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History of the internal combustion engine
Although various forms of internal combustion engines were developed before the 19th century, application was hindered until the commercial drilling and production of petroleum began in the mid-1850s. By the late 19th century, engineering advances led to widespread adoption in a variety of applications.
Timeline of development
Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines:
Prior to Modern Era
• 1206: Al-Jazari described a double-acting reciprocating piston pump with a crank-connecting rod mechanism. • 13th century: The rocket engine, an internal-combustion engine, is used by the Chinese, Mongols and Arabs. • 1509: Leonardo da Vinci described a compressionless engine.
1600 to 1860
• 17th century: inventor Christiaan Huygens used gunpowder to drive water pumps, to supply 3000 cubic meters of water/day for the Versailles palace gardens, essentially creating the first rudimentary internal combustion piston engine. • 1780's: Alessandro Volta built a toy electric pistol in which an electric spark exploded a mixture of air and hydrogen, firing a cork from the end of the gun. • 1791: John Barber receives British patent #1833 for A Method for Rising Inflammable Air for the Purposes of Producing Motion and Facilitating Metallurgical Operations. In it he describes a turbine. • 1794: Robert Street built a compressionless engine whose principle of operation would dominate for nearly a century. • 1798: Tippu Sultan, the ruler of the city-state of Mysore in India, uses the first iron rockets against the British Army. • 1807: Nicéphore Niépce installed his 'moss, coal-dust and resin' fuelled Pyréolophore internal combustion engine in a boat and powered up the river Saône in France. A patent was subsequently granted by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte on 20 July 1807. • 1807: Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine powered by a hydrogen and oxygen mixture, and ignited by electric spark. (See 1780's: Alessandro Volta above.)  • 1823: Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. It was compressionless and based on what Hardenberg calls the "Leonardo cycle," which, as the name implies, was already out of date at that time. • 1824: French physicist Sadi Carnot established the thermodynamic theory of idealized heat engines. This scientifically established the need for compression to increase the difference between the upper and lower working temperatures. • 1826 April 1: American Samuel Morey received a patent for a compressionless "Gas or Vapor Engine." • 1838: a patent was granted to William Barnett (English). This was the first recorded suggestion of in-cylinder compression. • 1854-57: Eugenio Barsanti & Felice Matteucci invented an engine that was rumored to be the first 4-cycle engine, but the patent was lost.
This was the first internal combustion engine to be produced in numbers. 1860-1910 • 1860: Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822–1900) produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine similar in appearance to a horizontal double-acting steam beam engine. In subsequent years he developed more powerful engines—with one or two pistons—which served as steady power sources. working independently. made by Karl Benz on January 29. This internal combustion engine was an integral aspect of the patent for the first patented automobile. a reliable two-stroke gas engine. Siegfried Marcus put the first mobile gasoline engine on a handcart. Christian Reithmann made an engine which may have been the same. later a subsidiary of General Electric). replacing steam engines. by Alphonse Beau de Rochas. • 1885: German engineer Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for a supercharger .History of the internal combustion engine 2 • 1856: in Florence at Fonderia del Pignone (now Nuovo Pignone. did not hold his patent to cover all in-cylinder compression engines or even the four-stroke cycle. and became the first automobiles in production. improved the four-cycle engine. Atkinson’s engine had one power phase per revolution together with different intake and expansion volumes. He designed an indirect-acting free-piston compressionless engine whose greater efficiency won the support of Eugen Langen and then most of the market. • 1861 The earliest confirmed patent of the 4-cycle engine. making it more efficient than the Otto cycle. connecting rods. Later. • 1878 Dugald Clerk designed the first two-stroke engine. • 1879: Karl Benz. which at that time was mostly for small stationary engines fueled by lighting gas. was granted a patent for his internal combustion engine. pistons. A year earlier. Benz designed and built his own four-stroke engine that was used in his automobiles. however. 1886 Early internal combustion engines were used to power farm equipment similar to these models. He patented it in England in 1881. patented in 1886. • 1862: German inventor Nikolaus Otto was the first to build and sell the engine. The German courts. • 1876: Nikolaus Otto. and flywheel in which the gas essentially took the place of the steam. with cylinders. but it's unknown since he didn't clearly patent it. • 1870: In Vienna. and after this decision. • 1882: James Atkinson invented the Atkinson cycle engine. in-cylinder compression became universal. based on the same technology as De Rochas's design of the four-stroke engine. Pietro Benini realized a working prototype of the Italian engine supplying 5 HP. working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. which were developed in 1885.
In 1892. It uses three separate compressors driven by a single turbine. • 1903: Ægidius Elling builds a gas turbine using a centrifugal compressor which runs under its own power. an experimental higher-pressure version produced self-sustaining ignition through compression alone. he has reached about 13% thermal efficiency. By 1927.History of the internal combustion engine • 1891: Herbert Akroyd Stuart built his oil engine. Limits on the turbine temperatures allow for only a 3:1 compression ratio. In 1902 automobiles with that engine were put into production by DMG. that the work is abandoned. this is the first working gas turbine. By most definitions. they installed the first ones in a water pumping station. • 1892: Dr. This design burns fuel at a constant volume and is somewhat more efficient. thus balancing each other in momentum. • 1900: Wilhelm Maybach designed an engine built at Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft—following the specifications of Emil Jellinek—who required the engine to be named Daimler-Mercedes after his daughter.  • 1903 . • 1908: New Zealand inventor Ernest Godward started a motorcycle business in Invercargill and fitted the imported bikes with his own invention – a petrol economiser. • 1903-1906: The team of Armengaud and Lemale in France build a complete gas turbine engine. In the same year. • 1908: René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. also known as the horizontally opposed engine. . Rudolf Diesel developed his Carnot heat engine type motor . in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead center at the same time. The engine is so inefficient. • 1908: Hans Holzwarth starts work on extensive research on an "explosive cycle" gas turbine. or the flat engine. • 1900: Rudolf Diesel demonstrated the diesel engine in the 1900 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) using peanut oil fuel (see biodiesel). • 1905 Alfred Buchi patents the turbocharger and starts producing the first examples. leasing rights to Hornsby of England to build them. but a Pelton wheel-like arrangement. based on the Otto cycle. at about 3% thermal efficiency.Konstantin Tsiolkovsky begins a series of theoretical papers discussing the use of rocketry to reach outer space. They built the first cold-start compression-ignition engines. 3 Karl Benz • 1887: Gustaf de Laval introduces the de Laval nozzle • 1893 February 23: Rudolf Diesel received a patent for his compression ignition (diesel) engine. His economisers worked as well in cars as they did in motorcycles. and the turbine is not based on a Parsons-like "fan". when the work ended. A major point in his work is liquid fueled rockets. • 1896: Karl Benz invented the boxer engine.
although this does not last long. going on to mathematically demonstrate that a practical engine is definitely possible and showing how to build a turboprop. 1942: The Messerschmitt Me 262 first jet engine flight • 1954: Felix Wankel's first working prototype DKM 54 of the Wankel engine 1960 to present • 1986 Benz Gmbh files for patent protection for a form of Scotch yoke engine and begins development of same. • 1999: Brothers. • 1927: A testbed single-shaft turbo-compressor based on Griffith's blade design is tested at the Royal Aircraft Establishment. the first example of the turbocharger. changing the low confidence in jet engines. Stern.basic reference for jet propulsion engineers in the USA. • July 18. Due to Stern's eminence.Robert Goddard launches the first liquid fueled rocket • 1927: Aurel Stodola publishes his "Steam and Gas Turbines" . that the turbine engine is not efficient enough. combined with a single very large combustion chamber. his paper is so convincing there is little official interest in gas turbine engines anywhere. successfully demonstrates the world's first operating ramjet. • 1921: Maxime Guillaume patents the axial-flow gas turbine engine. In it he demonstrates that existing compressors are "flying stalled".  • 1925: The Hesselman engine is introduced by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman represented the first use of direct gasoline injection on a spark-ignition engine. • 1929: Frank Whittle's thesis on jet engines is published • 1930: Schmidt patents a pulse-jet engine in Germany.  • 2004 Hyper-X first scramjet to maintain altitude • 2004 Toyota Motor Corp files for patent protection for new form of Scotch yoke engine. • 1926 . 1937: The Heinkel HeS 1 experimental hydrogen fueled centrifugal jet engine is tested at Hirth. Michael and Peter Raffaele file patent application seeking protection for new form of Scotch yoke engine known as the Slider Engine. • 1920: William Joseph Stern reports to the Royal Air Force that there is no future for the turbine engine in aircraft. • 1923: Edgar Buckingham at the United States National Bureau of Standards publishes a report on jets. Development subsequently abandoned. having independently re-discovered René Lorin's design. • 1926: Alan Arnold Griffith publishes his groundbreaking paper Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design.History of the internal combustion engine 4 1910-1960 • 1916: Auguste Rateau suggests using exhaust-powered compressors to improve high-altitude performance. In particular he notes that a jet would use five times as much fuel as a piston engine. He bases his argument on the extremely low efficiency of existing compressor designs. and that major improvements can be made by redesigning the blades from a flat profile into an airfoil. • March.J. • 1936: French engineer René Leduc. coming to the same conclusion as W. It uses multiple stages in both the compressor and turbine.  • 1925: Wilhelm Pape patents a constant-volume engine design.  .
Aeroplanes And Other Queer Craft That Ten Years Have Brought ". nasa.History of the internal combustion engine 5 Engine starting Early internal combustion engines were started by hand cranking.  http:/ / books. such as the Coffman engine starter. while compressed-air starting is used for large engines. Martin Leduc. 2004. at Turin. 2009-09-11. html As noted later in the timeline. com/ people/ 344/ 000174819/ ) The history behind the Mercedes-Benz brand and the three-pointed star (http:/ / www. Mike Gruntman. These were popular for aircraft engines • Pneumatic starters • Hydraulic starters • Electric starters Electric starters are now almost universal for small and medium-sized engines. Electric Pistol (http:/ / ppp. but ran on an air-fuel mixture sucked or blown in during the first part of the intake stroke. The Hucks starter is an example • Cartridge starters. html) "The History of the Automobile . only a photo of the table which contains a drawing of the engine. about. gov/ archive/ nasa/ casi." http:/ / www. About. it/ Volta/ Pages/ eF5struF. We do not even know if it was a new patent or an extension of the patent granted three days earlier. References     Donald Routledge Hill (1998). on December 30. com/ books?id=Zm0AAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA13869 . Blazing the trail: the early history of spacecraft and rocketry. pdf  (in Swedish) Scania fordonshistoria 1891-1991. The most significant distinction between modern internal combustion engines and the early designs is the use of compression and. nndb. barsantiematteucci. Studies in Medieval Islamic Technology II. eMercedesBenz. (Translated title: Volvo trucks yesterday and today))  Patent application number: PCT/AU2000/00281. in-cylinder compression. com/ Apr08/ 17_001109_The_History_Behind_The_Mercedes_Benz_Brand_And_The_Three_Pointed_Star.  http:/ / ntrs. 2008. Germany. Motor-Cycles. "Biography of Rudolph Diesel" (http:/ / www.Automobiles.  Patent application number: JP2004293387. April 17.com. ISBN 91-7886-074-1. ntrs. nasa. 1987. which used a device like a blank shotgun cartridge. (Translated title: Vehicle history of Scania 1891-1991)  (in Swedish) Volvo – Lastbilarna igår och idag. "The Children Of The Gas-Engine: The Revolution In Speed And In Convenience In Transportation . unipv. emercedesbenz.  "The request bears the no. chapters 1–2. 1992. htm?rd=1). ISBN 91-86442-76-7. com/ library/ weekly/ aacarsgasa. p. html). it/ inglese/ documentiStorici. ca/ library/ 01 articles/ rudolph_diesel. ISBN 156347705X. The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 13869–13877. htm) NNDB Mapper:"Wilhelm Maybach" (http:/ / www. AIAA. 1857. in particular. Retrieved 2009-10-19. Various types of starter motor were later developed. 700 of Volume VII of the Patent Office of the Reign of Piedmont. dieselduck. Modern vs. Robert (January 1911). Motor-Boats. the oldest confirmed patent of a four-cycle engine is from 1861 by Alphonse Beau de Rochas. These included: • An auxiliary petrol engine for starting a larger petrol or diesel engine. . historical piston engines The first piston engines did not have compression. 231-232. We do not have the text of the patent request.com. google. Further reading • Sloss. gov/ 19930091225_1993091225. Working prototype exhibited at EngineExpo 2005 Stuttgart.     DE patent 67207 Rudolf Diesel: „Arbeitsverfahren und Ausführungsart für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen“ pg 4.Gas Engines" (http:/ / inventors.
7.org/w/index. Camdrew. Binksternet. Horatio. Andy Dingley. Confidopoax.org/w/index. Rediscoverer.org/w/index. Robert Fraser.wikipedia. ArendD.Article Sources and Contributors 6 Article Sources and Contributors History of the internal combustion engine Source: http://en.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2. Licenses and Contributors Image:Early-gasoline-engine-models. Thincat. 0/ . BobKawanaka.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: - License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. Biscuittin. Jgrosay.jpg Source: http://en. Flewis. Ahodacsek. DMahalko. Inwind. 39 anonymous edits Image Sources. Dimadick. Tetris L.php?title=File:Benz_Patent_Motorwagen_Engine.jpg Source: http://en. Wolfkeeper. NightFalcon90909. PigFlu Oink.php?title=File:Early-gasoline-engine-models. Vrenator.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Tysto File:Benz Patent Motorwagen Engine. Wdl1961.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Roland Goossens. Awien.jpg Source: http://en. Hmains. InternetHero.wikipedia.php?title=File:CarlBenz. DocKrin. Lawrencekhoo. Mion. Altes2009. RuebensVet. Epbr123.php?oldid=409776370 Contributors: 2over0.wikipedia. 83d40m. P Carn. Dovid.org/w/index. Edgar Meyer. Amandajm. Spacepotato. Romaniantruths. Chienlit. Philip Trueman. Euchiasmus.0 Contributors: User:LSDSL Image:CarlBenz. ProfessorXY. JuniperisCommunis. Plumbarbacy.
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