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Introduction: Leaders and OD practitioners use the knowledge of organization development theory and practice to plan and implement effective change programs in their organizations. The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Following are the most important underpinnings for the field of OD. I. Models and theories of planned change II. Systems theory III. Participation and empowerment IV. Teams and teamwork V. Parallel learning structures VI. A normative-re-educative strategy of changing VII. Applied behavioral science VIII. Action research
I. MODELS AND THEORIES OF PLANNED CHANGE: Planned Change: A planned change is effected by an organization with the purpose of achieving something that might otherwise be unattainable or attainable with great difficulty. This approach represents the planned alteration in the existing organizational system. It is a means of dealing with those changes that may be crucial for survival. It involves a greater commitment of time and resources; requires more skills and knowledge for a successful implementation; and can lead to more problems if implementation is unsuccessful. Planned change is a proactive approach. Proactive management tries to anticipate the future and to see the organization as it should be if it is to be effective in the future. Organizational development is planned change in an organization context. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables, but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change.
Following are the several models of planned change. A. Kurt Lewin and others Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. That is, the status quo whatever is happening right now is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. For example, we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces, with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. Likewise, we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion, it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces, some forces pushing toward higher morale, and some pushing towards lower morale.
This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Refreezing the desired behavior requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behavior. that is. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behavior of smoking. Finally. .With a technique called the force-field analysis. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. one can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Next. Lewin's second idea was a model of the change process itself. the nonsmoking behavior must become permanent not smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. change his behavior from being a smoker to being a nonsmoker. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: unfreezing the old behavior (or situation). moving to a new level of behavior. and refreezing the behavior at the new level. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. he must move. that is.
Table 1: Three-Stage Model of the Change Process .
which cause guilt and anxiety.A 1: Edgar Schein psychological mechanisms on Lewin's three-stage model: Lewin's three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. This motivating evidence is gained by. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviors and acquiring new ones. This motivating evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. The primary task in stage 3. unfreezing. which motivate the person to change. That is. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. change will not occur. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. . and fit with the individual's social surroundings. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit fit with the individual. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. moving. is to integrate the new behaviors into the person's personally and attitudes. In stage 2. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety on order to replace the old behaviors with new behaviors. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. for example. That is. In stage 1. refreezing.
They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. Phase 5. Achieving a terminal relationship. terminating the clientconsultant rela-tionship. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. .A 2: Modified Lewin's model by Ronald and others: Another modification of Lewin's model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Phase 6. Phase 2. and Bruce Westley. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin's unfreezing phase. Clarifying or diagnosing the client system's problem. 4 and 5 correspond to Lewin's moving phase. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1. that is. Jeanne Watson. Developing a need for change. Phases 3. Generalizing and stabilizing change. establishing goals and intentions of action. This phase corresponds to Lewin's refreezing phase. Examining alternative routes and goals. Phase 3. Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phase 4. Establishing a change relationship. Phase 7.
evolutionary. Secondorder change goes by many different labels: transformational. . transformational change. or con-tinuous change. incremental. OD programs are directed toward both first and second-order change. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered the organization is transformed. or discontinuous change. In first-order change. The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance.B. with an increasing emphasis on second-order. This model shows how to create first-order (transactional change) and second-order change (transformational change). revolutionary. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. adaptive. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. radical. In second-order change.
Organizational climate is defined as people's perceptions and attitudes about the organi-zation whether it is a good or bad place to work. and organization culture result in second-order change. leadership.The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. and so forth. and difficult to change. . The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. values. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees' reactions to current managerial and organizational practices. The premise of the Burke-Litwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. hardworking or easy-going. friendly or unfriendly. management practices. and systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. and beliefs that are enduring. often unconscious. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while others leaders are not. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate.
in turn. which changes motivation and. " Transformational leadership embod-ies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. individual and organizational performance. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. management practices.Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Figure 1 shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Changing structure. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. . " Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance.
. as shown in Figure 2. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. These factors are able to change the climate. The bottom half of Figure 3 displays the factors involved in transactional change. The top half of Figure 3 displays the factors involved in transformational change. leadership styles.On the other hand. and organization culture. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. we must change mission and strategy. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Putting Figures 1 and 2 together yields the full Burke-Litwin model shown in Figure 3.
FIGURE 1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First-Order Change FIGURE: 2 The Transformational Factors Involved in Second-Order Change .
sudden "leaps" in behavior. Interventions directed toward management practices. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate (Figure 1). Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.To summarize. that is. . The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. structure. and organization culture produce transformational change or funda-mental change in the organization's culture (Figure 2). One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behavior or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. mission and strategy.
FIGURE 3: The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change .
Thus.Von Bertalanffy. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction" . which views organi-zations as open systems in active exchange with their environments. when taking a systems approach. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. components. This section explains systems theory.Kast and Rosenzweig "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts.Fagen. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. or subsystems. "A set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes" . "Elements standing in interaction . SYSTEMS THEORY: A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. The words arrangement and interrelated describe interdependent elements forming an entity that is the system.II.Hanna . "An organized. describes the characteristics OD systems. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental suprasystem" . unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts.
FIGURE 4: A System in Interaction with its Environment .
Information is important in systems in several ways. the organization's purposes will be reflected in its outputs. the organization will cease to exist. . and if the environment does not want these outputs. The law of entropy states that all systems "run down" and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment.Open systems have purposes and goals. the reasons for their existence. negative and positive. Systems require two kinds of feedback. For example. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down.
Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. it will signal whether the environment needs and/ or wants buggy whips. Here is an example of negative and positive feedback. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Positive feedback comes from the environment. . and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month.Hanna s Views: Hanna says: "Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. say your company makes buggy whips.
increased integration and coordination are necessary. With increased differentiation. systems tend to get more elaborated. differentiated. and complex over time. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces.Katz and Kahn s Views: Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. As Katz and Kahn say: "The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. Also. . Subsystems exist within larger systems. this process is called differentiation. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. either internal or external. specialized.
David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change (see Figure 5). people. . 2. failures. knowledge. such as capital. important events. and technology.Congruence among System Elements: David Nadler and others congruence model of System: Let's look at an example that shows how systems thinking are applied in OD. History. This model depicts the organization as an inputthroughout-output system. The three major input factors are: 1. which consists of memories of past successes. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. and 3. and critical decisions that still influence behavior today. Environment. Resources available to the organization.
processes. informal rules and understandings.Outputs are performance at the total organization level. which includes the organization's culture. which includes formal structures. . Informal organization. which includes formal structures. People. and systems for performing the work. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. Formal organisation. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets. and individual level. work. unit/group level. Elements of the organization are labeled as strategy. and systems for performing the work. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). processes.
FIGURE 5: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System .
" and which elements are "not functioning correctly. performance will suffer. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized." The premise is that alignment (harmony. In a company that is performing poorly. If the organization's culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. 2. performance will suffer. which components are "not functioning correctly. One can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. fit) must be present among the system's components for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence is an excellent diagnostic tool. Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. performance will suffer. For example: If people don't have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. ." and which elements are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.The congruence model's value is an analytical tool for: 1.
Open systems planning (OSP) a. . a social system and a technical system. Socio-technical systems theory: Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. two active segments of OD today.Socio-technical SystemsTheory and Open Systems Planning: Following are the two major variations open systems theory: a. and that changes in one system affect the other system. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. The thesis of STS is that all organizations comprise two interdependent systems. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. organizations must optimize both systems. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. Socio-technical systems theory (STS) b. Fred Emery.
High-perfor-mance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. and Identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. controlling variance at the source. . and information to the point of action. that is. Giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory: Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems Forming autonomous work groups. Training group members in multiple skills. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-directed teams). to the workers during the job. multi-skilled teams.
Open systems planning: Open systems planning entails (1) scanning the environment to determine the expec tations and stakeholders. (2) developing scenarios of possible futures. 2. systems thinking. and (3) developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Building shared vision. . both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organizatio would like to see happen). Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. is the most important. Team learning. this combination is often used in designing highperformance organizations. according to Pete Senge. 5. Open Systems Thinking (learning organizations): Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. Personal mastery. Systems thinking. For example.b. the fifth discipline. Of all these disciplines. 4. Mental models. Senge believes five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: 1. 3.
most phenomena have more than one cause. events. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. Fifth. events. according to field theory the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. issues. but seen in relation to other issues. not single effects. First. to change a system. Third. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. because.Consequences of Systems theory: System theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. Fourth. not just its component parts. therefore. Second. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. one changes the system. forces and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. and forces. changing one part of a system influences other parts. . from other activities.
which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions.III. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. and to be responsible. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. To empower is to give someone power. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. . to contribute their ideas. to exert influence. it is extended throughout the organization. Participation and Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. Participation enhances empowerment.
. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. quality of work life programs. autonomous work groups. survey feedback. team building. and give more power to more people." direct leaders to push decision making lower in the organization. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. quality circles. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. search conferences. The entire field of OD is about empow-erment." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem.For example.
Teams and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. If the team. . First. processes. changes those norms and values. the effects on individual behavior are immediate and lasting. systems.IV. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. much individual behavior is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. and relationships if they are to be effective. as a team. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development Teams are important for a number of reasons.
status. and responsibility charting. that is. Examples are team building. intergroup teambuilding. recognition. and the like. teams satisfy people's need for social interaction. temporary teams. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. sociotechnical systems programs. Grid OD. people must work together to accomplish them. Third. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people wowing alone. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. teams create synergy. and techniques such as role analysis technique. parallel learning structures. and respect-nurture human nature. role negotiation. . cross-functional teams. Fourth. process consultation.Second. quality circles.
people are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Teams have always been an important foundation of OD. and satisfy social needs in the work place. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective in groups. but there is a growing awareness of the teams' unique ability to create synergy. respond quickly and flexibly to problems.Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. that they achieve synergy. find new ways to get the job done. .
tandem or side-by-side with the formal hierarchy and structure and c. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. a specific division and coordination of labor is created that b. the creation and/or implementation of new thoughts and behaviors by employees. Parallel learning structure covers interventions where: a. innovation. Parallel learning structures are a mechanism to facilitate innovation in large bureaucratic organizations where the forces of inertia. and then leading the change process. and change. . and standard ways of addressing problems inhibit learning. Has the purpose of increasing an organization's 'learning' that is. A structure' that is. hierarchical communication patterns. Operates 'parallel' that is.V. In essence. Parallel Learning Structures: Gervase Bushe and Abraham Shani worked in this concern and titled Parallel Learning Structures.
In its most basic form. and initiate needed changes. One or more top executives should be members of the steering committee to give the parallel structure authority. make recommendations for improvement. it should have representatives from all parts of the organization. that is. action groups. Additional refinements include having a steering committee plus idea groups. with the groups serving specific functions designated by the steering committee. a parallel learning structure consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that study what changes are needed. legitimacy. and monitoring the change efforts. . engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. or implementation groups. The parallel structure should be a microcosm of the larger organization. and clout.
Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. a steering committee and working teams were used to coordinate the employee involvement teams. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization's methods of work and/or culture.: At Ford Motor Company. managers. and employees. . Applications: The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and l980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. High performance organizations often use parallel structures to coordinate self-directed teams. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations.Eg.
based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have more power. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. . based on the assump-tions that norms form the basis for behavior. A Normative-Re-educative Strategy of Changing: Organization development involves change. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that had implications for practitioners and organization members alike. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies.VI. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The first type of empirical -rational self-interest.
or intellectual rationales for action and practice. information. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. values. Socio-cultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. skills. and significant relationships. not just changes in knowledge. These strategies build upon the following assump-tions: Patterns of action and practice are supported by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes.Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reeducative strategy as follows: Another strategies called normative-re-educative. according to this view. . Change in a pattern of practice or action.
The aim of this discussion is how behavioral science knowledge becomes applied behavioral science knowledge. APPLIED BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE: OD is the application of behavioral science knowledge. pressing problems. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. or practice. A conventional distinction is made between: (1) "Pure" or basic science. Although human behavior in organizations is far from an exact science. and skills on ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. . the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. practices. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. and (2) "Technology" applied science.VII.
. applied science as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. thereby solving the problem. re-establishes the equilibrium. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. and 2. or practice. The practitioner examines the problem situation. "Technology" applied science.A conventional distinction is made between: 1. OD emphasizes the latter. pressing problems. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. hopefully. "Pure" or basic science.
then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. on the basis of selected variables. first diagnosing the situation. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. From this "practice theory. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined.This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. ." the OD practitioner works. placing it in a classification scheme or typology.
FIGURE 6: Composition of Applied Behavioral Science .
Figure 6 shows some of the inputs to applied behavioral science. the two top inputs. perhaps more accurately. represent contributions from pure or basic science. .Organization development is both a result of applied behavioral science and a form of applied behavioral science. represent contributions from applied science. behavioral science research and behavioral science theory. practice research and practice theory. it is a program of applying behavioral science to organization. The two bottom inputs. The following are some examples of contributions from these four sources that are relevant for organization development.
The importance of the existing total field of forces in determining and predicting behavior (Lewin) iv. Mead) v. The possibilities inherent in views of motivation different from those provided by older theories (McGregor.1. The importance of individual goal setting for increasing productivity and improving performance (Locke) vi. motivations. The role of an exchange theory of behavior that postulates that people tend to exchange approximately equivalent units to maintain a balance between what is-given and received (Gouldner. general theories of learning. Contributions from Behavioral Science Theory: i. and behaviors (Sherif) ii. Maslow) vi. H. The place of social cognitive theory. McGuire) . Skinner. attitude change theories. The importance of social norms in determining perceptions. The relevance of role theory in accounting for stability and change in behavior (G. Homans) iii. Herzberg. effects of reward and punish-ment. and so on in understanding organizational behavior (Bandura.
Studies on different communication networks (Leavitt). Results on the effects of cooperative and competitive group goal structures on behavior within groups (Deutsch) iii. Contributions from Behavioral Science Research: i.2. and consequences of induced competition on behavioral within and between groups (Sheriff and Blake and Mouton) ii. conditions. causes and consequences of conformity (Asch). Studies showing the importance of the social system in relation to the technical system (Trist and Bamforth) v. group problem solving (Kelley and Thibaut). and group dynamics (Cartwright and Zander) . Studies on the causes. Studies on the effects of organizational and managerial climate on leadership style (Fleishman) Studies on the variables relevant for organizational health (Likert) iv.
Contributions from Practice Theory: i. McGregor) vii. New ideas about the education process (Dewey) vi. and Gibb) ii.3. and Chin) . Implications from the theory and practice of the laboratory training method (Bradford. Benne. The concept of "management by objectives" (Drucker. Developments in consultation typologies and theory (Blake and Mouton) x. New dimensions in the helping relationship and specifically the client-consultant relationship (Rogers) iv. Implications from theories of group development (Bion and Bennis and Shepard) iii. Watson. Bennis. Benne. Implications and applications from theories of planned change (Lipitt. Implications of social learning theory and behavior modeling for supervisor training (Goldstein and Sorcher) viii. Codification of the practice of management (Drucker) v. Explorations in intervention theory and method (Argyris) ix. and Westley.
Likert. and Greiner) iv. Bowers.4. Contributions from Practice Research: i. Results indicating the importance of the informal work group on individual and group perfor-mance (Roethlisberger and Dickson) iii. Studies showing that feeding back survey research data can bring about organization change (Mann. Results showing the efficacy of grid organization development in large organizations (Blake. Mouton. Barnes. Baumgartel) ii. Results showing the ability of behavior modeling training to improve supervisory human relations skills (Latham and Saari) and organizational effectiveness (Porras) . Results documenting improved organizational performance and improved organization climate stemming from a longterm OD effort in a manufacturing firm (Marrow. and Seashore) v.
. and doing or implementing change efforts. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. ACTION RESEARCH: The action research model a data-based. Action research is especially well suited for planned change programs. Action research involves three processes: Data collection. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing learning about the dynamics of organizational change.VIII. Feedback of the data to the client system members Action planning based on the data.
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