Frank Buckles

February 1, 1901 ± February 27, 2011 (aged 110 years, 26 days)

CHP 23 War & Revolution

Video ± Ch. 23 WWI

Nationalism and the System of Alliances

(1882) Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.

(1907) France, Great Britain, and Russia.

First World War, mobilization, declaration of war: a group of soldiers with a cloth to throw one of them into the air during preparations for the battle at the front. England, 1915

The Plumb-pudding in danger, or, State epicures taking un petit souper ... By James Gillroy SUMMARY: William Pitt, wearing a regimental uniform and hat, sitting at a table with Napoleon. They are each carving a large plum pudding on which is a map of the world. Pitt's slice is considerably larger than Napoleon's. "The new Emperor, and his opponent the English Minister, helping themselves²one taking the land, the other the sea. On the overtures made by the new Emperor for a reconciliation with England in the January of 1805."

The British and French colonial empires reached their peaks after WWI, a reflection of the power of this new alliance.

A 1904 French postcard showing Britannia and Marianne dancing together, symbolizing the two nations' newly found sense of cooperation.

L¶ENTENTE CORDIALE A 1915 German view of the Entente Cordiale Depiction of Britain as a spider, German eagle sitting overhead, Uncle Sam and two others tied up in web in background. The Entente Cordiale was a diplomatic agreement signed in 1904 by France and Great Britain which adjusted the colonial disputes between the two countries, and paved the way for Anglo-French cooperation against German expansion in Europe and in the colonial world.

A cartoon apparently expressing a rather sour German point of view on the British-French "Entente Cordiale" of 1904. John Bull walks off with the trollop France (in her scandalously short tricolor skirt, with red and blue colors) while Germany pretends not to care.

Nationalism and the System of Alliances

‡ During the early 1900s, several crises erupted

Balkans Crisis
‡ The Slavic dream of creating their own national state, which also increased tensions in Europe.

‡ After 1900 there was a huge increase in the size of European armies, which increased tensions among nations.
‡ Between 1890 and 1914 European armies doubled in size.
The numbers of soldiers in European armies were:

‡ Russia, 1.3 million; ‡ France and Germany, 900,000 each; ‡ Britain, Italy, and AustriaHungary, 250,000 to 500,000 each.
German soldiers in a railway goods car on the way to the front in 1914. A message on the car spells out "Trip to Paris"; early in the war all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.

Video: The Roots of War (5:34)

The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914

‡ In June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife were killed by the Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip in the city of Sarajevo. ‡ The Serbian terrorists wanted Bosnia to become independent from Austria-Hungary.


Assassination « The spark that lights the powder keg.

Archduke Ferdinand walking among the people hours before his assassination.

The car moments before the assassination.

Apprehension of Gavrillo Prinzip.

Blood soaked uniform of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Archduke Francis Ferdinand
After his death, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia« which started the house of cards (alliances) to fall.

The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914

‡ Russia responded by supporting Serbia. ‡ Czar Nicholas II ordered partial and then full mobilization of the Russian army. ‡ Austria-Hungary and Germany considered the mobilizations acts of war.


WWI Alliances:
Allies or Triple Entente: Russia France Great Britain Central Powers or Triple Alliance: Austria-Hungary Germany Italy

PG. 721

European Troops were Eager for war. ³We¶ll be home by Christmas!´

The Conflict Broadens

Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 Germany s military plans had been drawn up under General Alfred von Schlieffen
Schlieffen Plan, called for a two-front war with France & Russia. By declaring war on France, Germany brought Great Britain into the war.



German General Alfred von Schlieffen

Germany made a vast encircling movement through Belgium (who was neutral) into northern France Halted a short distance from Paris @ the First Battle of The Marne French Miracle halts the German Advance

French soldiers waiting assault behind a ditch

A Young Man Goes Off to War

Realities of War


PAGE 716 Battle of the Somme

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