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Determine the number of branches and nodes in the circuit in Fig. 2.71.

1

Figure 2.71

Chapter 2, Solution 7 7 elements or 7 branches and 4 nodes, as indicated. 1 20 Ω 2 30 V ++++ 40 Ω 3

2A

30 Ω

60 Ω

10 Ω

4

**Chapter 2, Problem 8. Use KCL to obtain currents i1, i2, and i3 in the circuit shown in Fig. 2.72.
**

Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, Second Edition - Alexander/Sadiku

2

Figure 2.72

Chapter 2, Solution 8

At node a, At node c, At node d,

8 = 12 + i1 9 = 8 + i2 9 = 12 + i3

i1 = - 4A i2 = 1A i3 = -3A

Chapter 2, Problem 9. Find i1, i2, and i3 in the circuit in Fig. 2.73.

Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Second Edition . Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. i1 + 1 = 10 + 2 1 + i2 = 2 + 3 i2 = i3 + 3 i1 = 11A i2 = 4A i3 = 1A Chapter 2.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.Alexander/Sadiku 3 Figure 2. . Determine v1 through v4 in the circuit in Fig.73 Chapter 2. Problem 11. 2. Solution 9 Applying KCL.75.

v3 = 0 -v4 + 8 . Second Edition .Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Problem 13.6 .75 Chapter 2. Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.10 = 0 v1 = 4v v2 = -6v v3 = 4v v4 = -2v Chapter 2. Solution 11 Applying KVL to each loop gives -8 + v1 + 12 = 0 -12 .Alexander/Sadiku 4 Figure 2. For the circuit in Fig.v2 + 6 = 0 10 . 2. use KCL to find the branch currents I1 to I4.77. .

7 + I4 = I3 Hence. . Second Edition . 2 = I4 + 4 At node 3.77 Chapter 2. I1 + I 2 = 2 At node 4.Alexander/Sadiku 2A 5 I2 7A I4 I1 3A I3 4A Figure 2. I 4 = −2 A Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. I 1 = 12 A. I 3 = 5 A.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. I 2 = −10 A. Solution 13 2A 1 I1 I2 2 7A 3 3A I4 4 I3 4A At node 2. 3 + 7 + I2 = 0 → → → → I 2 = −10 A I 1 = 2 − I 2 = 12 A I 4 = 2 − 4 = −2 A I3 = 7 − 2 = 5 A At node 1.

v3 = −18V Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.8V + 2 + v2 - v3 (a) 10V + For loop 1. 2. Second Edition . 12 V – + 8V + – – + 10 V + v2 – – + v3 + v1 – Figure 2.79. −v3 − 8 − 10 = 0 → → v3 = −18V v1 = −6V For loop 3. v2.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. −v1 + 12 + v3 = 0 Thus. . and v3 in the circuit in Fig.79 Chapter 2.Alexander/Sadiku 6 Chapter 2. Problem 15. Find v1. 8 − 12 + v2 = 0 → v2 = 4V For loop 2. v2 = 4V . Solution 15 + v1 3 12V + + 1 . v1 = −6V .

81.Alexander/Sadiku 7 Chapter 2. . Figure 2. Solution 17 12V It is evident that v3 = 10V Applying KVL to loop 2. 2. Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.81 Chapter 2. Second Edition . Problem 17. Obtain v1 through v3 in the circuit in Fig.

Determine io in the circuit of Fig. 2. Solution 20 Applying KVL around the loop. Second Edition . Figure 2.84 Chapter 2.v2 = 0 Thus. -36 + 4i0 + 5i0 = 0 i0 = 4A Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. v2 = -22V v1 = 2V v1 = 2V.Alexander/Sadiku 8 v2 + v3 + 12 = 0 Applying KVL to loop 1. . -24 + v1 . v2 = -22V. v3 = 10V Chapter 2.84. Problem 20.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.

Problem 21.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.3V0 + 5i = 0 But v0 = 10i. Solution 21 Apply KVL to obtain -45 + 10i .85 Chapter 2. Second Edition . Calculate the power dissipated in the 5-Ω resistor in the circuit of Fig. Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. -45 + 15i . 2.85.30i = 0 P3 = i2R = 9 x 5 = 45W i = -3A - Chapter 2. . Problem 22. Figure 2.Alexander/Sadiku 9 Chapter 2.

444V The current through the controlled source is i = 2V0 = -8.111 4 Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. KCL requires that v0 + 10 + 2 v 0 = 0 4 v0 = –4.86 Chapter 2.111) = 98.75 W v0 = −11. Solution 22 4Ω At the node.Alexander/Sadiku Find Vo in the circuit in Fig.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. 2.888)(-11.86 and the power dissipated by the controlled source. Second Edition . . 10 Figure 2. p2 vi = (-8.888A and the voltage across it is v = (6 + 4) i0 = 10 Hence.

2 + 1+ 3 v x = 1i x = 2V The current through the 1.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. The voltage across the 12. determine vx and the power absorbed by the 12Ω resistor.2 Ω Figure 2. 3//6 = 2.2 + 4.8 = 4.Alexander/Sadiku Chapter 2. Second Edition . (4 + 2)//(1. 11 In the circuit shown in Fig. Solution 23 8//12 = 4.8) = 6//6 = 3 The circuit is reduced to that shown below.Ω resistor is 0. Problem 23.92W R 12 Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 1Ω +v – x 6A 2Ω 3Ω 6Ω 4Ω 8Ω 12 Ω 1. 2.8.Ω resistor is 1 x 4.2. Hence the power is p= v 2 4. .8 V.8 2 = = 1.87.87 Chapter 2. ix = 2 (6 A) = 2 A. ix + 6A 2Ω 1Ω vx 3Ω Applying current division.5ix = 1A.

Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. vs = 12 V Chapter 2. 2. 2. and v3 in the circuit in Fig.92. v1 = 14 (40) = 20 V 14 + 6 6 (40) = 12 V 14 + 6 v2 = v3 = Hence. v2. Solution 28 We first combine the two resistors in parallel 15 10 = 6 Ω We now apply voltage division. Figure 2.95. find v. In the circuit in Fig. Find v1.Alexander/Sadiku 12 Chapter 2. Problem 31. Problem 28. Chapter 2. Second Edition . v1 = 28 V. . i. v2 = 12 V.92. and the power absorbed by the 4-Ω resistor.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.

Determine i1. Hence by the voltage division principle. Calculate the power dissipated in the 2-Ω resistor. i2. . v1. Solution 31 The 5 Ω resistor is in series with the combination of 10 (4 + 6) = 5Ω . Figure 2. v= 5 (20V ) = 10 V 5+5 by ohm's law. Problem 34. and v2 in the ladder network in Fig.Alexander/Sadiku 13 Figure 2. 2.98 Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.95 Chapter 2. i= v 10 = = 1A 4 + 6 4+ 6 pp = i2R = (1)2(4) = 4 W Chapter 2.98.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Second Edition .

6V + - 6Ω Thus.1152 W i1 = 2 A. Calculate Vo and Io in the circuit of Fig.24 15 13 p2 = i2R = (0. 1A 1A + 12V i1 = 2A 8Ω 1A + 6V - 6Ω + 12V - 1A 4Ω 0. Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. the circuit is reduced to the one below: 10 x15 10 ( 2 + 13 ) = = 6Ω 25 15 x15 15 (4 + 6) = = 6Ω 25 12 (6 + 6) = 6Ω Thus i1 = 28 = 2 A and v1 = 6i1 = 12 V 8+6 8Ω - 6Ω We now work backward to get i2 and v2. 2. i2 = 2 = 0. Solution 34 By parallel and series combinations.24 A.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.1152 W Chapter 2. v2 = v 13 (3 ⋅ 6) = 3 ⋅ 12.99. Problem 35.24)2 (2) = 0. v2 = 3. Second Edition . i2 = 0. . v1 = 12 V. p2 = 0.Alexander/Sadiku 14 Chapter 2.12 V.6A 28V + - 12 Ω + 6V - 15 Ω 3.

6 = 0.4 A 70 20 At node a. i2 = 2 = 0. . Second Edition . 70 30 = 70 x 30 = 21Ω .2 A Hence v0 = 8 V and I0 = 0.4 + I0 I0 = 0.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. 100 20 15 = 20 x 5 =4 Ω 25 i= 50 =2 A 21 + 4 vi = 21i = 42 V.6 A. Solution 35 + V1 20 Ω i2 50V I0 V0 5 Ω + Combining the versions in parallel. KCL must be satisfied i1 = i2 + I0 0.2A Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.99 Chapter 2. v0 = 4i = 8 V v v i1 = 1 = 0.Alexander/Sadiku 15 Figure 2.

2. then 20 . Problem 37.101 Chapter 2. 2.4 = 16 V in the voltage drop across the 16Ω resistor. Problem 39. Solution 37 Let I = current through the 16Ω resistor. Find the equivalent resistance at terminals a-b for each of the networks in Fig. Second Edition .Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.103. . If 4 V is the voltage drop across the 6 R combination. 16 Hence. I = = 1 A. 16 20 6R But I = =1 4= 6R= R = 12 Ω 6+R 16 + 6 R Chapter 2. find R if Vo = 4 V.Alexander/Sadiku 16 Chapter 2.101. In the circuit of Fig. Figure 2. Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

.103 Chapter 2. Second Edition .Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.Alexander/Sadiku 17 Figure 2. Solution 39 (a) Req = R 0 = 0 R R + = R 2 2 Req = (R + R ) (R + R ) = 2R 2R = R Req = R R + R R = 1 Req = 3R (R + R R ) = 3R (R + R ) 2 3 3Rx R 2 =R = 3 3R + R 2 R ⋅ 2R Req = R 2R 3R = 3R 3R Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

105 Chapter 2. Figure 2.105.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Second Edition . find R.Alexander/Sadiku 18 = 3R 2 R= 3 2 3Rx R 3 = 6R 2 11 3R + R 3 Chapter 2. Calculate the equivalent resistance Rab at terminals a-b for each of the circuits in Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Problem 43. . Solution 41 Let R0 = combination of three 12Ω resistors in parallel 1 1 1 1 = + + R o 12 12 12 Ro = 4 R eq = 30 + 60 (10 + R 0 + R ) = 30 + 60 (14 + R ) 50 = 30 + 60(14 + R ) 74 + R 74 + R = 42 + 3R or R = 16 Ω Chapter 2. Problem 41. If Req = 50 Ω in the circuit in Fig. 2.

Second Edition . Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.109. Problem 45. Solution 43 (a) Rab = 5 20 + 10 40 = 5x 20 400 + = 4 + 8 = 12 Ω 25 50 −1 60 20 30 = 1 1 1 + + 60 20 30 = 60 = 10Ω 6 Rab = 80 (10 + 10) = 80 + 20 = 16 Ω 100 Chapter 2.107. Find the equivalent resistance at terminals a-b of each circuit in Fig. 2. 2. .107 Chapter 2.Alexander/Sadiku Fig.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. 19 Figure 2.

12//60 = 10 ohm.8 Rab = 5 + 50 + 4. Solution 45 (b) 10//40 = 8. This 10 ohm and 20 ohm are in series to give 30 ohm. 20//30 = 12.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Second Edition .109 Chapter 2. This is in parallel with 30 ohm to give 30//30 = 15 ohm.8 = 59. And 25//(15+10) = 12. 8//12 = 4. .8 + 15 = 32. Thus Rab = 5 + 12. Hence.8 Ω (c) 12 and 60 ohm resistors are in parallel.Alexander/Sadiku 10 Ω 40 Ω 20 Ω a 30 Ω 50 Ω b (a) 5Ω 20 30 Ω 12 Ω 5Ω 20 Ω 25 Ω 15 Ω (b) 10 Ω 60 Ω Figure 2.5.5Ω Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

2.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Second Edition .Alexander/Sadiku 21 Chapter 2. Find Req at terminals a-b for each of the circuits in Fig. Figure 2. Problem 46. Solution 46 Rab = 30 70 + 40 + 60 20 = 30 x 70 60 + 20 + 40 + 100 80 = 21 + 40 + 15 = 76 Ω Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.110 Chapter 2. .110.

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Problem 56.120 Chapter 2. Figure 2.120. Second Edition . 1. 50-Ω. We first tranform the Y network to ∆ .5Ω 12 12 c Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.Alexander/Sadiku 22 The 10-Ω. 30 Ω 16 Ω + 100 V 10 Ω + 100 V 16 Ω 35 Ω 30 Ω a 37. Solution 56 We need to find Req and apply voltage division.5 Ω 30 Ω 45 Ω b 20 Ω - - Req Rab = 15x10 + 10 x12 + 12 x15 450 = = 37. Determine V in the circuit of Fig. 20 30 = 40 60 = 20 x 30 = 12Ω 50 40 x 60 = 24 100 Rab = 8 + 12 + 24 + 6 + 0 + 4 = 54 Ω Chapter 2. . and 80-Ω resistors are shorted. 70-Ω.

Solution 58 The resistor of the bulb is 120/(0.25 A 1. Second Edition . The lightbulb in Fig.75 A VS + - 160 Ω + 120 V - 80 Ω Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.688||(12 + 16.5x30/67.18 V 11. Rbc = 450/(15) = 30Ω Combining the resistors in parallel.Alexander/Sadiku Rac = 450/(10) = 45Ω.5 A + 90 V .667) = 11.75 A. Problem 58. Calculate Vs to make the lightbulb operate at the rated conditions.0.5||30 = (37.672 100 = 42. 0. . 2.667 Ω 35||45 = (35x45/80) = 19.672Ω By voltage division.672 + 16 23 Chapter 2.122 is rated 120 V.122 Chapter 2. 37.688 Ω Req = 19. v = 11. 30||20 = (600/50) = 12 Ω.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Figure 2.75) = 160Ω 40 Ω 2.5) = 16.

128(a).Alexander/Sadiku 24 Once the 160Ω and 80Ω resistors are in parallel. they have the same voltage 120V. 2. An ammeter with an internal resistance of 1 Ω is inserted in the network to measure I’ as shown in Fig.25 x 40 = 90 Thus vs = 90 + 120 = 210 V Chapter 2. .128 (b). What is I’? Calculate the percent error introduced by the meter as I −I' ×100% I Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 2. Find the current I in the circuit of Fig.75 + 1.5) = 2. Problem 68.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. Hence the current through the 40Ω resistor is 40(0. Second Edition .

129 Chapter 2.Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. The voltmeter model consists of an ideal voltmeter in parallel with a 100-kΩ resistor. Rs = 10 kΩ. Problem 69. Second Edition .1 A 16 + 24 4 i' = = 0. 2.1 − 0.128 25 Chapter 2. .Alexander/Sadiku Figure 2.09756 % error = x100% = 2. Let Vs = 40 V.44% 0 . and R1 = 20 kΩ. Solution 68 (a) 40 = 24 60Ω i= 4 = 0. A voltmeter is used to measure Vo in the circuit in Fig. Solution 69 Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.129. Calculate Vo with and without the voltmeter when (a) R2 = 1 kΩ (b) R2 = 10 kΩ (c) R2 = 100 kΩ Figure 2.09756 A 16 + 1 + 24 0.1 Chapter 2.

Second Edition .Fundamentals of Electric Circuits.091kΩ 110 9.77 V (without) 100 + 30 V0 = Copyright ©2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.Alexander/Sadiku With the voltmeter in place. R 2 R m = = 9.091 + 30 10 V0 = (40) = 10 V (without) 10 + 30 When R2 = 100 kΩ. R2 Rm V0 = VS R1 + R S + R 2 R m where Rm = 100 kΩ without the voltmeter.278 V (with) 100 101 + 30 1 V0 = (40) = 1. R 2 R m = 50kΩ 50 (40) = 25 V (with) 50 + 30 100 V0 = (40) = 30.30 V (with) 9. R m R 2 = 100 kΩ 101 26 100 V0 = 101 (40) = 1. R2 V0 = VS R1 + R 2 + R S When R2 = 1 kΩ.091 V0 = (40) = 9.29 V (without) 1 + 30 1000 When R2 = 10 kΩ. .

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