salvation was only for Catholics and that outside Christianity.
Rizal’s social philosophy dealt with. 3. history and progress. the importance of deliberation. censured the priests who preached greed and wrong morality. rector of the Imperial Atheneum of Leitmeritz. influential factors in human life. 8 The Many-Sided Personality Filipinos and foreigners alike have paid tribute to Jose Rizal claiming that his place of honor in history is secure. UP Mindanao 10 1. 2. social ideal." His precocity since early boyhood turned into versatility in later years. beauty and values of human nature. the change of his mentality. the ability to think." Another German friend. Adolf B. Agriculturist Rizal had farms in Dapitan. 7. reforms. Social Philosophy That body of knowledge relating to society including the wisdom which man's experience in society has taught him is social philosophy. coconuts and other . remarked "Rizal’s many-sidedness was stupendous. 1. with every problem having a distinct solution to bolster the people’s social knowledge. 3.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. Being curious and inquisitive. The subject matter of this social philosophy covers the problems of the whole race. 10. 11. his ability to deny. Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt. 5. The above dealt with man’s evolution and his environment. 4. 8. whose rare brilliance appears only every other century. advised the masses that the object of marriage was the happiness and love of the couple and not financial gain. 4. he developed a rare facility of mastering varied subjects and occupations. the necessity for consulting reliable people. man’s need of practicing gratitude. explaining for the most part human behavior and capacities like his will to live. the duties and dictates of man’s conscience. social justice. counseled the Filipinos not to resent a defect attributed to them but to accept same as reasonable and just. The facts dealt with are principles involved in nation building and not individual social problems. youth and greatness. future Philippines. All of the above served as Rizal’s guide in his continuous effort to make over his beloved Philippines." Our own Dr. who said "Rizal was the greatest product of the Philippines and his coming to the world was like the appearance of a rare comet. 9. social constant. aspire and strive to rise. his need for experience. 6. Meyer. Zamboanga del Norte (1892-1896) where he planted lanzones. director of the Dresden Museum who admired his all around knowledge and ability. advised every one that love and respect for parents must be strictly observed. 2. censured the friars for abusing the advantage of their position as spiritual leaders and the ignorance and fanaticism of the natives. the voluntary offer of man’s abilities and possibilities. It was his Austrian bosom friend. brain and spirit-all of these combining to enhance the intricacies. Actor Rizal acted as a character in one of Juan Luna’s paintings and acted in school dramas. the role of virtuous women in the guidance of great men. man in society. the need for elevating and inspiring mission. and the proper use of hearth. and 5. Camilo Osias pointed to him as the "versatile genius. Dr. his desire to possess happiness. poverty and wealth. racial problems.
rabbits. He wrote about and sketched animals of the places he had toured. Archeologist Rizal studied monuments and antique currency everywhere he went. Horticulture and farmer . Commentator Rizal always expresses and published his personal opinion. he did not wish fowls to be killed even for food. Father of community school He proposed college in Hong Kong and his special school in Dapitan made him a father of community schools. and showed displeasure in being asked to eat the cooked animal. insects. Botanist Rizal maintained a garden in Dapitan where he planted and experimented on plants of all kinds Businessman He had a partner in Dapitan in the Abaca business there (1892-1896). Anthropologist He made researches on the physical and social make up of man. Educator Rizal taught in his special school in Dapitan. dogs. Animal Lover As a small boy. Rizal loved animals including birds. fish. horses. Rizal was able to compare different races and he noted the differences. Fowls. Ambassador Of Good Will His friendliness. The Philippines and other places he visited. The family garden in Calamba abounded with insects galore and birds native to the Calamba environs. Freemason abroad He was member of La Solidaridad Lodge in Spain. goodwill and cultural associations with friends entitled him as one. Ascetic Rizal always practiced self-discipline wherever he went. and other specimens of animal life. Chess Player He played chess and bear several Germans and European friends and acquaintances. Ethnologist In his travels. An American conchologist praised him. Fencer He fenced with Europeans and Juan Luna and other friends in Europe. UP Mindanao 11 fruit-bearing trees. Middle East and Asia made him one. Cartographer He drew maps of Dapitan. and cats constituted his favorites. He drew most of the monuments he saw. As much as possible. Conchologist He had a good shell collection in Dapitan. Citizen of the world His extensive travels and multitude of friends in Europe.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. Book lover He had a big library and brought many books abroad.
Plant lover . Orientalist Rizal admired the special characteristic and beauties of Oriental countries peoples. Historian His annotation of Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas entitled him as one. Musicians He played the flute and composed pieces of music and cultivated music appreciation. L. Ichthyologist He collected 38 new varieties of fish in Dapitan. UP Mindanao 12 He experimented on and cultivated plants in Dapitan. Japanophile His admiration of Japanese traits and his knowledge of her language proved he was one. Ophthalmologist He graduated in an ophthalmologic college in Spain. Humorist There are many humorous incidents in the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Journalist He authored the published many articles in Spanish and English and London. Wecker in Paris. He was always truthful since boyhood. Lover of truth He chided Spanish writers for not writing the truth about the Filipinos. Nationalist He gave full expression of the native spirit strengthened by world civilization and loved and defended everything Filipino. Philosopher Rizal not only loved wisdom but also regulated his life and enjoyed calmness of the life at all time Physical culturist Rizal maintained a good health by exercising all parts of his body and eating proper foods Physicians He treated several patients afflicted not only with eye diseases. Newspaperman He wrote and published articles in many publications and was one of the organizers of the La Solidaridad. Laboratory worker He was employed in the clinic of Dr. Mythologist Rizal used mythology in his Noli and Fili. Philologist Rizal loved of learning and literature is unequalled.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. Linguist He spoke over 20 foreign languages. Pharmacologist Rizal treasured and popularized the usefulness and preparation of cures for treatment of his patients.
Revolutionist Rizal encouraged reforms. discouraged old. Politician Although Rizal did not engage in Politics. Sanitary engineer His construction of a water system in Dapitan exemplified this practice by Rizal. he always encouraged and introduced solutions. He desired changes for the better. Polyglot Rizal spoke and wrote in 20 languages. Sodalist . Rural reconstruction worker He practiced rural reconstruction work in Dapitan in 1894 and succeeded. J. impractical usage. Researcher Being a wide reader. Scientist Rizal’s practice of many sciences here and abroad made him noted scientist. Sinologist Rizal’s ancestry and his ability to speak Chinese made him one. he exposed the evils of the political activities of the Spaniards in the Philippines through his writing. Rizal spend most of his time in the family garden which was planted with fruit trees. so changes could be made. Proofreader In Germany. He wrote poems on flower he like very much as his poems To the Flowers of Heidelberg. typified his sculptural ability. Rizal encourages the recommendation of improving the government entities and discourage abuses publishing articles. Sociologist In Rizal’s study of Philippines social problems. Poet Rizal wrote over 35 poems including his famous Ultimo Adios. His diaries contained detailed description and sketches of plants. and desired new and useful laws to benefit his countrymen. flowers and fruits he saw in the places he visited. S. Propagandist As a reformer. UP Mindanao 13 As a child. he compared the old and new practices in life. Sharp shooter He could hit a target 20 meters away. He worked as a part-time proofreader of his livelihood. Sculptor His works of his father and of Father Guerrico. Public relation man He worked for better cooperation of rulers and subjects in his country.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. Shrubs and decorative trees. Rhetorician Rizal has always practiced the art of persuasive and impressive speaking and writing. Reformer He published the modern methods of government administration.
12 May 1882 He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat. 6 May 1882 He played chess with the passengers on board. B. at 2 p. 13 May 1882 Rizal was seasick again. which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio. UP Mindanao 14 He always joined fraternities. May 15 1882 Rizal had another disheartening dream. for self-improvement. Rizal had a terrible dream.m. there. 8 May 1882 He saw mountains and Islands." Zoologist He was fond of pets. he became and was recognized as an expert. Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain.. Tourist He was considered the foremost tourist due to his extensive travels. 10 May 1882 He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations. 4 May 1882 He got seasick on board the boat. Vicente Gella. classification and habits. Sportsman He engaged from a surveying class at the Ateneo after passing his A. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who . He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes. 14 May 1882 On his way to Marseilles. he was still feeling sea-sick. 9 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Singapore. father of Leonor Rivera. and Mateo Evangelista. Tuberculosis expert For having cured himself of this disease. Youth leader He considered the youth as "the hope of his Fatherland. associations and brotherhood. 5 May1882 He conversed with the passengers of the ship. He researched later on their physiology. Traveler He traveled around the world three times.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. 11 May 1882 In Singapore. He found the boat clean and well kept. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado. 9 Rizal's First Trip Abroad 3 May 1882 Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain.
He was so sad and broken hearted. He made observation at the time. Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship . 13 June 1882 Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. then came Leonor Valenzuela. Nelly Boustead. He sleptn board. 2 June 1882 He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles. Gertrude Beckette. 26 May 1882 Rizal was nearing the African coast 27 May 1882 He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a. 3 June 1882 He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal. O-Sei San. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.m. In the afternoon. 15 June 1882 He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train. 14 June 1882 His second in Marseilles. a tall girl from Pagsanjan. charm and wit. the Romantic There were at least nine women linked with Rizal. accompanied by a guide. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin. Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed.m. Leonor Rivera Leonor Rivera. He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal. went around the City of Naples for one hour. his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. This was the first European ground he set foot on. he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. his first love was engaged to be married to a town mateManuel Luz. Leonor Valenzuela.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. In a letter to his parents. 7 June 1882 Rizal arrived at Port Said. Leonor Rivera.. 17 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales. Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink. 18 May 1882 At 7:30 a. 10 Rizal. that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. Later he around for observation. the boat anchored at Marseilles. 11 June 1882 Rizal disembarked and. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence. UP Mindanao 15 did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad. 12 June 1882 At ten o’clock in the evening. 6 June 1882 It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat. he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. namely Segunda Katigbak. Unfortunately. Consuelo Ortiga. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda. Unfortunately.
In Brussels. Fortunately.. Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads. parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe. She was Josephine Bracken. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid. y R. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C. he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host. Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. a result of some incidence. as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. Upon her return to Dapitan. he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. he boarded in the house of the Beckett family. a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. Rizal was physically attracted to her. sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security. The lovers. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship. However. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude. Before leaving London. Rizal asked Josephine to marry him. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. fell in love with him. Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters. Consuelo Ortiga Consuelo Ortiga y Rey. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her. Nellie Boustead Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera. the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong. who was then a known filibustero. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. O Sei San O Sei San. who was seriously in love with him. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. within walking distance of the British Museum. the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz. however. Gertrude. thus averting tragedy for the compatriots. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. her mother’s choice. courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. which might have shocked or frightened her.O. but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. UP Mindanao 16 with Rizal. because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance. a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead.PI 100 Life and works of Rizal Department of Social Sciences. entertained the thought of courting other ladies. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. Antonio Luna. In time. they fell deeply in love with each other. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission. Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl. Suzanne Jacoby In 1890. Gertrude Beckett While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. . he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. which became one of his best poems. a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. brown hair and a happy disposition. while still in Dapitan. with bold blue eyes. who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid. She fell in love with Rizal. Eduardo Boustead. Josephine Bracken In the last days of February 1895. Luna apologized to Rizal.
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