An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through interacting magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force, although a few use electrostatic forces. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa. For example a starter/generator for a gas turbine, or traction motors used on vehicles, often perform both tasks. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current (e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships, and for such purposes as pipeline compressors, with ratings in the millions of watts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. Some devices, such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers, although they generate some mechanical power, are not generally referred to as electric motors, and are usually termed actuators and transducers, respectively.

OBJECTIVE To identify AC and DC motor. To differentiate the components in AC and DC motor. To identify the advantages and disadvantages of both AC and DC motor.

i. ii. iii.

Page 1 of 13



There are lots of motor that use in electrical system but the most commonly motor that used in electrical system are alternating current or AC and direct current or DC. Basically, the reference of these two motor are refer to the how the electrical current transferred through and from the motor. Based on the name, it is known that these two motor have different function and uses. As for DC motors, it is come in two general types which are brushes and brushless while AC motors also come in two different types. They can be a synchronous motor or induction motor. Below are the details information regarding AC and DC motors. 3.1 ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) MOTORS

As mentioned above, AC motors come in two types which are synchronous motors and induction motors. The AC motors are used differently based on what type of AC motor it is. There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a submultiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which runs slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current. The amount of power given off by an AC motor is determined by the amount of power needed to operate the system.An AC motor has two parts. A stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and a rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field.

An AC motor stator with preformed stator coils

Page 2 of 13



One third of the world's electricity consumption is used for running induction motors driving pumps, fans, compressors, elevators and machinery of various types. The AC induction motor is a common form of asynchronous motor whose operation depends on three electromagnetic phenomena:

Motor Action - When an iron rod (or other magnetic material) is suspended in a magnetic

field so that it is free to rotate, it will align itself with the field. If the magnetic field is moving or rotating, the iron rod will move with the moving field so as to maintain alignment.

Rotating Field - A rotating magnetic field can be created from fixed stator poles by Transformer Action - The current in the rotor windings is induced from the current in the

driving each pole-pair from a different phase of the alternating current supply.

stator windings, avoiding the need for a direct connection from the power source to the rotating windings. Induction motors have either wound rotors or squirrel cage rotors. • • Wound Rotor. Wound rotors are constructed using the same principle as stator construction. Squirrel Cage Rotor. The SCIM rotor has conducting bars embedded in grooves that are etched in the surface of the rotor along the direction of the rotor axis. The conducting bars are placed around an iron core. To allow current flow in the bars, the bars are shorted at either end of the rotor by large shorting rings. Squirrel cage rotor construction is shown figure below. The rigid construction of this type of rotor contributes significantly to the robustness of the SCIM.


Squirrel cage rotor construction

One of the major advantages of the induction motor is that it does not need a commutator. Induction motors are therefore simple, robust, reliable, maintenance free and relatively low
Page 3 of 13

cost. They are normally constant speed devices whose speed is proportional to the mains frequency. Variable speed motors are also possible by using motor controllers which provide a variable frequency output.


Three phase induction motors are used wherever the application depends on AC power from the national grid. Because they don't need commutators they are particularly suitable for high power applications. They are also available with power handling capacities ranging from a few Watts to more than 10 MegaWatts. They are mainly used for heavy industrial applications and for machine tools. Other than that, the availability of solid state inverters in recent years means that induction motors can now be run from a DC source. They are now finding use in automotive applications for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Nevertheless, the induction motor is ill-suited for most automotive applications because of the difficulties associated with extracting heat from the rotor, efficiency problems over wide speed and power ranges, and a more expensive manufacturing process due to distributed windings. Permanent magnet and reluctance motors offer better applications. 3.1.2 SYNCHRONOUS AC MOTORS The synchronous motor is similar to the induction motor in that it is a polyphase machine in which the stator produces a rotating field, however the rotor is constructed from either permanent magnets or electromagnets energised by direct current supplied through slip rings. Another way of saying this is that it has zero slip under usual operating conditions. Synchronous motors are available in sub-fractional self-excited sizes to high-horsepower direct-current excited industrial sizes. In the fractional horsepower range, most synchronous motors are used where precise constant speed is required. The synchronous motor provides two important functions. First, it is a highly efficient means of converting ac energy to work. Second, it can operate at leading or unity power factor and thereby provide power-factor correction. Synchronous motors have either wound rotors or permanent magnet rotors. Figure below compares the two types. solutions for these

Page 4 of 13

Field Wound Rotor. Field wound rotors are of the salient pole type. Salient pole rotors are constructed of protruding pole assemblies bolted or dovetailed to a magnetic rotor hub. The rotor poles are wound with magnetic wire to produce a rotor magnetic field. This type of construction requires an external circuit for field excitation. The FWSM is appropriate for large vessels such as icebreakers and auxiliary ships but its large size and weight make it unacceptable for use in surface combatants.

Permanent Magnet Rotor. Permanent magnet rotors receive their field excitation from permanent magnets mounted around the surface of the rotor instead of from field windings. A major advantage of PM synchronous motors is that slip ring or brushless exciter assemblies are not required. This eliminates excitation losses, which are a major power loss component in field wound motors.

Structure of synchronous motors: (a) permanent magnet rotor (two- pole); (b) salient-pole rotor (two-pole)


Synchronous motors show some interesting properties, which finds applications in power factor correction. The synchronous motor can be run at lagging, unity or leading power factor.


Synchronous motors find applications in all industrial applications where constant speed is necessary. It is also use to Improving the power factor as Synchronous condensers. Beside that, it is used in low power applications include positioning machines, where high precision is required, and robot actuators. But majorly, mains synchronous motors are used for electric clocks.
Page 5 of 13


DIRECT CURRENT (DC) MOTORS As stated earlier, the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types,

which use internal and external commutation respectively to periodically reverse the current in the rotor windings. A direct current (DC) motor is a fairly simple electric motor that uses electricity and a magnetic field to produce torque, which turns the motor. At its most simple, a DC motor requires two magnets of opposite polarity and an electric coil, which acts as an electromagnet. The repellent and attractive electromagnetic forces of the magnets provide the torque that causes the DC motor to turn. The attraction between opposite poles and the repulsion of similar poles can easily be felt, even with relatively weak magnets. A DC motor uses these properties to convert electricity into motion. As the magnets within the DC motor attract and repel one another, the motor turns. A DC motor requires at least one electromagnet. This electromagnet switches the current flow as the motor turns, changing its polarity to keep the motor running. The other magnet or magnets can either be permanent magnets or other electromagnets. Often, the electromagnet is located in the center of the motor and turns within the permanent magnets, but this arrangement is not necessary. DC motors are generally used for more precision and power than AC motors, as they tend to me more controllable. 3.2.1 BRUSHED DC MOTORS Brushed DC Motors are the classic DC motors, which include a split ring commutator, and can be powered by any kind of DC battery. These motors are often considered to be limited, due to the need that brushes will always be in contact with the commutator ring, hence creating friction. Brushes also scratch the surface of the ring, which eventually will lead to replacement of the brushes and ring. Although the brushes in these motors were originally made from copper wire (now obsolete), they are now made from carbon, which is a longer-lasting material, gives less friction, and is cheaper. The advantages of Brushed DC motors are that their initial cost is extremely low, and that they have an extremely simple speed control system (Dynamo). However, it is the brushless DC motor which is recommended by most.

Page 6 of 13


BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS Brushless DC motors are extremely desireably as they completely eliminate the need for

brushes. This increases their life, survival without maintainance, power output and efficiency dramatically. Their basic working principle is to facilitate an external commutator, which will reverse the direction of the current depending on the position of the rotor. As there are no brushes, maintainence levels are lowered dramatically, and as there is no friction caused by brushes, the efficiency of a brushless motor is typically between 85 and 90 percent (a brushed motor's efficiency is usually about 75 to 80 %). This makes them ideal for heavy duty use, and cost efficiency in the long term. They also run much cooler than AC and brushed motors, which greatly increases the life of the motors in context.

The four poles on the stator of a two-phase BLDC motor.

An exploded view of a DC motor. This diagram shows the relationship of all of the components

Page 7 of 13

3.2.3 APPLICATIONS OF DC MOTORS The DC Motors are used a lot in consumer electronics. BLDC motors fulfill functions originally performed by brushed DC motors, but cost and control complexity prevents BLDC motors from replacing brushed motors completely in lowest cost areas. The uses of DC such as in computer hard drives and CD/DVD players. Small cooling fans in electronics equipment are powered also by BLDC motors. Other than that, the DC motors also found in transport, for example in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors. Beside that, the DC motors are currently the most popular motor choice for aircraft model including helicopters. Nowadays, the DC motors also used in electrical bicycles that are sometimes build into the wheel hub itself, with the stator fixed solidly to the azle and the magnets attached to and rotating with the wheel. The bicycle wheel hub is the motors. This type of bicycle also has a standard bicycle transmission. 3.3 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF DG & AC MOTORS Advantages of AC motor 1) They use conventional, low cost, 3-phase AC induction motors for most applications. 2) DC drives are normally less expensive for 2) AC motors require virtually no maintenance and are preferred for applications where the motor is mounted in an area not easily reached for servicing or replacement. 3) AC motors are smaller, lighter, more commonly available, and less expensive 4) AC motors are better suited for high speed operation (over 2500 rpm) since 3) Usually DC drives is use as adjustable speed machines and a wide range of options have evolved for this purpose 4) DC regenerative drives are available for applications requiring continuous regeneration for overhauling loads. AC drives with this capability would be more complex and expensive.
Page 8 of 13

Advantages of DC motor 1) DC drives are less complex with a single power conversion from AC to DC.

most horsepower ratings.

there are no brushes, and commutation is not a problem 5) It is desirable to use an existing constant speed AC motor already mounted and wired on a machine. 6) Some AC drives may produce audible motor noise which is undesirable in some applications. 5) DC motors are capable of providing starting and accelerating torques in excess of 400% of rated.

Disadvantages of AC motor 1) Expensive speed control -Speed control is expensive. The electronics required to handle an AC inverter drive are considerably more expensive than those required to handle a DC motor. -However, if performance requirements can be met -- meaning that the required speed range is over 1/3rd of base speed -- AC inverters and AC motors are usually more cost-effective than DC motors and DC drives for applications larger than about 10 horsepower, because of cost savings in the AC motor. 2) Inability to operate at low speeds -We know that standard AC motors should not be operated at speeds less than about 1/3rd of base speed. This is due to thermal considerations. In fact a DC motor should be considered for these applications. 3) Poor positioning control

Disadvantages of DC motor 1) less efficient and remain at the same voltage and current, so we will lose a lot of energy and therefore money from energy lost to heat at high currents. 2) Although you can use a DC generator to power smaller systems efficiently, the wiring required to run a larger system can become a fire hazard. This happens when the correct wiring is not used to run the current from the generator. Wiring a DC generator can be quite a hassle for larger jobs, and it is difficult to run the wire according to code 3) Motor operation requires the purchase of a complicated electronic motor driver.
4) The largest disadvantge of a direct current

machine is the care required to maintain
Page 9 of 13

-Positioning control is also expensive and crude. Even a vector drive is very crude when controlling a standard AC motor. Servo motors are more appropriate for these applications.

the mechanical interface used to get current to the rotating field
5) The critical nature of the interface is due

in large part to the high currents required by the DC machine.
6) Typically cost-effective because the

manufacturers of large heavy-duty DC equipment have been building them for several decades.


CONCLUSION As a conclusion, there are many types of motor that used in electrical system but the most

common motor that used in electrical system are direct current or DC and alternating current or AC motors. The reference of DC or AC refers to how the electrical current is transferred through and from the motor. Both types of motors have different functions and uses. Dc motors come in two general types. They can have brushes or be brushless. There are lots of motor that use in electrical system but the most commonly motor that used in electrical system are alternating current or AC and direct current or DC. Basically, the reference of these two motor are refer to the how the electrical current transferred through and from the motor. Based on the name, it is known that these two motor have different function and uses. As for DC motors, it is come in two general types which are brushes and brushless while AC motors also come in two different types. They can be a synchronous motor or induction motor. DC and AC motors are sometimes subtle, but these differences are what make one types better for a certain use. Direct current or DC electric motors work for situations where speed needs to be controlled. DC motors have a stable and continuous current. DC motors were the first and earliest motors used. They were found, however, to not be as good at producing power over long lengths. Electric companies found using DC motors to generate electric did not work because the power was lost as the electric was transmitted. Brush DC motors use rings that conduct the current and form the magnetic drive that powers the rotor. Brushless DC motors use a switch to produce the magnetic
Page 10 of 13

drive that powers the rotor. Direct current motors are often found in appliances around the home. Alternating current or AC electric motors are used differently based on what type of AC motor it is. Single phase AC motors are known as general purpose motors. They work well in many different situations. These AC motors work great for systems that are hard to start because they need a lot of power up front. Three phase, also called polyphase, AC motors are usually found in industrial settings. These motors also have high starting power build transmits lower levels of overall power. AC power gets its name from the fact that it alternates in power. The amount of power given off by an AC motor is determined by the amount of power needed to operate the system. DC and AC electric motors are found everywhere from the home to the car to industrial plants. Motors are important to everyday life. Dc motors were introduced and caused a great revolution in the way many things are done. When AC motors came on the market the way motors were looked at changed because of their amazing starting power potential. DC motors and AC motors are different in many ways, but they still both are used to power the world.

RECOMMENDATIONS As a recommendations, we know that AC and DC motors are commonly motors that used

in most of our electrical components, from our transport, fridge, clock, instrial machines, to our household items. Therefore the technologies of these motors have to be improve and the unused of its component have to be minimize to controls the pollutions of its components. Placing the motor into overload conditions is one cause of over-temperature. High ambient temperatures and dirty or clogged air filters on the machine or motor blowers also contribute to over-temperature failures. High temperature inside the motor cause expansion stress in the wire insulation, resulting in cracks, which in turn can cause contamination and eventual wire failure. Therefore, it is recommended that the motor ambient conditions not to exceed 40oC (104oF). Most motors are designed for continuous operation at this ambient temperature. However, motors that will continuously be used in higher temperatures will typically be designed with a lower temperature rise class of insulation. DC motor insulation must have mechanical and dielectric strength. It must withstand the normal handling necessary in the assembly of the motor, as well as operation thereafter 5.0 REFERENCES

Page 11 of 13

J.G. Ciezki and R.W. Ashton, “A Survey of AC Drive Propulsion Options,” presented at the 3rd Naval Symposium on Electric Machines, December 4-7, 2000. Stephen J. Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, pp. 359-373 and pp. 482-501, McGraw Hill, New York, 1985. Raymond Ramshaw and R.G. van Heeswijk, Energy Conversion: Electric Motors and Generators, pp. 255-265, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 1990. Clive Lewis, “The advanced induction motor,” Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol. 1, pp. 250-253, IEEE, 2002. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brushless_DC_electric_motor, 21 January 2011 at 1.42 am. http://highperformancehvac.com/hvac-ecm-blower-motors-hvac.html, 10.32pm http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-dc-motor.htm, 19 January 2011 at 2.45pm. http://www.globalspec.com/reference/10788/179909/chapter-3-ac-and-dc-motors-dc-motorsover-temperature-conditions, 20 January at 2.04am. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA417341. 20 January 2011 at 10.30pm. 20 January 2011 at


Page 12 of 13

Basic commutator for DC motor.

AC & DC Gear Motor

Motor Construction

synchronous motor diagram

AC motor

Tesla’s DC Motor Plan Page 13 of 13

Tesla’s DC Motor Plan

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful