Urdu -English Dictionary | Arabic | Grammatical Gender

Urdu Dictionary From prabhu@corvus.arc.nasa.

gov Fri May 22 15:47:41 1992 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------############################################################################## Alphabet -------Vowel Pronunciation Key ----------------------a : "u" in "but" aa : "a" in "far" e : "e" in "bed" i : "i" in "fit" ee : "ee" in "feet" o : "o" in "code" u : "u" in "put" oo : "oo" in "booed" au : "ow" in "how" ai : "ei" in "neighbor" Notes: ----1. ' indicates a glottal stop (pronounced like "uh") in very careful speech. Normally, however, it is not pronounced at the beginning of a word and in other positions it represents 'aa'. 2. The combination 'ah' at the end of a word is pronounced like 'aa' or 'e'. For example: 'jagah' could be 'jagaa' or 'jage', i.e., the h is silent. 3. The combination 'ah' or 'aH' in the middle of a word is pronounced like 'e'. 4. n. (n period) indicates nasalization. 5. a - is used to distinguish between sh and s+h, kh and k+h, etc. Transcription ------------a b p t T s j ch H kh d D z r R z zh s sh s z t Remarks -------

Letter -----'alif : be : pe : te : Te : se : jeem : che : baRi he : khe : daal : Daal : zaal : re : Re : ze : zhe : seen : sheen : saad : zaad : to-e :

Could also stand for an unspecified initial vowel Does Used Does Used not occur in Arabic in native words not occur in Arabic and Persian in loan words

Does not occur in Arabic Used in loan words Does not occur in Arabic and Persian Used in loan words Does not occur in Arabic and Persian Used in native words Does not occur in Arabic Used in loan words Used in loan words Used in loan words

zo-e ain ghain fe qaaf kaaf gaaf laam meem noon vaa-o

: : : : : : : : : : :

z ' gh f q k g l m n w h y : y

Used in loan words Could also stand for an unspecified initial vowel

Does not occur in Arabic

chhoTi he: chhoTi ye: baRi ye

Stands for oo/o/au at the end of a word. In the middle it could stand for w/oo/o/au Used in native words Stand for ee/e/ai at the end of a word. In the middle it could stand for y/ee/e/ai Occurs only at the end of a word and stands for e or ai

################################################################################ Abbreviations ------------Grammatical ----------: noun feminine : noun masculine : pronoun : adjective : verb : adverb : conjunction : interjection : preposition : suffix : prefix : figurative : plural : literal : poetic Word Origin ----------P : Persian A : Arabic T : Turkish H : Hindi S : Sanskrit G : Greek

n.f. n.m. pron. adj. v. adv. conj. intj. prep. suff. pref. fig. plu. lit. poet.

################################################################################ Vocabulary ---------'alif (long) -----------aab: P n.m. water aab: P n.f. splendor/elegance/polish/brightness/ temper(steel)/lustre(gems)/sharpness(sword) aab-e-aa'inah: n.f. polish of a mirror aab-e-talkh: n.m. bitter water/tears/wine aab-e-chashm: n.m. tears aabaad: P adj. populated/inhabited/peopled/prosperous/happy aabru: P n.f. honor/fame/good name/dignity aap: H pron. self/selves/respectful term of address aatish: P n.f. fire

aatmaa: aasim: aakhir: aadaab: aadmi: aadmiyyat: aaraa: aaraam: aara'ish aarzoo: aaz: aazaad: aazardah: aazmaa'ish: aas: aasaan: aasraa: aasmaan: aasmaani: aasoodah: aashaa: aashuftah: aashnaa: aashiyaan.: aakhaaz: aaghosh: aafaat: aaftaab: aag: aalaap: aan.ch: aan.chal: aan.dhee: aan.soo: aawaarah: aawaarah: aawaaz: aawaazah: aah: aahistah: aa'inah: aayandah:

A P P P P H P P P P P P P P P H H H H P P P P P P P

S n.f. soul/spirit/mind A n.m. sinner/culprit A adj. last/final A n.m. manners (plu. of adab) P n.m. man (lit. offspring of Adam) n.f. humanity/human nature/civility P adj. embellishing/adorning P n.m. rest/repose/respite/relief/ease/comfort n.f. decoration/adornment/beauty P n.f. yearning/desire/wish/longing n.f. ardent desire/lust/covetousness P n.f. free/unrestrained adj. annoyed/dejected/uneasy/gloomy/sad n.f. trial/experiment/testing/proving n.f. longing/desire/hope/faith/shelter/refuge P adj. light/facile/easy H n.m. means of subsistence/protection/shelter n.m. heaven/sky adj. heavenly/celestial/azure adj. opulent/rich/satisfied S n.f. desire/hope/longing adj. perplexed/careworn/distracted/confused n.m. aquaintance/friend/lover n.m. nest/house n.m. commencement/outset/beginning n.f/m. embrace/lap/bosom A n.f. evils/disasters/misfortunes (plu. of aafat) n.m. sun n.f. flame/fire (fig. anger/passion/love/lust) H n.f. conversation/preparatory tuning H n.f. flame/warmth/fervor/loss/grief n.m. corner of the 'dopaTTa' worn by women n.f. dust-storm/hurricane n.m. tears adj. without home n.m. wanderer/vagrant/destitute P n.f. noise/sound/cry/shout n.m. rumor/fame/report/reputation n.f. sigh adv. softly/leisurely/slowly n.m. mirror adj. hereafter/in the future

################################################################################ 'alif (short) ------------now/presently n.m. boiling/rage/anger commencement/beginning adj. ruined/scattered/worthless smile/cheerfulness trial/misfortune/suffering eternity cloud n.m. eyebrow n.m. eyes (plu. of basr) son

ab: ubaal: ibtidaa': abtar: ibtisaam: ibtilaa: abad: abr: abroo: absaar: ibn:

H A A A A P A

adv. H n.f. P n.m. n.m. n.f. n.m. P A n.m.

abnaa': ittiHaad: A ittifaaq: A ittifaaqaan: ittikaa': A itlaaf: itmaam: ittihaam: A aTak: H isbaat: asar: A ujaaR: ijaazat: A ajnabee: A iHtiyaaj: A iHtiyaat: A aHzaan: iHsaas: iHsaan: akhbaar: A ikhtiyaar: A akhz: A ikhlaas: A adaa: A adaa: P idraak: adib: A iraadah: A arjmand: P urdoo: irshaad: A arz: A armaan: azal: A asaas: asbaab: ustaad: isti'faa: A isti'maal: A asad: A asraar: israaf: asfaar: asqaam: asir: A ishaarah: P ishtihaar: A ishtiyaaq: A ishraaq: A ashfaaq: A ishfaaq: A ashqiyaa': A ashk: P as-haab: A israar: asl: A asli: A iztiraab: A

A n.m. n.m. A n.m. A A n.m. n.f. A n.m. H n.f. n.m. n.f. n.f. A A A n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.f. n.f. A n.m. n.m. adj. T n.m. n.f. P n.f. A A P n.m. n.m. n.m. A A A A n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. A n.m. adj. n.m.

n.m. sons (plu. of ibn) union/alliance agreement/concord/chance/event/opportunity adv. accidentally dependence/reliance n.m. loss/ruin/decay n.m. completion/perfection charge/imputation/blame obstacle/obstruction n.m. proof mark/sign/trace/effect adj. ruined/waste/abandoned permission/leave/sanction stranger/foreigner/alien need caution/heed n.m. sorrows (plu. of huzn) n.m. feeling/emotion n.m. beneficence/favor/good deed news/newspaper choice/option/power/influence/control/authority grasping/seizing/taking sincerity/purity/love/selfless worship payment of debt/settlement charm/grace/beauty n.m. perception/comprehension learned, man of letters (plu. udabaa') aim/object/will/desire exalted n.f. army/camp instruction/order/command/guidance land/region/earth n.m. desire/yearning/wish eternity/without beginning n.f. foundation n.m. causes/motives/means n.m. master/professor resignation application/usage/use lion n.m. secrets (plu. of sirr) n.m. waste/extravagance n.m. voyages/travels (plu. of safar) n.m. evils/weaknesses/defects (plu. of suqm) prisoner/captive gesture/symbol/wink/sign notification/poster/reputation/renown longing/craving/desire dawn/day break/lustre favors (plu. of shafaq) compassion/kindness cruel/heartless (plu. of shaqi) tearS lords/masters (plu. of saahib) n.m. obduracy/persistence/obstinacy root/foundation/essence (plu. usool) original/genuine/real/true restlessness/perturbation/anxiety

iztiraar: A atfaal: iz-haar: A i'tibaar: A i'tiraaz: A i'jaaz: i'laam: aghlaat: A aghyaar: A uftaad: iftikhaar: A ifraat: afsaanah: P afsurdah: P afsos: ufaq: A iqbaal: iqraar: iqtizaa': A akbar: aksar: aksar: agar: P al: A iltifaat: A alfaaz: amaanat: A imtiHaan: A imtiyaaz: A ummid: intikhaab: A intizaar: A intizaam: A intiqaam: A anjaam: anjuman: P andaazah: P an.dar: insaan: insaaniyyat: in'aam: inqilaab: A inkaar: auqaat: auqaat: awwaal: aulaad: imaan:

n.m. A n.m. n.m. n.m. A A n.f. n.m. P n.m. A n.m. adj. P n.m. A A n.m. A A A conj. art. n.m. A n.f. n.m. n.m. P n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. A n.f. n.m. P A A A n.m. A A A A A A

helplessness/agitation/constraint n.m. children/offspring (plu. of tifl) disclosure/proclamation/statement/testimony trust/confidence/faith/reliance objection/criticism/protest n.m. miracle/marvel/wonder n.m announcing/notifying mistakes (plu. of ghalat) strangers/rivals (plu. of ghair) n.f. misery/distress/mishap/foundation honor/glory/repute/distinction n.f. excess/exuberance/plenty tale/legend/fiction melancholy/depressed n.m. regret/remorse/dejection horizon n.m. prosperity/good fortune/success/confession n.m. promise/pledge/confession/declaration/covenant requirement/need/demand adj. greatest (sup. of kabir) adj. most/much/many/frequent adv. frequently/usually/generally/often if/in case the regard/kindness/favor/friendship n.m. words (plu. of lafz) something given in trust/deposit/security examination/test/trial/proof/experiment discrimination/discernment/distinction n.f. hope/expectation/trust selection/choice/election waiting (anxiously)/expectation management/order/method/arrangement revenge/reprisal n.m. end/conclusion/result/issue assembly/meeting/society/council measurement/guess/rough estimate prep. within/inside/inward n.m. man/human being/mankind n.m. humanity/civility n.m. gift/reward/largesse revolution n.m. denial/contradiction n.m. times (plu. of waqt) n.f. status/position adj. first/excellent/best n.f. children (plu. of walad) n.m. belief/faith/creed/conscience

################################################################################ be -prep. by/with/from/in/into/near/on/for/towards (Always prefixed to another word) prep. by/with/from/in/into/to/on/upon/for/upto (Always prefixed to another word) prep. with/by/possessed of

bi: ba: baa:

A P P

baab: baabul: baat:

A H

n.m. H n.f.

baad: P baadshaah: P baadal: baadah: baadiyah: A baadiyah: P baar: H baar: P baarish: P baarah: baareek: P baaz: P baaz: P baaz: P baazaar: P baazaaree: P baazoo: baazi: baazichah: P baagh: baaqee: baaqee: baalam: baam: P baan: P baan.kaa: H baano: bachchah: P baHaal: baHs: A bukhaar: A bakht: bakhshish: P bad: P bad akhtar: bad anjaam: bad tar: bad chalan: bad khwaab: bad du'aa: bad sirat: bad soorat: bad m'aash: bad naam: bad naseeb: badr: A badal: badlaa: badan: baraabar: P bardaasht: P barsaat: H barkat: baRhiyaa: H

door/gate/chapter/topic/subject n.m. father word/saying/speech/tale/news/question/business proposal/point/gossip/substance n.f. wind/air/breeze n.m. emperor/king H n.m. cloud(s) P n.m. wine/spirits n.m. wilderness/desert n.m. goblet/cup n.m. time/turn/chance/opportunity/delay/obstacle n.m. burden/load/permission/grief/court n.m. rain P n.m. time/turn/about/in regard of adj. fine/slender/delicate/difficult/subtle suff. denotes doer/agent n.m. falcon adv. again/back/refusing n.m. market adj. common/low/vulgar/relating to the market P n.m. arm/fold of a door/flank of an army P n.f. sport/game/wager n.m. toy/fun/sport P n.m. garden/orchard/grove A adj. remaining/lasting A n.f. residue/remainder/arrears S n.m. a lover/sweet-heart/husband n.m. upper storey/terrace/balcony suff. signifying keeper or guardian adj. curved/crooked/sly/cunning P n.f. lady/gentlewoman n.m. child A adj. status quo/refreshed/happy n.f. dispute/argument/debate/controversy n.m. steam/temperature/fever/rage P n.m. good fortune/luck/prosperity n.f. gift/donation/reward/alms/tip adj. bad/wicked/evil adj. unfortunate adj. having a bad end adj. worse/inferior adj. of bad conduct/ill-mannered/immoral n.m./f. nightmare n.f. curse/malediction adj. ill-tempered adj. ugly adj. roguish adj. disreputable/notorious/ignominous adj. unfortunate/unlucky n.m. full moon A n.m. exchange/change/substitution n.m. exchange/retaliation/revenge A n.m. body adj. equal/even/level/alike/opposite/accurate n.f. endurance/tolerance/patience n.f. rain/rainy season A n.f. abundance/prosperity/blessing/auspiciousness adj. superior/of good quality/expensive

buzurg: P adj. great/venerable/aged/noble bazm: P n.f. assembly/company (at a feast or entertainment) bas: P adj. sufficient/enough/plenty bisaat: A n.f. bedding/carpet/chess board/extent/capacity bast: P n.m. obstacle/knot/asylum/sanctuary bistar: P n.m. bed bismil: P n.m. sacrificial animal/a lover baseraa: H n.m. roosting/a night's lodging/shelter bashar: A n.m. man/mortal basheer: A adj. a messenger of good news basar: A n.f. sight/vision/the eye baghaawat: A n.f. revolt/rebellion/disloyalty baghal: P n.f. armpit/side balaa: A n.m. calamity/distress/trial/misfortune buland: P adj. high/lofty/sublime/exalted/tall/loud billaur: P n.m. crystal/crystal glass/transparent ban.dish: P adj. composition/elegance of style/plan/obstruction ban.dagi: P n.f. devotion/worship/service bandah: P n.m. slave/servant/individual/man bunyaad: A n.f. foundation bood: P n.f. being/existence bahaadur: P adj. brave/valiant/high-spirited bahaar: P n.f. spring/prime/bloom/beauty/glory/delight bahaanah: P n.m. excuse/pretext/evasion/reason bhool: H n.f. forgetfulness/omission/mistake/lapse/fault bhool bhulayyaan.: a maze/labyrinth be: P pref. without/void of be aabroo: adj. dishonorable be ittifaaqi: n.f. discord/disunity be iHtiyaati: n.f. incautiousness be ikhtiyaari: n.f. helplessness/without choice be adab: adj. rude/unmannerly be i'tibaar: adj. untrustworthy/discredit be imtiyaaz: adj. indiscriminating be an.daazah: adj. unlimited/endless be insaaf: adj. unfair/unjust be imaan: adj. faithless/liar/cheat be bas: adj. helpless/weak be pardah: adj. unveiled/immodest/exposed be parwaa: adj. heedless/indifferent/above want be taab: adj. restless/powerless/impatient be taasir: adj. ineffectual/useless be tameez: adj. indiscreet/rude/uncultured be jaan: adj. lifeless be jurm: adj. faultless be chain: adj. restless/uneasy be Hadd: adj. endless/boundless be Hayaa: adj. shameless/impudent/bare-faced be khabar: adj. uninformed/ignorant/stupid be khataa: adj. faultless/innocent be khud: adj. enraptured/in ecstasy/delirious/senseless be daad: n.f. iniquity/injustice/oppression be daagh: adj. spotless/without blemish/innocent be dard: adj. without feeling/pitiless/merciless be rahm: adj. merciless/cruel be riyaa: adj. without guile/candid/sincere be zaar: adj. disgusted/displeased be zabaan: adj. dumb/speechless/modest

be zar: be sakhtah: be saaz: be sabab: be sharm: be sabr: be taaqat: be 'izzat: be gham: be fikr: be qadr: be qaraar: be qusoor: be kaar: be kas: be gunaah: be ma'ni: be naam: be naseeb: be nazir: be wajh: be wafaa: be waqoof: be hunar: be hosh: bayaabaan: P bayaan: bait: A bait: A bedaar: bezaar: begaanah: P bimaar:

adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. adj. n.m. A n.m. n.f. P P adj. P

adj. destitute/poor artless/unaffected/natural/plain without tools or apparatus without cause or reason shameless/immodest impatient powerless without honor or respect happy/without sorrow free from care or worry worthless uneasy/restless/unsettled innocent/not guilty idle/unemployed/useless adj. friendless/lonely innocent/guiltless meaningless/absurd without name, character or reputation unfortunate unequalled/matchless/unique without cause faithless/ungrateful/treacherous foolish/stupid/dolt unskilled unconscious desert/wilderness n.m. description/statement/account house/abode couple/verse adj. awake/alert/vigilant adj. displeased/angry/out of humor strange/alien/foreign adj. sick/ill

################################################################################ pe -leg/foot/root of a tree fettered/bound/subjugated trodden under foot/ruined fordable/within man's depth opposite bank/the end/termination custody/regard/supervision guard/sentinel favor/partiality/favoritism pure/holy/immaculate/chaste/undefiled pure/clean/neat adj. mad/insane/idiotic/distressed n.m. water/rain/lustre/character/honor n.m. curtain/screen/veil/secrecy/privacy worship to examine/to test moth/lover/warrant/permission fostering/rearing/sustenance/protecting fairy-like/beautiful troubled/distracted/distressed n.f. choice/approval/preference

paa:

P paa ban.d: paa maal: paa yaab: paar: H paas: P paas baan: paar daari: pak: P pakeezah: P paagal: paani: pardah: parastish: P paraknaa: H parwaanah: P parwarish: P pariwash: P pareshaan: P pasand:

n.m. n.m adj. adj. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.f. adj. adj. H H P n.m. v. n.m. n.f. adj. adj. P

pasinaa: pashemaan: pal: palak: panaah: pahlu: payaam: peshaah: paighaam: paimaan:

H P H

P P P

n.m. n.f. n.m. H P P P n.m. n.m. n.m.

perspiration/sweat penitent/repentant/ashamed a moment n.f. eyelash/a moment/an instant n.f. protection/asylum/refuge n.m. side/advantage/flank of an army n.m. message craft/trade/profession message/news/advice promise/agreement/oath/confirmation

################################################################################ te -heat/power/endurance/rage heat/splendour/grief/sorrow n.f. effect/impression crown/tiara date/annals adj. dark/obscure adj. fresh/new/tender/happy look/regard/aim/view adj. ruined/spoiled/depraved/wretched change smile/smiling experience/experiment/test/proof n.m. a gift n.m. throne/seat n.f. deliberation/opinion/advice/arrangement/order harmony/symphony/a kind of song interpreter fear/terror compassion/pity/mercy elevation/promotion/proficiency composition/mixture/plan/mode/method consolation/comfort/satisfaction salutation/greeting/resignation/submission honoring thirst/desire/longing imagination/fancy/idea mysticism picture/portrait/painting wondering/admiration/amazement/surprise explanation/description/praise/definition connection/relation/consideration demanding settlement of a debt/importunity fate/luck approximately n.f. piety/abstinence/fear of God imposition of a burden/difficulty/inconvenience search/inquiry/quest adj. bitter/acrimonious/pungent/unpalatable sword entertainment/fun/amusement/sport/spectacle adj. entire/complete/perfect/end n.f. discernment/judgement/observance of etiquette body

taab: taabish: taasir: taj: taarikh: taarik: taazah: taak: tabaah: tabdeel: tabassum: tajribah: toHfaa: takht: tadbir: taraanah: tarjumaan: tars: tars: tarraqqee: tarkeeb: tasallee: tasleem: tashreef: tishnagi: tasawwur: tasawwuf: tasweer: ta'ajjub: ta'areef: ta'alluq: taqaazaa: taqdeer: taqriban: taqwaa: takleef: talaash: talkh: talwaar: tamaashaa: tamaam: tameez: tan:

P P P A P A A A

P A P H A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A H A P

n.f. n.f. A n.m. n.f. P P n.f. P n.f. n.m. n.m. A P A n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.f. n.f. n.f. n.f. n.f. n.f. n.m. n.m. n.f. n.m. n.f. n.m. n.m. n.f. adv. A n.f. n.f. P n.f. n.m. A A n.m.

tanqiH: A tangi: P tanhaa: P taubah: P taubah taubah: tauheen: A n.f. taiyaar: P adj. teer: P n.m. tez: P adj. tegh: P n.m.

n.f. cleaning/investigation/inquiry/issue n.f. narrowness/hardship/poverty adj. alone/solitary n.m. repentance intj. Heaven forbid! disgrace/contempt/defamation/dishonor/insult ready/prepared/finished/alert/ripe arrow sharp/keen/caustic/pungent/swift/clever sword/dagger

################################################################################ Te -n.f. the leg/a share to leak/to drip/to fall down (fruits) n.f. collision/encounter/rivalry/competition n.m. a piece/a morsel/a part/fraction breaking/fracture/loss fixed abode/proper place/goal/limit n.f. cold/chill n.f. obstacle/kick/stumble crookedness

Taan.g: Tapaknaa: Takkar: TukRaa: TooT: Thikaanaa: ThanD: Thokar: TeRh:

H H H H

H v. H H n.f. n.m. H H n.f.

################################################################################ se -adj. confirmed/established/fixed/stable n.m. a fixed star adj. shining brightly/splendid/sublime n.m. stability/endurance/resolution/constancy permanence/a seal/writing n.m. evidence/proof/conviction/constancy/stability wealth/power/influence n.m. the earth culture burden/weight reliability/trustworthiness n.m. reward/recompense the fixed stars (plu. of saabit)

saabit: saabit: saaqib: sabaat: sabt: suboot: saarwat: saraa: siqaafat: siqaalat: siqaahat: sawaab: sawaabit:

A A A A A A

A A A A n.m. A n.f. A n.f. n.f. n.f. A n.m.

################################################################################ jeem ---n.m. magic/conjuring/charm/effect of evil spirits adj. alluring/attractive adj. running/flowing/current/continuing n.f. a fief goblet soul/life/mind/vigor/sweetheart/beloved adj. of or relating to life n.m. a beloved/a lover adj. ignorant/illiterate/barbarous property/estate/assets adj. legal/permitted

jaadu: jaazib: jaaree: jaagir: jaam: jaan: jaanee: jaanee: jaahil: jaa'edaad: jaa'iz:

P P

P

P A A P n.m. n.f. P P A n.f. H

jabeen.: judaa: judaaee: jazb: jazbah: jurm: jurmaanah: justjoo: jism: jashn: ja'l: jafaa: jigar: jalaal: jalwah: jamaal: janaab: janaazah: jumbish: jannat: jang: junoon: jawaab: jawaan: jawaahir: josh: jahaaz: jahaan: jahaannum: jeewan:

P P A A P P A A

A P P

A P A

n.f. P adj. n.m. A n.m. n.m. n.f. n.m. P n.f. P P A A A A n.m. n.f. A n.f. A A P n.m. n.m. A P n.f. H

the forehead adj. separate/apart/asunder/peculiar separation/absence allurement/attraction n.m. passion/rage/desire/feeling crime/guilt fine/penalty search/inquiry body n.m. a feast/celebration counterfeit n.f. oppression/injustice/injury n.m. liver/heart/soul/mind n.m/f. splendor/majesty n.m. lustre/splendour/display/show n.m. beauty/elegance intj. sir!/your honor! corpse/funeral movement n.f. paradise/garden battle/war n.m. madness/insanity n.m. answer/equal/parallel/match adj. young/youth jewls/gems (plu. of jauhar) heat/zeal/enthusiasm/passion/lust n.m. ship/vessel n.m. the world hell n.m. life/existence

################################################################################ che --chaarah: P n.m. remedy/cure/help/aid/resource chaadar: P n.f. a sheet/veil/waterfall chaaq: T adj. active/alert/healthy/fat/hale and hearty chaaqoo: P n.m. a small knife chaal: H n.f. gait/walk/custom/trick/strategem chaalaak: P adj. clever/expert/cunning/nimble chaan.d: H n.m. the moon chaan.dani: H n.f. moonlight chaan.di: H n.f. silver/wealth chaah: H n.f. desire/love/affection/need/choice chitwan: H n.f. look/glance/appearance charaagh: P n.m. lamp charaagaah: P n.f. meadow/pasture chust: P adj. alert/active/clever/quick/tight cashm: P n.f. eye/hope chasm-e-baddoor:intj. God preserve from evil eyes! chashm-o-chiraagh:n.m. light of the eye/dearly beloved chasmak: P n.m. wink/winking/misunderstanding/spectacles chakaan.: P adj. dropping/distilling chilman: H n.m. a venetian blind chamak: H n.f. glitter/splendour/flash/gleam chaman: P n.m. flower garden chand: P adj. how many/how much/few/how often/how long

chah: chehraa: cheez: chain:

P P

suff. n.m. P H

used to form dimunitives face/visage/a mask n.f. thing/commodity n.m. ease/comfort/rest/peace

Word beginning with baRi he/khe ################################################################################ baRi he ------n.m. generous (derived from Haatim Tai) accident/occurence/calamity/misfortune adj. present/ready/in attendance n.m. ruler/governor/judge/an official state/condition/narrative/circumstance n.f. condition/state/circumstance (plu. Haalaat) love/friendship/desire/affection/wish n.m. beloved/sweetheart/comrade/friend n.m. veil/modesty/bashfulness/night boundary/limit very/at most/utmost point n.f. sharpness/fury/acrimony/poignancy novelty/innovation n.m/f. boundaries/penal laws Intelligence/wisdom heat/fever/ardor/fervor/zeal adj. unlawful/forbidden eager/greediness/desire/ambition emancipation/freedom firmness of mind/resolve grief/sadness/sorrow n.m. reckoning/account/computation/rate/sense n.f. regret/intense sorrow/desire/longing beauty/elegance adj. beautiful/elegant/charming/handsome state/dignity/pomp/retinue n.m. fort/enclosure/fence n.m. acquisition/profit/advantage/achievement n.m. share/portion/lot n.m. dignity/a title of respect n.m. presence of superior authority intj. Your Highness! guarding/security/safety just/truth/right truth/reality/narration/condition order/decree/statute/law n.f. wisdom/knowledge/cleverness/device n.m. wise man/doctor/philosopher adj. legal/permitted protection/patronage/support/defence n.m. attack/assault/invasion n.m. the senses charge/custody/care virgin of Paradise/nymph capacity/courage/spirit/resolution/desire n.f. modesty/shame n.f. life/existence

Haatim: Haadisah: Haazir: Haakim: Haal: Haalat: Hubb: Habeeb: Hijaab: Hadd: Hadd: Hiddat: Hads: Hudood: Hizaaqat: Haraarat: Haraam: Hirs: Hoorriyat: Hazm: Huzn: Hisaab: Hasrat: Husn: Haseen: Hashmat: Hisaar: Husool: Hissah: Hazrat: Huzoor: Huzoor: Hifaazat: Haqq: Haqeeqat: Hukm: Hikmat: Hakeem: Halaal: Himaayat: Hamlah: Hawaas: Hawaalah: Hoor: Hausalah: Hayaa: Hayaat:

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A

A A A A

A n.m. A A n.m. A n.f. A A n.f. adv. A n.m. A n.m. n.f. A n.f. n.f. n.m. n.m. A A n.f. A n.f. A A A A A A n.f. adj. n.f. n.m. A A A n.f. A A n.m. n.f. n.m. A A

Haiseeyat: Hairaan:

A A

n.f. adj.

rank/capacity/merit/status/prestige amazed/confounded/perplexed/worried

################################################################################ khe --A adj. special/particular/private/noble/unmixed n.f. the heart/mind/memory/sake/behalf/choice/favor P n.f. dust/earth/ashes adj. pure/genuine/sincere(friend) P adj. raw/green/inexpert/immature/vain adj. silent n.m. family/lineage/dynasty n.f. lady/princess/wife n.m. house/room/compartment/partition A n.f. news/information/report/rumor/notice A n.m. conclusion/seal A adj. finished/done n.m. shame/bashfulness adj. happy/auspicious/blessed P n.m. God n.f. service/office/duty adj. bad/depraved/ruined/spoiled/wretched/obscene adj. happy n.f. purchase n.f. autumn/decay/old age n.m. treasury/treasure adj. wounded/broken/sorrowful P adj. dry/withered/cynic A n.m. letter/note/mark A n.f. mistake/slio/oversight/error n.m. sermon/oration/introduction n.m. danger/fear/risk A n.f. concealment/secrecy P adj. angry/displeased n.m. deliverance/redemption/freedom n.m. opposition/contraiety/falsehood prep. against n.f. prick/pain/anxiety/apprehension n.m. intoxication n.m. dagger P n.m. sleep/dream P adj. wretched/deserted/friendless/poor n.f. desire/request/demand P adj. good/excellent/beautiful/amiable P n./adj. self/private/personal/own P n.f. egotism/vanity/presence of mind n.m. sun P adj. pleasing/happy P n.m. blood/murder n.m. flower-bed/flower garden n.m. thought/imagination/opinion/care/respect A adj. good/best A adv. very well A n.f. welfare/happiness

khaas: khaatir: khaak: khaalis: khaam: khaamosh: khaandaan: khaanum: khaanah: khabar: khatm: khatm: khajaalat: khajaalat: khuda: khidmat: kharaab: khurram: khareed: khazaan.: khizaanah: khastah: khushk: khatt: khataa: khutbah: khatrah: khafaa: khafaa: khalaas: khilaaf: khilaaf: khalish: khumaar: khanjar: khwaab: khwaar: khwaahish: khoob: khood: khoodi: khoorsheed: khoosh: khoon: khiyaaban: khayaal: khair: khair: khair:

A A P P P P

A P A A P P P P P

A A A A A P A A P

P P A

################################################################################

daal ---daakhil: A adj. entering daad: P n.m. justice/appeal/revenge/praise daar: P n.f. gallows/a piece of wood daar: P suff. having/holding daar: A n.m. house/country daaraa: P n.m. holder/sovereign/king daaru: H n.f. alcohol daaru: P n.f. medicine/remedy daastaan: P n.f. story/fable/tale daagh: P n.m. scar/blemish/stain/calamity/grief/loss daam: P n.m. net/snare daam: H n.m. price/value daaman: P n.m. skirt/foot of a mountain/a lap daanaa: P adj. wise/learned daanistah: P adv. knowingly daanish: P n.f. knowledge/science/learning daa'im: A adj. perpetual/permanent dakhl: A n.m. entrance/access/reach/skill dar: P n.m. door/gate/entrance dar: P prep. in/into/within/to/about/by durr: A n.m. pearl daraaz: P adj. long/tall/extended darbaar: P n.m. court (royal) darkhwaasht: P n.f. request/petition/appeal dard: P n.m. pain/affliction/sympathy/compassion dars: H n.m. sight/view/look durust: P adj. right/proper/well/safe/precise durusht: P adj. rough/hard/rigid/oppressive/fierce darmiyan: P n.m. middle/midst/interval darwaazah: P n.m. door/gate darya: P n.m. a large river/sea duzd: P n.m. thief dastoor: P n.m. custom/usage/manner/rule dushman: P n.m. enemy dushnaam: P n.f. abuse/invective dushwaar: P adj. difficult du'aa: A n.f. blessing/prayer/wish da'wat: A n.f. invitation/banquet da'waa: A n.m. claim/law suit/charge/demand/accusation daghaa: P n.f. deceit/treachery/delusion daf'a: A n.f. time/turn/section/class dafn: A n.m. burial/concealment diqqat: A n.f. difficulty/intricacy/minute point dil: P n.m. heart/soul/courage/generosity/wish dil aawar: adj. brave/valiant dilbar: adj. lovely/sweetheart dil band: adj. charming/attractive dil chasp: adj. interesting/pleasing/delightful dil kharaash: adj. heart rending dil daar: adj. charming/beloved dil daar: n.m. sweetheart dil daari: n.f. consolation dil doz: adj. heart-piercing dil rubaa: adj. fascinating/alluring dil rubaa: adj. fascinating/alluring

dil rubaa: n.m. dil sokhtah: dil soz: adj. dil shaad: adj. dil fareb: adj. dil figaar: adj. dil kash: adj. dil geer: adj. dil lagi: n.f. dil nawaaz: adj. dilaasaa: P n.m. dam: P n.m. dimaagh: A n.m. dunyaa: A dawaa: A door: P adj. daur: A n.m. dost: P n.m. daulat: A diyaar: A deedaar: P n.m. deedah: P deen: A n.m. deewaar: P n.f. deewaanah: P n.m.

sweetheart adj. grieved/suffering touching/pathetic/passionate/ardent cheerful charming/alluring/enticing/beautiful melancholy attractive/winning melancholy amusement/diversion soothing (the mind) consolation/encouragement breath/vitality/moment/edge of a sword brain/intellect/airs/conceit n.f. world/worldly goods n.m. medicine distant/remote/far revolving/period/cycle/orbit friend/lover n.f. riches/fortune/happiness/cause/means n.m. country/region sight/interview n.m. the eye faith/religion a wall madman

################################################################################ Daal ---lake/pond/water pot robbery path/road

Daabar: Daakaa: Dar: Dagar:

H

H H n.m. H

n.m. n.m. fear n.f.

################################################################################ zaal ---being endowed with/soul/self/caste/race adj. innate/inherent/essential/natural adj. remembering/grateful n.m. grateful person/obe who praises God remembrance/memory/Qur'an recital insult/dishonor/affront/abjectness adj. abject/base/wretched/contemptible taste acumen/wit/sagacity/understanding

zaat: zaati: zaakir: zaakir: zikr: zillaat: zaleel: zauq: zehn:

A

A A A A

n.f. A A A n.m. n.f. A n.m. n.m.

################################################################################ re -n.f. rest/repose/comfort/tranquility/ease mystery/secret adj. true/honest/straight/even/level path/road/manner adj. willing/satisfied/agreed/pleased

raaHat: raaz: raast: raastah: raazi:

P P

A n.m. P n.m. A

raah:

P raah bar: raah numaa: rabb: A rahm: A rukh: P rukhsaar: P rukhsat: A radd: A razm: P rasm: A rasan: ruswaa: rasool: rishtah: P rashk: raghbat: P raftaar: P rafi': rafeeq: raqs: A raqeeb: ran.j: ran.jish: P ran.g: ran.geen: P rawaanah: P rooH: A roz: P roz: P rozah: raushan/roshan: raunaq: resham:

n.f. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.f. n.m. n.m. n.f. P A A n.m. P n.f. n.f. A A n.m. A P n.m. P adj. adj. n.f. n.m. adj. P P A P

road/pathcustom/journey/method a guide conductor/leader/guide creator/god mercy/pity/compassion/kindness/tenderness face/cheek/side/point face/cheek/complexion/aspect leave/permission/dismissal/indulgence rejection/repulsion/returning war/battle marking/writing/established usage/model/law n.f. rope/string/cord adj. infamous/dishonored/disgraced n.m. a prophet thread/line/relationship/kinship/alliance n.m. jealousy/envy/malice/spite strong desire/esteem/pleasure speed/pace/walk/motion adj. high/sublime/exalted n.m. friend/ally dance/dancing n.m. rival/competitor n.m. grief/sorrow/trouble/inconvience grief/indignation/misunderstanding/anguish n.m. color/dye/fashion/enjoyment colored/lively/elegant/flowery/figurative despatched/proceeding soul/spirit/life/essence/divine revelation a day daily n.m. a fast adj. light/illuminated/bright/clear/splendid n.f. lustre/beauty/elegance/freshness n.m. silk

################################################################################ Re -This letter does not occur as the first letter of a word and hence there are no entries. The letter has the sound of a hardened 'r' and is often used interchangeably with Daal. ################################################################################ ze -weeping/lamentation/garden/desire/wish n.f. tongue/language/flame (of a candle) n.m. above/superior/greater/top vigorous/violent/tyrranical/superior n.f. uneasiness of mind/trouble/pain n.m. wound/damage/loss adj. struck/stricken/oppressed gold n.m. cold curl/ringlet/tress time/age/period

zaar: P zabaan: zabar: zabardast: zaHmat: zakhm: zadah: zar: P zukaam: zulf: P zamaanah: P

n.m. P P adj. A P P n.m. A n.f. n.m.

zameen: zanjeer: zindaan: zindagi: zindah: zinhaar: zinhaar: zood: zor: zahr: ziyaadah: ziyaarat: zebaa: zeenat:

P P P P P P P P P A

P n.f. n.m. n.f. P adv. intj. adv. n.m. n.m. adj. n.f. P A

n.f. ground/earth chain prison/jail life/living/existence adj. alive/living never/by no means beware! quickly/soon/suddenly force/strength/power/influence/stress poison too much/more/excessive pilgrimage/visit (a shrine) adj. adorned/beautiful/proper/graceful n.f. decoration/beauty

################################################################################ zhe --hail/dew/frost n.m. deep/penetrating/acute of mind dishevelled/entangled/intricate terrible/furious/angry/rapacious

zhaalah: zharf: zholeedah: zhiyaan:

P P P

n.m. P adj. adj.

################################################################################ seen ---n.m. lover/sweetheart/beloved n.m. magician n.m. shore/beach adj. simple/plain/candid/sincere apparatus/equipment/concord conspiracy/intrigue/collusion n.m. cup-bearer/page/beloved year adj. safe/sound/perfect/whole apparatus/custom/understanding/power truth/reality n.m./f. breath/sigh n.m. thw whole/the rest/wandering/walking/tax/duty n.m. shadow/shade/shelter/apparition n.m. cause/reason n.m. lesson/lecture/advancing adj. light/delicate/trivial/frivolous/futile star taking/seizing n.m. oppression/tyranny/injustice/violence n.m. prostration n.m. dawn/morning adj. hard/firm/cruel/harsh/vehement n.m. speech/words/business/affair eloquence head/top/pinnacle/origin/chief/desire exalted hidden/secret wholly/entirely eminent/glorious

saajan: saaHir: saaHil: saadah: saaz: P saazish: P saaqee: saal: P saalim: saamaan: P saan.ch: H saan.s: saa'ir: saayah: sabab: sabaq: subuk: sitaarah: P sitaan.: P sitam: sajdah: saHar: sakht: sukhan: sukhan war: sar: P sar afraaz: sar bastah: sar basar: sar buland:

H A A P n.m. n.f. A n.m. A n.m. n.f. H A P A A P n.m. adj. P A A P P adj. n.m. adj. adj. adv. adj.

sar taabee: n.f. sar taaj: n.m. sar-e dast: adv. sar-e raah: adv. sar zameen: n.f. sar-e shaam: sar-o saamaan: siraaj: A surkh: P sard: P adj. suroor: A sazaa: P sust: P adj. sifaarish: P n.f. safar: A safed: P saktah: P sukoot: A sukoon: A salaam: A silsilah: A n.m. saleeqah: A n.m. sang: P n.m. sanh: A n.m. siwaa: P sawaal: A saudaa: P soz: P n.m. saugand: P n.m. soona: H siyaah: P sair: A n.f. seerat: A sailaab: A/P n.m. seenah: P

rebellion chief/leader at present/immediately on the road country/limits/region n.f. about evening/evening n.m. necessities/furniture/luggage n.m. lamp/candle/sun adj. red cold/damp/dull/dead n.m. pleasure/joy/exhilaration n.f. correction/punishment/requital loose/frail/lazy/slow/dull recommendation n.m. journey adj. white n.m. trance/swoon/pause n.f. silence/peace/rest/tranquility n.m. peace/rest/tranquility n.m. salutation/peace/safety/compliment chain/series/pedigree/genealogy good disposition/good taste/mode/skill stone/weight year/era adv. except/save/but/besides n.m. question/petition/application/request/demand n.m. trade/marketing/goods burning/passion/vexation oath adj. void/empty/desolate/lonely adj. black/dark/unfortunate/bad walk/excursion/recreation/amusement n.m. quality/nature/disposition flood/deluge/torrent n.m. chest/bosom

################################################################################ sheen ----shaabaash: P intj. bravo! well done! (contr. of shaadbaash) shaakh: P n.f. branch/bough/dilemma/difficulty/objection shaad: P adj. happy/cheerful/delighted shaadaab: P adj. full of water/fresh/agreeable/verdant shaa'ir: A n.m. poet shaagird: P n.m. pupil/apprentice/servant shaam: P n.f. evening shaamil: A adj. including/comprising/connected/mingled/common shaan: A n.f. dignity/glory/grandeur shaah: P n.m. king/prince/monarch shaahtir: n.m. a beam/roof support shahzaadah: n.m. prince shaayad: P adv. perhaps/probably shab: P n.f. night shab bakhair: intj. goodnight! shabnam: n.f. dew shabaab: A n.m. youth shabeenah: P adj. nocturnal

shujaa': shakhs: sharaab: sharaarah: sharaafat: shart: sharm: shuroo': shareef: shi'r: shu'lah: shu'oor: shafaqat: shakk: shikaar: shikaayat: shukr: shakl: shikwah: shumaar: shams: shamsher: shama': shinaas: shokh: shor: shauq: shahd: shahr: shuhrat: shaheed: shaikh: shekhi: sher: shireen: shishah: shaitaan:

A A A A A A A A A P A A/P P P P P

A A P P P A

adj. A n.f. n.m. n.f. A P n.m. adj. A n.m. n.m. n.f. A n.m. n.f. A A n.m. n.m. A n.f. A adj. P n.m. A P P n.f. n.m. A A n.m. adj. n.m. n.m.

brave n.m. a person/individual/being/body wine/liquor spark/gleam/flash nobility/civility/good manners n.f. condition/agreement/wager n.f. shame/modesty beginning noble/eminent/honorable n.m. verse/couplet flame/blaze/flash/light wisdom/intellect kindeness/compassion/mercy n.m. doubt/suspense/hesitation hunting/prey complaint/accusation/illness n.m. gratitude n.f. form/appearance/model/image/diagram complaint/chiding counting/numbering/estimation/account n.m. the sun sword n.f. lamp/candle knowing/acquainted with/intelligence adj. playful/mischievous/bold/insolent noise/outcry/tumult/clamor/ardor n.m. taste/fondness/desire/interest n.m. honey n.m. city renown/fame/rumor martyr n.m. elder n.f. bragging lion/tiger/brave man sweet/pleasant/gentle glass/bottle/glass pane satan/devil/demon

################################################################################ saad ---n.m. master/lord/ruler/companion/title clean/pure/innocent/clear/legible/plain morning/dawn patience/endurance/submission/suffering n.f. companionship/society/conversation n.m. plain/desert adj. right/correct/genuine/sound/pure/just chest/bosom/chief n.m. shock/blow/calamity/collision/suffering only/mere/sheer purely/exclusively difficulty/hardship n.f. peace/treaty/integrity/advice/counsel n.m. idol/sweetheart/mistress n.f. form/figure/countenance/aspect/manner/plight

saahib: saaf: subH: sabr: suHbat: saHraa: saHeeH: sadr: sadmah: sirf: sirf: sa'oobat: salaaH: sanam: surat:

A A A

A A A A

A adj. n.f. n.m. A A A n.m. A adj. adv. n.f. A A A

################################################################################ zaad ---n.m. governor/master/possessor adj. strict/punctual/patient/disciplinarian rule/custom/canon/law/code n.m. sponsor/surety/guarantor adj. lost/destroyed/wasted/fruitless n.f. the contrary/opposition/stubborness injury/beating/impression (plu. zarbaat) n.m. injury/damage/harm/affliction/loss/ruin adj. necessary/expedient/needful adv. certainly/absolutely need/compulsion/want/exigency weakness/feebleness adj. weak/infirm/feeble/old/faint n.m. error/fault/vice surety/bond n.f. mind/heart/thought/reflection/sense light/sunlight n.f. light/splendour/brilliancy anguish/melancholy/

zaabit: zaabit: zaabitah: zaamin: zaa'i: zidd: zarb: zarar: zaroor: zaroor: zaroorat: zu'f: za'if: zalaal: zamaanat: zameer: zau: ziyaa: zeeq:

A

A

A A A A A

A A n.m. A A A n.f. A A A n.f. n.m. A A n.f. A n.f. A n.f.

################################################################################ to-e ---sweet/agreeable/pure/excellent n.f. obedience/devotion (plu. taa'aat) arch/cupola/niche n.f. strength/power/might n.m. seeker/enquirer/lover/candidate nature/temperament/disposition palpitating/throbbing manner/mode/form/design/plan manner/fashion/way n.f. side/margin/direction method/custom/path/way blame/reproach/censure/chide n.f. divorce/repudiation n.f. search/inquiry//wish/demand/request n.m. manner/condition/mode/state storm/tempest/hurricane ready

taab: taa'at: taaq: taaqat: taalib: tabi'at: tapaan.: tarh: tarz: taraf: tariqah: ta'n: talaaq: talab: taur: toofaan: taiyyaar:

A A A P A A A A

A A

adj. A n.m. A A n.f. adj. n.m. n.m. A n.m. n.m. A A A n.m. adj.

################################################################################ zo-e ---n.m. tyrant/oppressor adj. manifest/clear/evident adv. outwardly/manifestly adj. witty/subtle/fine n.m. victory/triumph/gain n.m oppression/tyranny suspicion n.m. ally/associate

zaalim: zaahir: zaahiraa: zarif: zafar: zulm: zann: zaheer:

A

A A A A A A n.m. A

################################################################################ ain --adj. powerless/weak/helpless/dejected n.f. custom/habit/usage/practice/manner adj. just/sincere/righteous adj. determined/resolute lover/suitor end/conclusion/future life finally/at last adj. wise/sensible n.m. world/universe/regions/public/beauty/period adj. learned/wise/intelligent adj. high/sublime/exalted/grand common/public/general/ordinary (plu. 'awaamm) prayers/devotion composition/style/diction adj. useless/profitless/trifling/idle slave/servant of God n.f. warning/admonition n.m. rebuke/reproach/anger/displeasure n.m. wonder/astonishment adj. wonderful/amazing/strange/rare adj. wonderful/surprising/rare/admirable/unique court of justice/tribunal/justice/law n.m. non-existence/nothing/annihilation n.m. torment/pain/punishment n.m. roof/canopy/highest heaven petition/request/exposition/review knowledge/science/wisdom n.m. ascension/rising/exaltation naked/bare/devoid n.f. honor/esteem/glory/reputation adj. dear/beloved/honored/respected/worthy pleasure/enjoyment/mirth/society n.m. love/excessive passion perfume kindness/favor/affection/present adj. great/high in dignity/large n.f. purity/chastity intellect/reason/knowledge punishment/torment/torture n.m. cure/treatment/antidote jurisdiction/area/tenure n.f. fault/defect/bad habit/illness/pretext/basis knowledge/science/doctrine adj. wise/learned building/edifice age/life-time/span of life practically/truly n.m. enmity/obstinacy n.m. populace/common people (plu. of 'aam) n.f. woman/wife/nudity luxurious/rakish/addicted to pleasure n.m. pleasure/delight/luxury

'aajiz: 'aadat: 'aadil: 'aazim: 'aashiq: 'aaqibat: 'aaqibat: 'aaqil: 'aalam: 'aalim: 'aali: 'aam: 'ibaadat: 'ibaarat: 'abas: 'abd: 'ibrat: 'itaab: 'ajab: 'ajab: 'ajeeb: 'adaalat: 'adam: 'azaab: 'arsh: 'arz: 'irfaan: 'urooj: 'uryaan: 'izzat: 'azeez: 'ishrat: 'ishq: 'atr: 'atf: 'azeem: 'iffat: 'aql: 'uqoobat: 'ilaaj: 'ilaaqah: 'illat: 'ilm: 'aleem: 'imaarat: 'umr: 'amalan: 'inaad: 'awaam: 'aurat: 'aiyaash: 'aish:

A A A

A A A A

A

A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A

A A A A n.m. n.f. adv. A A A A adj. n.f. n.f. A n.m. A A A A A n.f. A A A n.f. n.m. A n.m. A A n.f. A n.m. n.m. A A n.m. n.f. A n.m. A n.m. A n.f. n.f. adv. A A A adj. A

################################################################################ ghain ----victorious/predominant often/likely/most probably hidden/absent vapor/fog/mist/dust/vexation disloyal/treacherous n.f. intention/meaning/design/view/want pride/vanity adj. poor/destitute/strange/innocent/wonderful n.f. ode/poem n.m. stupor/fainting anger/passion/rage/anxiety/grief negligence/drowsiness/stupor slave/boy/youth adj. wrong/incorrect/inaccurate dirty/filthy/gross/coarse/obscene grief/sorrow/concern/care adj. consoling adj. afflicted/grieved n.m. comforter informer/tattletale/back-biting n.m. deep thought/meditation/close attention n.m. stranger/foreigner adv. besides adj. other/different/alien/bad prep. without/except/but/save honor/modesty/bashfulness/envy/enmity

ghaalib: A adj. ghaalib: A adv. ghaa'ib: A adj. ghubaar: A n.m. ghaddaar: A adj. gharaz: A ghuroor: A n.m. gharib: A ghazal: A ghash: A ghussah: A n.m. ghaflat: A n.f. ghulaam: A n.m. ghalat: A ghaleez: A adj. gham: A n.m. gham khwaar: gham deedah: gham gusaar: ghammaaz: A n.m. ghaur: A ghair: A ghair: A ghair: A ghair: A ghairat: A n.f.

################################################################################ fe -a boaster adj. apparent/known/notorious distance/space/separation adj. superfluous/accomplished person/virtuous n.m. starvation/fasting/poverty benefit/profit/utility adj. superior/great n.m. sedition/revolt/mischief/temptation n.m. judicial decree n.m. glory/honor/pride/egotism sacrifice/devotion/ransom/exchange lover n.m. separation/anxiety/absence/distance garden/paradise angel/apostle/prophet/messenger n.f. opportunity/leisure/rest/recovery duty/moral obligation/statute difference/distance/separation/defect n.f. separation/disunion/absence (of lovers) mandate/order/royal decree order for goods/requisition/pleasure/will down/below/under complaint/cry

faakhir: faash: faasilah: faazil: faaqah: faa'idah: faa'iq: fitnah: fatwaa: fakhr: fida: fidaa'ee: firaaq: firdaus: farishtah: fursat: farz: farq: furqat: farmaan: farmaa'ish: faro: faryaad:

A A A

A A&P A P A A P P P P

n.m. P n.m. A A n.m. A A A A n.m. n.m. A n.m. n.m. A n.m. n.m. A n.m. n.f. adj. n.f.

fareb: faza': fasanah: fazl: fitrat: fughaan.: faqr: fikr: figaar: falak: fuwaad: fauj: fauran: fahm: faisalah: faiz:

P A P A A

A A A A

P n.m. deceit/trick/fraud A n.f. lamentation/wailing n.m. romance/tale/fable n.m. excellence/virtue/reward/wisdom A n.f. nature/creation/deceit/intrigue/wisdom n.m. clamor/lamentation/cry of distress n.m. poverty n.m./f. opinion/notion/care/concern/anxiety/counsel P adj. wounded/sore/afflicted/confused A n.m. sky/heaven/fortune/fate A n.m. the heart n.f. army/crowd/multitude A adv. immediately/quickly/directly n.m. understanding/intellect n.m. settlement/decree/decision n.m. liberality/grace/bounty

################################################################################ qaaf ---adj. worthy/able/competent/deserving/clever n.m. power/command/authority/possession/hold n.m. murderer/assassin/homicide n.m. judge custom/rule/manners/habit/established order rhyme/metre/cadence rule/law/system/state adj. confessing/agreeing/conceding/subdued adj. erect/stagnant/firm/durable grave/tomb n.m. gridp/clutch/possessing/power/hilt of a sword n.m. consent/acceptance/assent/recognition killing/murder/assassination stature/size/height dignity/honor/worth/value n.f. power/strength/universe/nature n.m. step/pace/footstep n.m. residence/stability/rest/patience/satisfaction sacrifice/victim/offering debt/loan adj. near/adjacent/akin/approaching n.m. an oath sort/kind/species/portion/nature n.f. fortune/fate/share/portion/head/category n.m. fault/defect/blame/sin/failure n.m. tale/fable/romance/quarrel/dispute n.f. fate/destiny/jurisdiction/judgement n.m. cage/network/body heart/mind/soul/intellect/marrow/pith n.m. reed/pen/handwriting n.m. the moon word/saying/promise/consent/vow nation/people resurrection/Judgement Day/tumult imprisonment/confinement/obstacle/control n.m. price/value/woth/cost

qaabil: qaaboo: qaatil: qaazee: qaa'idah: qaafiyah: qaanoon: qaa'il: qaa'im: qabr: qabzah: qubool: qatl: qadd: qadr: qudrat: qadam: qaraar: qurbaan: qarz: qareeb: qasam: qism: qismat: qusoor: qissah: qazaa: qafas: qalb: qalam: qamar: qaul: qaum: qiyaamat: qaid: qeemat:

A A A A A A A

A A A

A A A A A

A P A A n.m. n.m. n.m. A A n.f. A A n.m. n.m. n.f. A A A n.m. n.m. A A n.f. A A A A A n.m. A A n.m. n.m. n.f. n.f. A

################################################################################ kaaf ---n.m. scribe/writer adj. false affair/work/labor/duty/profession caravan/large company of pilgrims n.m. cup/goblet/bowl intj. would that ! discoverer/revealer paper/letter/document n.m. infidel/sweetheart/mistress adj. impious/ungrateful n.m. camphor adj. sufficient/enough palate/desire/object/purport/design/intention adj. successful/fortunate/happy/blessed prosperous/successfulhappy/satisfied anxiety/pining/decline/decay adj. lazy/slow/indolent/relaxed/tardy/ailing pigeon/dove adj. great/large/immense n.m. book/writing/despatch n.f abundance/excess/bulk n.m. a place (usually a suff.) n.m. kindness/favor/bounty/clemency adj. bountiful/generous/merciful/epithet of God man/person n.m. profession/trade breach/loss/affliction n.m. laxity/cowardice/depression/sickness n.f. dress/appearance/habit/figure/form/manner struggle/dilemma/contention/grief and pain n.f. ship/boat/vessel/tray drawing/attraction/allurement paganism/infidelity/profanity n.m. shroud all/complete/entire/aggregate/universe n.m. discourse/oration/a work/composition/objection deficient/few/little/rare/scanty unfortunate/wretched adj. weak/feeble/powerless n.m. excellence/perfection/miracle/art n.f. bow/arch/spring n.f. waist/girdle/zone/army flank/arch n.f. deficiency/loss/abatement/reduction/dearth mean/vulgar/base/defective shore/river bank/edge/margin/limit adj. carved/engraved attempt/endeavor/labor/exertion beating/pain/vexation/grief/gilding mouthful/morsel mountain/hill intoxication narrative/circumstances/explanation/situation n.m. malice/rancor/enmity

kaatib: kaazib: kaar: P kaarwaan: P kaasah: kaash: kaashif: A kaaghaz: P kaafir: kaafir: kaafur: kaafi: kaam: P kaamraan: kaam yaab: kaahish: P kaahil: kabootar: P kabeer: kitaab: kasrat: kadah: karam: kareem: kas: P kasab: kasr: A kasal: kiswat: kashaakash: P kashti: kashish: P kufr: A kafan: kul: A kalaam: kam: P kam bakht: kamzor: kamaal: kamaan: kamar: kamee: kameenah: P kinaarah: P kandah: koshish: P koft: P kaul: H koh: P kaif: A kaifiyyat: A keenah:

A A n.m. n.m. P P adj. n.m. A A A P&A n.m. adj. n.f. A n.m. A A A P A A n.m. A n.f. A A n.f. P n.f. n.m. A adj. A adj. adj. A P P P adj. n.m. P n.f. n.f. n.m. n.m. n.m. n.f. P

################################################################################ gaaf ---precious/costly/dear/important/heavy trifle/dust round/circumference/environs whirlpool/abyss/vortex revolution/circulation/misfortune/vagrancy n.f. the neck captured/seized/smitten/prisoner/captivated hot/burning/ardent/choleric/lively n.m. pledge/pawn n.f. knot/joint/knuckle weeping/crying n.m. weeping/lamentation/crying/plaint a yard measure petition/request/explanation living/subsistence/passage/abode n.f. a pass/a living/a road stung/bitten selected/chosen adj. taking away/dissipating/removing rudeness/arrogance/audacity conversation/discourse rose/flower/ornament/brand delicate/graceful a bouquet flower-bed/garden n.m. rose-garden a flower or rose garden n.m. the rose n.m. complaint/blame/reproach/lamentation lost/missing/distracted astray/lost/wicked/depraved still/silent adj. lost/wandering nameless/anonymous/unknown/inglorious n.m. doubt/surmise/fancy/pride/opinion/distrust n.m. fault/sin/crime/guilt palatable/agreeable/pleasant/nice n.m. a witness testimony/evidence the ear n.m. corner/angle/cell/privacy adj. speaking/eloquent taking/holding/seizing/conquering n.m. tresses/locks the world/the universe

giraan.: P adj. gard: P n.f. gird: P n.m. girdaab: P n.m. gardish: P n.f. gardan: P giriftaar: P adj. garm: P adj. girau: P girah: P giriyaan.: P adj. giryah: P gaz: P n.m. guzaarish: P n.f. guzaarah: P n.m. guzar: P gazeedah: P adj. guzeedah: P adj. gusaar: P gustaakhee: P n.f. guftgoo: P n.f. gul: P n.m. gul badan: adj. gul dastah: n.m. gul zaar: n.m. gul sitaan.: gulshan: n.m. gulaab: P gilah: P gum: P n.m. gum raah: adj. gum sum: adj. gum gashtah: gum naam: adj. gumaan: P gunaah: P gawaaraa: P adj. gawaah: P gawaahee: P n.m. gosh: P n.m. goshah: P goyaa: P geer: P adj. gesoo: P gaihaan.: P n.m.

################################################################################ laam ---A suff. no/not/by no means/without laa jawaab: adj. rendered speechless/silenced laa chaar: adj. helpless/destitute/forlorn/disabled laa waaris: adj. heirless

laa:

laazim: laash: laa'iq: lab: laHzah: lazzat: larzaan.: lataafat: lutf: latmah: lateefah: lughat: lifaafah: lafz: luknat: lagaam: lamHah: lang: lan.gar: lau: lauH: liyaaqat:

P P P A A A A

P P H A A

A T A n.m. A A adj. n.f. n.m. A n.m. A n.m. n.m. A H A n.m. n.m. n.f. n.f. n.f.

adj. necessary/compulsory/important n.f/m. corpse adj. worthy/suitable/able/qualified/decent the lip/edge/margin/shore/bank n.m. the twinkling of an eye/moment/glance n.f. taste/flavor/enjoyment/pleasure termbling/tremulous/fearing pleasantness/elegance/subtility kindness/favor/grace/pleasure n.m. slap/blow pleasantry/witticism/joke n.m. tongue/speech/dialect/word/dictionary cover/envelope/wrapper/secret word/saying n.f. stammering/speech impediment n.f. bridle/rein n.m. minute/moment lameness/limp anchor/cable/rope/public kitchen/alms candle flame/ardent desire/attachment plank/board/table/tablet/title page worth/ability/merit/skill

################################################################################ meem ---which/what/that which/whilst/during... following surroundings/environs what is past or dead what is beyond or behind n.m. mourning/grief riches/property/merchandise/revenue n.m. master/lord/owner/God n.m. impediment/hinderance/objection/stopper the moon/month adj. handsome/beloved moonlight adj. a beautiful person having a face as beautiful as the moon adj. skilled/expert/master/excel without hope/disappointed auspicious/blessed/felicitation contending for glory/boasting/arrogance commencement/principle sorrowful/repentant/grieving smiling/laughing affable/tolerant/patient/passive hesitant/perplexed/wavering/grieved abandoned/obsolete/rejected prejudiced/partial/superstitious intoxicated/inebriated expecting/hopeful adj. strong/solid/vigorous/obstinate adj. simile/likeness/metaphor/example n.f. proverb/example n.f. power/strength/stability/opportunity

maa:

A adv. maa ba'd: adj. maa Haul: n.m. maa faat: adj. maa waraa: adj. maatam: A maal: A n.m. maalik: A maani': A maah: P n.m. maah paaraa: maah taab: n.m. maah jabeen: maah wash: adj. maahir: A maayoos: A adj. mubaarak: A adj. mubaahaat A n.m. mubtada: A n.m. mutaassif: A adj. mutabassim: A adj. mutaHammil: A adj. mutaraddid: A adj. matrook: A adj. muta'assib: A adj. matwalaa: A adj. mutawaqqi': A adj. matin: A misaal: A masal: A majaal: A

majboor: mujrim: mujrim: majrooh: majma': majnoon.: muHaafiz: maHabbat: maHboob: maHboob: maHboobah: maHboos: muHtaj: maHjoob: maHdood: maHroom: moHzoon: muHsin: maHsood: maHsoos: maHzooz: maHfil: maHfooz: muHallah: miHnat: makhboot: mukhtasar: makhmal: makhmoor: madaar: mudaam: muddat: madad: madhosh: mazaaq: mazhab: muraad: martabah: marhalah: marhoom: mard: murdah: murshid: marghoob: marqoom: marmar: marham: mareez: mizaaj: mazaar: mazah: musaafir: mast: masroor: mash'al: mushkil: mashhoor: museebat:

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A

A A A P A A A

A P A A A A A

adj. compelled/helpless/oppressed A adj. criminal/culpable/faulty A n.m. felon/criminal/sinner adj. wounded/hurt/smitten A n.m. congregation/assemblage/crowd/collection adj. insane/madly in love n.m. protector/guardian/guard n.f. love/friendship n.m. lover/friend/sweetheart adj. loved/lovely n.f. mistress/sweetheart adj. confined/imprisoned A adj. needy/poor/defective n.m. modesty/shame/bashfulness adj. limited/bounded/finite adj. deprived/unlucky/prohibited/disappointed adj. grieved/vexed A n.m. patron/benefactor adj. envied/hated adj. felt/perceived/sensible adj. pleased/delighted/rich/contented A n.f. congregation/assembly adj. kept safe/guarded/secure/memorized n.m. quarter(of a city)/street/ward A n.f. labor/toil/difficulty/trial adj. mad/insane adj. concise/abbreviated n.m. velvet adj. intoxicated/drunk A n.m. circumference/orbit/station/dependence A adv. eternally/always/continually A n.f. period(of time) A n.f. help/assistance/reinforcement/wages adj. intoxicated/astonished A n.m. joke/taste/relish/perception A n.m. religion/sect/doctrine A n.f. desire/will/intention/vow/tenor/meaning n.f./m. degree/office/class/order n.m. stage/inn/day's journey/difficulty adj. dead/deceased n.m. man/male/hero/husband P adj. dead/weak/decrepit n.m. teacher/spiritual guide adj. desired/beautiful adj. written/inscribed G n.m. marble A n.m. ointment/salve/cure A n.m. patient A n.m. mixture/temperament/humor/pride A n.m. shrine/tomb/grave P n.m. taste/relish/enjoyment/pleasure n.m. traveller/stranger adj. drunk/intoxicated adj. glad/cheerful/pleased n.f. torch/lantern adj. difficult/intricate/hard/painful adj. noted/famous/reported/proclaimed n.f. misfortune/calamity/adversity/evil

mazboot: mutaqbiq: matlab: mazloom: mu'aahid: mu'ijzah: ma'shooq: ma'loom: ma'mool: ma'nee: maghz: maghroor: maghloob: muft: maftoon: muflis: maflook: mufeed: muqaabil: maqaal: maqaam: maqbarah: maqbool: muqaddar: muqaddam: muqir: muqarrar: maqsad: maqsood: makkaar: makaan: mukaddar: mukarrar: maknoon: magar: mulaazim: mulaaqaat: malaal: malaamat: mulaa'im: mulk: malool: mumtaaz: mumkin: munaasib: munHasir: manzil: manish: manzar: manzoor: mana': maut: mauj: moojib: maujood: mausam: mauqa': mom:

A A A A A A A A A A P A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A P

adj. adj. A adj. n.m. n.m. n.m. adj. adj. A P adj. adj. adj. adj. A adj. A adj. A A n.m. adj. n.m. adj. A adj. A adj. adj. A adj. adv. adj. P n.m. n.f. A n.f. adj. n.m. A adj. A n.f. adj. A P A adj. A n.f. n.f. A adj. A A n.m.

strong/firm/resolute/valid conformable/suitable/like/in accordance with n.m. object/aim/meaning/motive/wish/desire injure/oppressed/wronged ally/confederate miracle beloved/sweetheart known/evident/clear governed/prepared/customary n.m. meaning/intent/signifcance/reality/essence n.m. brain/pith/intellect proud/arrogant conquered/subdued free/gratis tempted/enamored/charmed/mad (with love) adj. poor/indigent/bankrupt indigent/beggarly/destitute adj. profitable/beneficial/useful opposite/converse/against/matching n.m. word/speech/saying/proverb n.m. dwelling/station/position/basis tomb/grave accepted/chosen/grateful fate/destiny/predestination antecedent/prior/superior/chief adj. confessing/admitting/acknowledging established/fixed/certain/customary/permanent n.m. intention/purpose/aim/goal/desire intended/proposed cunning/artful/deceitful n.m. house/place/habitation turbid/muddy/sullen/gloomy/vexed repeatedly/again hidden/concealed conj. unless/perhaps/except/but/however servant/aide meeting/encounter/interview/visit n.m. sadness/grief/langor/fatigue censure/rebuke soft/tender/gentle/placid nation/realm/territory adj. sad/depressed/tired/bored exalted/eminent/chosen adj. possible/feasible proper/suitable/fit/apt/congruous surrounded/besieged/dependent/resting n.f. day's journey/destination/storey/house n.f. heart/mind/soul/magnanimity/pride n.m. countenance/visage/sight/aspect/scene admired/chosen/approved/accepted/granted n.m. prohibition/refusal/hindrance/forbidding death/mortality wave/surge/enjoyment/ecstasy/caprice/plenty n.m. cause/reason present/existing/at hand/ready n.m. season/time n.m. occasion/opportunity/place/situation wax

mua'yyid: A adj. muhaajir: A n.m. mahtaab: P n.m. mihrbaani: P n.f. muhlat: A mihmaan: P n.m. mai: P n.f. mai khaanah: mai kadah: n.m. maidaan: A n.m. muyassar: A adj.

corroborative/confirmatory refugee/emigrant moonlight favor/kindness n.f. retarding/delay/respite/leisure guest wine/liquor n.m. bar/tavern bar/tavern open field/battlefield/ground facilitated/easy/possible/feasible

################################################################################ noon ---P&H pref. no/not/termination of the infinitive naa aashnaa: adj. not acquainted/stranger naa ittifaaqi: n.f. discord/disagreement naa ummeedee: n.f. hopelessness/despair naa insaafi: n.f. injustice naa bood: adj. nonexistent/annihilated/extinct naa paa'idari: n.f. inconstancy/frailty naa pasand: adj. disliked/unacceptable/offensive naa tars: adj. hard-hearted/severe/pitiless naa tamaam: adj. incomplete naa tawaani: n.f. weakness/inability naa jaa'iz: adj. unlawful naa chaar: adj. helpless/destitute/forlorn naa cheez: adj. trifling/insignificant/worthless naa khushi: n.f. disagreeableness/displeasure naa daari: n.f. poverty naa daanistah: adv. unwittingly/unknowingly naa daani: n.f. ignorance naa deedah: adj. greedy naa raasti: n.f. dishonesty naa raazi: n.f. discontent naa saaz: adj. indisposed/dissonant/uncivil naa samajh: adj. ignorant/dull/foolish naa shaad: adj. cheerless/joyless/dull naa shukr: adj. ungrateful naa shinaas: adj. ignorant naa saaf: adj. unclean/impure/unchaste naa saboor: adj. impatient/restless naa taaqat: adj. weak/feeble naa farmaan: adj. disobedient naa fahm: adj. stupid naa qaabil: adj. unfit/unworthy/incapable naa qadr: adj. unappreciative naa kaam: adj. unsuccessful naa kas: adj. worthless/base naa gawaar: adj. unpleasant/unpalatable naa laa'iq: adj. unworthy/unsuitable/improper naa muraad: adj. disappointed naa mard: adj. unmanly naa ma'loom: adj. unknown naa mumkin: adj. impossible naa manzoor: adj. disallowed

naa:

naa yaab: naataa: naach: naakhun: P naadir: naadim: naar: A naaz: P naazish: P naazuk: naasoot: A naafiz: naak: P naalaan: P naalish: P naam: P naamah: naa'o: naa-onosh: P naa'ib: nabz: A nabi: A nataa'ij: A nateejaa: A nisaar: najm: A najeeb: nakhraah: A nadeem: nar: S&P niraalee H nargis: narm: P nazaakat: P nazdeek: P nisbat: naseem: nishaan: P nishaanee: P nashaah: P nasheen: P nusrat: naseeb: naseeHat: A nazaarah: A nazaafat: A nizaam: nazar: nazm: A nazm: A na'sh: ni'am: na'eem: naghmaah: A nafrat: nafs: A naqsh: naqshah: A

adj. H H n.m. A A n.f. n.m. n.f. P n.m. A suff. adj. n.f. n.m. P H n.m. A n.f. n.m. n.m. n.m. A n.m. A n.m. A n.m. adj. P adj. n.f. adj. A A n.m. n.f. n.m. adj. A A n.f. n.m. n.f. A A n.f. n.m. A A A n.m. A n.m. A n.m.

scarce/rare n.m. relationship/alliance/kin/affinity n.m. dance nail/claw adj. rare/singular/precious adj. penitent/ashamed/bashful fire/hell coquetry/airs/pride/elegance/softness/delicacy pride/arrogance adj. thin/slender/fragile/delicate humanity/human nature adj. having effect/piercing affected with/full of lamenting/moaning complaint/accusation name/title/honor/fame/ n.m. treatise/book/history n.f. boat/ship/vessel carousing/feasting n.m assistant/deputy the pulse a prophet results/consequences (plu. of nateejah) result n.m. throwing/dispersion/scattering/sacrifice star/planet/fortune/horoscope adj. praiseworthy/noble/generous airr/coquetry/trick/pretence/swagger n.m. intimate friend man/male unequalled/rare/strange n.f. Narcissus/the eye of a mistress smooth/tender/soft/slow neatness/elegance/politeness near n.f relation/affinity/attribute/comparison n.f. Zephyr/gentle breeze mark/sign/signal/emblem/target/scar/trace mark/sign/souvenir/keepsake intoxication/pride/arrogance sitting n.f. victory n.m. fortune/fate/destiny advice/counsel/admonition sight/view/vista purity/neatness n.m. order/arrangement/custom/system n.f. look/glance/favor/motive/view/countenance poetry/verse order/arangement n.f. coffin/corpse/bier n.f. favors/benefits n.f. pleasure/ease/tranquility melody/song/musical note n.f. aversion/disgust/fright/terror soul/spirit/essence n.m. painting/picture/map/mark portrait/model/design/example

nuqsaan: A n.m. naql: A n.f. naqli: A nikaah: A nakbat: A nuktah: A nuktah been: nuktah cheen: nuktah daan: nigaar: P nigaah: P nigaah baan: nam: P n.m. nam: P adj. namaaz: A numaa'ish: P n.f. namoonah: P n.m. nau: P adj. nau bahaar: n.f. nau jawaani: nau nihaal: n.m. nawaazish: P n.f. naubat: A noor: A n.m nihaal: P nihaan.: P n.m niyaaz: P niyyat: A nek: P adj. neelaam: (Port.) nim: P adj. niyoosh: P adj.

loss narration/tale/mimicing/copying/aping adj. artificial/spurious/counterfiet n.m. matrimony n.f. calamity/misfortune n.m. subtlety conceit/point of wit/epigram adj. hypercritical adj. captious adj. sagacious n.m. painting/picture/sweetheart/beloved n.f. look/glance/sight/custody/care n.m. protector/guard moisture/wetness/dampness moist/wet/damp n.f. prayer show/display/sight/spectacle example/sample/specimen new/fresh/raw early spring n.f. youth/prime of life sapling/young man kindness/favor/patronage n.f. turn/time light n.m sapling latent/hidden/secret/ n.f. desire/plea/poverty/need n.f. intention/purpose/will/aim good/lucky/virtuous/pious n.m. auction middle/half listening/hearing

################################################################################ vaa-o ----o: waa: waa: waa: P P P P bastah: pas: rastah: sokht: A H P S A A conj. adj. adv. prep. adj. adj. adj. n.m. A A n.m. A A n.m. suff. n.m. A A adj. n.m. A and open again/back with bound together/attached behind/back/returning again free/delivered/escaped/carefree aversion/disgust adj. strong/firm/confident/secure adj. necessary/obligatory duties (plu. of waajib) adj. possessor/creator adj. unique/one/single/unit blow/attack/stroke like/resembling/possessing day of the week/moment n.m. heir adj. coming/arriving/happening events/occurences (plu. of waarid) account/sake/reason/means/motive prep. for/for the sake of

waa waa waa waa waasiq: waajib: waajibaat: waajid: waahid: waar: waar: waar: waaris: waarid: waaridaat: waastah: waaste:

waazih: waaqi': waaqi'i: waaqi'i: waalid: waalidah: waalah: waan: waahimah: wajaahat: wajd: wijdaan: wujood: waj-h: wajeeh: waHshat: waHeed: widaad: widaa': wadood: war: warnah: wazn: waseem: wash: wasf: wusool: wasiyyat: wazaahat: waza': watan: wa'dah: waghairah: wafaa: wafaa wafaa wafaat: waqt: waqf: wakaalat: wakeel: wilaayat: walee: wahm: wairaagi: weeraan: weeraanah: weeraani:

A A A adv. A adj. A A n.f. A H suff. A n.m. A n.f. A n.m. A n.m. A A A A n.f. A A A A P suff. P A n.m. A P suff. A n.m. A A n.f. A n.f. A A A A adv. A begaanah: daar: adj. A A n.m. A n.m. A n.f. A A n.f. A A n.m. S n.m. P adj. P n.m. P n.f.

adj. clear/evident/apparent adj. occuring/happening really/actually/truly true/real/proper n.m. father mother adj. distracted/mad with love possessing/endowed with imagination/fancy/whim dignity/respect/beauty ecstasy/rapture/excessive love ecstasy/rapture/intuition n.m. existence/essence/being n.m. cause/reason/mode/manner/face/appearance n.m. handsome/respectable/good appearance solitude/grief/fear/sadness/loneliness adj. singular/unique/alone n.f. friendship/love/affection n.m. farewell adj. loving/friendly possessing/having adv. and if not/otherwise weight/measure/metre/rhyme/esteem/honor adj. handsome/fine countenance like/resembling praise/merit/virtue n.m. collection/acquisition testament/last will/legacy/bequest vivid description n.f. state/position/situation n.m. native country n.m. promise/agreement et cetera/and so forth n.f. fulfilling a promise/fulfilment/fidelity adj. faithless faithful/sincere n.f. death time/term/season/hour/opportunity religious bequest advocacy/attorneyship n.m. lawyer/attorney a foreign country/abroad/realm/union with God n.m. lord/prince/master/friend/guardian imagination/idea/fancy/opinion/fear/suspicion ascetic/recluse desolate/ruined a ruined place desolation/destruction/ruin

################################################################################ chhoTi he --------n.m. angel/voice from heaven n.m. hand/arm/clutches/power/slap/reach n.m. guide/leader/director necklace/garland loss/defeat/fatigue

haatif: haath: haadi: haar: haar:

S&P H

P H A n.m. n.f.

haalah: haamoon: haawiyah: haa'ilah huboot: hibah: hatauRa: hatauRee: hathyaar: hathelee: hijr: hijrat:

n.m. halo/nimbus/circle round the moon desert/plain/level ground the lowest region of hell terrible/horrible n.m. decline/downfall/descent n.m. gift/bequest/grant H sledgehammer H small hammer H tool/weapon H palm of the hand A separation/absence from one's country n.f. separation/flight (flight of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina) hujoom: A n.m. crowd/mob/tumult/assault/attack hidaayat: A n.f. instruction/guidance/righteousness hadaf: A n.m. target/goal/object hazaa: A pron. this har: P adj. all/every/each har ek: adj. every one har baar: adv. every time har jaa'ee: adj. vagabond/faithless har dam: adv. every moment hiraas: P n.m. fear/terror/confusion/sorrow/disappointment harj: A n.m. tumult/sedition/trouble/loss/harm/injury harzah: P adj. nonsense/absurd/frivolous/vain hargiz: P adv. ever/never haryaalee: H n.f. greeness/freshness/grass hazl: A n.m. joke/jest/pleasantries hasti: P n.f. life/existence hushyaar: P adj. intelligent/alert/awake haftah: P n.m. a week hakaazah: A adv. similarly halaak: A adj. ruined/destroyed halaak: A n.f. ruin/destruction/slaughter/death hilaal: A n.m. new moon/the crescent ham: P conj. also/likewise/together/with/similar & adv. ham bazm: adj. of the same society ham batn: adj. related by blood ham batn: n.m. blood-relation/close ally ham taa: adj. equal/alike ham jalees: adj. close friend & n.m. ham jolee: n.f. playmate/equal/peer/friend & n.m. ham dard: n.f. sympathizer/partner in adversity ham raaz: adj. confidant ham raah: n.m. fellow-traveller ham zabaan.: adj. unanimous/of the same language ham saaz: adj. friendly/unanimous ham saayah: n.m. neighbor ham safar: n.m. fellow-traveller ham mazhab: adj. coreligionist ham nasheen: n.m. playmate/associate humaa: P n.m. eagle/phoenix/bird of Paradise humaayun: P adj. august/royal/fortunate himmat: A n.f. spirit/mind/courage/desire/design hameshaah: P adv. always P A A

A n.m. n.m. adj. A A n.m. n.f. n.f. n.f. n.m. A

han.gaam: han.gaamah: hawaa: hawas: hosh: haul: hunar: heeraa: hai'at:

P P P A

n.m. n.m. A A n.m. n.m. P H A

season/time/period tumult/riot/uproar/confusion/disorder n.f. wind/breeze/air/atmosphere n.f. ambition/desire/lust sense/mind/understanding terror/horror/fright n.m. skill/art n.m. diamond n.f. astronomy/face/figure;commission/delegation

################################################################################ chhoTi ye/baRi ye ----------------yaa: A intj. O! yaa: P conj. either/or yaad: P n.f. remembrance/memory/recollection yaad daasht: n.f. a note/memorandum/memory yaad gaar: memorial/souvenir/keepsake yaar: P n.m. friend/lover/companion yaaraa: P n.m. strength/courage/power yaaraanah: P n.m. friendship yaaraanah: P adv. friendly yaari: P n.f. friendship/assistance/love/intrigue yaas: A n.f. despair/fear/terror yaaghi: T n.m. rebel/enemy yaaqoot: P n.m. ruby/garnet yaawar: P adj. aiding/friendly yaawar: P n.m. assistant/companion/friend yaawari: P n.f. favor/assistance/friendship yaawah: P adj. absurd/vain/futile/lost/ruined yataamaa: A n.m. orphans (plu. of yateem) yateem: A n.m. orphan yad: A n.m. hand/power/authority/protection/succor yazdaan: P n.m. God yasaar: A n.m. left/left hand; affluence/opulence ya'ni: A adv. namely/that is to say yaqin: A n.m. certainity/assurance/truth/confidence/trust yaqinan: adv. certainly/verily/assuredly/indeed yak: P adj. one/a/an yak jaan: adj. one soul yak dil: adj. unanimous yak rukhee: adj. one-sided yak zabaan: adj. uniform opinion or speech yak sar: adj. all at once yak soo: adj. on one side/aside yak lakht: adv. all at once/suddenly yaktaa: P adj. single/unique/matchless/incomparable yagaanah: P n.m. kinsman/kindred yagaanah: P adj. unique/single/sole/agreed/unequalled yumn: A n.m. felicity/prosperity/good luck yamin: A n.m. right hand; oath yoorish: T n.f. assault/storm/invasion yaum: A n.m. a day (TAMAAM)

-Cheers -V.C.Tirumalai tirumala@cae.wisc.edu

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