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It is interesting to find in the following list a remarkable analogy between d1- mension theory and metrization cheory.

Dimension theory

Theorem II. 2. A metric spaae R

has dim,;n if and on~y if there exists a 0 - ~ocaz.z.y finite open basis V such that: Ind B(V) ~n - 1 foT' every V E V •

Theorem III. 9. A metT'ic spaoe R

has dim ~n if and on~y if ther-e

exists a sequence {F iii = 1, ... } of Zoca~Zy finite a~sed ooverings of R whioh satisfies the foZ~owing oonditio,~:

i) for every neighb~~r-hood U(p) of every point p of R _, there exists some i with S(p,Fi)cU(P)'

ii) Fi = {P(Ct1,· .. ,ai) I ClkEQ ,

k = 1, •.. , i l , where F(oT"" a.i) may be empt";j,

1 First p~oved by K. Morita [5].

Metrization theory

Theorem I. 3 {Nagata-Smirnov's Metrization Theorem}. A regu~ar spaae R is metrizabZe if and on~y if there exists a 0 - ZoaaUy finite open basis

V •

A T1-spaae R is metrizabZe i~ and onZy if there exists a sequence

{Fi I i= 1,~, ... } of ZoaaHy finite oZosed aoverings of R whiah satisfies the condition i) on the left 1


iii) F(0'1 .••• ,ui_1) =

U {F(u1, ... ,CJ.i_1,B) I BEn},


ord F. < n + 1 1.=

Theorem II. 1 (The Sum Theorem). Le~ { Fyi y E r ) be a 7..ocalZy countab i« cZosed covering of a metric space R

such that dim F < n for y E r . Then

y- •

dim R~n

Let f be a cZosed continuous mappir~ of a metric space R of dim~n onto a metric space S such that for each point qES the set 8(f-1(q)) consists of at most one point. Then dim S ~n 3

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Let {Fyi y E r} be a locally finite aloeed covet-inq of a topoloqioal. space R such that each Fy is metr-ieabl:e, Then R is metrizabZe 2 •

Let f be a eloeed continuous mapping of a metric space R onto a topoZogicaZ

space qES

S such that for each point -1

the set 8(f (q)) is compact.

Then S is metrizabZe "

Theorem I. 2 (Alexandroff-Urysohn's Metrization Theorem). A T1-space R

is metrizabZe if and onZy if there exists a sequence U1 > U'2 > U2 > U3 > ••• of open coverings Ui such that

{ S(p, Ui) I i = 1,2, ... } is a neighbourhood basis for each point p Of R.

To complete the list we can also find theorems in dimension theory (Corollary to Theorem V. I, Theorem V.2) which correspond to Alexandroff-Urysohn's metrization theorem. In this chapter we shall first establish Theorem V. I and related theorems as the foundation of further investigations. Then by applying them we shall investigate relations between dimensions and metric functions of metric spaces.

2 First proved by J. Nagata [I]. Yu. Smirnov [2] and A. H. Stone [3] proved, under some additional conditions, that the union of countably many closed metrizable spaces is metrizable.

This statement is t he special case m = 0 of Theorem III. 7.

• This theorem, a part of Theorem 1.9, is due to A. H. Stone (2) and to K. Morita

S. Hanai [I). To this list we may also add Theorem 11.9 corresponding to Theorem 1.3. lncidentally. it will be interesting to see the corollaries to Theorem 11.6 and Theorem 111.2 in comparison with the ccnditions for paracompactness and normality, respectively.

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V. I

V.I. Characterization of dimension by a sequence of coverings

Theorem V. 1 5. A (metric) Bpace exists a sequence {Uk I k: 1,2, •.• } i) UI >U2>U3, ... ,

ii) ord Uk~n+1 ,k~I,2, ••• , iii) mesh Uk" 0 as k .. C1O•

Proof. Since the necessity of these conditions is clear, we shall prove only the sufficiency. We can assume without loss of generality that mesh Uk < 2-k Let

R has dimension ~ n if and on~y if there of open coverings such that

With each u e: Ak (k ~ 2) that UkacUk_16' Suppose we let

we associate by use of i), an index 6 = f(a) e: Ak _ I such Q. = {Q lyE r i is a given open covering of R. Then y

for some y E r ) , k: 1,2, ••• ,

It is clear that Vk is open and satisfies VkcVk+1 • For any (kJa)EN we obtain

( I )

o ,

because the contrary would imply

5 This theorem was first proved by P. Vopenka (2) after C. H. Dowker - W. Hurewicz [I) proved that the existence of a sequence {Uk} of locally finite open coverings satisfying i)' Ul > U2 > U2 > U3,.'" ii), iii) implies the n-dimensionality of Rand J. Nagata (2) proved the corollary to this theorem.

"Is the existence of a sequence {Uk} of open coverings satisfying only ii) and iii) sufficient for a space R to be of dimension ~ n 1" had been a major problem posed by P. Alexandroff until K. Sitnikov [1] gave an example of a 2-d imensional separable metric space which has a sequence {Uk} satisfying ii) for n = I and ii i} •

We define the metric dimension ~ dimR of a space as the smallest number n

such that there exists a sequence {Uk I k= 1,2, ••• } of open coverings satisfying ii) and iii). Yu. Smirnov [5], V. Egorov [I] and M. Katetov [4] investigated metric dimension. In particular the last paper established for every space R the following relation between II dimR and dim R : II dimR <·dimR< 2 ~ dimR •

Various other kinds of metric-dependent dimensi~ functions were studied by

K. Nagami, J. H. Roberts and his school; see e.g. K. Nagami - J. H. Roberts [I]. J. H. Roberts [2), and J. C. Nicholas - J. C. Smith [I]; the last showed that the finite sum theorem does not hold for ~-dim and other metric-dependent dimensions. J. R. Isbell [I] and Yu. Smirnov [8] studies uniform dimension and proximity dimension, respectively. For further developments in this aspect, see II. Herrlich [I], H. Pust [I].

V. I

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which contradicts our assumption. Now, we define open sets I'ko. by ;';ko. = Uko. n (Vk - Vk _ 2) for tk,«) EN Then we can easily see that

(2) { Wko.; o,«: EN} covers R,

because for every xER there exists k~1 satisfying xEVk-Vk_2 and (7<., a) E!I
satisfying x E Uko. We divide N ~ { (k,«) I (k,a) EN, Wko. H} into three dis-
joint parts A , B and C as follows: A = Uk,a) B = Uk,o.) C = {(i<, a)

(k,u) ENo (k,u) ENO ' tk,«) ENO

Wku n Vk _ I 0 } , WkCJ.cVk_I}'

Wku - Vk _ I "" I/) , Wka, n Vk _ I "" I/) } •

Furthermore we let


{ W ko. i o; a) E A } {I.', I (k,o.) E B }


{wko.l (k,o.) E C}

Then we can prove the following

(3) If Ct EAI and WIt.."" I/) , then (I ,:t) EA .

(4) If t«, Ct) E B, then (k - I

(5) If tk,«) E C , then (k - I

r(o.» EA •

Since VO: 0 , (3) is obvious. If tk,«) EB , then k> I • WkacVk _I ' and hence

This implies

because Uk _ I f(o.) =>Uko. • So WI< _ I f(o.) - Vk_ 2" I/) thus (I< -I ,f(o.)) EA UC, and

Now, let us turn to the proof of (5). First note that: (k,o.) E C implies 1.'1<(( n Vk _ I ' I/) • Since by the definition of Wka• Wka n Vk _ 2 .. 0 , we obtain

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and hence

which means Wk _ I f(a) " 0. Next, we note that (k,«) E C implies Wka n (R - Vk _ I H 0 .

Since by the definition of Wko' Wka C Vk ' we obtain

On the other hand

fo 110ws from Wka C Uko. • Thus we obtain !Jko. - V k: _ I ,,0 . which impl ies Uk _ I f(a) - Vk - 1 " 0 •

Hence it follows from (I) that Uk_If(et)nvk_Z=0. Thus we get (k-l,f(a))EA proving (5)

We define open sets Hk8 by

Hk8 = WkB U [ U { Wk + I a.1 (k + I, 0.) E C _, f(a) = B } 1

for (k; B) EA • Then it follows from the definitions of HkS' WkS and .4 that


To see (7) we should note that (k, B) EA Imp l i e s WkS n Vk _ I = f/J and accordingly WkB n Vk _ 1='0 • Furthermore we claim that

For, if f(a) = B , then

Hence (8) follows from the definition of HkB•

\~e know, in view of (3) and (4), that B < Au C • On the other hand. the definition of Hk8, combined with (3) and (5) , implies that AUC<{HkSI (k,BJEA} • Hence,

V.I A)

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by (2) {Hkf3 } covers R . Let us denote this open covering by H
Now, let Hkf3 be a given element of H Then we choose a point x EWkf3 Evi-
dently a: 10 Vk ' and hence p(x,R-Q/ >2-k for some yEf.

Since by the defini tion of likf3 we have x 10 8kf3 ' we obtain from (6) Hkf3 C Qy • Therefore we conclude that H < Q = { Qy lyE r ) .

Finally, let us prove that ord H ~n + 1

Let x be a given point of R

then we choose l' such that x 10 V!, - V!, _ 1 • If

a: 10 Hkf3 ' then from (7) we obtain ei ther k = l' or k = l' - 1 • We suppose

(9) ;::;1081'_1 f3 for p distinct indices f3,

(10) xEHro, for q distinct indices a',

It follows from ',11'_1 SCV1'_ 1 that xf!WI'_1 S' Hence by virtue of (9) and the

definition of Hkf3 we have xEWro for at least p distinct indices a with

(1'3 a) E C , because the mapping f(o.) = 8 is unique. On the other hand, by (10) and

(8) we have x 10 ',Ire' for at least q distinct indices a' with (l',a') lOA, because x 10 V!, • Therefore s: 10 ',Ire CUre for at least p +q distinct indices a, Since ord UI'~n+ 1 , this implies p+q~n+ 1 ,

Therefore ordxH~n+1 i.e. ord H~n+1 • Thus we conclude dimR~n

Corollary, A Tl-8paae R is a metrizab7..e epace of dimension ~ n if and only if there exists a sequenae

Of open cover-inqs "« euch that {S(p, Ui) I i = 1,2,.,.} i8 a neighbourhood baeie of eaah point p of R, ord Ui ~n + 1 , i = 1,2, ...

Proof. Combine Theorem 1. 2 with Theorem V, I.

We shall need later the following proposition which is a slight modification of the "only if" part of the above corollary.

A) A space R of dimension ~ n has a sequence

of open coverings such that {S(p, Ui' I i = 1 ,2" , .} is a neighbourhood basis of each

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V. I A)

point p of R, and such that each element of Ui + I meets at most n + I elements of U.


Proof. Since R is a metric space of diKension ~ n , by use of the paracompactness of R we can construct a locally finite open covering U, with mesh U; < I and ord U, ~n + I •

Suppose U, = {U' lyE r i ; then by 1. I A) we can find an open cover ing

y - -

U I = {Uy lyE r i with Uy C U~ Since U I is a locally finite closed covering with

ord U1,:;,n + I , we obtain from the corollary to Theorem II.6 a locally finite open covering Ui such that each element of Ui meets at most n + I elements of U1

and such that

Then we construct a locally finite open covering U2 a locally finite closed covering with


IT < U' z z


such that each element of Uz meets at most n + I elements of U I • By repeating this process we get the desired sequence U I > Ui > ••• of open coverings.

Theorem V. 2. Let R be a metrizable space. Then there is a metric p of R such that the canp~etion <R*,p*> of <R,p> satisfies dim R* = dim R. Ifmoreover R ia aeparable. then we can choose as p a tota~~y bounded metria.

Proof· Assume that dim R ~n Then it is easy to see that we can introduce a
metric p (a totally bounded metric p if R is separable) such that there is a
sequence U1 > Uz > ••• of uniform coverings of < R, p > with mesh U."O as 1-

i-+co, and

ord U. < n + I "t=

Construct the completion <R*,p*> of <R,p> (see 1.2.). Now, suppose Ui = {Uy lyE r i}, and put

where the symbol - * denotes closure in R*

Then by 1.2 C) each Vi is a uniform covering of and the definition of p* we can easily prove that

< R*, p* > • By use of 1. 2 B) { V.} satisfies



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The last equality implies that follows that dim R*~n • On the other hand dim R~dim R* is obviously true, and thus we obtain

mesh V ..... O as '!.

i .... CO • Hence from Theorem V.I it

dim R* = d im R •

V. 2. Length of coverings

We shall apply the result of Section I to the notion of the "length of a multiplicative covering" (due to P. Alexandroff and A. Kolmogoroff) to establish another theorem for n-dimensionality.

Definition V. 1. We (JaZZ a eovesrinq U a multiplicative oover-inq if ¢~U and k

if every non-empty intersection n i = 1 Vi of elements Vi' i = 1., ••• ,k, of U is

also an element of U.

Definition V. 2. Let U be a multipZicative covering. We mean by thp. length of an element V of U the greatest number r such that there exists a sequence

V s: V11U21 .,. =; Ur of elements of U. We mean by the length of U the greatest Zength of elements of U, i. e. length (j = max { length V I V E U} • It is easy to see that for every rTD.J.ltipZicative covering U length U ~ or d U • We can easily oonetauot: exampLes of muUipUcative coverings U for which length U < rank U , rank U < length U and length U = rank U respectively hold;

Theorem V. 3 6. A T1-space R is a metrizable space of dimension ~ n if and only if there eeiete a sequence

Of multipUcative open coverings of length ~ n + 1 such that (S(p, Ui) I i = 1, 2, ••• } is a neighbourhood basis of each point p of R (n~O) •

Proof. If dim R;;n , then by the corollary to Theorem V. I we can construct a sequence UI > Ui > U2 > ••• of open coverings of order .::. n + I such that

6 It remains open whether we can replace the condition ii) in Theorem V.I by length Uk < n+ I to improve Theorem V.3. K. Nagami [2] generalized this theorem as follows:

A TI-space R is a metrizable space of dimension ~ n if and only if there exists '! sequence {Fi I i = 1,2, ... } of locally finite multiplicative coverings such that fi + I < fi . length Fi~n + I , for every neighbourhood yep) of every point p of R there exists i with S(p, F i) C U(p) •

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[ S(p, Ui) I i = 1,2, ••• } is a neighbourhood basis of p. Since Ui plus all the intersections of a finite number of elements of Ui is obviously a multiplicative covering of length ~ n + I , the necessity is proved.

Let us assume the existence of a sequence satisfying the condition of the proposition. First we shall construct an open covering MI such that

As a matter of fact. this is the principal part of the proof. We denote by { Uro I a E A1'} all the elements of U 1 of length 1'. Then

UI={U Ii:lEA~!'=I, ••• ,n+l} ro r

because length U I ~ n + I • We define open sets v;:!J _. i

1, ••• ,n + 1 by

V(iJ = Int {xIS(xJU.J::v(i-I)} .. 2 +1

ro 1. ro - 1. = " •• ,n ,

where we denote by Int S the interior of the set S. It follows directly from the above definition and Ui < Ui _ I that

( I )



U i < { V ro I a EAr J l' = I, ••• ,n + I } _' i = I , •••• n + I ,


S(V(i) U.) c vfi - IJ . 2

ro'1. ro .'L= ••••• n+l.

Next we define open sets Mro ~ a EAr r = 1, ••• ,n + I by

M = V( I) = U

la la la

[ u { S(V~~J. Un + 2) I ex EA2 } ] U ... U [U{ SeVer)

r - I a'

r=2 •••. ,n+l.

Let us show that


{ Mro I a E Ar ~ l' = I •••• , n + I } •


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Let find

U be a given element of Un + 2 then by using (2) for i = n + I , we can

/n + I) with U c: V(n + J). lienee from (I) we can deduce that Uc V(1') , which

1'0 1'0 1'0


Un + 2 < { v;:;J I a EAr J l' = 1, ••• , n + I } •

Therefore for every U E Un + 2 we can find the least number l' such that


To prove (5) we shall show that


un s(v(1') U )

ko.' n+2


for this l' and every k with l~k~1'-1 and for every aEAk• If we assume the contrary:

for some k, a with I :;k:;,1' - I follows that

aEAk, then from U~ +2 <U1" (I) and (3), it

UCS(Vk(1'a), U )c/1'-I)cV(k)

l' ka ka

This contradicts the definition of l' because k < l' • Hence we obtain (7). This combined with (6) and (4) implies UCM1'O, which proves (5).

Now, to show that

(8) ord MI :;n+ I ,

we prove

(9) M1'O nM1'B = 0 for a'" B and for every 1'.

In case a , B EAI ' a;' S clearly implies

because length Ula show that

length VIS

I. To prove the same assertion in case l' > I , we


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First, by the definition of

it is obvious that

(2) (2)

Conversely, suppose o: E V ro n V 1'6

Q(x) of x such that

then there exist neighbourhoods P(x) and


s (P (x) n Q tx ) , U 2) c U 1'0. n U 1'6 = u l' ' Y This means that a: E v;~~ ,proving

Repeating this process, we conclude that

V(1') = /1') n V(1') for every

1"Y ro 1'6

l' •

We now turn to the proof of (9). By use of (10) and (4) we obtain

M «« cV(1')n/1')_[U{S(yf1') Un+2)lo.EAI}]U ••• U

ro 1'6 1'(l 1'8 I 0. '

[U{S(V(1') U. ) I(lEA }]Cv(1')nv(1')_S(V~1'y) ,Un+2)a0

l' - I 0.' n + 2 l' - I 1'0. 1'8 < '

for 1" determined by U n U 6 = U, ,because 1" < l' and in consequence

1'0. l' l' Y

S(v(1') U ) c [ U {S(V(1'J Un + 2) I a E A I }] U U

1"Y> n+2 10.' •••

holds. Thus (9) is proved for l' = I, ••• ,n + I • Since

the assertion (8) follows directly from (9). Since M I < U I is clear. from (5) combined with (8) we obtain the desired open covering MI satisfying

V.3 A)

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Un + 2 < M I < U I ' ord .II I ~ n + I •

Repeating this process, we get a sequence !.Ii' i = 1,2, ••. of open coverings such that

ord Mi~n + 1 , and

U .( )<M.<U cc )( i :

1+'l-n+1 z, 1+ '1--1 n+1

Therefore from the corollary to Theorem V. 1 we can deduce dim R.:;;.n and the metrizability of R.

Coro 11 ary 7. A srace R has dimension ~ n if and onLy if fol' evePy open coverir~ U of R thel'e exists a muZtiplicative open covel'ing V of R such that

V < U , length V ~ n + I

V. 3. uimension and metric function

It is an interesting problem to characterize the dimension of a metric space by the property of its metric function. We know that if P(x'Yi) <e: > i = 1,2,3 on the I-dimensional Euclidean space EI , then P(Yi'Yj) < c for some two points Yi > Yj of the three points YI ' Y2' Y3 and the same is also true for seven points Yi'

i = 1, ••• ,7 and a point x of E2 The number of points Yi having such a property will increase with the dimension number n of ~. This example leads us to a new idea to characterize the dimension of a metric space as follows.

The main theorem (Theorem V.4) of this section was first proved by J. Nagata [7] and P. A. Ostrand [2] independently. The proof to be presented here is a modification of Ostrand's proof.

A) If dim R s» then for each open covering U of R , there is an open covering
V such that V<U and V n+1 V. where each V. is a discrete open collec-
= Wi = I >
l. l.
tion 8 Proof;

By use of the method of the proof of II. 7 B) we can construct an open n+1 W such that W < U and W = tJi = I Wi uith open collections

covering < 1 • Let

Select an open covering


such that

W. of order 1-

P* <Wand put

Via U(pIPEP, S(P,P)CWia},

7 P. Alexandroff - A. Kolmogoroff [I] proved this theorem for a normal space Rand for finite open coverings U, V •

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V.3 B)

n+1 U i=1

V. 1.

Then V is obviously an open refinement of U because V iex cW iex and W < U • Each

Vi is discrete, because each member of

P meets at most one member of V. 1.

Definition V. 3. Let U be a covering of a space R. Then fo~ each non-negative integer n we define

where sO(U,UJ = U .

B) Let dim R ~n • Then there is a sequence U 1 ' U2, ... of open coverings of ..

such that
i) U. = u': + 1 U~
J 1.~1 J
ii) mesh Uj<l/j,
iii) [U. )20<U.
J + 1 J
iv) if j<k and
member of U~ •
J where each U~ is a discrete collection, J

~ i ~ n + 1 , then each member of

meets at most one

B Obviously the converse of this prOposltlon is also true. P. A. Ostrand [I) obtained a similar characterization of dimension as follows:

A metric space R has dim <n if and only if for each open covering U of R and each integer k.::n':; 1 there are k discrete open collections k -

V1' •••• Vk such that Ui~1 Vi<U, and the union of any n+1 of the Vi

is a covering of R.

He applied this theorem to prove the following theorem concerning the representation of a function of many variables as a composite of functions of one variable, which gives a good example of an application of dimension theory. (Another such example was presented in IV.3.):

Let XP, P ~ 1, .•• ,m be compact metric spaces such that

and let n = <: mId • Then there are continuous functions

L P ~ P

P = I, .•. ,m , q = 1, ••• , 2n + 1 such that every real-valued continuous funct ion

m .D

f defined on n P ; l,t· is representable in the form

dim xP = ~ <CD .j"l: xp ... [0, I) ,

2n + 1 f(xl,···,xmJ = ~ q~1


IPq ( ~ ~(xpJ), P ~ 1

where IPq, q= 1, ••• ,2n+ I are real-valued continuous functions with a real variable.

E. Step in [2) and R. Mane [I) also obtained interesting results in dimension theory related with other fields: The former proved that every finite-dimensional compact ANR (see J. Nagata [8] for the definition) is metrizable, and the latter proved that if a compact metric space R has a homeomorphism

f:R"'R and there exists £:>0 such that o(/(x), fi(!,))<£:, i=I,2, .•. implies x ~ y , then dim R < eo •

V.3 C)

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Proof. By use of A) we find an open covering U satisfying i) and ii) for j = I Then each point x of R has a neighbourhood P(x) which meets at most one member of U~ for each i and is contained in some member of U) • Select an open covering Q such that [Q1 20 < {P(x) I x E R }. By A) there is an open covering Y2 such that U2 < Q • mesh U2 < ) /2 and U2 = U~:: U~ for discrete collections U~. e B ) •••••

11 +) •

Then {U1' UZ} satisfies i) - iv). Continue the same process to get a sequence {U) ,UZ •••• } satisfying the desired conditions.


Let Q* denote the set of all rationals of the form

-m) -m2 -m

Z +2 + ... +2 t

where mi are natural numbers satisfying ) ~ m) <mZ < ... <mt . If dim R~n • then Stm) for all mE Q* such that

where each Si(m) is a discrete collection, is a neighbourhood base at each x E R ,

m < p • then SCm) < St p) ,

I ~i~n+) , and 5) ESi(m} , 5Z ESi(p) , then either S)c52 or 5) n52 =" .

v) if m,pEQ* satisfy m+p<) • and if 5) ES(m) , 52 ES(p} satisfy 5) n52 '" 0 , then 5) U52c53 for some 53 ES(m +p) •

we can define open coverings
i) n +) i
S(m} = Ui =) S (m) ,
ii) {S(x,S(m}) I mEQ*}
iii) if m,p E Q* satisfy
iv) if m,p E Q* , m <p , Proof. The proof given here is somewhat sketchy to leave the detail to the reader. To begin with. construct open coverings U1 • UZ.... which satisfy the four con-

ditions of B). (We assume that each collections by

U. 1.

contains no empty set.) Then define open

() V; = {52°(U,Uj +)} I UEU;}. )~i~ll+) , j= ).2 ....


V - U V~ j- i=) J

For AcR, ) !,i~n+) • s z: and k~O. we define sets ,J«A,i,j) and T(A,i,j) as follows


TO(A,i,j} = 5(A, V~} , J

-I (A, i,j) = S(,J< - ) (A, i,j)

T{A,i,j} = U Tk(A,i,j} k=o


Let m=2-m)+ ... +2-mtEQ*, where I,;,m)< ... <mt, and )~i~n+1 each A c R we define an open set SeA, i,m) as follows.

then for

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V.3 C)

(3) S(A,i,m) = T(A,i,ml + J) if t ~ I ,

SeA, i,m) = T(S(S(A, i, m "}, V l , i,mt) if t> I , mt

-ml -mt _ I -mt

where m' = 2 + ••• + 2 ~ m - 2

Now we define open collections



-m -s-

+2 ~€Q*


In the rest of the proof we denote by m and P members of Q* such that

~I - ~ ~

m 2 + ... +2 t'p~2 '+ ... +2 U

Since Ui < Si (m) and since U covers

ml ml

iii) of B) and (I) it follows that V.<U~, and accordingly by (2) we obtain J J

T(A,i,j)CS4(A,Uj) • Thus from (3) it follows that

I ~m I < .. , < mt ,and I ~PI < ... < Pu R ,S(m) is a covering of R. From


Hence by iv) of B), each member of

meets at most one member of Si(mJ

In the general case t> I , we can prove without much difficulty that

S(U,i,m)cSIOru,u + I) ,


and thus each member of Um + I meets at most one member of Si(mJ because of iv) . I

of B). Therefore each S~(m) is discrete.


From (4) and iii) of B) it follows that Thus ii) of C) follows from ii) of B).

Now, to prove iii) of C), suppose m < P

S(x,S(m)) CS(x,Um _ I) I

if m = 2-m1 •

Case a): ml = PI' m2 ;P2 '"'' mt=Pt, and t<u. Then SCm) < S(p) is obvious because


S(U, i,m) c S(U, i,p)

for each i and U € Ui ml

Case b): m, =P1 '"'' ms _, =P8- 1 ' ma -», for some s>1
Then put
-p -p
P' = 2 I + ••• + 2 e
-m -m s-I -P - Ps - 1
m' = 2 1 + ••• +2 - 2 1 + ... + 2 V.3 C)

- 106 -

Now, by use of iii) of B), we obtain

S(U, i,m) CS6 (S(U, i,m' ), u ) cS(S(U, i,m' ) J U

ms Ps

On the other hand by (3) we get

S(U,i,p')~S(S(U,i,m'),V )~S(S(UJi,m'),U )

~s Ps


(7) S(U,i,m) cS(U,i,p') cS(U,i,p)

holds for each U E Ui = Ui , and we have proved Slm) < S(p) •

ml PI

Case c): m I > PI·

Let UEUi ; then by (4) and (5) ml

5(U, i,m) at)' for some U' E U PI Suppose U' E uJ . then

PI '

S(U,i,m) CSIO(U,U I). Hence by iii) of B)

ml +

S(U, i,m) cU I c5(U I, j,p) E s-i ip) c Stp)

This Irnp l i e s Stm) < Sl p ) •

To prove iv), we first note the following fact.

(8) If a) or b) (defined in the above) is the case, then Si (m) < Si Ip) for each i.

Because .ml = ~I holds in this case, and, as shown in the above «6) and (7». for each U E U't. = U1. ,we have 5(U, i,m) cS(U, i,p) • Now iv) follows from (8) and the ml PI.

discreteness of S1.(p) if a) or b) is the case.

Assume the case c) and also that ps~n;1 <Ps+ I'. ml =ps+k (where s~1 , k_;:O) Suppose that S(I], i,m) E Si (m) and S(U', i, p) E S't. (p) meet each other, where

U E Ui ,U' E Ui

ml PI

Assume s> I • Then by (3) there are sequences 01, •.. 'an of open sets such that

a! {U"SII'512' ••••• }

O2 {V2'S20'S21'·····}

a a { V , 5 0' 5 1'..... } ,

u u u u

- 107 -

V.3 C}

where V. E V S. E Vi or

J p. JL p.+Z


its non-empty successor in the same sequence. the sum X.

u J

meets Vj + I ' and U j = I Xj meets S(U, i,m)

Case (1): S(U, i,m) n X • ;. 0 for some j < e or J

Then we may assume S(U, i,m) n V s ;. 0 . because

SjL = 0 • each non-empty member of a sequence meets

of the members of



S(U, i,m) n Vs ;. 0 •

V is a covering. By (4) and (5) ps


UEUi . Since Ps +k

Case S): S(U,i,m)nSsz.i<0 for some 1. with O~Z.~k-1

By an argument similar to the above S(U, i,m) cS(U', i,p) can be proved.

Case y): S(U,i,m) nSsk;'0 • Let

20 i

Ssk = S (Uo>Up +k+ I)' UOEUp +k

s s

Since S(U,i,m)cSIO(U,lips+k+ I) , there is a member of meets both U and Uo' ThuS by iv) of B) U = Uo • Hence

Case 6): Ssk,,0. and S(U,i,m)nSsZf0 for some t >« or S(U, i,m) n x. ;. 0 for some j > s .



Then there is a chain of ten members of

Up + k + I which connects Ssk and s

S(U, i,m) CSIO (U, Up + k + I) • where we mean by a chain a finite sequence of sets each

s W ~i~

member of which meets its successor. Hence there is a member of [Up + k + I]

_ s

meets both U and UO' Thus U = Vo ' and stu,c,«) cSfU',i,p)

Case e:): Ssk=r/J, and S(U,i.m)nSsZf-0 for SOme t s tc , or S(U,i,m)nX.:;'r/J for some j>s


v.) C} - 108 -

Assume that Ssk is the last non-empty member of the sequence

Then there is a chain of ten members of S(U,i,mJcSIOru,up +k+IJ. Thus



p + k + I e

which connects


S(U,i,m)cS20(U,Up +k+ l)cS(U',i,p) • 8

If 5s0,." ,S81< _ I are all empty, we can prove the same by use of Vs in

place of Ssk' In the above argument we have assumed 8> I • However a similar argument is valid in the special case s - 1 • Thus iv) of C) is established in all


Finally, to prove v), let m+p< I • Suppose S(U,i,m) nS(U',j,p) F 0 , where U E Ui U' E uJ

ml ' PI


It follows from (4) and (5) that

S(U, i,m) CSI ° (U, U + I) ,


S(U',j"p) CSIO(U',Um + I) , I

SI0(U U ) nsl0(U, U ) ;. 0

'ml+1 'ml+1

Thus by iii) of B)

S(U, i,m) U S(U', j,p) c wcSO

for some


So E SCm + pl , because

-(ml - 1)

m+p;2 +

Case 2: ml >P1 (and thus m <p) Assume that ps<ml~ps+1 (8~1)

Case 2.1: ml <P8+ I •

Assume e.g. s » I • It follows from (4) and (5) that

- 109 -

V.3 C)

Since ml + 1 ~P2 ' by (3) there is a chain of six members of

nects T(U',j'PI + I) with SIO(U U ) • Thus

, ml + 1

which con-

• 10 20

S(U,'L,m) cS (U,U I) cS ru,u I) E V

ml+ m1+ m1



stu,c,») cS(Tru',j,P1 + I) , Vm/ csru'~j,q) ,

-PI -ml -P2 -P

= 2 +2 +2 + ••• +2 n. On the other hand we obtain S(U',j,p)c

from (7). Thus

where q S(U',j,q)

S(U,i,mJ US(U',j,p) cSO for some So ES(p « m} ,

because q ~p +m •

In case of s > 1 , too. we can prove the same by a similar argument. Also note that a similar argument can be applied to the special case Pu <ml if (6) instead of (7) is used.

Case 2.2: ml =Ps+ 1 •

Denote by k the number satisfying O~k <s , Ps + I - I = Ps ' Ps - 1 s

Ps-I, ... ,Ps-k+2-I=Ps-k+I.' and Ps-k+I-I>Ps-k' (Note that k=o means Ps + I-I >Ps' and k=s means that Pj+ I -I =Pj for all j= 1,2 ..... a.)

Case 2.2.1: k=s

Then note that

-(PI - I)

2 ~m+p< 1

Since S(U',j,p) CSIO(U',UPI + I) , and sru,i,mJcSIO(U,Uml + I)CSIO(U,UPI +1) ,

it is true that

V.3 D)

- 110 -


S(U',j,p) US(U,i,m) CUoCSo for some UOEUp _I and SOES(m+p) I

Case 2.2.2: k<e.


-PI -Pe - k

p'=2 + ••• +2

-(Ps-k+I-I) and p" = p' + 2

(Not e that p" ~m + p) • Then it follows from (4) and (5) tha t StU, i,m) c

Sl 0 (U, Um + I) , and there is a chain of six members of U which connects

I 10 Pe-k+1

S(U',j,p') with 5 (U,U + I) . Denote by C the sum of the members of this chain.


Then there is Uo E U such that


S(U,i,m) uccsl°(U'Um + I) UCcUO I

because Ps-k+l~ml' Since

uonS(U',j,p') ,; 0


we obtain

On the other hand S(U',j,p)cS(U',j,p") follows from (7). Hence

S(U,i,m) US(U',j,p)cSO for some SOES(m+p),

because p" ~m + p . Thus all conditions for Stm) are verified.

D) Let dim R~n (n~O) • Then there is a topology-preserving metric p of R

such that for every i,j such that i~j

n+3 points x'YI'''''Yn+2 and p(y.,y.) <p(x,y.)

't. J - J

of R

there is a pair of indices

Proof. Define Sim) , mEQ* satisfying the five conditions of C). Then define p:RxR"'[O,I] by

p(x,y) = inf { mimE Q*, y ES(x,S(m)J} if y E S(X,S(m)) for soma m,


- III -

V.3 E)

It is obvious that p(x,y) = p(y,x) and D(x,x) = 0 • From ii) and iii) of C) it follows that ot», u! > 0 if x f Y •

Assume p(x,y) < I and otx ,») < I for x,y,z ER • Then for every e >0 there are m,pEQ* such that yES(x,S(m)), zES(y,S(p)) , p(x,y)~m<p(x,y) +c , and p(y,z)!.p<p(y,z)+£ •

By v) of C) there is WE SCm + p) such that x, a E W. Hence

p(X,z) ~m + p < p(X,y) + pry, z ) + 2£

Thus it is proved that p(x, z ) ~p(x,y) + p(y,?) • Therefore p is a metric function.

Note that

S(x,S(m/2)) cSm(x) cS(x,S(m)) for each mE Q* •

Thus by virtue of ii) the metric p is co~patible with the topology of R. Finally, let x'YI""'Yn+2 be any n+3 points of R. If P(x'Yk)-1 forsorne k , then P(Yi'Yk) :;'P(x'Yk) for any i So assume that P(x'Yk) < I for

k=I •••• ,n+2. Let £>0 be given. Then choose m(j)EQ*, i=», .• .,n+2 such that p(x,y.)~m(j)<p(x,y.)+£. and U.ES(m(j)), j=I, ••• ,n+2 such that x,y.EU •.

J . ( .)J J J J

Suppose U. ES1- J (m(j)) , j = I, ..• ,n -t 2 • Then for some pair (j,k) of distinct


indices we have i(j) = Uk) because I ~ Uj):;.n + I for j = I, ... ,n + 2 • Suppose

m(j) :;,m(k) ; then from i) and iv) of C) it follows that UjcUk, and thus

Yj' YkEUk' Hence

The pair (Y"Yk) may differ as £ differs. However. since there are only finitely J -

many such pairs. we can fix a pair (Yj'Yk) satisfying


E) If one can introduce a metric pinto R which satisfies the condition of D). then dim R ~n •

Proof. Actually we shall prove the following slightly stronger statement by use of induction on n: If one can introduce a metric p on R such that for a definite

number 6>0 and for every n-t3 points x'Y1""'Yn+2 j = I, .. " n + 2 • there is a pair of distinct indices i, j then dim R:;.n

Let p be a metric satisfying the condition for n = 0 • Then for any x,y ER and

of R with p(x,Y/ < 6 , for which pry .,y.) < p(x,Y .),

'!. J - J

V.3E) -112-

e > 0 with e < 6 , Se:(x) and Se:(Y) are disjoint or equal. More precisely SE(X) = S/y) if yESe:(x), and S£(x) ns/y) = 0 if y~Se:(x) •

Thus Uk = {SI(x) I xER} for sufficiently large k's are disjoint open cover-


ings of R which satisfy the cond i t ions of Theorem V. I for n = 0 • Therefore

dim R~O •

Assume validity of the statement for n=m - I . Suppose that p is a metric satisfying the condition for n =m and 6> 0 • Then we claim that for each positive number E < 6 and for each closed set F of R dim B(S/F)) ~m - I • where

S/F) = U is/x) I xEF}.

Assume the contrary; then by the i nduc t i.on hypothesis we can select m + 2 points x'YI,.··'Ym+ I EB(S/F)) such that

p(x'Yj)<£' j=I ••••• m+l.

p(y.,y.»p(x,y.) for every i,~' with iij.

1. J J

Now. choose a small neighbourhood U(x) of x such that for every x' E U(X)

Then there is Ym+2EF satisfying S/ym+2)nU(x)t-0 because xEB(Se:(F)).

Select a point x' ES/Ym + 2) n U(X) • Then

p(x',y.)<£<6, j-I, ••• ,m+2, J

p(y.,y.) >p(x',y.) if ilj and I <i,j<m+ I •

1. J J = =

P(Yi,ym+2)~e:>P(x',ym+2)' i=I •••• ,m+1 ,

P(Ym+2'Yj)~e:>p(x',y/, j=I, .... m+1 •

This contradicts the property of p. Thus we have proved

Now, let P


G be disjoint closed sets of R


a natural number sat is-

fying l/mO <.5 • Then put

8 = U (81 (F) -81 (GJ) •

m=mO m m

It is easy to see that 8 is an open set such that

- 113 -

V.3 E)



Fe8eR - G and

B(8) e ( U B{51 (P))) U ( U B(8/G)))

m=mO m m=mO



It follows from the sum theorem and the claim proved above that dim B(5) s» - I Therefore dim R:;,m which completes the induction.

Combining D) and E) we obtain the following main theorem.

Theorem V. 4. A metric space R has dim ~ n (n ~ 0) if and onLy if one can introduce a topoZogy-preseMJing metr-ic p or. R such that for every n + 3 points x'Yl' ••• 'Yn + 2 of R, there is a pair of distinct indices i,j for which P{Yi'Y/ ~ p{x'Yj) •

Definition V. 4. A metric p is caL Zed nor~archimedean if it satisfies p{x,z):;, max{p{x,y), p{y,z)) for every points x,y ar.d z of the space.

Coro 11 ary. 9 A metnric space R is O-dimensionaZ if and onZy if one can introduce

a topoLogy-preserving non-archimedean metric on R.

Proof. This is a direct consequence of Theorem V.4 because the condition there for n =0 is precisely the one for a non-archimedean metric.

We can slightly weaken the condition of Theorem V.4 if R is separable.

Theorem V. 5. lOA separable metr-ia space R has dim ~ n if and only if one can introduce a topoLogy-preseMJing totaLly bounded metric pinto R such that

for every n+3 points x'Yl""'Yn+2 of R, there is a tnplet Of indices i,j,k satisfying P(Yi'Yj) :;'P(x'Yk) , and ilj.

Proof. The 'only if' part follows directly from Theorem V.4.

We can prove the 'if' part as follows if R is compact. Let e: > 0 and M a maximal subset of R such that p(x,y) ~e: for every x,yEM with xly. Then Ue: = {5/x) I s: EM} is obviously an open covering of If. Suppose x E 5E{xk) , k=I, ••• ,n+2; then p{X,Xk)<E, k=I, ••• ,n+2

Hence for some distinct



j we obtain

p{x.,x.) <e: 't- J

which implies Xi

= x.



ord U < n + I • E=

Since R is compact, we can construct a sequence UI,U2, ••• of open coverings which satisfies the condition of Theorem V.1. Hence dim s s»

9 This theorem is due to J. de Groot [I]. 10 This theorem is due to J. de Groot [2].


- 114 -

Now, let R be a separable metric space with a totally bounded metric p satisfying the condition. Then the completion < R*, p* > of < R, p > is a compact metric

space. We shall prove that p* satisfies the same condition as p x*'Y*""'Y~+2 are n+3 points of R* such that

Assume that

p*(y"':,y"':J > P*(x*'Y*kJ whenever i I j . 1- J

Since close to

R x*

is dense in ,~ , we can choose points and Yj' respectively that




R which are so

which is a contradiction. Thus p* satisfies the required condition, and hence, as proved in the above, dim R* ~n • Therefore it follows from the subspace theorem that dim R ~n

Cora 11 ary. 1 1 A compact metric space R has d im ~ n introduae a metric pinto R such that for every n + 3 of R, there is a tx-iplet: i,j, k of indices satisfying ilj .

if and only if one can points x'Yl""'Yn+2 P(Yi'Y/ ~P(x'YkJ , and

V. 4. Another metric that characterizes dimension

Every spherical neighbourhood of any point of E" has a boundary of dimension n - 1 • J. H. Roberts' improvement of the corollary to Theorem IV.12 (p, 85)

shows that we can characterize dimension of separable metric spaces in this direction. But we must face difficult circumstances to characterize analcgously dimension of general metric spaces. Because the existence of a metric which satisfies the condition of the corollary to Theorem IV.12 may not be sufficient for a general metric space R to have dimension ~ n (even if it holds for every r > 0) since

11 It is unknown yet if this theorem is true for every metric space. In the following is another characterization of dimension by a metric satisfying a stronger condition:

A metric space R has preserving metric p on

only if one can introduce a topologyp(S£(xJ'Yi) <£ , i= 1, ••• ,n+2 for


£>0 and points x'Y1""'Yn+2 of R,then P(Yi,yjJ<E: for some distinct

indices i,j.

This theorem was proved by J. Nagata [2] and a simpler proof was given by S. Buz a s i, [I].

dim < n if and R s~ch that if

- 115 -


ind R~n is not sufficient for that. However, we can develop this idea in general metric cases as seen in the following.

Theorem V. 6 12. A 8paCe R has dimension ~ n if and onl.y if we can introduce into R a topoLogy-preserving metria p such that the spheriaal. neighbourhoods

S £ (p) , c > 0 Of every point p of R have boundal'ies of dimension ~ n - 1 and such that {SE(P) I pER} is aLosure-preserving for every £>0.

Proof. To show the "if" part let us note that

for every subset A of R because {SE(P) I pE R} is closure-preserving. Therefore

is a closure-preserving closed covering of 3(S/AJJ • Since dim B(S/p)) ~n - I for every pEA, from the corollary to Theorem II. I we can conclude that dim B(S£(AJJ ~ n - I •

Now, let F and G be given disjoint closed sets of R then by the above remark

we can construct two sequences

UI :>U2 :>U2:> ••• :>F , WI =>W2 =>W2 => ••• =>G

of open sets U. and W. such that
.. ..
p= n u. , G = n W.
i=1 .. i = I 1- dim (U.-U.)<n-I ,dim (W.-W.J<n-1

.. .. = 1- 1- =

It is clear that U = U': I (U. - W.J is an open set and satisfies

L = 1- 1-

FcUcR-G, U-Uc U i=1

[(U • - U .) u (W. - W.J] •

.... .. 1-

12 This theorem is due to J. Nagata [5]. S. Buzasi's [I] idea is used here to simplify the proof. Also note that as indicated by the proof, one can introduce into every metrizable space R a topology-preserving metric p such that {S (pJ Ip E R} is

closure preserving for every E > 0 • E


- ) 16 -

The latter relation implies dim (ij - U) ~n - I by virtue of the sum theorem. Thus we can conclude that dim R ~n

To show the 'only if' part let dim R:;.n ; then we can choose a sequence { Ui I i = ),2 •••• } of open coverings such that

a) b) c)

U I > Ui** > U2 > Uj** > • •• , mesh Um ~O as m~co,

? (», U; + I) intersects at most n + I for every x E R •

members of U m

Note that for every A cR and integers

I ~m2 < ••• < m • the following holds:


() )

The easy proof is left to the reader.

Now we define open coverings S(ml, ••• ,mp) for integers mIJ"'Jmp satisfying

as follows.

S(U;m I) = U for each U E Um

2 2 I

S(U;ml''''Jmp) = S ( ... S (U;U ; ... ,U i ,

m2 mp

S(mIJ ... Jm) = {S(U;ml, .. ·,m) I UEU }

P P ml

It follows from (I) and a) that


S(U;ml, .... m )cS (U,U )cS(U,U )

p m2 m

Hence we obtain


Now we can prove that

holds whenever

Z Z m m

1/2 1+ ••• +1/2Q<I/2 1+ ••• +1/2P

- 117 -


To do so assume that

and put C=S(U;7,I, ••• ,7,i_l) from (I) and a) that

for any

U€U (C=U if i=1J • Then it follows



follows from (3) and S(ml, ••• ,mi) <S(ml, ••• ,mp) is obvious, we have S(7,I, ••• ,7,q) < S(ml,···,mp) •

Now,wedefineamapping p:R"R-+[O,I] by


p(x,y) p(x,y)

ml m

= inf {1/2 + ••• +1/2Ply€s(xJS(ml, •• ,mp))}~

= I if y~S(xJS(m1_, ••• _,mp)) for every S(m., ... ,mp)

First of all p(x,y) = p(y,x) is obvious. It is almost obvious that p(x,y) 0 if and only if x = Y . To prove the triangle axiom for p, assume that

I >p(x,y) =a~b=p(z,y) ,

because the case of p(x,y) = I is trivial. Let e: > 0



I < 7, < ••• < 7,

- I q

such that

be given; then by (4) we can Z ~p , Z ~q , 7, < m ,and

I p

(5) x€S(y,S(ml, ••• ,m)) , Z€S(y,S(7,I, ••• ,7,q)) ,

m Pm

a < liZ I + ••• + liZ P <a + e: ,

7,) 7,

b < liZ + ••• + liZ q < b + E ,

7, 7, m m

IIZI+ ••• +l/zq<l/zl+ ••• +I/ZP

Then mi~ 7,1 ~mi + I holds for some i with I ~ i < p Case I: mi < 7, I < mi + I

Let U€U ,V€U7, ,and

ml 1


- 118 -

be given. Further, put D = S(U;ml> ... >mi) Then we obtain



BCS3(V,U~ )cS(V>Ui + I) >

2 I

there is WE Ui + I such that yEW and W n V I 0 . From (7) it follows that I

yEWnS(D,Ui + I) ,; 0 I


x,ZEAUVCS(S2(D,Ui +1»Ul )CS2(D.U~),


which implies that

Therefore we conclude that

ml m. ~I t.

ot», z ) < 1/2 + ••• + 1/2 1. + 1/2 + ••• + 1/2 q < a + b + 2£

Case 2: mi = ~ I' and ml, ..•• mi are integers in succession, i.e. mi _ 2 + 2 - ••• =ml + (i - I)

Case 2.1: ml-I •


m.=m. +1=

1. 1. - I

ml mi II

ot«, z ) ~ I - 1/2 + ••• + 1/2 + 1/2 < a + b + 2£

Case 2.2: ml > I •

Combining (2) and (5) we obtain


- 119 r:


which implies

m,-I m, mi Z,

p(x,z)~1/2 -'/2 + ••• +1/2 +1/2 <a+b+2e:.

Case 3: mi = ZI ; ms,ms + I •••• ,mi are integers in succession, and

m I + I < m • \~here 2 < s < i .

8- S c= -=

We may suppose (6) holds. Further put E = S(U;m1, ••• ,ms _ I) • Then it follows from

(') and a) that

AC:S3(E,U ) c:S(E,U ,) and

m m -

s 8

BC:S(V,UZ ) EUi U~. <Um _I

I I 1- S

Since yEAnBJi0, these relations imply that

x,ZEAUBC:S2(E,Um _I) = S(U;ml>"··,ms_l,ms-l) • 8


ml ma _ , m - I

p(x,z) ~ 1/2 + ••• + '/2 + '/2 s

m, mi Zl

1/2 + •• , + '/2 + '/2 < a + b + 2e: •

Thus in every case we obtain oi», z ) < a + b + 2e: , which proves the triangle axiom for p. Since

S(X,U I)C:S I (x)c:S(x,U)

m+ _ m


is obvious, the metric p agrees with the topology of R.

Now for any sequence m I ,m2, • • • of countably many integers with '~m I < "'2 < •••

and for UEU we define an open set S(U;M"m2, ... ) by



and also an open covering

Let us assume in the remainder of the proof that


- J20 -

Then we can assert that

For. if y£S(x,S(mJ,m2, ••• JJ, then y£S(x,S(mJ, ... ,mkJJ for k=I.2 ..... Thus

mJ m2

p(x,yJ~J/2 +1/2 + .... which means y£S/xJ. Namely we obtain

Conversely, if yES(x,S(ml,m2, ... )J J then there is UEUml such that

x,yES(U;mJ,m2, ... J. In view of the defbition of S(Ujml,m2, ... J we get x,yES(U;ml, ... ,mkJ for some k~1 • Hence

mJ mk

p(x,y) ~ J /2 + ••• + 1/2 < E

which means yES/x). Hence

Thus we conclude that (8) is true.

To show dim B(S/xJ J ~n - 1 • we note that (J) implies

Thus we obtain


Further note that by c) each S(x,U* + I) mJ

intersects at most

n + J

members of

• Hence each x E R

is contained in

for at most n + 1


members U of U • This note combined with (9) implies


Now, let us turn to the proof of dim B(S/x)) ~n - J Let y EB(Se/x)) be given. Then we can prove

( II )

ord y Umk ~ n , k = 1 .2. • •• •

- 121 -


For, suppose

yEV.EU ,isl, ... ,n+l.

1- mk

• nn+ I V

Then, s rnce i = I i

is a neighbourhood of y , by (8)


( n Vi) nS(x,S(ml,m2 .. ··)) 1- 0 i-I

Hence there exists V' E U satisfying


xES(U';ml,m2, ••• )cS(;r;,S(ml,m2 s » ·.)) = Sf_(X) and n + I

S(V':ml,m2 .... ) n ( n V.) 1-0

i = I 1-


there is V E U such that



(13) S(U,mk'mk+I .... )n(.n Vi)~0.


Recall that

Thus it follows from (12) that V is distinct from each of Vi' i = I, •••• n + I • Hence (13) implies that

which contradicts (10). Therefore (II) is proved.

This implies that the restrictions U' of

. f h b .. mk

open coverlngs 0 t e oundary satlsfYlng

U (k=I.2 •••• )



U' > U' > •••

ml m2

, mesh U' +0 mk

as k+cc, and

Hence by Theorem V. I we conclude that

dim ErS (x)) <n - I •

e: =


- 122 -

Finally we shall prove that (SE (ix) I x: E R } is closure-preserving for every

'111 m2

.. >0. (Note that we still assume E81/2 +1/2 + .••• ) From (8) and (10) it

follows that each SE(x) is a finite sum of members of S(ml,m2, ••• ) • Hence it suffices to prove that S(ml,m2, ••• ) is closure-preserving. To do so we note that

because of the condition c) of {Um} each element aO of U + I intersects


• Hence by (9) aO

S3 (U, U ) for at most n + I distinct members a of U

ml + I ml

t e r s ec t s at most n + I distinct elements of S(I'lI,m2, ••• ). The covering

S(ml,m2, ••• ) must therefore be locally finite and accordingly closure-preserving. This !'roves (S/x) I x E R} to be closure-preserving and the proof of the theorem


is complete.

The following corollary is a direct consequence of the theorem.

Corollary. A space R has dim~n if and onZy if we can introduce on R a

topology-preserving metric such that every cZoRed set F of R.

dimB(S (F)) <n-1

E -

for every

e: > 0 and for