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‫ﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔﹰ ﺃﻭ َﻣ ْﻦ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺎﺏ ﻓﻘﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪]  ª!$# tΑt“Ρr& !$yϑÎ/ ΝæηuΖ÷t/ Νä3ôm$# Èβr&uρ  :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ [٤٩‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪’n<Î) (#þθããߊ #sŒÎ)uρ  :‬‬
‫‪]  öΝæηuΖ÷t/ zΝä3ósuŠÏ9 ⎯Ï&Î!θß™u‘uρ «!$#‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ‪ [٤٨‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺗـﻮﱃ‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻗﻀﻰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋَـ ْﻦ ﻋَﺎﺋِـ َ‬
‫ﺹ َﻋ ِﻬ َﺪ ﺇِﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﺃﺧِﻴ ِﻪ َﺳ ْﻌ ِﺪ ْﺑ ِﻦ ﹶﺃﺑِﻲ‬
‫ﺖ‪) :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋُْﺘَﺒﺔﹸ ْﺑ ُﻦ ﹶﺃﺑِﻲ َﻭﻗﱠﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﺿ َﻲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ُﻪ ﻋَﻨْﻬَﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ْ‬
‫َﺭ ِ‬
‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﻠﹶﻤﱠﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋَﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔْﺘ ِﺢ ﹶﺃﺧَـ ﹶﺬﻩُ‬
‫ﻀ ُﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ْ‬
‫ﺹ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﺍْﺑ َﻦ َﻭﻟِﻴ َﺪ ِﺓ َﺯ ْﻣ َﻌ ﹶﺔ ِﻣﻨﱢﻲ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗِﺒ ْ‬
‫َﻭﻗﱠﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﺹ َﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍْﺑ ُﻦ ﺃﹶﺧِﻲ ﹶﻗ ْﺪ َﻋ ِﻬ َﺪ ِﺇﹶﻟ ﱠﻲ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ َﻡ َﻋﺒْﺪُ ﺑْـ ُﻦ َﺯ ْﻣﻌَـ ﹶﺔ‬
‫َﺳﻌْﺪُ ْﺑ ُﻦ ﹶﺃﺑِﻲ َﻭﻗﱠﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﹶﺧِﻲ ﻭَﺍْﺑ ُﻦ َﻭﻟِﻴ َﺪ ِﺓ ﹶﺃﺑِﻲ ﻭُِﻟ َﺪ َﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﻓﺮَﺍ ِﺷ ِﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓَﺘﺴَﺎ َﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﺇِﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻨِﺒ ﱢﻲ ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶـﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫َﺳ ْﻌ ٌﺪ‪ :‬ﻳَﺎ َﺭﺳُﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍْﺑ ُﻦ ﺃﹶﺧِﻲ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ ْﺪ َﻋ ِﻬ َﺪ ِﺇﹶﻟ ﱠﻲ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ َﻋﺒْﺪُ ْﺑ ُﻦ َﺯ ْﻣﻌَـ ﹶﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻳَﺎ‬
‫ﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪» : ‬ﻫُ َﻮ ﹶﻟ َ‬
‫ﹶﺃ ِﺧـﻲ ﻭَﺍْﺑ ُﻦ َﻭﻟِﻴ َﺪ ِﺓ ﹶﺃﺑِﻲ ﻭُِﻟ َﺪ َﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﻓﺮَﺍ ِﺷ ِﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ َﺭﺳُﻮ ﹸ‬
‫ﺵ َﻭِﻟ ﹾﻠﻌَﺎ ِﻫ ِﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ َﺤ َﺠﺮُ«(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻠﺪ‬
‫ﻲ ‪» : ‬ﺍﹾﻟ َﻮﹶﻟﺪُ ِﻟ ﹾﻠ ِﻔﺮَﺍ ِ‬
‫َﻋ ْﺒﺪُ ْﺑ َﻦ َﺯ ْﻣ َﻌ ﹶﺔ«‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢﱠ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻨِﺒ ﱡ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻓﻘﻠﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﻭﺻﺎﻩ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬـﺎﹰ‬
‫ﻸ ﱠﻭ ِﻝ َﺣﺘﱠـﻰ‬
‫ﺾ ﻟِـ َ‬
‫ﻼ َﺗ ﹾﻘ ِ‬
‫ﻼ ِﻥ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬
‫ﻚ َﺭﺟُ ﹶ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪» :‬ﺇِﺫﹶﺍ َﺗﻘﹶﺎﺿَﻰ ِﺇﹶﻟ ْﻴ َ‬
‫ﻒ َﺗ ﹾﻘﻀِﻲ« ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﻑ َﺗ ْﺪﺭِﻱ ﹶﻛ ْﻴ َ‬
‫ﺴ ْﻮ َ‬
‫ﺴ َﻤ َﻊ ﻛﹶﻼ َﻡ ﺍﻵ َﺧ ِﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ َ‬
‫َﺗ ْ‬
‫ﺴ َﻤ َﻊ ِﻣ ْﻦ ﺍﻵﺧَـ ِﺮ‬
‫ﺼﻤَﺎ ِﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻼ َﺗ ﹶﻜ ﱠﻠ ْﻢ َﺣﺘﱠﻰ َﺗ ْ‬
‫ﺨ ْ‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ َ‬
‫ﺲ ِﺇﹶﻟ ْﻴ َ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻷﲪﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ »ﺇِﺫﹶﺍ َﺟ ﹶﻠ َ‬
‫ﹶﻛﻤَﺎ َﺳ ِﻤ ْﻌ َ‬
‫ﺖ ِﻣ َﻦ ﺍ َﻷ ﱠﻭ ِﻝ«‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻣـﻦ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺳﻌﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺩﻋﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺩﻋﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﺃﺧﱪﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺥ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺅﻩ ‪ ‬ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺑـﺎﳊﻜﻢ‬
‫‪٢٣٨‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻟﺰﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﻗـﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﺨﺼﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺻﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪ ‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺎﺿﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪) :‬ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻟـﺰﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪» :‬ﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ َﺭﺳُﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠ ِﻪ ‪َ ‬ﻣ ﱠﺮ َﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺻُ ْﺒ َﺮ ِﺓ ﹶﻃﻌَﺎ ٍﻡ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ْﺩ َﺧ ﹶﻞ َﻳ َﺪﻩُ ﻓِﻴﻬَﺎ‬

‫ﺴﻤَﺎ ُﺀ ﻳَﺎ َﺭﺳُﻮ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻌَﺎ ِﻡ ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺻَﺎَﺑ ْﺘﻪُ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬
‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣَﺎ ﻫَﺬﹶﺍ ﻳَﺎ ﺻَﺎ ِﺣ َ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﺻَﺎِﺑﻌُ ُﻪ َﺑ ﹶﻠ ﹰ‬
‫ﹶﻓﻨَﺎﹶﻟ ْ‬

‫ﺲ ِﻣﻨﱢﻲ« ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺶ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ْﻴ َ‬
‫ﺱ‪َ ،‬ﻣ ْﻦ ﹶﻏ ﱠ‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻌَﺎ ِﻡ ﹶﻛ ْﻲ َﻳﺮَﺍ ُﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺎ ُ‬
‫ﻼ َﺟ َﻌﻠﹾَﺘﻪُ ﹶﻓ ْﻮ َ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠ ِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬
‫ﺲ ِﻣﱢﻨﺎ«‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺸﻨَﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ْﻴ َ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣـﻲ‪َ » :‬ﻣ ْﻦ ﹶﻏ ﱠ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻈﺎﱂ ﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﺷﻜﻮﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫـﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻈﺎﱂ‪) :‬ﺍﻹﺧﺒـﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﳊﻜـﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋـﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻟـﺰﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻘـﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣـﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻧﻴـﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻻﺗــﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪٢٣٩‬‬

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