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DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER PIC 16F877A
EA AI CHOON
Submitted to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor in Electrical Engineering (Instrumentation & Control)
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
father. .iii Dedicated. encouragement and understandings to my beloved mother. brothers and sisters. in thankful appreciation for support.
Thank You So Much. Choo Chin. . Thanks for their encouragement. Nevertheless. Ching Chiew. There is no such meaningful word than….iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost. I would also like to thank our Control 1 Lab Assistant. Yan Chiew. Encik Shaari bin Ani and Encik Mad Rais bin Zakaria for their co-operations. Meng Yea. I would like to express my heartily gratitude to my supervisor. my great appreciation dedicated to my best friends Jie. love and emotional supports that they had given to me. Encik Mohamad Shukri bin Abdul Manaf for the guidance and enthusiasm given throughout the progress of this project. guidance and helps in this project. My appreciation also goes to my family who has been so tolerant and supports me all these years.. Say Moon and SEI member’s batch 2000 and those whom involve directly or indirectly with this project. Pika.
where optical encoder (built in this project) is coupled to the motor shaft to provide the feedback speed signal to controller. The PWM signal will send to motor driver to vary the voltage supply to motor to maintain at constant speed. Through the project. it also shows a graph of motor speed versus time to let the user monitor the performance of the system easily. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used where its signal is generated in microcontroller. Besides. It is a closed-loop real time control system. Based on the result.0 is developed to provide a graphic user interface (GUI) for the user to enter desired speed at computer. A program in Visual Basic 6. The ease of control and excellent performance of the DC motors will ensure that the number of applications using them will continue grow for the foreseeable future. the reading of optical encoder built is quite reliable. Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller with Kp =1 in this study. it can be concluded that microcontroller PIC 16F877A can control motor speed at desired speed although there is a variation of load.v ABSTRACT Direct current (DC) motor has already become an important drive configuration for many applications across a wide range of powers and speeds. . This project is mainly concerned on DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC 16F877A.
Motor arus terus telah menjadi satu komponen yang penting untuk aplikasi dalam julat kuasa dan kelajuan yang tinggi. Kawalan motor arus terus yang mudah dan prestasi yang baik akan menjamin motor arus terus untuk digunakan secara meluas pada masa depan. Projek ini tertumpu kepada rekaaan satu sistem kawalan kelajuan motor arus terus dengan menggunakan mikropengawal PIC 16F877A. Ia merupakan satu kawalan gelung tutup dan masa nyata sistem, di mana pengekod optic(yang dibina dalam projek ini) yang dipasang pada rotor akan menghantar isyarat kelajuan suapbalik kepada pengawal. Teknik Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) digunakan di mana isyarat ini dibekal oleh mikro pengawal. Mikropengawal berperanan sebagai pengawal gandaan, P di dalam projek ini. Isyarat PWM akan dihantar kepada pemacu motor untuk mengubah voltan yang dibekalkan kepada motor supaya ia dapat dikawal pada kelajuan yang ditetapkan. Satu program ditulis dalam Visual Basic 6.0 untuk memudahkan pengguna memasukkan kelajuan yang dikehendaki di komputer dengan pengantaramuka grafik pengguna (GUI). Selain itu, ia juga memaparkan satu graf kelajuan motor melawan masa untuk membolehkan pengguna mengkaji prestasi sistem tersebut. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa bacaan daripada pengekod optik yang dibina adalah boleh dipercayai. Melalui projek ini, boleh disimpulkan bahawa mikropengawal PIC 16F877A dapat mengawal kelajuan motor pada kelajuan tetap walaupun terdapat perubahan beban.
TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiii xiv
DECLARATION OF THESIS DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LSIT OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Objective of Project 1.3 Scope of Project 1.4 Outline of Thesis 1.5 Summary of Works 1 2 2 2 3
THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 DC Motor 2.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor 2.3.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer 2.3.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder 2.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor 2.5 DC motor Speed Controller 2.5.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control 2.5.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor 2.5.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive 2.6 Microcontroller 2.7 RS232 Serial Port 2.8 MPLAB IDE 2.9 Visual Basic 6.0 17 18 20 20 8 11 12 13 14 5 5 6 6 7
METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Hardware Implementation 3.2.1 DC Motor 3.2.2 Optical Encoder 3.2.3 Power Supply +5V 3.2.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A 188.8.131.52 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller 184.108.40.206 RS232 Serial Communication 3.2.5 DC Motor Drive 3.2.6 Loading Unit LU150L 30 32 34 22 23 24 24 27 28 30
2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed 4.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.3.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller 3.3.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program 3.1.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process 220.127.116.11 Introduction 4.2 Problems 5.2 Experimental Result Analysis 4.1.2 Plot Graph Speed versus Time 36 36 38 43 48 49 49 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.3.3 DC Motor Speed Control Result 18.104.22.168.2.ix 3.0 3.3 Recommendation 63 64 64 REFERENCES 66 APPENDICES 68 .2.3 Software Implementation 3.3.1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis 4.1 Procedures 4.1 Conclusion 5.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE 3.4 Dead Time Analysis 52 53 55 59 61 51 51 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.
x LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.3 4.1 3.2 3.1 TITLE Types of DC Motor and their advantages and disadvantages RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Specification of the motor Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin function of chip L298 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed PAGE 6 19 24 29 32 53 .2 3.1 2.
6 3.2 2.2 1.10 2.3 2.12 3.8 2.1 1.5 2.7 2.6 2.5 3.1 3.7 Project overview TITLE PAGE 3 4 4 7 8 9 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 19 22 23 24 26 27 27 29 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Sample disc of encoder Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder Model of separately excited DC motor Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control Phase-locked loop control system Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor Simple motor circuit PWM signal Relation of supply voltage with motor speed Full H bridge motor drive Handshake looping a PC serial connector Block diagram of DC motor speed control system Picture of the project 24V DC motor Optical encoder IC LM7805 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .11 2.xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.4 2.1 2.2 3.9 2.3 2.3 3.4 3.
15 3.21 rpm DC motor running at speed 762.12 4.2 4.10 4.1 4.12 3.16 3.8 4.14 3.38 rpm Types of oscillatory response Free body diagram of the disc Graph of dead time versus motor speed 30 31 33 35 37 38 39 39 41 42 42 47 48 48 50 51 52 54 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 61 .9 3.17 3.11 4.13 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data Connection between D9 Female serial port.7 4.3 4.95 rpm DC motor running at speed 953.10 3.18 3.9 4.21 3.19 3.69 rpm DC motor running at speed 1144.74 rpm DC motor running at speed 572.11 3.0 Experiment with tachometer Experiment with optical encoder Graph of speed versus voltage supply DC motor running at speed 190. MAX232 and PIC16F877A Bi-direction of DC motor speed control Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program Flow chart of check noise function PWM output Simplified PWM block diagram Timer1 block diagram USART transmit block diagram USART receive block diagram Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process Introduction form Main program form Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.4 4.8 3.22 4.13 3.64 rpm DC motor running at speed 1907.xii 3.5 4.43 rpm DC motor running at speed 1716.6 4.20 3.
xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS KE φ If Ia Rf Lf Ra La Kv Kt Td TL B J w α ton T s rpm - A constant based on motor construction Magnetic flux Field current Armature current Field resistor Field inductor Armature resistor Armature inductor Motor constant Torque constant Developed torque Load torque Viscous friction constant Inertia of the motor Motor speed Firing angle of thyristor Time ON of switches Period Standard deviation Rotation per minute .
xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A B TITLE Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control Source Code of Visual Basic 6.0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A PAGE 68 74 .
it is important to make a controller to control the speed of DC motor in desired speed. etc.xv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. faster over smooth flooring. if we just apply a constant power to each motor on a robot. engine control and electric vehicle control are good examples of these. Why do we need a speed motor controller? For example. there are a number of applications. like centrifuges. These are several types of applications where the load on the DC motor varies over a speed range. robotic arm controls. if we have a DC motor in a robot. slower up hill. pumps. It will go slower over carpet. DC motor plays a significant role in modern industrial. dryers and compressors are good examples.1 Background Direct current (DC) motors have variable characteristics and are used extensively in variable-speed drives. washers. then the poor robot will never be able to maintain a steady speed. faster down hill. In aerospace. DC motor can provide a high starting torque and it is also possible to obtain speed control over wide range. . These applications may demand high-speed control accuracy and good dynamic responses. In automotive. fuel pump control. So. In home appliances. gyroscope controls and so on. electronic steering control.
0 at computer to observe the performance of the system. the discussion will be on the methodology hardware and software implementation of this project. build hardware for the system. it discuss about the objective and scope of this project as long as summary of works. 1. . In first chapter.3 Scope of Project In order to achieve the objective of the project.2 Objective of Project The main core of this project is to design a speed control system of DC Motor by using microcontroller. While Chapter 2 will discuss more on theory and literature reviews that have been done.4 Outline of Thesis This thesis consists four chapters. The scope of this project includes using MPLAB IDE to program microcontroller PIC 16F877A. Last but not least. phase-lock loop and PWM technique) that can be used to control the speed of the motor. Chapter 5 discusses the conclusion of this project and future work that can be done. It well discuss about types of motor. a graph of speed versus time is obtained by using Visual Basic 6. there are several scope had been outlined. 1. Last but not least. In Chapter 3. and interface the hardware to computer by using RS232 serial port communication. The result and discussion will be presented in Chapter 4. This system will be able to control the DC motor speed at desired speed regardless the changes of load. various kind of speed measurement and controllers (thyristor.2 1.
5. DC Motor controller Design VB programming writing for input desired speed and display graph speed versus time Interfacing with computer and controller Control DC motor speed Real Speed detection Feedback and display real speed on screen computer Speed error correction Figure 1.3 1. Summary of Works Implementation and works of the project are summarized into the flow chart as shown in Figure 1.1.1 Project overview .2 and Figure 1. Gantt charts as shown in Figure 1.3 show the detail of the works of the project that had been implemented in the first and second semester.
Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. Modification and evaluation 6. Order part of hardware 6. Study MPLAB Semester Break . Brief idea 2. Construction of hardware 7. Presentation 8. Report preparation 8.2 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1. Construction of hardware 3. Results. Programming for plotting graph 4.3 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Exam Week 3. Presentation Figure 1. Literature and theoritical study Study Week 9 4. Literature and theoritical study 2. Interfacing with computer 5. Hardware design 5. Report preparation Semester break Figure 1. discussion & conclusion 7.
. disadvantages. speed measurement of DC motor.0. Their advantages. and other basic information are listed below in the Table 2. MPLAB IDE and Visual Basic 6.1. several types of DC motor speed controller.2 DC Motor There are several types of DC motors that are available. RS232 serial port. 2.CHAPTER 2 THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. It also brief discuss about microcontroller.1 Introduction This chapter includes the study of different types of DC motors. model of separately excited DC motor.
There are several methods which can use to measure the speed of motor. DC Motor w/field coil DC permanent magnet motor Gasoline (small two stroke) Small. difficult to ratio. Generally small. Provide Extremely high mount. The EMF is voltages appear on the commutator segments caused by rotated in the magnetic field by some external force. Generally heavier than permanent magnet motors. Wide range of speeds and torques.6 Table 2. Type Stepper Motor Advantages Very precise speed and position control. torque. compact. we need a device that will measure the speed of the motor shaft. loud.1 Advantages and disadvantages of various types of DC motor.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor To start with this project. we will only discuss about speed measurement by using tachometer and optical encoder. More difficult to obtain. Very inexpensive Very high power/weight Expensive. since field coil must be energized. very high vibration. and easy to find. . 2.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer Tachometer is an instrument that measure speed motor based on concept of back EMF induced in motor when it is running. Require a switching control circuit Require more current than permanent magnet motors. More powerful than permanent magnet motors Disadvantages Expensive and hard to find. No batteries required. 2. Cannot vary magnetic field strength. High Torque at low speed.3. Here.
then the signal will only be picked up when a slot is between the transmitter and receiver. An example of a disc is shown as Figure 2. EMF = K E φ N (2. the speed of motor can be measured by measuring the back EMF using tachometer.1. when the EMF measured is increases. the speed of the motor is also increases with the gain.1.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder The best way to measure speed is to fit an optical encoder. which has slots cut into it.7 The magnitude of the EMF is given by .3.1) where KE = a constant based on motor construction φ = magnetic flux N = speed of motor (in rpm) The actual relationship between motor speed and EMF follows and is derived from Equation 2.1 Sample disc of encoder . For permanent magnet DC motor. Figure 2. N= EMF K Eφ (2. This shines a beam of light from a transmitter across a small space and detects it with a receiver the other end. the motor speed is directly proportional to the EMF voltage ad inversely proportional to the field flux. So.2) Thus. If a disc is placed in the space. 2.
4) 2.3) where fout = frequency of output waveform rpm = speed in revolutions per minutes N = number of slots at disc So. and about 0. The frequency of the output waveform is given by.2. When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of If and an armature current of Ia flows in the circuit. the motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. Figure 2.2 Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder This will have an output which swings to +5v when the light is blocked. rpm = f out × 60 N (2.5 volts when light is allowed to pass through the slots in the disc.3. from Equation 2.8 The encoder transmitter must be supplied with a suitable current. Each winding are .3 shows a model of separately excited DC motor . the speed of DC motor in rpm is given by.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor Figure 2. and the receiver biased as Figure 2. The If is independent of the Ia. f out = N × rpm 60 (2.
The motor back EMF which is also known as speed voltage is expressed as e g = K v wi f (2. The If is normally much less than the Ia.6) where Ra and La are the armature resistor and inductor respectively.8) where (Kt=Kv) is the torque constant (in V/A-rad/s).9 supplied separately.7) where Kv is the motor constant (in V/A-rad/s) and w is the motor speed (rad/s). Figure 2.5) where Rf and Lf are the field resistor and inductor respectively. Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current.5.3 Model of separately excited DC motor Instantaneous field current: vf = Rf if + Lf di f dt (2. The torque developed by the motor is Td = K t φ i f (2. Instantaneous armature current: v a = R a i a + La dia + eg dt (2. The relationship of the field and armature are shown in Equation 2. .
Assuming the motor is not saturated. i. w = Va K vI (2. the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia.15) f That is if the field current is kept constant. Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K v wI f The motor speed can be easily derived: w= Va − I a Ra Kv I f (2. the speed motor speed depends on the supply voltage. a time derivative is zero.9) For normal operation. Ia is small.m/rad/s) TL = load torque (N. i.m) J = inertia of the motor (kg.10 Sometimes it is written as: Td = K t φ ia (2. For field circuit. .14) (2.11) If Ra is a small value (which is usual). or when the motor is lightly loaded. Vf = I f Rf The back EMF is given by: E g = K v wI f The armature circuit.e.m2) Under steady-state operations.: Td = J dw + Bw + TL dt (2. These observation leads to the application of variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque of DC motor.12) (2.e.10) where B = viscous friction constant (N.13) (2.
5 Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control There are several controllers that can used to control the speed of the motor such as by using thyristor. .4 and Figure 2.g. phase-locked-loop control. Here. we will discuss only at the speed control system by using thyristor. which is sensed by analog sensing devices (e. the block diagram and the flow chart of the speed control are shown in Figure 2. tachometer) is compared with the reference speed to generate the error signal and to vary the armature voltage of the motor.5 respectively. Controller Feedback Speed Motor Driver DC Motor Actual Speed Speed sensor Figure 2. Basically..5 DC motor Speed Controller For precise speed control of servo system. chopper circuit. The speed.4 Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Start Start Motor drive Detect motor speed Speed < Ref? No Deceleration Yes Acceleration Figure 2. Fuzzy Logic Controller and etc.11 2. closed-loop control is normally used. phase-locked loop and PWM technique.
In a phase-locked-loop (PLL) control system. The phase detector compares the reference pulse train (or frequency) fr with the feedback frequency f0 and provides a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output voltage Ve that is proportional to the difference in phases and frequencies of the reference and feedback pulse trains. the two frequencies would be synchronized (or locked) together with a phase difference.6.5. The phase detector (or comparator) is available in integrated circuits.6 Phase-locked loop control system When the motor runs at the same speed as the reference pulse train.12 2. K2 Va DC motor Ve w Speed Encoder Figure 2. The response of the phase detector is very fast. Any disturbances contributing to the speed change would result in a phase difference and the output of the phase detector would respond immediately to vary the speed of the motor in such direction and magnitude as to retain the locking of the reference and feedback frequencies. . A low-pass loop filter converts the pulse train Ve to continuous dc level Vc. which varies the output of the power converter and in turn the motor speed. fi f0 Phase detector Low Pass Filter Vc Converter. The output of the phase detector would be a constant voltage proportional to the phase difference and the steady-state motor speed would be maintained at a fixed value irrespective of the load on the motor. The output of the encoder acts as the speed feedback signal of frequency f0.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control The block diagram of a converter-fed dc motor drive with phase-locked-loop control is shown in Figure 2. the motor speed is converted to a digital pulse train by using a speed encoder.
13 As long as the two frequencies are locked. . PLL controlled motor systems may get out of synchronization for an abrupt load variation. the speed regulation should ideally be zero. PLL-controlled motor system tend to be unstable for low-speed operation PLL-controlled motor systems have large response time.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor Figure 2.7 Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor . ii. 2.15). The thyristor is used to supply a variable DC voltage to motor. i. SCR DC Load Motor Speed Sensor Figure 2.8 shows the block diagram of DC motor speed control by using thyristor. However. iii.16) where Vm = peak voltage of voltage supply of thyristor and α = firing angle of thyristor Reference Frequency Frequency or Phase Comparator Firing Circuit Thyristor.5. thus it can control the speed of motor (Equation 2. In journals by Christopher A. Adkins and Moore respectively. The average output of voltage is given by Vave = Vm (1 + cos α ) 2π (2. it has developed a model for the components of PLL servo control system using both linear and nonlinear techniques . PLL controlled motor drives have the following shortcomings.
There is a resulting increase in motor speed which brings the output speed back up to the value which is equal to the reference signal.5. and when it is open it sees 0 Volts. If the switch is open for the same amount of time as it is closed.14 From Equation 2. by controlling the firing angle.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive Figure 2.16. The frequency difference produces a change in the firing circuit that causes the thyristor. When the switch is closed. . the average of output DC voltage can be varied. 2. SCR to fire sooner (firing angle. the motor will see an average of 6 Volts. the decrease in conduction reduces the DC motor speed. if the speed sensor output frequency is above the reference. α.L. the speed sensor frequency will be below the reference frequency. this method has been used by P. MacDonald in their research .8 Simple motor circuit Let us consider a simple circuit that connects a battery as power supply through a switch MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) as shown in Figure 2. then the firing circuit will be modified to allow the SCR to conduct for a shorter period of time. and will run more slowly accordingly. Sen and M. Conversely. α is reduced).C. From review. If the motor speed is low. the motor sees 12 Volts.8 .
and how much friction and load torque there is.17) where Vave = average voltage supply to DC motor ton = time ON of switches T = period of PWM t on = DC .10 shows the speed of a motor that is being turned on and off fairly slowly: . duty cycle T Figure 2.15 This on-off switching is performed by power MOSFETs. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by. A MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device that can turn very large currents on and off under the control of a low signal level voltage. the average speed of the motor increases and vice versa. Figure 2. Vave = t on × Vin T (2.9 PWM signal As the amount of time that the voltage is on increases compared with the amount of time that it is off. The time that it takes a motor to speed up and slow down under switching conditions is depends on the inertia of the rotor (basically how heavy it is).
Figure 2. Thus the speed is set by PWM – Pulse Width Modulation. If the supply voltage is switched fast enough.11 Full H bridge motor drive .10 Relation of supply voltage with motor speed We can see that the average speed is around 150 rpm. A full bridge circuit is shown in the diagram below.16 Figure 2. This is the principle of switch mode speed control. or to battery negative. although it varies quite a bit. it won’t have time to change speed much. and the speed will be quite steady. Only one MOSFET on each side of the motor must be turned on at any one time otherwise they will short out the battery and burn out. Each side of the motor can be connected either to battery positive.
17 To make the motor go forwards. Often these memories do not reside in the microcontroller. The number of I/O pins per controllers varies greatly. 2. or erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The instruction set is a list of all commands and their corresponding functions. Where would a microcontroller be without some way of communicating with the outside world? This job is left to input/output (I/O) port pins. This enables quick and low-cost updates to the firmware by replacing the ROM. They are used to store the firmware that tells the microcontroller how to operate. During operation. RAM is a type of internal logic unit that stores information temporarily. Most microcontrollers also contain read-only memory (ROM). Q4 is turned on. they are contained in external ICs. referred to as registers. this method has been used by Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib in their study . instead. the microcontroller will step through a program (the firmware). and Q1 has the PWM signal applied to it. and the instructions are fetched as the microcontroller runs. They are also used to store permanent lookup tables. While RAM is used to hold any kind of data. plus each I/O pin can be programmed as an input or output (or even switch during the running of a program). RAM contents disappear when the power is turned off. some RAM is specialized. programmable read-only memory (PROM). Al1 of these memories are permanent: they retain what is programmed into them even during loss of power. Each valid instruction set and the matching internal hardware that differentiate one microcontroller from another . The load (current draw) . Q3 is turned on. Meanwhile.6 Microcontroller Microcontrollers must contain at least two primary components – random access memory (RAM). and an instruction set. and Q2 has the PWM signal applied to it: From review. to make the motor go backwards.
Instruction set RAM ROM. xii.18 that each pin can drive is usually low. RS232 devices can be plugged straight into the computer's serial port (also known as the COM or Comms port). This square wave is the heartbeat of the microcontroller and all operations are synchronized to it. viii. xi. Examples of .PROM or EPROM I/O ports Clock generator Reset function Watchdog timer Serial port Interrupts Timers Analog-to-digital converters Digital-to-analog converters 2. then it is essential to use a driver chip or transistor buffer. Obviously. vii. Most microcontrollers contain circuitry to generate the system clock. ii. vi. We can. a microcontroller contains (in one chip) two or more of the following elements in order of importance : i. x. To summarize. therefore precisely select the operating speed critical to many applications. ix. iii. v. iv.7 RS232 Serial Port RS232 is a popular communications protocol for connecting modems and data acquisition devices to computers. All that needed to complete the clock circuit would be the crystal or RC components. it controls the speed at which the microcontroller functions. If the output is expected to be a heavy load.
Table 2. therefore the mating cable needs to terminate in a DB9/F (Female pin) connector. Rx and Ground connected. data loggers.12 Handshake looping a PC serial connector . The reliable solution is to loop back the handshake lines if they are not used .2. A nine pin D plug has become the standard fitting for the serial ports of PCs. Figure 2. Depending on the signal state it might sometimes work. most driver software will wait forever for one of the handshaking lines to go to the correct level. The connector on the PC has male pins.2 RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Pin 9 Input Input Output Output Input Output Input Input DCD RXD TXD DTR DSR RTS CTS RI Data Carrier Detect Received Data Transmitted Data Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground Data Set Ready Request To Send Clear To Send Ring Indicator Normal PC hardware might well run with just Tx. other times it might not. electronic balances. temperature interfaces and other measurement instruments.19 data acquisition devices include GPS receivers. The pin connections used are as shown in Table 2.
such as BASIC. such as MPLAB SIM. Each was developed to solve particular type of problem. Most traditional languages.8 MPLAB IDE MPLAB IDE is a Windows-based Integrated Development Environment for the Microchip Technology Incorporated PIC microcontroller (MCU) and dsPIC digital signal controller (DSC) families . the RTS output from the PC immediately activates the CTS input . Make timing measurements. 2. linker and librarian come with MPLAB IDE. COBOL. . C. such as MPLAB IDE. In the MPLAB IDE. An assembler.so the PC effectively controls its own handshaking. iii.0 There are literally hundreds of programming languages. Create source code using the built-in editor. Third party emulators that work with MPLAB IDE are also available. View variables in Watch windows. vi. iv. 2. we can: i. compile and link source code using various language tools. ii. v. Debug the executable logic by watching program flow with a simulator.9 Visual Basic 6. Program logic determines the next instruction to execute in response to conditions and user request.20 When the lines are handshake looped. or in real time with an emulator. That is. FORTRAN. Program firmware into devices with programmers such as PICSTART Plus or PRO MATE II. Assemble. and Pascal are considered procedural languages. the program specifies the exact sequence of all operations. C compilers are available from Microchip and other third party vendors.
there is no need to take control and determine the sequence of execution. It provided standard windows object and graphic user interface that will make the program become user friendly. Visual Basic that recently appears as one of the most popular programming language is chose. which has many elements of an object oriented language such as Java. visual basic is one of the languages that changes to accommodate the shift. So. Microsoft refers to Visual Basic as an event driven programming language. programs are no longer procedural. As the world turn to graphic user interface (GUI). check boxes. Each of these windows object.21 The newer language. . Visual Basic is designed to allow the program run under the windows without the complexity generally associated with windows programming . The designed screen can holds standard windows button such as command buttons. In the event driven model. text boxes. use a different approach: object-oriented programming (OOP) and event driven programming. they don’t follow a sequential logic. producing a “standard” windows user interface. such as C++ and VISUAL BASIC. and so on. option buttons. operates as expected.
23 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. Microcontroller Motor Driver DC Motor Actual speed Feedback speed Encoder For speed display PC Figure 3.1. The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3.1 Introduction In this project. the duty cycle will send to DC motor driver either accelerate or decelerate DC motor to maintain it at desired speed. It is a closed-loop with real time control system. it will calculate the error between the desired speed with the actual speed. Then. The error will determine duty cycle of pulse-widthmodulation (PWM) in microcontroller.1 Block diagram of DC motor speed control system The actual speed of DC motor will be measured by encoder and feedback to microcontroller. In microcontroller. . microcontroller will be used as the controller to control DC motor speed at desired speed.
DC Motor drive and loading unit LU150L .23 Figure 3. pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) and RS232 serial communication of microcontroller.2 Hardware Implementation This section will discuss about components that had been used included DC motor. Figure 3. microcontroller PIC 16F877A. optical encoder. Each part of the project will discuss in the following section. The project is divides into two parts that are software and hardware implementation. power supply 5V.2 Picture of the project 3.2 shows the picture of the project.
2.2. it generates a frequency directly proportional to motor speed.1). Changes in gap. and . temperature. is capable of much better performance than the generator type of tachometer (by using back EMF that discussed in section 2. an optical encoder will be used to measure the DC motor speed.1.1 Specification of the motor Manufacturer Voltage rated Power Type Tohoku Ricoh CO. The fundamental reason for the superiority of this system is that the optical encoder used as the velocity sensor.2 Optical Encoder In this project. It is a permanent magnet 24V DC motor.24 3. Ltd 24V 55W 7K100012 3.3 24V DC motor Table 3. The specification of this motor is shown in Table 3. When the optical disc is properly mounted on the motor shaft.1 DC Motor Figure 3.3 shows the DC motor that will be used in this project. Figure 3.2.
magnet strength simply have no effect on the output of the optical tachometer. By contrast, an analog tachometer is directly affected by all the problems listed above. The encoder in the market is very expensive. In order to reduce the cost of the project, an optical encoder is built. Figure 3.4a and Figure 3.4b show the basic configuration and the schematic of the optical encoder in action respectively . The speed accuracy over fractions of a revolution depends on the quality of the optical encoder. The DC motor has an optical disc (made by cardboard) mounted on its shaft. The disc has N radial lines on its surface. In this project, we will make four slots on the disc (N=4). This will give a resolution of 1/4 in one rotation. An LED (light emitting diode) as transmitter is put at one side of the disc and a photodiode, as receiver is fixed on the other side of the disc. Chip OPT 101 is selected as photodiode in this project. To make sure the output waveform in digital signal (High/Low) which is readable by microcontroller, Chip LM324 is used as a comparator. When the Vout of photodiode is less than Vref, the output of LM324 will be 0V (Low) and when the Vout is greater than Vref, the output of LM 324 will be 5V (High). The output signal form LM324 has a frequency which is given by Equation 2.3. Then, the output signal will be sent to microcontroller as representation of actual speed.
Figure 3.4 Optical encoder (a) Basic configuration (b)Schematic circuit
Power Supply +5V
Most digital logic circuits and processors need a +5 volt power supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated +5 volt source. Usually we start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC.
To make a +5 volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC (Integrated Circuit). The IC is shown below.
Figure 3.5 IC LM7805
Sometimes the input supply line may be noisy. To help smooth out this noise and get a better 5 volt output, capacitors is usually added to the circuit.
Figure 3.6 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply
ii.28 3. Thus. The microcontroller chip that has been selected for the purpose of controlling the speed of DC motor is PIC16F877A manufactured by Microchip. The detected motor speed from optical encoder will feedback to microcontroller through RA0 of PIC16F877A. iv. iii. Its portability and low current consumption.2 for the pin connection of PIC16F877A in DC Motor speed control system. Its size is small and equipped with sufficient output ports without having to use a decoder or multiplexer. . v.7 shows the schematic circuit of microcontroller PIC16F877A.000 cycles) using the universal programmer in robotics lab.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A The microcontroller acts like the brain of the DC motor speed control system. average of voltage supply from DC motor drive can be varied in order to maintain the speed at desired value. Refer to Table 3. This chip is selected based on several reasons : i.000. It has PWM inside the chip itself which allow us to vary the duty cycle of DC motor drive.1) to produce a new duty cycle (from CCP2) that proportional to the error speed. The microcontroller will operate as it programmed (detail program at section 3. Pins not stated in the table are not used and left hanging. Users would only need to learn 35 single word instructions in order to program the chip.3. microcontroller will receive desired speed from PC through serial port. At the beginning.2. Figure 3. It can be programmed and reprogrammed easily (up to 10. It is a very simple but powerful microcontroller.
32 12. 11.7 Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .29 Table 3.31 13 14 1 2 34 35 Capture/Compare/P WM Description Positive Supply (+5V) Ground Reference For oscillator or resonator Reset Input Input/Output pin Application Power Supply to chip Ground Reference Connected to resonator 20MHz with 22pF Always connected to +5V Input of Vout from LM324 as speed counter Output to control CW/CCW of left motor Output of duty cycle(PWM) to control motor speed Input/Output pin CCP2 16 Figure 3.2 Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin Name VDD VSS OSC1 OSC2 MCLR\ RA0 RB1 RB2 Pin No.
1 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller The Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in microcontroller is used to control duty cycle of DC motor drive. It provides RS232 serial communication with PC easily. Figure 3.4. the speed of a DC motor is a function of the input power and drive characteristics. Thus the power increases duty cycle in PWM. Power is supplied to the motor in square wave of constant voltage but varying pulse-width or duty cycle. Since the frequency is held constant while the on-off time is varied.8 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data .4. % Dutycylcle = t on × 100% T (3.30 3.2 RS232 Serial Communication SCI is an abbreviation for Serial Communication Interface and. 3.1) Basically. While the area under an input pulse width train is measure of the average power available from such an input. PWM is an entirely different approach to controlling the speed of a DC motor. the duty cycle of PWM is determined by the pulse width. The expression of duty cycle is determined by.2.2. as a special subsystem of microcontroller PIC16F877A. Duty cycle refers to the percentage of one cycle during which duty cycle of a continuous train of pulses.
The duration of the stop bit 'T' depends on the transmission rate and is adjusted according to the needs of the transmission. and after the bits we place the Stop Bit of logic one.9 Figure 3. we need an intermediary stage that will convert the levels. or 8 or 9 data bits.9 Connection between D9 Female serial port. we use standard NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format also known as 8 (9)-N-1. T is 104µs.Start Bit. The data bits follow the start bit (the first bit is the low significant bit).31 As with hardware communication. This chip receives signals from -10 to +10V and converts them into 0 and 5V. The signal level on a PC is -10V for logic zero. The circuit for this interface is shown in the Figure 3. Free line is defined as the status of logic one. In order to connect a microcontroller to a serial port on a computer. One chip specially designed for this task is MAX232. has the status of logic zero. without parity bit and with one stop bit. For the transmission speed of 9600 baud. Since the signal level on the microcontroller is +5V for logic one and 0V for logic zero. we need to adjust the level of the signals so communicating can take place. Start of transmission . and +10V for logic one. MAX232 and PIC16F877A .
The operating supply voltage of chip L298 is up to 46V and the total DC current up to 4A. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge A.2. So.32 3. Supply Voltage for the Logic Blocks. Sense B Out 1. Table 3. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by Equation 2. EnableB GND Vss Input 3. chip L298. Out 4 Function Between this pin and ground is connected the sense resistor to control the current of the load. Outputs of the Bridge A.3 Pin function of chip L298 Pin 1. The current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 15.11 8 9 10. the speed of motor will slow down when the load is heavier and speed up when the load is lighter. the current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 1. DC motor drive is needed where we can control the magnitude of supply voltage in order to control the speed of DC motor. Supply Voltage for the Power Output Stages. A100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground.10 shows the schematic circuit of L298 with a 24V DC motor. TTL Compatible Enable Input: the L state disables the bridge A (enable A) and/or the bridge B (enable B). Input 2 Enable A. The time to enable the chip L298 will be determined by the duty cycle pulse that sent from PWM in microcontroller. Out 2 Vs Input 1. Table 3. The DC motor drive that will be used in this project is a dual full bridge driver. Ground.15 2. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge B. Input 4 Out 3. Outputs of the Bridge B. Vave is zero.12 13. To supply the voltage to motor through L298.14 Name Sense A. Due to the constant power to motor. A non-inductive 100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground.3 4 5.3 shows function of each pin of chip L298. it should be enabled by +5V at pin 6 (Enable A) or pin 11 (Enable B). there is no .5 DC Motor Drive If a DC motor is connected directly to the voltage supply. the constant power will be supplied to the DC motor all the time. If the chip is disabled.7 6.17. Figure 3.
Figure 3. (detail in part 3. the different input have to sent to C and D. In this project.10 Bi-direction of DC motor speed control So. When both C and D have same input (H/L).33 voltage supply to motor. the motor will run in forward direction and vice versa. When input of C (pin 10) is High (H). the motor will stop running. the duty cycle of PWM will sent to Ven to drive the motor. From table.3. the motor is running all the time in forward direction by receiving C=H (RB1) and D=L (RB2) from microcontroller during the initialization of the program. D (pin12) is Low (L). In this project. .1(a)). the motor will stop running. to make sure the motor is running all the time.1. we know that the motor will continuous running (as long as the motor is not overloaded) when the C and D of L298 have different input.
the disc that fixed at the motor shaft can run smoothly at the constant speed. Without LU150L. The position of the magnets have been defined as no load. In this project. Thus.6 Loading Unit LU150L For DC motor speed control with application of varies loads. normal load and overload condition as shown in Figure 3. With the presence of LU150L when the motor is running.2. It has two U shape magnets with a small space between it. a controller has been designed to maintain speed back to the desired speed by using microcontroller.11. a loading unit LU150L is used.34 3. . motor will slow down. the disc will cut the magnetic flux field and it becomes a load to the motor.
35 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3.11 Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L (a) Loading Unit LU150L (b) No load condition (c) Normal load condition (d) Overload condition .
Besides. . An algorithm has to be developed to make the microcontroller to read the input and respond accordingly.3 Software Implementation For software implementation. 3. There are two parts of the program which are main program and interrupt program. MPLAB IDE is used to program microcontroller in assembly language. Therefore.13.36 3. The microcontroller will always run the main program until there is an interrupt occurred. then it will jump to interrupt process. the algorithm is established and represented by a flowchart in Figure 3.0 is used for user interface purpose and for monitoring the speed response of the system. It will receive the desired speed from user through PC that interface with RS232 serial port. These flowcharts are then translated into assembly language and compiled using MPLAB. The actual speed will be compared with the desired speed and the correction will be done by microcontroller to always maintain the DC motor speed at the desired speed. Visual Basic 6.3. The program in assembly language can be referred in Appendix A. When microcontroller receives an interrupt flag.12 and Figure 3.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE Microcontroller acts as brain of the whole DC motor speed control system. the PIC16F877A software development tool.
12 Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program .37 Start • • • • Initialization Initialize PORT Initialize PWM Initialize TIMER1 in timer mode Initialize USART (serial port) Set up timer Obtain reference speed from PC? Yes No Yes Test PORTA.0 =1? No Yes Check Noise Test PORTA.0 =0? No Figure 3.
a) Initialization of the mode of ports A . detail in section 3.1. X1 has been defined as speed counter for pulses receive from RA0. Otherwise.3. When the input of RA0 is High (H).38 Call Delay 1ms t > 1ms ? Yes No Test PORTA.1.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program There are six main parts of main program in microcontroller.0 =0? Yes No counter = counter + 1 Return Figure 3.13 Flow chart of check noise function 3. setup for serial port.3. PWM. we use pin 0th of the Port A (RA0) as digital input where it receives input (H/L) from LM324 (pin1). get reference speed and check noise function. the counter will remain its value. There are initialization of ports.B In this project.1 (f)). A user register. Timer1. it will increase speed counter X1 where X1 = X1 + 1 (if it is not noise after check noise. .
b) Initialization of PWM A PWM output (Figure 3.14 PWM output Figure 3.14) has a time-base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). Figure 3. Figure 3. . the following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: i.15 Simplified PWM block diagram To setup for PWM operation.39 All pins of Port B are set to output.5.2. The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period). RB1 is always set to High (H) and RB2 set to Low (L) to make the motor run in forward direction as describe in section 3.15 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP module in PWM mode. Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.
The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] * 4 * TOSC *(TMR2 prescale value) (3. .40 ii. PR2 is set to 255(maximum value of 8 bit for maximum range).53kHz where Fosc = 20MHz and TMR2 prescale =1 The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPR2L register and to the CCP2CON<5:4> bits. the period is complete). Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR2L register and CCP2CON<5:4> bits. The CCPR2L contains eight MSbs and the CCP2CON<5:4> contains two LSbs. Configure the CCP2 module for PWM operation. Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON. but the duty cycle value is not latched into CCPR2H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i. The following equation is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time: PWM duty cycle =(CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>)*TOSC* (TMR2 prescale value) (3. Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit. iv. so the PWM period is then become PWM period = (255+1)* 4 * (1/20M) * (1) = 51.. iii.2) In this project. v. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. This 10-bit value is represented by CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>.e. The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register.2µs = 19.3) CCPR2L and CCP2CON<5:4> can be written to at any time.
Gain. The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh (decimal from 0 to 65535) and rolls over to 0000h. which are readable and writable.107ms = 30 Besides. X2 is defined as gain for this purpose. the input clock to the timer is FOSC/4. A user register. The TMR1 Interrupt. . it takes 65535 cycle and the time consumed is given by.107 ms. Figure 3. Figure 3. which is latched in interrupt flag bit. TMR1IE (PIE1<0>). is generated on overflow.0) * (1/(20MHz/4)) = 13. In this project. the interruption enable bit of CCP2 is set.16 Timer1 block diagram When Timer1 increases from 0000h to FFFFh. Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS (T1CON<1>) bit.41 c) Initialization of TIMER1 in Timer Mode The Timer1 module in PIC16F877A is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L).16 shows the Timer1 block diagram which operate in timer mode.39321s where the pulses counted in X1 will be converted to speed and correction taken. the interrupt is required to occur each 0. In this mode. if enabled.39321s / 13. Also GIE and PIE are set. This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit. Fosc = 20MHz . X2 = 0. TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). t = (65535 .
The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. The transmitter and receiver are functionally independent. In this mode. eight or nine data bits. Baud Rate = Fsoc /(16(SPBRG+1)) (3. An on-chip. but use the same data format and baud rate.) The USART is configuring in asynchronous mode. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI. the USART uses standard non-return-to zero (NRZ) format (one START bit.42 d) Setup for serial port The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules.18 USART receive block diagram .17 USART transmit block diagram Figure 3.4) Figure 3. and one STOP bit). The most common data format is 8-bits and it is used in this project. 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. dedicated.
39321s. X1 if it is not filter out. it is found that the noise have a bandwidth less than 1ms (bandwidth of real pulses always greater than 1ms).1. e) Get reference speed At beginning of the program. But if the pulse detected is Low (L). 3. it will hold for 1ms. microcontroller will get the reference speed from user at PC through RS232 serial communication. we have to set SPBRG as SPBRG = (Fsoc/ Baud Rate / 16)-1 = 20M / 9600 / 16 -1 = 129 Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set as 1 and bits TRISC<7:6> are set as 0 in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. if is found that there are some noise besides real pulses from LM324.43 To set baud rate at 9600bps. f) Check Noise function From experimental result. If the pulse detected still High (H). From experiment.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process Interrupt process is occurs each 0. then it is noise and ignored where X1 remains its value. it means that the received is real pulse and the X1 will increase it value with one. This noise can cause over reading pulses at speed counter. when a High (H) pulses is receive at RA0. So.3. It will wait there until it gets the reference speed from user. The microcontroller will execute the program in interrupt process instead of main program that is running when it . especially when motor running at high speed.
39321s. X1 in microcontroller will be loaded to PC each 0. the value of speed counter. So.39321s). When not clearing this. Data from speed counter. the motor speed is given by. The interruption flag of CCP2 should be cleared first.39321 ⎠ round/s 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/minit (RPM) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. the following interruption occurs without waiting desired time. we know that it will produces 4 pulses when motor turn for 1 round. Each part of interrupt process is discussed in the following section. X1 will be taken as detected pulses.6) c) Error speed The detected speed will be compared to reference speed to calculate the error between them. b) Speed counter At each interruption (each 0. ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟*⎜ ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠ ⎝t⎠ where N = number of slots t = time of getting data in second round/s (3.39321 ⎠ (3. From optical encoder with 4 slots that built in this project.5) 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. . a) Clearing of interruption flag The interruption is occurs every 0.44 receive the interrupt flag.39321s with CCP2.
45 Error pulses = Reference pulses – Detected pulses and (3.2 from experiment with optical encoder that has been built. The rate that the duty ratio becomes bigger is decided by error speed. the duty cycle of PWM is remained. Error voltage where Vin = 12V Vin Error DC = (3.17 to determine to speed up or slow down the motor.16 Error voltage = (3. e) Speed up process When the detected speed of the motor is lower than the reference speed. Error speed + 80. a duty ratio is decreased and a motor drive electric current is suppressed.8) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0.89 207. The rate that the duty ratio becomes smaller is decided by error speed. the error voltage will be converted to duty cycle based on Equation 2. a duty ratio is increased and a motor drive electric current is increased. .10) d) Speed down process When the detected speed of the motor is higher than the reference speed. If there is no error.7) 1 ⎛ Error pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ Error speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/min (3.39321 ⎠ The error speed will then converted into error voltage by using Equation 4.9) Finally.
.0 program.39321s as detected pulses. the counter and timer have to clear and reset.3. (detail in section 3. detected speed will sent to PC each 0.46 f) Send detected speed to PC To monitor the performance of the system.2. This value will then convert to represent the detected speed (rpm) in PC by using Visual Basic 6.1) g) Interruption ending process The RETFIE instruction is executed at end of the interruption processing. Before that.
47 Clear interruption flag Gain = gain -1 No td = 0.19 Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process .Error Send the value of detected pulses to PC Clear counter Reset timer Return from interrupt Figure 3.39321s? Yes Get value of speed counter Error = Ref – detect speed Error > 0? Yes No Ref = detect speed? Yes No DCnew = DCold + Error DCnew = DCold .
There are two forms in Visual Basic 6.21 respectively.0.3.20 Introduction form Figure 3.20 and Figure3.48 3.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6. They are introduction form and main program form which are shown in Figure 3. Figure 3.21 Main program form .0. a program will be developing using Visual Basic 6. This program is able to send data (desired speed from user) to microcontroller and plot a graph of detected speed versus time to monitor the performance of the system.0 In this project.
a graph of detected speed versus time will be obtained by using Visual Basic. desired speed * 4 * 0.3. The user will sent the desired speed to microcontroller by click on Run command button.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller To obtain desired speed from user.2. It is also allowed to get a new graph by click on the New Graph command button.39321 60 desired pulses = (3. The desired speed (rpm) will then convert into desired pulses before send to microcontroller through serial port. 3.49 The source code of this project is shown in Appendix B and the flow chart of the program is shown in Figure 3.11) 3. From Equation 3. the user is required to select a desired speed at computer. Two main tasks of the program in Visual Basic which are reading input from user and microcontroller and plot a graph of speed versus time. desired pulses is given by.22. .22.214.171.124 Plot Graph Speed versus Time To monitor performance of the system.
39321 Send desired pulses to microcontroller Read detected pulses from microcontroller? Yes No detected speed = detected pulses / 4 / 0.39321 * 60 Plot graph Stop motor? No Yes Figure 3.22 Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.50 Start Read selected desired speed from user? Yes No desired pulses = desired speed / 60 * 4 * 0.0 .
1 Introduction Some experiments had been conducted for the project. First and foremost. data collection is done at each speed for DC motor speed control system to observe performance of the system. Power Supply DC Motor Tachometer Figure 4. 4.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed An experiment is conducted to determine the relationship between voltage supply and speed . Last but not least.1 Experiment with tachometer .6 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4. Then. an experiment is conducted to find out the relationship between voltage supply and motor speed. The procedures and the result will be discussed in following sections. an analysis on the dead time of the system is made.
2 Experiment with optical encoder 5) Circuit as Figure 4. f × 60 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ . 4) The voltage increased in steps of 0. 3) Value of rpm at tachometer was recorded in Table 4. 10) Based on graphs.2. 7) The readings for the frequency of oscilloscope were recorded. both result was compared and the accuracy of optical encoder that has been built is found. .5V was supplied to motor.1. The output waveform from optical encoder was connected to oscilloscope.1. 9) A graph of rpm-voltage was plotted for both tachometer and optical encoder.2 was completed by changing tachometer with the optical encoder that has been built. Power Supply DC Motor Optical Encoder Oscilloscope Figure 4.52 4. 6) Step 2 was repeated. N=4. 2) Voltage of 0. ⎜ rpm = out N ⎠ ⎝ 8) Step 4 was repeated.1 Procedures 1) The circuit was connected as Figure 4.5V until 16V and step 3 was repeated.
50 2074.78 2617.0 3.00 2516.70 940.32 1968.07 .53 4.51 655.0 10.5 15.0 5.26 1870.64 2.26 854.00 0.80 2702.70 2840.0 1.05 4.1.0 9.40 4.00 0.70 1467.5 13.82 1.80 1648.95 1.60 1258.5 8.79 420.69 2.05 2.2 Experimental Result Analysis From experiment.70 1.35 1794.0 8.04 1.59 3.5 6.0 15.5 3.35 0. A graph of speed versus voltage supply by using tachometer and optical encoder is shown in Figure 4.39 1358.0 7.95 1.05 2. the data was recorded in Table 4.14 4.00 0.50 2.5 11.76 % Error = rpm1 − rpm 2 × 100% rpm1 0.52 3232.77 2.5 1.59 3.00 99.5 10.5 7. Table 4.44 1048.5 4.0 Speed (rpm1) Tachometer 0 0 100 240 330 410 550 640 770 860 970 1090 1200 1280 1400 1490 1590 1700 1820 1920 2030 2140 2230 2340 2480 2570 2690 2810 2890 2990 3130 3230 3370 Speed (rpm2) Optical Encoder 0.0 6.5 5.87 3.49 0.07 2.0 14.03 3.0 12.02 767.34 3.5 2.5 12.5 9.2.0 2.06 315.68 3.0 11.05 0.69 2228.21 553.91 2958.0 4.73 2400.83 2272.71 1552.23 2.1 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed Voltage Supply (V) 0.0 0.5 14.0 13.3.62 3.60 230.05 3.36 0.5 16.41 2.31 2.58 3048.95 1164.78 3131.
0 12.16x .94.1.0 14.89 (4.54 Graph Speed versus Voltage Supply Speed (rpm) 4000 3500 3000 Tachometer y = 213.62x .89 1000 500 0 0.0 16.3 Graph of speed versus voltage supply The accuracy of the optical encoder can be checked by calculate its standard deviation.0 10. s for percentage of error by using Equation 4. s= ∑ (x i i − x)2 n −1 (4.2) where rpm = motor speed V = voltage supply to motor .0 4.1) s = 1.991 2500 2000 1500 Optical Encoder y = 207.0 Voltage Supply (V) Figure 4.2801 The standard deviation percentage of error is quite small.0 8. so it can be concluded that the reading of the optical encoder for speed measurement is quite reliable which is given by.80.16V -80.0 6.0 2. rpm = 207.0 18.
the result was collected by applying normal load.74 rpm . overload and then suddenly the load was as no load condition (Refer Figure 3.10 respectively.11).4 to Figure 4. No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.3 DC Motor Speed Control Result Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller in the DC motor speed control system. The performance of the system at each speed is shown in Figure 4.55 4. At each speed.4 DC motor running at speed 190.
95 rpm .56 No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.21 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.6 DC motor running at speed 762.5 DC motor running at speed 572.
43 rpm .8 DC motor running at speed 1144.69 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.7 DC motor running at speed 953.57 Normal Load Overload No Load Figure 4.
10 DC motor running at speed 1907.64 rpm Normal Load No Load Figure 4.9 DC motor running at speed 1716.58 No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.38 rpm .
.14a).3.11c) . the response to set point changes becomes more oscillatory. Kp is increased. commonly called underdamped (Figure 4. the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude (Figure 4. the response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation (Figure 4. the speed response will give an underdamped response when Kp=1. as the controller proportional gain. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed.11 Types of oscillatory response: (a) underdamped (b) sustained oscillation (c) unstable.59 4.11b).1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis For P controller. (a) (b) (c) Figure 4. In this project. At some greater gain. The system is called “marginally stable”.
Figure 4. It is because Tmotor induced by the voltage supply (maximum 12V) is not enough to overcome the Tload of overload condition within these speed.3. there is a error speed of ±38. With controller.12 Free body diagram of the disc Tmotor – Tload = Jω where (4. In overload condition.60 From graph speed versus time for speed from 190.38 rpm. the motor will speed up before Tmotor motor is changed (as seen in graph in no load condition).64 rpm. For motor speed in the range of 953. the motor will slow down or maybe die out. Due to voltage limitation. At each speed. the controller can control at normal load but not in overload condition.3) J = moment of inertia of the wheel about the axis of rotation Tload = torque induced by load Tmotor = torque induced by voltage supply ω = speed motor Figure 4.74 rpm to 762. Without controller. the controller is able to control the speed at their desired speed when applying normal load and overload. the motor is able to maintain back to the desired speed in a period of time. The motor speed response will become oscillate and unstable. the speed response is oscillating until the load is removed.12 shows a free body diagram of the disc . if the load is removed suddenly where Tload = 0. Based on Equation 4.15 rpm when at the steady state.95 rpm.69 rpm to 1716. the controller is unable to control the motor speed although just apply with normal load for motor speed which is higher than 1907. This is due to over one count or miss one count pulse of the speed counter that sent .
There is a dead time at each speed.6 2. 1 count speed = 1 1 * * 60 4 0. Figure 4.4 Dead Time Analysis Dead time is the time of values of the quantity being measured for which it gives no reading .N =1.8 3.13 shows a graph of dead time versus motor speed. the speed is given by.15 rpm 4. The motor that does not respond at very low input voltage supply due to frictional forces exhibits nonlinearity.13 Graph of dead time versus motor speed .3 3 2. Based on Equation 3.5 4 3.8 2. for one count pulse.39321 = 38.4 2. Graph Dead Time versus Motor Speed Dead time (s) 6 5 5 4.8 2 1 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 4.4.3 2 1.61 by the optical encoder.
the motor will start running earlier and the dead time become smaller. the dead time of the system is decreasing as the motor speed is increasing. the error speed at starting up condition will be higher. Thus.62 From Figure 4. more voltage will supply to motor to induce more Tmotor to overcome frictional forces. . This is because for higher speed. So.13.
the speed response is not satisfied. electric trains. torque and even direction of rotation can be changed at anytime to meet new condition. the speed response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation. It is a closed-loop real time control system.6 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Conclusion Recent developments in science and technology provide a wide range scope of applications of high performance DC motor drives in area such as rolling mills. by applying Kp =1 to P controller in microcontroller. the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude. . DC motors have speed control capabilities. If Kp <1. The controller will maintain the speed at desired speed when there is a variation of load. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed. robotic manipulators and the home electric appliances require speed controllers to perform tasks. which means that speed. the speed response become underdamped response. By varying the PWM signal from microcontroller (P controller) to the motor driver. The motor will suddenly speed up and it will damage the motor. chemical process. The goal of this project is to design a DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC16F877A. For this project. At some greater gain. motor speed can be controlled back to desired value easily.
due to the size of photodiode which is quite big. 5. the controller can react faster when there is a disturbance.4. The objective of the project is successfully fulfilled. the time for getting data and for microcontroller take correct action will be reducing where t < 0. As a result. This is what we need to overcome in order to achieve quick control of motor speed smoothly. However. there is a constraint with the optical encoder that had been built. So. 5. Then. Based on Equation 3. if we can increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing its number of slots. the speed sensor is fail. For future works. then the sensitivity of optical encoder can be increased. with the Kp =1 for P controller at microcontroller PIC 16F877A. Otherwise.64 In conclusion. the number of slots at cardboard that can be used is only four.3 Recommendation The performance of the system is slightly sluggish.39321s.2 Problems Although the controller can function as we expected. Besides. the light of the LED cannot be blocked by the cardboard and photodiode will always give High (H) output. some recommendations have been listed based on the problems in order to improve the performance. . but the performance is slightly sluggish where it takes about 2 or 3 second to react properly when there is a disturbance especially at low speed. the motor speed response can be maintained at desired value although there is a variation of load.
So. Besides.4). these will allow us to increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing the number of slots. ii. . it will reduce the total hardware complexity and cost at the same time. Mathematical modeling of motor response Mathematical model can be obtained from the graph of motor speed response. Besides. from the mathematical model.65 i. it can be simulated using software such as Matlab to get the improved motor speed response by using controller packages such as PID controller. iii. Then. Hardware Improvement Use infra red (IR) as transmitter and receiver for optical encoder for more narrow light. So. Fuzzy Logic Controller and others. Software Improvement Use fuzzy logic microcontroller which combine the idea of fuzzy logic in microcontroller to obtain a DC motor speed control system with excellent regulation and high robustness. the motor speed response will become better. Thus. it will reduce the steady state error (based on Equation 3. time for getting data and for controller to take action also can be reduced.
Moore. 51-56. L.which. 1998.66 REFERENCES 1. No. Singapore: Mc Graw-Hill. Lawrence A. Muhammad H. Modeling of a Phase-Locked Loop Servo Controller with Encoder Feedback.net/paul. Power Electronics Circuits. C. AsiaSENSE SENSOR. 4. 2000. August 1999. Christopher A. pg.W. .ht ml 6. Rashid. Devices and Applications. 121-123. Iovine John. Phase-Locked Loops for Motor-Speed Control. IECI-25.hills/SpeedControl/SpeedControllersBody. 3. 2nd Edition. 2003. 3rd edition. The Microcontroller Beginner’s Handbook. Duarte. P. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. IEEE Spectrum. IEEE Spectrum. 4: 347-354. 2004. MacDonald. Sen and M. A study On the DC Motor Speed Control by Using Back-EMF Voltage. United States of America: Prentice Hall. PIC Microcontroller Project Book. 5. United States of America: Prompt Publication. http://homepages. 8. Thyristorized DC Drives with Regenerative Braking and Speed Reversal. 3-5. A. April 1973. Vol. 2nd Edition. Adkins and Michael A. Marra. 1978. 61-67. 359364 7. Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib. 2.
1995. http://www. 2nd Edition. Version 6.org/encoder 13. Kertas Kerja Makmal Kawalan I 15.seattlerobotics. California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. . New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Simulator. Control Systems Engineering. Modern Control Engineering. Inc. P. 2002. Nise. Millspaugh. 2003. 16. Singapore: McGrawHill Book Company. http://www. Paraskevopoulos. New York: Marcel Dekker. MPLAB IDE. Inc. 2002 12. Anita C. Norman S. Programming in Visual Basic 6. http://www.au/rs232.0. Editor User’s Guide 11.N. Julia Case Bradley.html 10.com. Sistem Kawalan Halaju.com 14.airborn.microchip. Process Control Systems. 17.67 9. FG. Sjhinskey. 2nd Edition. Redwood City.
Change to BANK1 BSF STATUS. Capacitor .L) .22pF .For Delay D3 .=============================================================== .Change to BANK0 BCF STATUS.CONNECT TO ENABLE L298 .Set up initialize value and cblock for the variables needed.=============================================================== .For error correction ENDC .RP0 BCF STATUS. processor specific variable definitions __CONFIG _CP_OFF & _WDT_OFF & _BODEN_OFF & _PWRTE_ON & _HS_OSC & _WRT_OFF & _LVP_ON & _CPD_OFF .68 APPENDIX A Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control .Set Baud Rate 9600 for 20MHZ for USART Communication CBLOCK 0X20 D1 . Supervisor : MOHAMAD SHUKRI ABDUL MANAF .RP0 BCF STATUS.=============================================================== list p=16f877A .============= HARDWARE CONNECTION=========================== .For Delay D2 .20MHZ .----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .For Reference Speed CHANGE . BAUD_RATE EQU 0X81 . RB1(PIN34) & RB2 (PIN35) . list directive to define processor ERRORLEVEL -302 ERRORLEVEL -305 #include <p16f877A.For Delay X1 . File name : psm.RP1 ENDM BANK1 MACRO .===============MACRO CHANGE BANK ============================ BANK0 MACRO .inc> .For Gain REFERENCE .RP1 ENDM . RA0 as speed counter . CCP2 (PIN16) .For Counter X2 . Crystal .CONNECT TO L298(H. Project : Dc Motor Speed Control by Using Microcontroller PIC16F877A .=============================================================== .asm . Date : 27/1/2005 . Programmer : EA AI CHOON .
0 INCF X1. increase counter RETURN .39321 where X2 as gain X2 .============== MAIN PROGRAM =================================== MAIN STANDBY BANK0 CALL CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSC GOTO MOVLW MOVWF INIT .Z .0 GOTO $-1 CALL CHECKNOISE BTFSC PORTA.RA0 .0 GOTO $-1 BTFSS PIR1. then it is noise BTFSC PORTA.TMR1IF GOTO LOOP .107ms = 0.Interrupt Process .================================================================= .W 0X00 STATUS. Intialization SERIALSCAN . Yes.------------------------------.69 ORG GOTO ORG GOTO 0x00 MAIN 0x04 INT .AS SPEED COUNTER ----------------------------------------LOOP BTFSS PORTA.Not noise.If bandwith is less than 1ms. Get data again D'30' .##########################INITIALIZATION################################ INIT BANK0 CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF PORTA PORTB PORTC PORTD X1 X2 REFERENCE .-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Set Timer1 as 30*13.Check Noise function CHECKNOISE CALL DELAY1 .1 . Reference speed = 0? STANDBY . Get data for reference speed REFERENCE.
----Initialize PWM----------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF PR2 BCF TRISC.RB1.------Set up Serial Port----------------------SERIAL_SETUP: BANK1 MOVLW 0XC0 IORWF TRISC.TMR1IE=1 .---Initialize PORT---------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0x06 MOVWF ADCON1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF TRISA MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 BSF BCF 0x00 TRISB PORTB.Duty Cycle = 0% .GIE=1.F MOVLW MOVWF BAUD_RATE SPBRG .Keep in file register .1 BCF TRISC.2 BANK0 CLRF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF TMR2 0X00 CCPR2L 0x04 T2CON 0x0C CCP2CON .Timer= 0000-FFFFH = .PWM Setup: Period KHZ(19.70 .Set PortB as output . 65535*1/(20M/4)=13.Pre=1:1 TMR1=Int TMR1=ON MOVWF T1CON BANK1 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF b'00000001' PIE1 b'11000000' INTCON . PRESCALE = 1 .PortA as digital input .ON TMR2.152KHZ) .1 PORTB.2 .RB2(pin 34 and 35) sambung ke pin 10 dan 12 of L298 .RC6&7->Input.-----Set TIMER1 AS TIMER MODE-----------------BANK0 MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1H .PWM Mode .PortA as input . PEIE=1 .Others output .107ms MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1L MOVLW b'00000001' .
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ SUBROUTIONE^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .------------Short Delay----------------------------------------DELAY1 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO D'5' D3 D'9' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 .Wait until new data RCREG.----------Send the detect speed to PC------------SERIAL_TRANSMIT: BTFSS GOTO MOVWF RETURN PIR1.Enable transmission & high baud rate 0X90 RCSTA .W REFERENCE .TXIF $-1 TXREG .-----------Get data for reference speed ------------------SERIALSCAN CALL CALL BTFSS GOTO MOVF MOVWF RETURN OVERRUN_ERROR .Check if data TXREG is transfer to TSR ->TXREG is empty .CREN .Get received data to W .Disable continuous reception RCSTA.Discard Framming Error .Correction of Framming Error PIR1.-----------Correction of Framming Error-----------FERR_ERROR MOVF RETURN RCREG.PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .Enable continuous reception .-----------Correction of Overrun Error-------------OVERRUN_ERROR BCF BSF RETURN RCSTA.######################## END OF INITIALIZATION########################## .RCIF .71 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF RETURN 0X24 TXSTA .CREN .W .Enable srial port & continuous reception .Check if data receive $-1 .Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR .
PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .detect speed REFERENCE.Correction of Framming Error X1 .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .F CONTINUE .Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR .W .799527s .W . Convert the negative value to positive value CCPR2L. Reference = Detect? SHOWSPEED .Reset Counter CHANGE. decrease duty cycle with error correction 0XFF.W SERIAL_TRANSMIT OVERRUN_ERROR . No. Get value of counter. CHANGE = error correction STATUS. Yes. Detect speed > ref speed. no need correction.*********************** INTERRUPT PROCESS****************************** INT CLRF DECFSZ GOTO MOVF SUBWF MOVWF BTFSC GOTO LESS MOVF ADDWF GOTO BTFSC GOTO MOVF SUBLW SUBWF SHOWSPEED MOVF CALL CALL CALL CLRF PIR1 X2.W GREATER . Clear interruption flag .F . Add duty cycle with error correction SHOWSPEED STATUS.W CCPR2L. Jump to > or = check CHANGE. Ref speed . Reference < Detect ? .C GREATER . .Z .72 DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN DELAY2 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN D2 $-5 D3 $-9 D'255' D3 D'255' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 D2 $-5 D3 $-9 .Detect speed CHANGE . Haven't reach 0.F X1. Continue counter GETDATA X1.
******************** END OF INTERRUPT PROCESS************************* END .W 0X00 STATUS.-------------------------------------END OF PROGRAM------------------------------------------------ .Reset Timer . Stop motor CONTINUE . Yes. continue the process . Reference speed = 0? .73 MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSS GOTO STOPMOTOR MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETFIE D'30' X2 SERIALSCAN REFERENCE. No. Get data for reference speed .Z CONTINUE 0X00 CCPR2L DELAY2 .
39321) 'Convert the desired speed into desired pulse 'Exit the form and show the graph in Microsoft Excel .Value = 0 Counter2.Caption = "&Run" Then desired_speed = Val(cboSpeed.Range("A1:E1000") = "" j=2 OLE_Speed.Sheets("Sheet1").Update Counter1.Chart Dim j As Integer Private Sub cmdExit_Click() objExcel.Value = 0 Counter3.74 APPENDIX B Source Code of Visual Basic 6.Value = 0 End Sub Private Sub cmdRun_Stop_Click() If cmdRun_Stop.Visible = True End End Sub Private Sub cmdNew_Click() 'Clear the graph Workbooks("Speed2").Text) ' Get desired speed from user pulse = Round(desired_speed / 60 * 4 * 0.Workbook Dim xlchart As Excel.0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Option Explicit Dim pulse As Integer 'Varible for desired_pulse Dim str As Variant 'Count pulse received from microcontroller Dim speed As Double 'Real speed Dim desired_speed As Double Dim Error_speed As Double Dim objExcel As Excel.Application ' Setup for OLE graph Dim wExcel As Excel.
NullDiscard = False ' Discard bytes that are all zero's .InputLen = 1 ' Read all the charater in buffer .InBufferSize = 1024 ' Receiver buffer = 1024 bytes .Enabled = True End If ElseIf cmdRun_Stop. none parity.Caption = "&Stop" cmdExit.Enabled = True cmdNew.1" ' Baud rate 9600. 1 stop bit .Enabled = True cmdNew.Handshaking = comNone ' Disable all network handshaking .Output = Chr$(pulse) ' Send desired count pulse to microcontroller lblPulse.Caption = "&Stop" Then Counter1.Settings = "9600.Locked = True ' Lock the desired speed selection cmdRun_Stop.CommPort = 2 ' Use CommPort2 to communicate with microcontroller . "Invalid Data" ' If no desired speed receive from user MSComm1.DTREnable = True ' Enable the Data Terminal Ready signal .Output = Chr$(0) cmdExit.OutBufferSize = 1024 ' Transmitter buffer = 1024 bytes .Caption = pulse Counter1.Enabled = False Else MsgBox "You must select a desired speed first!".TimerEnabled = True ' Start the counter as timer cboSpeed.Enabled = False ' Disable the command of Exit and New Graph cmdNew.RThreshold = 1 ' Set the Receive Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received .InputMode = comInputModeText ' Set the incoming messages to ve ASCII text characters . 8 data bits.Caption = "&Run" pulse = 0 MSComm1.TimerEnabled = False ' Stop the timer cmdRun_Stop.Enabled = True End If End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() 'MSComm setup With MSComm1 .Output = Chr$(0) ' Send speed = 0 rpm to stop the motor cboSpeed.Locked = False cmdExit.8. vbOKOnly.75 If Val(cboSpeed.N.Text) > 0 Then ' If receive desired speed from user MSComm1.EOFEnable = False ' Disable the End of File type .
3) = desired_speed .PortOpen = True End With 'Setup for excel file ' Enable the request to send data ' Set the Transmitter Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received ' Open CommPort Set objExcel = GetObject("".SThreshold = 1 .Workbooks.Cells(j. 1) = 0 .Value * 60) + Counter1.Sheets("Sheet1") .desired_speed).Cells(j.Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2.Cells(2.Visible = False j=2 With Workbooks("Speed2").Sheets("Sheet1") . 2) ' Convert counter pulse into speed(rpm) Error_speed = Round((speed .##") .Value * 60) + Counter1.Value .Update End Sub Private Sub MSComm1_OnComm() If MSComm1.Sheets("Sheet1").Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2.76 .Application") Set wExcel = objExcel.CommEvent = comEvReceive Then ' This is used when data is received str = Asc(MSComm1. 1). 2) ' Calculate the error between detected speed with the desired speed lblSpeed.Input) 'Get the counter pulse from microcontroller lblCount_pulse.Caption = Error_speed MSComm1.Caption = speed lblError. 1) = 0 End With OLE_Speed.Open("C:\Speed2.Cells(j .Caption = str speed = Round(str / 4 / 0.Cells(j.Value > 0 Then If (Counter3.RTSEnable = True .Value > Workbooks("Speed2").Output = Chr$(pulse) 'Always send desired pulse to microcontroller End If If Counter1.1. "##. 1) = (Counter3.39321 * 60.Cells(1. 2) = Format(speed.xls") ' File Speed2 as storage objExcel.Value Then 'Plotting graph With Workbooks("Speed2"). "Excel.
Update ' Update the graph End If End If 'Timer : Counter1 as second. Counter2 as minute.Value + 1 Counter1.Value + 1 Counter2.Value = 0 End If End If End Sub .Value = 0 Counter1. and Counter3 as hour If Counter1.Value = 60 Then Counter3.Value = 60 Then Counter2.Value = Counter2.Value = Counter3.77 End With j=j+1 OLE_Speed.TimerEnabled = True If Counter2.
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