ÐÌ]k@Ì]k@]Ë@]x]± 
$ Í·[J[=»·[j™=aØE%    

ÐÌ]k@Ì]k@]Ë@]x]± 

$ Í·[J[=»·[j™=aØE%

-     

Åeb[q?H>[J³¶==d[        

Í[äºÙ=e=a 
¤ÈgÇJ¶=Æf[n¿¶=ÆÍ¢>Fì·¶ 
-/1-5,*H*t 
Á>[¿F¶)LÆE

.  

¼ÉUf¶=À—f¶==¼jE 

Í[ºb[¯[º 
»·[j™=aØ[EgfE?Àºaæ ØEåÍ£Fi>È>v®ÄÉF¿QEH>J³¶==d¼vÈ 
Ç[‰[[Â-0.1Ëf[R=½>£¶=Àº¹ÆÙ=¤Ef¶=ÍÈ>þ›ÄÉ·¢ÊÂ>»²(Í·J= 
6Ê ÂÆ$½.,,0+1+.-)[Â-0.1+/+-%½.,,0ËaØə=½>£¶=¬rJ¿º 
*±=f£¶=ÆÁ=aÇj¶=HÇ¿Q(t®(Á>Jj¾>§ª?(Á>nÉn¶=(»n²(ìj·ª 
(Ä¿ºÇ·×Á>²ÁCÆ(Á=b·F¶=Åd›ð>ɍe>Ið>N}kɶH>J³¶==dÂÆ 
*Ä¿ºÐÊmÄɪÁ>²ÁCÆ(ÌeDzd™=Á=b·F·¶>ðɪ=f§Q>ðN}kɶÇ´¶d²Æ 
6ÇÂ>”C 
6>[ÃE>F¶îG[¶Àº¸E(>ê=f{?Àºsí¯J¿àI¼ÂaØEÁ@E»·j»·¶²dI 
(>ÃÑ>nU?Æ>ÃF·® 
À[º¸ E(Í·®Àºkɶ(¼ÃÉ·¢K¢=bI¼ºÙ=Á@E»·j»·¶²dIÇÂÆ 
(N²¼Ãª×CÆ(¼ÃE>q?Ëd¶=ÀÂǶ= 
=Ǿ>[²Á?b[£E(¼[ºÙ=¸[Èc›=ÇVFq?¼Ã¾@E´¶d²¼²dIÇÂÆ 
(>²f=Æ>ÃIa>®=Ǿ>²Á?b£EP=bUÙ=oº>›=Æe>qÆ(>Ãi?e 
(Íì®>j¶=ÄJª>¯MÆ(Ìbi>«¶=Hf§¶=Ìe>vU½Øž=Ç·Èhɶ¼ÌÇ¢aÇÂÆ 
*eÇ¿¶=ÆÐ>Év¶=OÉUÁdzÈ׽؟¶>ª(Í£{>j¶=ÍÒÉv™=½ØiÝ=Ìe>vUeÇ¿E  

¼[ÂaØE¥>ÉuÁ@E»·j™=¥>?›Í]fqµ =cÆ=d±Ǫ(ǼM 
6ÍMØM½>ÃiÄIdò«¾ 
›½>[³ƒ=Í[[¾>[É]Ç[[Â¥>É[[v¶=›ð>[[Ÿ[U f[ªÆÙ=ƹÆÙ=¼[Ã[j¶=
/  

(ÀÈf»£Jj™=e>«³·¶¼ÂÕ×ÆÆ(»·j™=aØE 
(½>[[³ƒ=Ð×Ö[[ÂÍF[[i>†À[[¢»·[[j™=Ldz [iÇ[[Âʾ>[[N¶=¼Ã[j¶=Æ 
(¼ÂɧIƼÃÉ·¢e>³¾Ý=Æ 
Æb[[£¶=¼Ã[[iÇ[[ê(¸[[®Ù=Ç[[Â¥>É[[v¶=›ÄFÉ[[r¾Æ([[]Ù=¼Ã[[j¶=Æ 
*­Çn³™=fÂ>Ÿ¶=fª>³¶= 
 
¤»[j¶==Ç^É[rÈÁ?»·[j»·¶Ð=b[¾ÆÌÇ¢a´¶cb£EÀºH>J³¶=¼M 
(L>[[ºfƒ=Æz=f [ ¢Ù=µ>[[ÃJ¾=Æ(¹>[[«{Ù=Æ`ÇÉ[[n¶=Æf[[Ñ=fƒ=L>M>§J[[i× 
(LدJ£™=¤Ñ>Ÿª­Ç¿qÆ 
(HÇ[·¯¶= É§¶>[EÓ[·J“Æ(±Æf[£¶=›Ð>ºb[¶=µf[VJIÁÙÌÇ¢aÇÂÆ 
‘CÆ(¼Èf[²>Ã[nÉ¢>[ɾa‘Ck«¾Ù=±>JnIÆ(¼»=dßVnàIƼÑ=h£¶=XrJª 
(¼É¯º>ûɣ¾Ìf]A 
Á?6b ÉÃ[mÇ[ÂƤ»[j¶=Î[¯¶?Æ?G·®ĶÁ>²À™ÌÇ¢a´¶d²ÇÂÆ 
¬£ [vI×Æ(Ì>[¿®Ķ·I×(bÈbUÀº½h£EÌbm=f¶=ϬÚ^†@Ìa>¢Ý¸[»[£È 
b[E×Ç[ê´¶d[²Á>[²À[ºÆ(Ä[¾Æa´[·ÃÈÆ?=Åf[[r¿ÈÎ[JU͕h¢Ķ 
(=ÁcDEeÇr¿º 
(Ä[EÎ[¯JàÈÆÄ[Ñ=eÆÀ[º¸ßI>¯É¶bm=f¶=Í«É·„=a>‹ÝÌÇ¢að>vÈ?ǼM 
*a=ahÈÆGì„=¸V«JjÈÁ?¸F®a>F£¶=ÆaØF¶=d¯¿Éª 
 
6=ð]?Æ 
6H>F¶Ù=ʶÆ?‘CÍ·J=»·j™=aØEÀºÍ]e>qÍVÉqÇ 
*Å>J«É·]=Æ***Å>»rJ£º=Æ 
*hÈh¢ËÇ®=Æ
0  

$-% 
[ì[j·ª 
ľ>VF[i=>ÃìEeÁ?d¿º»·j™=_Èe>I›ðÌeaìj·ªL?bEb¯¶ 
‘C½=f[ƒ=bR[j™=ÀºUĶÇifEÏfi?>ºb¿¢bU=Ɲ>EfE½=fƒ=ÄJÉE¤º 
‘C½=f[ƒ=bR[j™=À[ºðØÉ[¶Åb[F£EÏf[i?Ëd[¶=Á>VF[i @Îr®Ù=bRj™= 
bmb®Æ*Íð ²e>FºðÍFÉ{ð>ue?>÷£Rª*>Ä ¶ÇU>¿²e>EËd¶=Îr®Ù=bRj™= 
‘ 
ÆÙ=¼ÃJ[·F®>÷£QÁ@E$lb¯™=KÉE%ìj·ªÌfu>U‘C»·j™=HÇ·® 
ÍJ[jEÌf[R=b[£E$Í ªf[n™=Í[F£³¶=%Íɾ>N¶=¼ÃJ·F®»·j™==ʶÇÈÁ?¸F® 
>ºb[¿¢½Ø[iÝ=Á>ì·iK€ìj·ªXFrIÁ?¸F®´¶cÁ>²*=ðfÃmfn¢ 
(ÌfRÃ[·¶-1Í¿[iÄ[¿¢=Ê[ueH>[ì„=À[Ef[»¢ʾ>[N¶=Í«É·„=>ÃVJª 
Á>²¶=$Í Èf»£¶=Ìbã¶=%ÌeÇÃn™=ÄIbâÅ>ì¢?ÆlÇɾÆf«iÀº>û·jIÆ 
*$aÇÃÈ>Ãɪ¼Ã¿²>jÈ×Á?%(>ÃɪÏe>r¿¶=G·{η¢âÐ>¿E(>ÃqÇr¾Àº 
Á?b[£EÆX J[«IÁ?¸[F®»·[j™=_Èe>[I›ðÌeaì[j·ªK¾>²b¯¶ 
bæ [J£º>[ÃÉ·¢Ïb[J¢=>[»·²( »·[j™=aØ[E›¸[¯N¶=h²fºK¾>³ª(KVJª 
ÁdzJ[iÆe >[JJ¶=Æ(ÉFÉ·[r·¶ðÌ[¯ºK[¾>²*Ä [¾=Æb¢¹>{ >»Ãº>Ãɪ¼õì€ 
ÉFÉ·[r¶=¤[ºÍ·[q>ªµe>£ºK 
¾>²>Ãɪ* 
=ÁcDE´¶d²aÇÃÈ=Ð=b¢Ù 
($½-.2,)[Â214%LǶ>Q 
¢Æ($½--43)[Â14/% 
ìU 6e>JJ¶=Æ 
ì[[j·ªÌa>[[¢ÝaÇ[[ÃȤ[[ºÏf[[]?Í·[[q>ªµe>[[£º=ÁcD[[E>Ã[[£FJ[J[iÆ 
*½ØiÝ=e>Èa‘CðÍɯ¾ðÍr¶>]
1  

b[âd[¿ºOÈb[ƒ=f[r£¶=›ð>ɶÆaµfVJIìj·ªÍÉv®L?bEb¯¶ 
¹Æa¤[ºÁÆ>[£J¶>EaÇ[ÃÈÍ[¿®>ÂaΣ[iO[ÉU(bÉ»ƒ=bF¢ʾ>»N£ ¶=Í«É·„= 
(ì[[j·ª›ð>[ Ò{Ǻ¼[[=Æb[[‹Á?‘C>[[ɾ>ìÈfEÍ[[q>~Æ(µ=d[[¾Af[[ «[³¶= 
¹h[IfÂzf[£ª(Í [ɾ>»N£¶=Ï ¬Ú^^†@ͶÆa›Íɶ>™=ͺgÙ==Ç·§JjÈÁ?=ǶÆ>UÆ 
(´ 
[¶c¸[E>¯ºÍ[¶Æb¶=Í¿Èh[[„ô¹=Ç[[º?¤[[ªa½-5,-›µ =d[¾AaÇ[[ÃÈF² 
eb[r·¶ÌeÇÃ[n™=Í[«É·„=Í[»·²K[¾>²ÆÄ J·E>¯ºbÉ»ƒ=bF¢Í«É·„=xªfª 
d [^JÈ×@[E¹h[IfÂeÇJ²b[¶==ÇVr¾=%6Äuf£¶>ðE=ÇQ¹ hIf>÷¯¿É¶¼Ÿ¢Ù= 
b[U=Æ[mÀ[¢η?Á?¤ÉìJi?×ʾDª(¥ÇuǙ==d›ðÍÈbQæL=Çì] 
**ÍɺØiÝ=Í ºÙ=´·º¸E***ɕ´·ºKjɶÊê***ìj·ªze?Àº 
aÇ[Ãɶ= «J[VÉ·ª***Ä[ºbE>[Â=ÆeÆzeÙ=Åd[¸ ÉF[i›£mbÂ>Qb¯¶ 
Á?µ=d[[¾AÁÇ£ÉìJ[[jȼþD[[ªð>[ ºÇÈϬÚ^^^†@Í[[¶ÆaK[[®ähº=cCÆ***¼Ã¿[[ÉÈؒ 
ÁÇ[ÂÙʾb[E›¤[vF™=¸[»¢ÁD[ªÊ[U>¾?Æ>º?*À ØEìj·ª=Æd]@È 
*Á Ç[³È×f[º?=d[ÂÆ (Ï ¬Ú^^†@Í[¶ÆaÀºLEb®ìj·ªÏe?Á?ÀºÊ·¢ 
b[®Æ*$Ì>[Ƀ=b[É®Î[·¢À‰Æ>¾a>jQ?XÈfnIη¢ͯª=Ǚ=¤ÉìJi?×ʾC 
½>[[³ƒ=À[[ºÐ>[[QϬÚ^^^†@Î[[·¢Ê[v®îÁ?b[[£Fª(=Ä[[—e(Ä[[£®ÇI±b[[q 
Í[¿»É=Ƹ[E( 
ìj·ª¹ØJU=ÀºaÇÃɶ=À³ºÀº»·j™=aØE›ÐØ»£¶= 
*ìj·ª¦η¢ 
Î [·¢Ð>[v¯¶=d[¿º½Ø[iÝ=Î[·¢À Èb[®>ƒ=e >«³¶=¥>»{?Lf»Ji=Æ 
À[ºÀÈf[n£¶=ƤE>[j¶=›¼Ã[jQeÀ[º>[ÂfÈf€Ælb¯·¶ 
ÉFÉ·r¶=¹ØJU= 
Î[[·¢¼Âa>[[¯U?ÁÇ[[·»Œ=Æf»J[i=b[[¯ª($½--43+-,+.%[[[Â14/G[Qe 
Í¿i-.+--› 
ìj·ª=Ç·]a=cCÎJUìj·ªÍ q>~ƼÂe>ÈaƐ»·j™= 
¿[[¶?¹ =f[[¿‚=Ð>[[«·ƒ=oÉ[[Qb[[Ñ>®¹>[[®‘ÆÙ=Í[[ə>£¶=Hf[[ƒ=›-5-3
2    

‫ )    
(    ــ‬:  
 - ! .  ! "  
#$ %&'  "* +,
23 4 56 "  
27 8! /9 -";*< /=3> ‫ ــ‬/01
.@ A 84 #& % #!4 /9 #BC& /9 "*?
8 7 K# L 87  M;7 HIHJ/HH/F *< B*  E
% 2#  %NO  PQ ;&4 8R -S'T /U+V &W /,4 (+#<4)
.Q /=  2 XY6 ";*Q Z3>
^_Y -‫  ــ‬2 M7 X[\  -5] ?   &9 8B7
( 8 d @ e)  bQ $+84 c  (/] a
7) ` 
B? Z8 
.+#<4 87 ;&4 '<BR  K2# % -gHIFF ";*Q M7 f;& 
56 g8\  % 2#  %N0  ^XU % 'hR ;&4 ^84
8 4 /] n$ l m -/i*R /1+8R -j+] ^k % ";*Q
PR+8 e '  HIoJ/HH/FI E /*\  +! -  ?  
" 4 $ "4 ";*Q /r*! +\  '$ .HqH /!4 #  p
2#   /*R ^+! P4 ] ;&4 ^8  84 .7 8? 
_ 4 - UV6  ] '= Be 8! ./=  2 !6 ";*Q /C
"4 - , S'T #l -X3    gN "4 Nk 4> ^8U
2#   C&  s #N -/ 2 !6 % 2#  tB su -2#& 
'  /7 
x 4zyb %x v -2# #;7_Q - *  4  w#p #$ /9 
iB BN  -X4 /B {$ 7sY  `#\  %  $ /$#;7 -BN*?
- , w# p 4> 8e /9 $84 2#  % -X3  |\x a\vR %
.HIoq/~/H~ E  2 /= B7| ! Z3\,d > $#r ,  

K¯E>[jIÆ(_[j™=Í[¶Æb¶=Åd[ÃEÌfª>[³¶=¹Æb[¶=­=[¢=¥e>jI¼M 
¼[M*­ 
=[¢×=›>[j¾fªÆ>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>ÉiÆeÆ>³Èfº?6µ =d¾Aϳ¶=¹Æb¶= 
>[[ɾ>ìÈfEÍ [ q>~ÆÍ[[¯ì¿™=›Ìd[[ª>¿¶=Ìf»£J[[j™=Ìfª>[[³¶=¹Æb[[¶=KVF[[q? 
b[£E>[»Éª>ÂáÇ»ä [[i[¶=( 
ì[j·ªÍÉv¯¶¤Èe>n™=¤uÆ›kª>¿JI>³Èfº?Æ 
Í[¶ÆaÁ>[vJU>E¹Æb[¶=Åd[Â>[rºͺb„>÷²Æ($œ 
iÆÙ=±fn¶=ͺg?% 
*ͯ쿙=›¹Æb¶=ÁgƱǫÈͯ쿙=›>ÁgÆͺ>®CÆ(aÇÃÈ 
( aÇ[ÃÈÍ[¶ÆaÁ>[vJU=Ð=eÆÀ[ºðÌb[¢ð>ª=bÂ?fª>³¶=Hf§¶=°¯Ub¯¶ 
6­=bÂÙ=ÅdÂÀº*»·j™=aØEG·®›ð>ºÇ»jºð=fR¿]>âegÆ 
±Ç[£ÈÍ[[¯ì¿™=›»·[[j™=[[Eð>[ FÈf¦ð>»[[jQ=Æb[[QÆ?¼[[þ?)- 
(¼ÃIbUÆb£FÈƼ÷q=ÇI 
¼Ã ¢=fq¼ÂÇj¿ÈÁ?=ǶÆ>UÆ(a ÇÃȤº¥ 
=frEͯ쿙==Ç·§m?). 
À[ºaÇ[ÃȐ[³“¸[F¯ª(Ï ¬Ú^^†@η¢Îv®Ëd¶=fª>³¶=H 
f§¶=¤ºÊ·qÙ= 
aÇ[Ãɶ=¹ØJU>[EÆ(Hf§¶=Ɛ»·j™=E¥=fr¶=Á>²( ìj·ª›¼ͶÆa 
¥=f[r¶=¬[]Æ(G[q>§¶=Á>[ɳ¶==d¤ºð=h²fº¥=fr¶=XFq?[ì[j·«¶ 
*ÅÆbQÆ?Àº¤º 
aÇ[[Ãɶ=Æ(¼[[ÂaØE›aÇ[[Ãɶ=¸²>[[nºÀ[[º$=ÇU=[[i=%¼[[þ?)/ 
kÉÑf[¶=f[ºÙ==d[Ä[F¿Ib [¯¶Æ*=Ç[·UOÉU¼Âa>jªCƼÂa>j«EÁǪÆf£º 
›Ê [³ÈfºÙ=G£[n¶=Ê[qÇȹ>[®O[ÉU$À ·³¾=f[ªº>[QÀE%ʳÈfºÙ= 
6½-345½>[¢Ê[³ÈfºÙ=eÇJ[ib·¶ÊjÉ[[i@J¶=f[[“Ö[™=›>[[Â>[¯ ¶?Í[»[·² 
*a Ç[Ãɶ=f[ì]ÇÂÆÍɳÈfºÙ=ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=abÃJÈF²fì]µ>¿Â***% 
Í[¾>ºÙ=ÏÇJ[jºxÉ[«Æʯ·„=ÏÇJj™=œÉFÃJEÁǺǯÈ=Ç·UOÉU¼Ã¾C 
>[ÃÈ?¼²ed[U?Ê[¾C***¹=Ç[º?Æh[JFºÆÐ>[ºaÇ[[q>[r 
º¼Ã¾C***ÍÈe>[RJ¶=
4  

¼³¶>[[«{?¹>[[«{?Ƽ³¶>[[«{?ÁD[[ªð>[[ÉÑ>þaÇ[[Ãɶ==Ç[[Qf¼[[í¶ÁCÌa>[[j¶= 
*$***¼²eÇF®›¼³¾Ç¿£·Éi 
* 
»·[j™=aØ[E›Ê ¾>{fj¶=¼j‚==dÂfª>³¶=Hf§¶=bQÆ?=d³ÂÆ 
fª>[³¶=Hf[§¶=¹Æa[E 
ìj·ªη¢¬ 
É¿¢ʶÆa¥=fq´¶cb£EbQÆÆ 
Í[¯ì¿™=‘Cì[j·ªÍÉ[v®À[ºb[Jº=Æ(>EÆeÆ?¼M>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>³Èfº?Íq>~Æ 
>[[º› M@[[Ih[[²fºÆ»·[[j™=HÇ[[·®›ðÍ[ ÉUK[[ɯEì[[j·ªÁÙ(>Ã[[·² 
*ÍÉEf£¶=¦»·j™=aØEÊ®>E‘CLbJº=¸E(ÍÉEf£¶=¹Æb¶=Àº>ÂeÆ>Q 
 
ì[j·ªzeÙ¸[J=aÇ[ÃÈÁ>ɲÐ>n¾CÆ(-503¼Éj¯J¶=e=f®b£E 
Î[·¢Í[Ÿª>=6>ãɖ>ÿÉEµnº¼i>¯EÍɶÆb¶=L=e=f¯¶=K¶=ÇI(-504 
>[º?Æ*a Ç[ÃÉE°[·£J™=G 
[¾>‚=À¢=dÂ(Ìǯ¶=H>Fi?¸³EÅbºÆaÇÃÈÁ>ɲ 
À[[È?Æ(Ò[[Qض=¥Ç[[uǙ$Íɾ>[[j¾C%Í[[‚>£ºÇ[[êHf£¶>[[E°[[·£J™=G[[¾>‚= 
¸[²KVF[q?Æ*>[ÃɶC=Ç[·¯J¾=[¶=Í[ÉEf£¶=¹Æb¶=¤º¼ÃJ®Ø¢Æ(ÁÇ¿³jÈ 
X[rÈפ[®=Æf[º?aÇ[ÃÈÁ>[ɲÁ?Ë?6 
·º>£¶=ÀÈdÂÀº°·ì¿IL=e=f¯¶= 
$± 
Ç[¯U%Æ (Hf[£¶=½ >[³ƒ=À[ºÄ[E­=[¢=a>[‹Ý Ê£[j¶=¸E(Ä El>j™= 
 
ìj·ªÀºÊ ¯E>º›¼ Â>¿³iƐ 
ÒQض=fº?GÉIE$Íɾ>j¾C%É¿Éìj·«¶= 
*¼Ã£º¼ÃI>®Ø¢ÆÍÉEf£¶=¹Æb¶=Æ? 
l>[iÚ¶b[ÉûJ¶=Ç[Â-503+--+.5›¼É[j¯J¶=e=f[®Á>²>»²Æ 
-505+/+.4›¼[ºÙ=ÍÒÉ›ð=Çv¢>Âe>FJ¢=Á>²a ÇÃÈͶÆb¶$ʾǾ>¯¶=% 
*aÇÃÈͶÆb¶ʶÆb¶=ʾǾ>¯¶=bɲ@J¶=Ç 
Í[º>®CHÇ[QÆÏf[IO[ÉF„=Ê[i>Éj¶=Ð>[Â b¶=L=c>ɾ>[ì ÈfEK¾>² 
K[[·JU=[[¶=ì[[j·ª›Ë?(ì[[j·ª¸[[º>²›Í[[É{=f¯•aÍ[[ɾ>»·¢Í[[¶Æa 
(ÁaeÚ[¶ðͺǻ[vºK[¾>²[¶=Í«[v¶=6 
ì[j·ªÀ[ºÊ[¯E>[º›Æ-504
5 

‫ﻭﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻏﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻛﻠـﻬﺎ ﻣﻌـﹰﺎ ﺩﻭﻟـ ﹰﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﹰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻜـﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟـﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌـﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻀﻮﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻞ ﻳﻜﻔﻞ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻟﻮ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴﺰﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻓـﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﺳـﻴﺒﻘﻮﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻋﺪﺍ ًﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻴﻘﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻃﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣـﺪﺙ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴﺒﻴﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻌﲔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﻳـﺴﻌﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﲤﻬﺪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺩ ﺻﻠﺢ ﺑﲔ ﻳﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻋﻤﻼﺀ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،-‬ﻭﺑﻌـﺪ ﺍﻟـﺼﻠﺢ ﺗـﺴﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﳑﺜﻠﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺒﻮﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩٥٠‬ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻣﺎﻏﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴﻞ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﰲ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻗـﺮﺭﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺑﺜﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻮﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﹰﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴـﺎ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪) :‬ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺪﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﲔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﻭﻳﻬﻮﺩﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺟﺌﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌـﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﺈﻗﻨـﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺩﻭﻟ ﹰﺔ ﻳﻬﻮﺩﻳ ﹰﺔ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺑﻘـﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻓﻠـﺴﻄﲔ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﺫﻭﺑﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﻋـﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌـﺮﺏ ﰲ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﻃﻤﻮﺡ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻟﹶﻢ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫‪١٠‬‬ 

*fºÙ=¹Æ?>âÆfnº›\>R¿Ej¶=Àº>³Èfº? 
>âÆf[nº>[²º?K¿FIeÆ>þhÈA¼³UÍÈ>þ›Æ½-515½>£¶=›Æ 
É¿Éì[j·«·¶Á>[ɲͺ>®C›>ÃrÉ^·IÀ³•¶=Æ(ÌǯEƸÉr«J¶=ÀºÐÊnE 
É¿Éì[j·«¶=Ò[Qض=Í·³nº¸UÆlb¯¶=¸ÈÆbIÆ(Ìh¦ÆÍÉEf§¶=Í«v¶=› 
xÈÇ[£IÆ$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%¼[³UK€Í·J=ìj·ª‘C¼Ã¿º¸ÉÒu¼j®Ìa>¢DE 
¸[É»¢fq>¿¶=bF¢‘C¸²Æî?Æ* 
ìj·ªTe>]¼Ã¿É{ÇIÆͯU>j¶=ÍÈfN²Ù= 
¸[É»¢‘C>ð[vÈ?¥Æf[n™==d[Âb¿[i?Æ(>ÂdÉ«¿JE(Í ¯ì¿™=›ÊjÉÑf¶=>²º? 
Í[ÈeÇû‚=Í[º>®Ý>[¢aËd[¶=(¼[i>®¼Èf[³¶=b[F¢±=f[£¶=›f]Û=>²º? 
Í[[ÒÉ>E¹>[[rI×=Æ*¼ [ ÂaØE=Æd[[¯¿É¶ì[[j·ª¸[[Â?b[[É¿ÆÍÉ¿Éì[[j·«¶= 
>[²º?¸[É»¢Ç[ÂÆ(a Ç£[i´[·™=¬[·ò²î Æ(>þ>vJU=Æ>É·£¶=ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶= 
(¥Æf[[n™=›[[j·¶Åf[[‚Ä[[É·¢œ§[[v¶=Ɛ[[jU´[[·™>E¹>[[rI×>E(>ð[vÈ? 
ð>¿É[jU´[·™=Àä [³¶(Kª×ljη¢¥Æfn™==dÇ ¢bIͪ>Vr¶=L?bEÆ 
Î[·¢œ§v¶>E>²º?L?bEÆ*h É·ˆÝ=Àºg>£ÈDEÌbnEÄue>¢ÆĶGRJjÈ 
Í¿[[iÁ>[[¿F·E=eÇJ[[m›ð>[ ¢>»JQ=Í[[ÉEf£¶=¹Æb[[¶=Í[[£º>QLb[[¯¢Æ(ÁaeÙ= 
ʶ>[=¥=h[ÂÁaeÙ =Ð=egÆkÉ[Ñe°[ª=ÆbÈb[n¶=œ§[v¶=K€Æ(½-52, 
Í«[v¶=›Éì[j·ªÁ>[ɲͺ>®Cη¢°ª=ÆË?(ʲºÙ=¥Æfn™==dÂη¢ 
*Ķ>ÉJ¦=b®ʶ>=ÁÙ¤«¿IÅdÂʶ>=ͯª=ǺÁ?×C(ÍÉEf§¶= 
ÌeÇÃ[n™=Ä·Ñ>[ie¸ie?¼³ƒ=‘C½-52-½>£¶=›Ëb¿É²Ð>Q>™Æ 
(Ëf[r™=kÉÑf[¶=f[q>¿¶=b[F¢Æ(ÍÈaÇ£[j¶=´[·ºaÇ£[i´·™=Àº¸²‘C 
a=Ö[ªÆ(ÁaeÙ=´[·º[jU´[·™=Æ(Ê[®=f£¶=kÉÑf[¶=¼[i>®¼Èf³¶=bF¢Æ 
ÍÉ[v®¸[ÈÇ»JEÊ[²º?b[Ãè £I¸Ñ>[if¶=Åd[›Æ*Ê ¾>[¿F·¶=kÉÑf[¶=H>Ãm 
›ÌfÂ>[¯¶=›Ê[Ef¢f“Ö[ºb[¯¢¼[M*Á aeÙ=Å>[ɺÍ·³nº¸}Æ(ÒQض=
--  

Ìf[³«E¹Ç[F¯¶=Î[·¢Ä[·»ƒ 
ÁaeÙ=η¢œ§v¶==dÂa=gÆ(½-52-+2+-, 
¤[ºâÐ>[¯¶f“Ö[™=a>[¯£¾=ÍÉ[n¢Ê[²ºÙ=«[j¶=b[¯¢Æ(ÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=ͶÆb¶= 
Á>[ɳ¶=Î[·¢Í[¯ª=Ǚ=Î[·¢Ä[·»ƒÊ[¾aeÙ=Ð=egÇ[¶=kÉÑeʾÇ÷J¶=KRÃE 
œ[ì^™=œF[U?Æ(Åab[ÂÆʾÇÃ[·J¶=΢bJ[i=ð>¿ÉjU´·™=Àä ³¶(Éìj·«¶= 
*f“Ö™=¸nª?Æ(Íð ɾ>MʲºÙ= 
›Éì[j·«¶=Á>[ɳ¶=Í[º>®ÝÍ[ɲºÙ=L×Æ>[=Lf»J[i==d[³ÂÆ 
GF[jE>[ãɖK·[nª>[ÿ³¶Æ(l 
b[¯¶=›ʶÆaÁ>ɲͺ>®CÆÌh¦ÆÍ«v¶= 
›ðÌb[U=ÆðÍ[ɾ>»·¢ðͶÆa6Á >²¼Ã¢ÆfnºÁÙ(jU´·™=ÆhÉ·ˆÝ=xªe 
b[£E*Á aeÙ=¤[ºÌh[É»JºL>[®Ø¢›¸]bIÆaÇÃɶ=>ÃÉ·¢À»ÉÃȐìj·ª 
À[ºa>¿[iDE˯[n¶=b[—?Í[i>ÑfEÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=fÈfVJ¶=Í»Ÿ¿ºKÒn¾?´¶c 
(½-520½>[£¶=›b[¯¢Ëd[¶=Ê[Ef£¶=Í[»¯¶=f“Ö[º›(f[q>¿¶=b[F¢¹>– 
Á>[ɲÍ[º>®CÆÁaeÙ=À[¢Í[ÉEf§¶=Í«[v¶=¸[r«¶Ê£[j¶=>ÿºzf§¶=Á>²Æ 
*¼ƒKÉEÆlb¯¶=›ʶÆaÁ>ɲÄF¾>Q‘CÆ(>Ãɪ¸¯JjºÉìj·ª 
Í[ɲºÙ=L×Æ>[=ÆL>[ìì^™=Åd[ÂÎ[·¢ʾ>[ì ȶ=af[¶=Ð>[QÆ 
›(° [Èf£¶=Ëh[É·ˆÝ=¸[É»£¶=(Í [FÉ®eÇEGÉ[[F[ƒ=Ê[[j¾ÇJ¶=kÉÑf¶=bÈη¢ 
ʾ>[»·¢Á>[ɲÍ[[º>[®C‘CÄ[ɪ>[[¢aËd[¶=½-521½>[[£¶=ƽ-520½>[£¶= 
ÁÇ[³IO[É}Ê«Ñ>[ì¶=Ág=Ç[J¶=l>[i?Î[·¢½Ç[¯Èì[j·ª¸[²›b[U=Æ 
ÀÈd[[¹Ç[[UÍ[[ÉEf£¶=¹Æb[[¶=K»[[j¯¾=Æ*aÇ[[ÃÉ·¶ð>É[[[£ÉF{Ä[[ɪÍ[[ÉF·¦Ù= 
¸[r«¿™=Éì[j·«¶=Á>[ɳ¶=Í[º>®C›¸N»J™=ʲºÙ=¥Æfn™=(¢Æfn™= 
)Í[[FÉ®eÇE¥Æf[[nº)ʾ>[[ìȶ=¥Æf[[n™=Æ($¸ÉÑ=f[[iC%À[[¢ÆÁaeÙ=À[[¢ 
Ê«Ñ>[ì¶=Ág=Ç[J¶=Î[·¢b[»J£ÈËd[¶=b[U=Ƕ=ʾ>[»·£¶=Á>[ɳ¶=›¸[N[»[J™= 
*ʾ>¿F·¶=Á>ɳ¶=ÄFnÈËd¶=Æ
-.  

›Í[[ɲºÙ=Í[[i>Éj¶=¸[[N•Ëd[[¶=(Ëf[[r™=eÆb[[¶=b¢>[[rI>ºb[[¿¢Æ 
¼[ÂÕØ»¢ÆhÉ·ˆÝ=XFq?OÉ}(f q>¿¶=bF¢M@Ib¢>rJE(œ 
iÆÙ=±fn¶= 
a=bJ[m=ÆÍ[FÉ®eÇE¥Æfn™ÊEf£¶=¥e>n¶=xªeb£EÆ(¤ª=b™=¬®ÇºÁÇ«¯È 
K[FIeÍ[¯ì¿™=›>[ɾ>ìÈfEL>[i>ÉiƐ[jU´[·™=b[uÍÈf[q>¿¶=Í[·»ƒ= 
Í«[v¶=[jU´[·™=>[Ãɪ¼·[jÈͯ쿙=›$ÍÉ·ÉÑ=fiC%ÍÉEf¢ð>EfU>ɾ>ìÈfE 
ÍÉ¿Éì[j·ªÍ[¶ÆaÍ[º>®ÝÄ[É·¢Í[£®=Ƕ=Ç§[v¶=À[ºs·^J[ɶaÇÃÉ·¶ÍÉEf§¶= 
Ä[{eÇɶ(H 
f[ƒ=›IJf[nɶf[q>¿¶=b[F¢jU´·™=h«Ji=ðØ£ªÆ(>ÃÉ·¢ 
ÄEf[u¸[Q?À[º($¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%¤[ºHÆf[U› 
¹Ç]b·¶@Éú¦ľDz(>Ãɪ 
f[q>¿¶=b[F¢ÌÇ[¯EÍ[·N»J™=ÆÄÉ·¢ÍɲºÙ=Ç§v¶=¬É«^J¶(ÌbÈbmÍEfu 
Hf[ƒ=¸[F®$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%b[uÍÈf³[j¢L>[É·»£E½>ɯ¶=Æ(ÄJÉF£m¼ž>£IÆ 
Ëd[¶=f[q>¿¶=b[F¢h«Ji=Æ(Hfƒ=›¹Ç]b·¶$¸ÉÑ=fiC%[¶ð=eºÁdzJ¶ 
›Á=I°Ñ>vº°·¦@ª(f r™ÍÉ·ÉÑ=fiÝ=ÍÈf³j£ ¶=ÍEfv¶=¼RU¤®ÇJÈÀ³È 
K·§J[i>ª(Í[ɶÆb¶=L=Ç[¯¶=af{Æ(f —Ù=fVF¶=›ÍÉ·ÉÑ=fiÝ=ÍUؙ=ÄQÆ 
ÁaeÙ=Æf[rºb[uð>£[i=Æð>¾=Æb[¢K¿[mÆ(ð=e[ºÄId=Æ´¶c$¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
Í[[ÉEf§¶=Í«[[v¶=Ç¯[[iÄ[[JRÉJ¾K[[¾>²(½-523½>[[¢Á=f[[ÈhU›>ÈeÇ[[iÆ 
*½ >[È?ÍJ[i›ËaÇ[Ãɶ=Á>[ɳ¶=Í[vF¯EÐ>¿ÉiÆÌh¦¥>ì ®ÆÁ×ǂ=ÍFvÂÆ 
Í[¶Æbªʶ>[J¶>EÆ(Í[ÉEf¢pÇ[ÉQÍMØM=Ǻh¼þ?¼Ãj«¾?aÇÃÈÌa>®fÞ?Æ 
kÉ[¶Á>[²$¼ Âe>[rJ¾=%Á?ð>º>“ÁDzebȼÂÆ(¼Ã»¢hEfïàI×$¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
½>[Ÿ¿¶=a=b£J[i=½ b[¢6¼ ÂfºB[IƼú>[º?Hf£¶=½>³ƒ=¹c>^J¶¸E(¼ÃIǯ¶ 
(aÇ[ÃÉ·¶>ûɷ[jIÆÍ«[v¶=À[ºÊ[¾aeÙ=½>[Ÿ¿¶=H>Vj¾=ÆHfV·¶Ëfr™= 
ËeÇj¶=oɂ=Çì]¬·]ÊÂÆÌfìÉ¿¯¶=Ç¯iËeÇj¶=½>Ÿ¿¶=ÁØ¢CÆ 
*ÄE>Vj¾=ÆÄE=fìu=‘C´¶cÏa@ª(Á×ǂ=›¸I>¯ÈÁ>²Ëd¶=
-/  

¥=f[r¶=›ÌF[²¹Ç[€Í[쯾ÍÉUf[j™=Hfƒ=ÅdÂáLfß [åFJà¢=b¯¶Æ 
*>ÍuÆf£™=L=ea>F™=›Æͯ쿙=›Ê·ÉÑ=fiÝ=ÊEf£¶= 
lb[®ÆÉì[j·ªÁ>[ɲÍ[º>®CÀ[¢Hfƒ=¸F®OÈbƒ=Á>²Á?b£EÆ 
(eǺÙ=Lb»Æ(Á=Æb£¶=e>MAͶ=gCÍɫɲÀ¢>Âb£EOÈbƒ=XFq?(ÍɶÆa 
OÈb[ƒ=e>qÆ(Á×ǂ=ÆÌh¦ÆÍÉEf§¶=Í«v¶=¥ØJE=Àº$¸ÉÑ=fiC%K¿³“Æ 
À[¢eb[rª(½-523½>¢Í·J=°{>¿™=Àº$¸ÉÑ=fiC%H>Vj¾=η¢ð>Fr¿º 
>ð[É¢=a(ÄJ¦>Éq›ÌeÆ>¿™=Æ(Ğ>«¶?G¢ØJEÃn¶=.0.e=f¯¶=ÀºÙ=k·… 
>[²º?L?b[EÆ(Hf[ƒ=›>[ÃJ·JU=$z
ô =e?%À[ºH>Vj¾×=‘C$¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
›ð>[U>ƒCf[N²Ù=Ê[ÂÆf[rºÆ$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%[EÍ[®Ø£¶=Í[‚>£ºÎ[·¢h²fI 
Hf[ƒf[v€>[²º?L?b [EÆ(>ð[F¾>QÉì[j·«¶=¬[·™=¤[uÆ ¼Jª(>ÂfŸ¾ 
>ÃIb[¢>®›h[JÂ=Ëd[¶=>[ÂcÇ«¾K[ÉFNJ¶Æ(Í É»·[j¶=ÍÉ·»£¶=´ÈfVJ¶ÌbÈbQ 
Hf[ƒ=›ͯU>[iL>Ef[uKEf[u
à [¶=f[rºÊ[ÂÆ(Í [¯ì¿™=›ÍÉjÉÑf¶= 
*Ð>¿ÉiLfj]Æ 
EÌaÆb†HfU¹>£mCÀº>²º?K¿³“ÎJUL=Ç¿i×CÊÂ>ºÆ 
Hf[UK[¾>³ª(Í[ɾ>MÍ[ÃQÀ[º$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%[EÆ(Í[ÃQÀº>ÈeÇ iÆfrº 
Í[É®>«I=¤[É®ÇI‘Cb[£E>[»ÉªLa?Í[ɳÈf€ð>[EfU½-53/½>[¢¹Æ?ÀÈfnI 
bÉûJ¶=b£E½-534½>£¶=À º5+-3›$¸ÉÑ=fiC%Æ frºEbÉ«ÈaGº>² 
›ð>[E>ì]Ä[Ñ>¯¶CÆ(Í [·J=lb[¯·¶L=a>[j¶=eÇ[¾?Ëfr™=kÉÑf¶=Ìe>ÈhE> 
*½-533½>£¶=›Ê·ÉÑ=fiÝ=KjÉ¿³¶= 
Ìf[ÈhQÄF[m$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%K[·]?b[É«ÈaG[º>²ÍÉ®>«I×frº¤É®ÇJEÆ 
Ìab[£JºL=Ç[®aÇ[QƤ[º(\ 
Ø[j¶=À[ºÍ[¶Æh£ºf[rº‘C>ÃIa>¢?ÆÐ>¿Éi 
´¶d[EÆ(Í[²f£™=À[ºf[rºT=f]CÁ>»v¶(>ÃɪÍɲº?ͺ>¢hEÍÉj¿‚=
-0  

eÇ[¾?>Ã[·É»£EÍ[¯N¶=Ìa>[¢CK[“>[»²(Í [ÉEÇ¿‚=ÍÂ=Àº$¸ÉÑ=fiC%¼ÉR€ 
½>[º?ÄJÉF£[mb[¯ªb[®Á>[²Ëd[¶=Æ(Ï 
f[]?ÍÃQÀºfrº¼²>UL=a>j¶= 
*Ëfr™=G£n¶= 
Í[¯ì¿™=›Ê[²ºÙ=¸[¯N¶=a=gf[rº¤[º½Ø[j¶=À[º©=f[«¶=b£EÆ 
\>[ÉJQ>E$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%‘C>[²º?Lh¢Æ@[ª(Í ɶ>»n¶=ÍÃF‚=‘C¸»£¶=¸¯J¾=Æ 
(½-54.½>[¢Hf[UK[¾>³ª(Ä[¿ºÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=fÈfVJ¶=Í»Ÿ¿ºaf{ÆÁ>¿F¶ 
K[€Á>[¿F¶À[¢¸[ÉUf¶=η¢L>ªf¢LQ?ÆÁ>¿F¶$¸ÉÑ=fiC%Lh¦OÉU 
*k 
¾Ç[I‘C(Ê [²ºÙ=Ê[i>ºÇ·Eb¶=œ§v¶=Æ(Ê ·ÉÑ=fiÝ=Ëf³j£¶=œ§v¶= 
>ðª=¢=Ä¿º¥hJ¾=ÆLÆE‘CʲºÙ=lf§¾Ç³¶=ÀºbªÆÐ>QÄ·ÉUe¸F®Æ 
¤[®ÆÆ*a Ç[Ãɶ=¤[ºX·[r¶=½=f[EÝÍ[ºb¯ºÁdzɶ(Ë 
aÇÃɶ=Á>ɳ¶>Eð>Œfq 
L>[ªf¢¹>[®[¶=ʳ[iÇ·²>ºÍ[¯ÉMÇE­f¢>º½-54.+3+.1›L>ªf¢ 
Ç[[v¢?f[[®ÆaÇ[[QǶ=›$¸ÉÑ=f[[iC%°[[}ÁÛ=­[[£IÍ[[»Ÿ¿™=6Á@[[E>[[Ãɪ 
L>[ªf¢eÇ[v}Í[¯ÉMǶ=É«V[r¶=½>[º?ʳ[iÇ·²>ºʲºÙ=lf§¾Ç³¶= 
Í[[»Ÿ¿™ð>[jÉÑeÄ«[qÇEÍ[Éì]Í[¯ÉMÆÎ [·¢¤[®ÆL>[ªf¢f[[i>ÈÁC6¹>[[¯ª 
¼[ºÙ=L=e=f[®¤[É»|¸F¯IfÈfVJ¶=Í»Ÿ¿ºÁ?η¢s¿IÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=fÈfVJ¶= 
b[®ÁÇ[³ÈÍ[¯ÉMǶ=Åd[L>[ªf¢¤É®ÇJEÆ(Í É¿Éìj·«¶=ÍÉv¯¶=¹ÇUÌbVJ™= 
Ág=Ç[J¶=Î[·¢Í[É¿F™=Ìb[U=Ƕ=Í[ɾ>»·£¶=ͶÆb¶=›ÍÈhÉ·ˆÝ=Ìf³«¶=À¢η 
Ç[[‰[[j¶=›‘ÆÙ=ÌÇ[[ì„=>[[ì]b[[®ÁÇ[[³ÈÆ([[ ì[j·ª›Ê«Ñ>[[ ì¶= 
G[¾>Q‘CÍÉ[[¿[É[ì[j 
·ªÍ[¶ÆaÍ[[º>[®C‘CÇ[[¢bÈËd[¶=ʲºÙ=¥Æf[n™= 
*$¸ÉÑ=fiC%ͶÆa 
¹ÆÙ=ÀÈf[nI›f[Ñ=h‚=›b[¯¢Ëd[¶=Éìj·«¶={Ƕ=f“Ö™=›Æ 
¹ÆÙ=ÁǾ>[[²¬[[É¿ÉQ›Ìb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÙ=¥>[[»JQ=½>[[º?´¶d[[²Æ(-544
-1 

‫‪١٩٨٨‬ﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳋـﻄـﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺧﻄﺐ ﻋﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴـﺔ ﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺣﺘﻠﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٦٧‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﻋـﻦ ﻗﻴـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺣﺴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﲤﻮﺯ ‪١٩٨٨‬ﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺿﻄﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠـﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌـﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﻒ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺮﻃﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘـﺬﺍﰲ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳊـﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻞ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ :‬ﺩﻭﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ ﻧﻜﻬ ﹰﺔ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ ﹰﺓ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬
‫ﳓﺖ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﲰﹰﺎ )ﺇﺳﺮﺍﻃﲔ( ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶـﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻟﻄﺮﻓﺘﻴﻪ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‪ :‬ﻃﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﻃﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄـﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲨﻌﺖ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﻣﺆﲤﺮ ﻣﺪﺭﻳـﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٩١‬ﻡ ﻭﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟـﺴﲑ ﲟـﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﲝـﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻞ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻋﻤﺎﺀ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫ﰲ )ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ(‪ :‬ﺭﺍﺑﲔ ﻭﺑﲑﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑـﺂﺧﺮ ﳏﺎﻭﻻ‪‬ـﺎ ﻟﻌﺮﻗﻠـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﻭﺳﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻡ ‪١٩٩٣‬ﻡ ﺑـﲔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤـﺔ‬
‫‪١٦‬‬ 

À[[ºÍ[[ɪ>«J¶=Í[[¶Æ>†±>[[«I×==d[[ÂÁ>[[²Æ($¸ÉÑ=f[[iC%ÆÍÉ¿Éì[[j·«¶=f[[ÈfVJ¶= 
¸[V·¶ð>[i>i?>²º?>ÃJ£uƶ=(b Èebºf“ÖºÌf³ªη¢>EÆeÆ?Æ>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Ð>[»¢gÆËaÇ[Ãɶ=Á>[ɳ¶=Ìa>®¤ºÁÆ>£J¶>E´¶cÆ(Í ɾ>N¶=SÉ·„=HfUb£E 
*fÈfVJ¶=Í»Ÿ¿º 
Ä[[¶X»[[ià ÆÌh[[¦ÆÍ«[[v¶=‘CL>[[ªf¢Ð>[[Q±>[[«I×==d[[ÂG[[QǒÆ 
[[[¶Ê[[¸[[E(>[[Í[[É·£ªÌa>É[[i× 
Éì[[j·ªÊ[[I=c¼[[³UÍì·[[ikÉ[[ i@JE 
L>[uÆ>«º‘C±>[«I×==d[¹Ç[€Á?K¢>ìJ[i=>[²º?À[³¶($¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
°[[ªÆ×C¸[[U¼J[[È×Á?À»[[vJ¶>[[³Èfº?>[[Ãɪ¼³VJ[[I(Ìb[[ ¯[£ºÆÍ·ÈÇ[[ { 
*ÍɳÈfºÙ=kÉÈ>¯™= 
¼[uÀì¿m=Æ›¥>»JQ=-550gǓ.1›b¯ ¢Ïf]?ÍÉU>¾ÀºÆ 
kÉ[ÑeÁÇ[J¿É·²Í[È>¢fE$¸ÉÑ=fiC%Ð=egÆkÉÑeE=eÆ(ÁaeÙ=´·ºjU 
Í[¶>UÐ>[þDEÀì¿[m=ÆXÈf[rIÅf[M?η¢Àå·¢î?(ÍɳÈfºÙ=ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ= 
Kþ?¶=ÍEf¢Ëa=ÆÍÉ®>«I=K£®Æ¼MÀºÆ(ÁaeÙ=Æ$¸ÉÑ=fiC%EHfƒ= 
*J¶Æb¶=Eð>ÉeHfƒ=Ͷ>U 
(-550+1+0›$>[Œe?)Ìh[¦%Íɾ>[[N¶=Ç[·[i Æ?Í[É[®>[« I=LÐ>[QÆ 
LÇ[“K[¾>²¸[Ef[[»ç [£[I¼[¶>[Ã[·²Æ-554+-,+./›f[«[ÈeË=Ƽ[M 
*b¶ÇIÁ?¸F® 
L>[[ªf¢[[E¸º>[[m½Ø[[i±>[[ «I=½=f[[ECÁÇ[[J¿É·²Ìe=aCK[[ ¶Æ>[UÆ 
±>[[«I×==d[[­f[[¢Æ*b[[É«ÈaG[[º>²›½.,,,Í¿[[i›µ=e>[[EaÇ[[ÃÈCÆ 
À[³¶(±>«I×==dÂg>ˆDEÄ»³UÊÿÈÁ?ÁÇJ¿É·²tfUÆ(.b É«ÈaGº>³E 
¹Ç[F¯¶ð@[ÉúÀ[³ÈÉ¿Éìj·«¶=E½>£¶=Ë?f¶=Æ$¸ÉÑ=fiC%›½>£¶=Ë?f¶= 
Í[u>«J¾>E­f[¢>[º½.,,,¹Ç[·È?›K£¶b[¾>ª(=d[ò¸º>m½Øi±>«I=
-3  

ì[j·ª¸[Â?b[uÍ[ɺÇɶ=eg>[=H>[³Ie>E$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%L?b[EÆ(Î[r®Ù= 
*>[ÃEÁdz[j»JÈK[E=ÇMÀ[ºÎ[¯FI>[ºÀ¢¹g>¿J¶=ƽØjJi×=η¢¼Ã·»ƒ 
(Í[ɾ>N¶=Ä[Ie=aCÍ[·UfºÍ[È>ÿEÁÇJ¿É·²H>Âc¤º.b É«ÈaGº>²G 
Âcb®Æ 
*½.,,-ÍÈ=bE›¼³ƒ=‘CÀE×=pÇEÐÊ…Æ 
6ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ÍÉv¯¶=›¸]bJ¶=›pÇEͺdzUaafI 
ÍÉ¿Éì[[j·«¶=ÍÉ[[v¯¶=Ä[[JºÇ³U¸[[º>£IpÇ[[EÍ[[i>ÑeÍ[[ ®Ø[ì¾=d[[¿º 
Á>[²Æ*Ìb[VJ™=L>[È×Ƕ=L=e=aCÀ[º>ÃI>¯E>[j²ÍÈb‚=ÀºÄ j«¾eb¯¶>E 
*Í [ÒÉìEÍ[®Øì¾=d]?b®Ä·»²@EÉìj·«¶=) Ê·ÉÑ=fiÝ=¥=fr¶=ljÄQÇJ¶= 
À [¢ÆÁ Ç[J¿É·²L>[U¯ºÀ[¢pÇ[EÌe=aCK·(½.,,->Fm+f È=ª› 
>F[[m +f[[È=ª3›Æ*É·ÉÑ=f[[iÝ=ƐɿÉì[[j·«¶= 
[[E¬[[N³™=œ[[iÇJ¶= 
(f[[[nIÆ>Eae>[[[nJÈe(Í[[[ÉQe>„=Ìe=gƼ[[[i>EPb[[ [VJ™=¹>[[[®(½.,,fÃ[[mÙ=¹Ø[[]>ÃJ[[n®>¿ºK[[“[[¶=L>[[U¯™=Æe>[[³ªÙ=ÁC6·[[i=f»·¶ 
ʶ>[J¶>EÆÁÇ[J¿É·²kÉÑf[¶=e>³ª?ÆL>U¯º)K¾>² )ÊÂÍÉ[u 
>™=Í·É·¯¶= 
µf[[IÁ?b[[£EÌb[[VJ™=L>[[È×Ƕ=L>[[U¯ºÆ?ÍÉ[[i>ÑeL>[[U¯ºb[[£I 
Í[[¯È>[v 
™=ƹ>[ÉJ¦×=Ƹ[J¯¶=›$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%bÈ>³Èfº?K¯·{?b¯¶*Íi>Ñf¶= 
› 
½?$Í[[ì[·[j¶=%Ìe=aÝÍ£u>„=°{>¿™=›´¶cÁ>²?Ð=Çiìj·ª¸ÂÙ 
>[ÂfN²?LØ[Ue›Í[¯ì¿»·¶Ä[¶>Qe¸[ifÈpÇEe>qÆ*Ï 
f]Ù=°[{>[¿™= 
e>[¿¶=¬®ÆÆKÉ¿ÉITeÇQ¼M(ÅfÈf¯IƸÉnJɺÐ>Q=d³ÂÆ*ͺ>¢L>®Ø¢ 
f[]A‘CÍ[¯ì¿»·¶f[Ñ=gÀ[ºeÇ[ºÙ=Lf»J[i=Æ Ä ¿»vÈÁ>²Ëd¶=K[®Ö™= 
*.,,-+5+--P=bU?K¾>²ÎJU
-4  

K[£uƹÇ[·È? +»JF[i--P=bU? 
6ÍÉ«·„=­Çªf¶=›ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ÍÉv¯¶= 
¥=fr¶= ¦Ïf] ?L>ÈǶÆ?¹Ç·È?+ »JFi--L>»RÂL 
bQÆ?b¯¶ 
=ðb[QÍ[v«^¿ºÍ[ÈǶÆ?=c¥ 
=f[r¶==d[ÂX F[q?Æ* 
Éì[j·«¶=)Ê·ÉÑ=fiÝ= 
>[£¶=Î[·¢ÌbÈbQHfUÀn¶>³Èfº?Lb£Ji=OÉU(p 
ÇEÌe=aÝÍFj¿¶>E 
Í [qf«¶=Åd[Â$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%K·§J[i=b[®Æ*H 
>[ÂeÝ=Í[Ee>†ÍR}ʺØiÝ= 
ÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=Íì·[j¶=K[ì¢?K[¾>²[¶=°{>[¿™=¹ØJU=ÌaÆ>£™$H>ÂeÝ=% 
Íð ºb^J[jº(Í [E=f¢ÆÍ[¿Èb™=Ìh[¦Æ¿[QÆ>[Œe?¸[Nº(>[ÃɪðÍÈe=aCðÍÉUØq 
L>E>Eb[¶=¸ÉÑ=f[iCKºb^J[i=b®Æ* 
É¿Éìj·«¶=buÐΪ>³J™=¦¬¿£¶= 
>ÃIfìÉ[izf[ª¸[Q?À[ºÍÉ·ÉÑ=fiÝ=Hfƒ=L=fÑ>{ÆÍ ÉUÆf™=L=fÑ>ì¶=Æ 
>[ÃE½Ç[¯È[¶=ÍÉnUǶ=¼Ñ=f ‚=Ïbºð>º>“ð>Vu=ÆXFq?Æ*Á b™=ÅdÂη¢ 
Î[·¢Á=Æb[£·¶>ÃI=a=b£J[i=Î[·¢´[¶cM@Iη¢>³Èfº?KÉn]Æ(ÁÆe>m 
¥>[uÆÙ=Ôb[ÃIÁ?La=e@ª($b £E>»Éª±=f£¶=¼MÁ>Jj¾>§ª?%»·j™=aØE 
Ä[J>º½.,,-¹Æ?ÀÈfnI+fEÇJ²?› 
K¿·¢@ªͯ쿙>E>ú>»JÂ=fßIÁ@E 
Hf[£¶=¼¢aGj²ÇÂ>ÿº­b=Á>²Æ($b Èb‚=œiÆÙ=±fn¶=Ìea>Fº% 
*H>ÂeÝ=bu>³Èfº?Hfƒ 
6H>ÂeÝ>EÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ͺÆ>¯™=¬rI$¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
[E>º¥=fr²Éìj·«¶=) Ê·ÉÑ=fiÝ=¥=fr¶=J£I¸ÉÑ=fiCL?bE 
f²d[J¾Á?G[‹6K 
jÉ¿³¶=½>º?ÁÆe>mĶ>®>º=dÂÆ*H>ÂeÝ=ƸÉÑ=fiC 
L=f[[n¢¸[[F®L=fÑ>[[ì¶=¬[[ì„ÍÉ¢f [ n¶=Î[[ì¢?Ëd[[¶=Ç[[ÂL>[[ªf¢Á@[[E
-5  

b[[uHf[[ƒ=%Í[[¶Ç¯ºK·»£J[[i=[[¶=Ìb[[ÉUǶ=K[[jɶ¸ÉÑ=f[[iCÆ*¿[[j¶= 
>É[[iÆeÆb[[¿=À[[º¸[²K[[·£ª´¶d[[²¸[[E(»·[[j™>EoìF[[J¶$H>[[ÂeÝ= 
* 
ÉE>[ÂeÝ>E¼دJ[i=¸[Q?À[ºÁÇEe>[ŒÀÈd¶=»·j™==Ç«qÆƐr¶=Æ 
×Á?Ê[³ÈfºÙ=½>£¶=Ë?f·¶Íq 
>~Æð>ɺآCh²fIK·£Qb¯ª$¸ÉÑ=fiC%>º? 
K¿[m(´ 
[¶cÀ[ºð>®Øì¾=Æ*Í É¿Éìj·«¶=ͺÆ>¯™=L>¢>–ÆÌb¢>¯¶= 
E±fª 
¹>[Qeb[uÎJUÆ(ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ͺÆ>¯™=L>¢>–buÌð fÈfm>ðEfU$¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
>F[m+f [È=ª-/›*Í [ºÆ>¯™=ÁÆb¢>[jÈ=Ǿ>[²ÀÈd¶=ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=Í{fn¶= 
*Ìh[¦¥>[ì®›Í [«É¿¢Í Èf³[j¢L 
>[É·»¢Ê·ÉÑ=f[iÝ=oÉ[‚=d«¾(.,,. 
Í É¿Éì[j·«¶=°{>¿™=›ÁǯFÉiaÇ¿‚=Á@E(ÄÉ¿i¼È=fªC(Ê·ÉÑ=fiCfÈgƹ>®Æ 
L=Ç[¯¶=Á@[EÆ(_ Èe=Ç[r¶=¤¾>[rºÎ[·¢eÇ[N£¶=¼J[ÈÎ[JU½>[È?Ìb™Ìh¦› 
*_Èe=Çr¶=±Ø{Cf»Ji=>º=cC¹Ç{?Ìb™ÆfN²?L=e>¦ÀnJiÍÈf³j£¶= 
(Ê ·ÉÑ=f[iÝ=¬[¿£¶=Í£ÉF{ʽ.,,.½>¢Lhɺ 
¶=eǺÙ=ÀºÁC 
=ðb[É·¯IÉì[j·«¶=$H 
>[ÂeÝ=%Í[Vª>³º¼i>EÍ É¿Éìj·«¶=Êu=eÙ=Ìfq>†Æ 
ÍÉ¿·£¶=ÍF¶>ì™>E´¶d²½>£¶==dÂhɓÆ*$H>ÂeÝ=%buÍ¿·£™=>³Èfº?Hfƒ 
ð>[Ef®f[N²?ðÍ[·ÈbEðÍÉ¿Éìj·ªðÌa>É®>bQÇIÁ?ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=Íì·j·¶>³Èfº?Àº 
Á?>[³Èfº?K[ŸU×b[¯ª*>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[EÆeÆ?À[ºð=b[£Ef[N²?Æ>[³Èfº?Àº 
>[»²>[³Èfº?¤[º[j¶=›©Æ=f[ÈXFq?L>ªf¢Íq>~ÆÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=Ìa>ɯ¶= 
=d[ÂS¢g@[ª(>[ɾ>ìÈfEÍq>~Æ>EÆeÆ?¤ºÄ{>FIe=¸q?‘C¤Qeľ?Æ(bÈfI 
Í¢Ç쯺>ÃvÉv®Æ>Ãv¯EÍì·j¶=XFrJ¶¤uǶ=XÉVrJEK»JÂ=Æ(>³Èfº? 
›ð>V[[u=Æ´[[¶cf[[ÞÆ*G 
[ jVª>[[ÃɶCðÌaÆb[[nºÆ>[[EÆeÆ?¤[[ºœE=Æf[[¶= 
6>ɾ>ìÈfEÍq>~Æ>EÆÆ?À¢Ìea>r¶=´·IÆ(>³Èfº?À¢Ìea>r¶=L>ŒfrJ¶= 
ʺÇ[[¯¶=À[[ºÙ=Ìe>[[nJjºK[[¶>®(½.,,.Á=f[[ÈhU+Ç[[ɾÇÈ-4›
.,  

Ä[[ÈgÇQÁ>[[i›Lf[[n¾Í[[·E>¯º›(k[[È=e=hɶ=b[[¾Ç²(Ìb[[VJ™=L>[[È×Ç·¶ 
Íì·j¶=ÁC(ÍU=frE66DQ-RVH0HUFXU\1HZVgÇɾËeDzº 
Ëd[[¶=l>[[iÙ=Ê[[ÂK[[jɶ(¬[[¿£¶=¤[[ºÍ[[Ò{=ÇJ™=ÆÌb[[i>«¶=(ÍÉ¿Éì[[j·«¶= 
kÉÑf[¶=Ïa>[¾¥ÇF[i?b[£EÆ*½ >[ºÙ=‘CÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=ͶÆb¶=½b¯JEX»jÉi 
K[[¾>²>[ɾ>ìÈfEÍ[[q>~Æ>[EÆeÆ?L>Œf[[rIÀ[³¶*L 
>[[ªf¢Í[U>{DEpÇ[E 
*ÍÉ¢>¿[r¶=ʾ>[»N¶=Í[¢Ç»…¹Æb¶¥>»JQ=¹Ø^ª*>ÃI>É죺›¬·J 
([·EʾÇ[I(ʾ>[ìȶ=Ð=egÇ[¶=k 
É[Ñe¹>®(½.,,.Á=fÈhU+Ç ɾÇÈ.2› 
f[ÈgÆ(Æ[iµ>[Q>[º?*¼ ÃIa>[®e>[ÉJ]אɿÉìj·«·¶aÇ£ÈfºÙ=6=ðfrº 
¤[º¸[º>£J¾À[‰6¹ >[®O[ÉUðÍ[[U=f[q 
f[N²?Á>³ª(ʾ>[ì ȶ=ÍÉ[Qe>„= 
¼J[ÈÌa>[®¤[ºÍ[ÈeÇI>J³Èb¶=Í[»Ÿ¾Ù=Í[¶>U›Æ¼ÃE>[^J¾= ÀÈd[¶=Ìa>¯¶= 
ÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=Íì·[j¶=¸[F®À[ºL>[ªf¢kÉÑf[¶=H>^J¾=bÉ¢?=cCÆ(¼ÃE>^J¾= 
½>[[¯ªÍ[[ɳÈfºÙ=L>Œf[[rJ·¶L>[[ªf¢f[[i>ÈH>[[RJi=Æ*Ä[[£º¸º>[[£J¿[jª 
À[³¶Ï 
f[]Ù=L=É[§J¶=x£F[E½ >[®´¶d²ÆÀ ºÙ=ʶÆÖ[j 
ºx£EÐ>«¢DE 
À[[º=b[[Qð>[ Ef¯º L>[[ªf¢ÁÆ[[J£ÈÀÈd[[¶=É³Èf[[ºÚ¶ð>[ ɪ>²À[[³È=d[[ 
*ÉEÆeÆÙ=Ɛɾ>ìȶ= 
¹Æ>[U 
[U½.,,.¹Ç[·È?+ »JF[i.1Î[JU¥=f[r¶=f[»J[i=¼M 
f“Ö[™Í[Q>}À‰6¹ >®b®Æ*½ Øj¶=ÍÉ·»¢›Ì>Ƀ=lf¦ð=ab…·EʾÇI 
ÊÑ>[¿N¶=?b[F™=Î[·¢F[ºœ[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=›½Øj¶=ÍÉ·»¢tÇr~bÈbQ 
›Æ´ 
[¶cb [£EÆ*Í [¶>£ªÍÉ¿Éì[j·ªÍ[¶ÆaÆÍ[¿ºA¸ ÉÑ=f[iCÎ[·¢s¿[ÈËd¶= 
Í[i>Éj¶=Í[ÉQ=Æag=‘CÌe>mÝ>E·EʾÇI?bE(½.,,.¹Æ?ÀÈfnI+fEÇJ²? 
¸[»£¶=Hh[Uf“Öº¹Ø]¹>®Æ*± 
=f£¶=Ɛìj·ªÆ¸ÉÑ=fiCÅ>ÍɳÈfºÙ= 
*Ó{>[[[]Æ ¤[[nEÁÛ=œ[[[iÆÙ=±f[[n¶=›Pb[[Œ>[[[º6¹ Ç[[EµØ[[E›
.-  

ÁÇɾb[[™=Æ(Í[[jÑ>EÆÍ[[¿ÉúÆÍ[[¶dº­Æf[[žK[[€ÁÇ[[nÉ£ÈÁÇÉ¿Éì[[j·«¶>ª 
¼[ºÙ=L=e=f[®°[ÉFìIG[‹Ä[¾@E°[ª=Æ?>[¾?*Í É[nUÇEÁÇ·J¯ÈÉ·ÉÑ=fiÝ= 
¸[E¸ ÉÑ=f[iCÎ[·¢œ[¯ª°[FìI×>[ÿ³¶Æ*±=f£¶=›>»²ð>º>“>¿ÂÌbVJ™= 
e >[³ªÙ$Ê [Ÿ«·¶=%´ÈfVJ¶=‘C>³Èfº?¤ªafºÙ==d Â*­ 
=f{Ù=¤É–η¢ 
.,,.+2+.0›Ä[E>ì]›LaeÆ[¶=°[Èfì¶=Í{e>]λjºK€pÇE 
f[ºÙ==d[¤[FIb[®Æ*$¸ÉÑ=fiC%G¾>|ÆfnEÍÉ¿Éìj·ªͶÆaa>‹C¹ÇU 
PÇ[£F™=>[Ie>ÈgK[¾>²Æ*Í [¯ì¿™=‘CÉ³Èf[º? 
¶ÇÒ[j™Ìb[ª=ÇJºL=e>Èg 
Lf»J[i=´[¶c¤[ºÆ* 
É[nI´[Èa(kÉÑf[¶=G[Ñ>¾Æ([ÈgʾÇ[J¾A(½>£¶= 
Í[ºÆ>¯™=À[ºðÍ[·¢>QÍ[·J=Êu=eÙ=›ÍÉnUǶ=>ÃI>i>ÉifÈJE$¸ÉÑ=fiC% 
*H>ÂeÞ¶ð>ªa=fºÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶= 
À[ºLÐ>[Q>þÙÁÆe>m¼Ñ=fQÀ¢­fì¶=x§I>³Èfº?K¾>²b¯¶ 
6Ä [J¶Ç¯º´¶d²Æ$H 
>ÂeÝ=buHfƒ=%>ÿ·£ÈpÇEÁ>²¶=>Ãj«¾ÍRƒ= 
Í[[Rƒ=Åd[[Â$¸ÉÑ=f[[iC%K·§J[[i=´¶d[[¶Æ($H>[[ÂeÝ=¤[[º>[[ºCÆÊ[[£º>[[ºC% 
KVF[[q?Æ(L>[»É^™=ÆÏf[[¯¶=ÆÁb[™=b[[uÍÉ[nUǶ=¼Ñ=f[[‚=›K[¿£º?Æ 
›>[³Èfº?µe>[nI>[þ?e>[FJ¢=Î[·¢N[º¸³nEÁ>É£·¶ðÍ·M>ºaÇÃÈÍifì¦ 
Í[R}Ä[»Ñ=fQ›À[£•aÇ[ÃÈÁ>[ɲ¸£QËd¶=Æ*$H 
>ÂeÝ=buHfƒ=% 
6ÇÂÄÃQÆ›¬¯IÌǯ¶>ðE>jUGjŒÁ?ÁÆaH>ÂeÝ=ÍVª>³º 
*p 
Ç[EÌe=aC›ab[‚=Ÿª>[=ÀºÁ>ɳ¶==d¤i=Ƕ=¼¢b¶=6×ð Æ? 
?b[[Eab[[‚=Áǟª>[[=Ä[[Ie=aC‘C¸[[qÆƼ[[³ƒ=‘CpÇ[[E¸[[qÆÁ?d[[¿»ª 
ÍÉ[i>Éj¶=Ç[ì„=ÁÇ£[vȹ[Eae>[nJÈe¤ºOɪlئÆa¹>Nº?¼Ãv£E 
ÍÉRÉI=[i=6Í [«ÉŸ¾Í[®Øì¾=6>[Ã=ðÍÉ[i>ÉiÍð ®eÆ=Ç£uǪ(a dzɷ¶=¸J³J¶ 
-552½>¢›aÇÃÈͶÆaº@IljÌbÈbQ
.. 

$ &OHDQ 

 
         

½>[ɯ¶>E(ÇÂ>[É¿ÉJɾ(µ=d[¾AÊ ·ÉÑ=f[iÝ=Ð=egÇ[¶=k 
É[ÑeÍ [®eǶ=KV 
r¾b®Æ 
-55/Ç·[iÆ?Í[É®>«I=tÇr¾¹>ìECË?½ Øj¶=ÍÉ·»¢›ÌbÈbQÍ®Øì¾>E 
K 
[¢aÆ*½ Ø[j¶=¸[E>¯ºzeÙ=?bFºxªfEzeÙ>E¸ÉÑ=fiC°UÌa>¢CÆ 
À[¢O[VF¶=ÆÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=Ê[u=eÙ=¹ØJU=Ìa>¢Ý$¸ÉÑ=fiC%´ 
¶d²Í®eǶ= 
Î[·¢Í[É¿Fº(Ìb[VJ™=L>È×Ƕ=¤ºÏÇ®?ÆÌbÈbQͮآ°·„ÆL>ªf£¶¸ÈbE 
µ=e>[EaÇ[ÃÈ=À [º¸[²Á?Æb[FÈÆ*Í [¶a>FJ™=Ìb[Ñ>«¶=ÆL=d[¶=η¢a>»J¢×= 
Í[[É£®=Ƕ=°[[Èfì¶=Í[[{e>^ 
²Åd[[ÂÍ[[i>Éj¶=Í[[®eÆ>ºb^J[[i=b[[®ÁÆe>[[mÆ 
±f[n¶=¼[j®kÉ[ÑeÇÂÆ(h º=fE?LÇɶC‘ 
Cb£E>»Éªb¿i?>»²*¸ÉÑ=fiÝ 
*° [Èfì¶=Í[{e>]a=b[¢CÍ ɶÆÖ[jº({Ç[¶=Ê ºÇ¯¶=À ºÙ=k·…›œiÆÙ= 
ÁÆe>[[mÍ[ì~¹Ç[[F¯·¶pÇ[[EÌe=aC¤ªb[[Eð>É[[jÉÑeð=eÆaLÇ[[ɶCG[[£¶Æ>[[»² 
=hɶ=b[¾Ç²À[º¸[²K[F£¶(L>Éi>ºÇ·Eb¶=Àº¤ÉE>i?¹Ø]Æ*H>Vj¾Ø¶ 
¸ F¯J[jºh [Èh£J¶ÁÆe>[mÌf[Ÿ¾b [ÉÈ@IÐ =eÆÍ[¶>£«¶=Ìǯ¶=eÆaLÇɶCÆkÈ=e 
*ÍÈaÇÃɶ=ͶÆb¶= 
Á ÆfÈa ÇÃɶ=Á>³ª*Í ì·j¶=ʶ>J¶>EÆÍ»Ÿ¿™=b¿¢¹g>¿J¶=ÍÉ·¯¢6>ðɾ>M 
Í[»Ÿ¿™=K[¶g>¿Ib[¯ª*b [ÈbQ¹g>¿Iη¢ ÁÇ·rŒÌb¢>rJ™=¼Ã»Ñ=f|¼Ã¾? 
ì[j·ª¸[³EG[¶>ìIb[£I¼M(23ìj·«EKF¶>{Æ04ìj·ªÀ¢ 
½ Ç[ɶ=K 
[E=ÇN¶=À[ºÅ[J£I>[»ª(¹ g>¿J¶>ELf»Ji==d³ÂÆ(>ÃJÉF·¦@E¸E23 
>ð[{Çì]λ[jIK[¾>²[¶=Ò[Qض=ÌaÇ¢Á?>»²*=ðb¦´¶c¦XFrÈ 
-Ê[«ª*>ðŒf[rI¼[Mð>[VÉ»·I>[ÿ¢¹g>[¿J¶>EL?bE(=ðbU=Æð>ì]×(Ð=f— 
Ð>ÉVJ[i=Î[·¢Íì·[j¶=Àºe=f®DE¬É¿QͯÉMƤɮÇI.,,/¹Æ?ÁǾ>² 
¬[[É¿Q‘Ce>[[»¢Ç[[E?b[[ªÆ?b[[¯ª*e>J[[iÁÆaÀ[[ºÆ¸[[Ee>J[[iÐ=eÆÀ[[ºÆ
./  

le>[[ªÌeÆb[[®Í[[¶Æb¶=f[[ÈgÆ´¶d[[²Æ(HÇ[[Qf¶=¸[[ÈQ[[ºÙ=Åe>[[nJjº 
Í[»Ÿ¿ºkÉ[ÑeÆÍì·[j¶=kÉ[Ñee >[»¢Ê[E?¼[i>EKɯ¶?Í»·²‘Cͪ>uÝ>E 
K·F®Í »Ÿ¿™=Á?Ë?ͯÉMǶ=η¢¤É®ÇJ¶=f“Öº›Kɯ¶?(ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=fÈfVJ¶= 
>ð[ì]Ç[ÂkÉ[¶Æ(>ðJE>MkɶÌaÇ£¶=°UXFq?´¶dEÆ*¬ 
É¿QÍÉ®>«I=ð>Ée 
*fv]?Æ?f«q?ÁÇ·E§JºÇ¸E(f—? 
À[ºaÇ[ÃÈÍ[¶Æb¶$a Æb[†Ø¶=%¼¢b[¶=6ÀáɯE>[j¶=ÀáÉ·º>£¶=‘C­>vÈ 
f[ÈfVJ¶=Í[»Ÿ¿ºÀ[ºef[³J™=¹g>[¿J¶=Æ(ÍɳÈfºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=›ab‚=Ÿª>= 
¹d[¶=¬[®=ǺÇ[ÂÆO[¶>M¸[º>¢ÀÈd­>vÈ(Íì·j¶=ʶ>J¶>EÆÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶= 
¤[ºÍ[¿·£ºL>[®>«I=>[»ÁaeÙ=Æf[r»ª*H 
f£¶=½>³ƒ=>ë¯È¶=Á=Ç=Æ 
¸[E(Í[Èa >¢L>[®Ø¢ÆÍ[¶a>FJºL=e>[ÈgÆ(H=Ç[EÙ=Í¢fnºL=e>«iÆaÇÃÈ 
L>É»[jºK€$a ÇÃɶ=‘Ca=iÇIÆ?%ͳ¶>i>îfà {î Ïf]?¹ÆaÆ*ÌhÉ»Jº 
Æ?ÍÈa>[[rJ®=L=f“Ö[[ºÆ(ʾ>[[j¾CG[[J³ºÆ (Ëe>[[G[[J³º¸[[NºÎJ[[m 
­[£I[¶=´[·I$>ð£ÉFìI%>÷®?Æ*** Á>»¢à ÆHf§™=Æf쮸Nº*** ÍÉu>Èe 
*>[þ>ɳEf[¯IÆ>ÃJ[uÆ>«º› 
µ[nJª(Ê eÁØ¢CÁÆað>É·»¢aÇÃÈͶÆbE 
Á?G[‹ʾǾ>[®[¦Á>ɲ$¸ÉÑ=fiC%Á?ÏfIÍÉEf¢ͶÆabQÇI×>þ?Ë? 
fR[[n¶=Æf[[nF¶=K[[¶>{[[¶=Í[[¢Ç¿J™=Ä[[»Ñ=f‚Ɛì[[j·ªÄ[[¶ØJU×(¹Æh[[È 
Á>[ɳ¶==d[¹Æh[ÈÎJUÍÉ·£ªHfUͶ>U›aÇÃȤº´¶dE>¿¾?Æ(fRƒ=Æ 
¹Æ?À[ºÍ[ÉEf£¶=¹Æb[¶>ª´¶d[¶Æ*½Ø 
[iÝ=e>Èa‘Cìj·ªaÇ£IÆ(¸J= 
׸[E(=ðÆb[¢ÁÆ@[³¿È×k¾Ç[I›Í[»®f[]A‘CÌfÂ>[¯¶=›>ÂÆb[¯¢Í»® 
Á>[ɳEð=e=f[®CK[¾>²LÆ[EÍ[»®›$Í ÈaÇ£[j¶=%Ìea>[F»ª(ð=Æb¢ÁÇR¢hÈ 
*a ÇÃÈÌfr¿¶>EÆeÆ?Æ?>³Èfº?>úb¯IÌea>FºÍÈ@²( 
ìj·«¶>ð£ÉÉvIÆaÇÃÈ 
¼Â>[jI>[þC¸[E(a >[Ƀ=Î[·¢Ê[Â×Æ(a Ç[ÃÈb [uK[jɶÍÉEf£¶=¹Æb¶>ª
.0  

¼[þC¸[EG[jVª=dÂkɶ*a ÇÃÈ>r¶L=ea>F™=¤uÆ›ðͶ>£ªðÍ»Â>jº 
L=fE>[^™=fÈb[ºLØ[UeÆ*Ä [¿º>ÂÆd[¯¾?±g@[º›aÇ[ÃÈͶÆaK£®Æ=cC 
*´¶cη¢ÌbÂ>mËaÇÃɶ=Æb£¶=‘CÍɲdz™=Á>»É·if»¢Ëfr™= 
Á?×C* 
ì[j·ª›¼Ã»Ñ=f[Q›ÁÆa>[»JÈaÇÃɶ=Á>²¸º=Ç£¶=Åd 
Í[[qf«¶=VJ[[IKVF[[q?Æ(±=f[[£¶=Î[[·¢Á=Æb[[£·¶K[[ìì]b[[®Æ(>[[³Èfº? 
(>ðɻɷ®CÆð>ɶÆa>ÃIeÇqjVJ¶Ð=ÇQÙ=ÍÒÉÃIÀºbE×Á?LbQÆ(ÍFi>¿™= 
pÇ[EH>ì]Ð>QÅ>×==d›Æ*± 
=f£¶=η¢Á=Æb£¶=›>ûÑ=fQÊì§J¶ 
a>[‹DEœ[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=Í[ºgÙ¸[U¹Ç[Uð=e >³ª?zf£È.,,.+2+.0› 
K[€Åe>[³ª?K¾>²Æ($¸ÉÑ=fiC%G¾>|( 
ÆfnEÌbɯº( 
É¿Éìj·«·¶ͶÆa 
(Í[ɳÈfºÙ=Í[q>~Æ(½Ø[¢Ý=¸Ñ>[iÆLf»Ji=Æ*$° Èfì¶=Í{e>]%λjº 
*œ 
[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=Í[v¯E¼J[úÄ[¾?Æ(Ä[J{e>]›pÇEe>³ª?À¢OÈbƒ>E 
(± 
=f[£¶=Î[·¢Ä[¾=Æb¢Á?pÇ[EÀ[·¢?Á?‘C>Ã[·®>¿JIO[Èa>UÙ=Lf»Ji=Æ 
›(ÍÉ[[[[i>iÙ=Ä[[[[J·UfºK[[[[ÃJ¾=b[[[[®(.,,/+/+-5›?b[[[[EËd[[[[¶= 
(Ê Ñ>[ÿ¶=>ã[uÆ›ð>[ÉeÄ[J{e>]À[·¢?Ä [j«¾½Çɶ=›Æ(.,,/+0+/, 
$¸ÉÑ=f[[iC%Ð=egÆkÉ[[ÑeÆ(Ág>[[ºÊ[[E?Íì·[[j¶=Ð=egÆkÉ[[Ñe‘C>û·[[iÆ 
*.,,/+0+/,›´¶cÆ(ÁÆe>m 
>[þ?F[JÈ°Èfì¶=Í{e>]K¾>²Ä·Q?ÀºËd¶=zf§¶=›°É®bJ¶>EÆ 
6Íɶ>J¶=z=f¦Ú¶K£uÆ 
±=f[£¶=Î[·¢Á=Æb£¶=‘C°Èfì·¶ð=bÉÓ>ÃJ¯É¯U›K¾>²>þ?6×ð Æ? 
pÇEH>ì]ÁCOÉU(ìj·ªÍÉv®¸ƒ°Èfì¶=bÉûJ¶ðÍ{e>]>ÿºfN²? 
f»Ji=Æ(±=f£¶=Hfƒa=b¢Ý=̪›Ð>Q>ÿ»vIËd¶=.,,.+2+.0› 
Ú[ºb[¯ª*.,,/+/+-5_ Èe>[JE±=f[£¶=Î[·¢Á=Æb[£¶=?bEÎ JUOÈbƒ=
.1  

kÉÑf[¶=e>[³ª?›ÁÇMb[VJÈð>[E>ÂcÆðÍ[ÒÉQÍ [¯ì¿™=Í ɳÈfºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=ÇMÇ£Fº 
=d[ÂÆ* 
ì[j·ª›IeÆ>[RJºJ[¶Æaa>‹DEÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ÍÉv¯¶=¸ƒpÇE 
Î[·¢Í[¿É£ºÇ§[vEf[³«IÍ[ɳÈfºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=Á?ð>[[º>[¢ ð=Ç[[Qb[Qå ÇÈÁ>² 
Ìe=aÝ=K[[¾>²Æ*¼ ÃF¾>[[Q›É¿Éì[[j·«·¶Í[[¶ÆaaÇ[[QÇE=Ç[[·F¯É¶aÇ[[Ãɶ= 
>þ=Æb[¢e>[MA¬«^J[iÌea>F™=ÅdÂÀ¢Í>¿¶=Ð=ÇQÙ=Á?¤®ÇJIÍɳÈfºÙ= 
*±=f£¶=η¢ 
>þǶ=Çȶ=>³Èfº@ª(T 
fU¤uÆ›>³Èfº?ÐØ»¢XFq?b¯¶6>ðɾ>M 
l>[¿·¶ªÇ[n³º=Ǿ>[²¼[ÂÆ(ð>ªÇn³ºð>] e>qð>¾=Æb¢±=f£¶=η¢ËbJ£I 
¼bQÇIÁ?>³Èfº?La=e@ª(l 
>¿¶=½>º?Tfƒ=›=Ç£®Çª(>³ÈfºÙÐØ»£² 
(>[³Èfº?Ê[Â>Â6=ǶǯÈÁ@E$Í ¯ì¿™=›>³Èfº?Ͷ=b¢%°ÈÇjJ¶OÈbUÌa>º 
Î[·¢ͯª=Ç»·¶aÇÃɶ=η¢œ§vI´¶d²Êê±=f£¶=η¢Hfƒ=À·£I>»² 
*ìj·ª¸ÂÙͶÆa 
±f[[n¶=Í[[ºgÙ¸[[UÀ[[¢OÈb[[ƒ=f[[N³I>[[EÆeÆ?K[[¾>²b[[¯¶6>ð[N¶>M 
>[¸[Ua>[‹Ýð>[U>ƒCfN²?ͺgÙ=ÅdÂÁä ?Æ($¸ ÉÑ=fiCƐìj·ª%œiÆÙ= 
Î[·¢°[Èfì¶=¤[ì¯IÁ?>[³Èfº?La=e@[ª(± 
=f[£¶=›ÌbÈbQͺg?Ð>n¾CÀº 
ÁÇ[³IÁ@[E(œ 
[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=ͺgÙ¸Ua>‹CÀ¢¹Ç¯¶=>Âe=f³I›>EÆeÆ? 
*°Èfì¶=Í{e>]ÇÂÆhåˆ?b®ͺgÙ=ÅdðØUÁ@E¼ð>E=ÇQ°Èfì¶=Í{e>] 
(>ÃÑÇ[iÎ[·¢(Í [{e>„>ª*>[ºb[U‘C´[¶c›>³Èfº?KVˆb®Æ 
Á?¼[·£¶=¤[º(Í ¶Æa‘CLe>m?>þÙ(=ðfr¾Hf£¶=½>³ƒ=ÆÍì·j¶=>ÃIJ¢= 
*Îâ »jºÁÆað>=ͶÆb¶=Åd¸£‹°Èfì¶=Í{e>]¸U=fº›Ð>QËd¶= 
6e >[[F³¶=Í[£EeÚ¶ðÍ[ɶÆaðÍ[{e>]KVF[q?Æ>[ÃJ«¯·Ib[¯ª>[EÆeÆ?>[º? 
‘=Ç[[JIL>[[¢>»JQ×=Le>[[qÆ*Ìb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÙ=(>É[[iÆe(>[[EÆeÆ?(>[[³Èfº?
.2  

ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=Æ>EÆeÆ?ÆÍì·j¶=EÁÇUÆfÈÆÁÆb§ÈÁÆbªÇ™=Æ>ÃɪOVF·¶ 
*>³Èfº?´¶d²Æ 
Ê[ê(>Âd[É«¿I›ðÌaä >QÀ³I>³Èfº?ÁDª=d¸²Àº¼¦f¶=η¢Æ 
›¼[M(± 
=f[£¶=›Ê[f¶=½>[Ÿ¿¶=Î[·¢>þ=Æb[¢›¸º>³¶>EðͶǧnºK¾>² 
>[³Èfº@ª*± 
=f[£¶=›Í[ɶÇìF¶=¹ ØJ[U×=Í [ºÆ>¯ºÄ[ɪ>ÃJ£[uÆËd¶=±g@™= 
K[²fI´¶d[¶Æ(° [Èfì¶=Í[{e>]¥ÇuǺÀº‘Æ?ÇÂ>»ÉªðͶǧnºK¾>² 
Ê[·»£¶=­f[rJ¶=À[³¶Æ(Í [{e>„=¹Ç[Uͯ쿙=›¸¢>«JÈʟ«·¶=OÈbƒ= 
Hf[U›± 
=f[£¶=›Ä[£º«¶>[VJ™=ÆÊ[³ÈfºÙ=oÉ[‚=À[ºð=aÇ[nUÁ>² 
*bÈbQÀº¸£JnIÎJUðØÉ·®?bÃI×Í¿]>i 
Í[[{e>]d[[É«¿I›>[[³Èfº?Í[[ÈbQ½b[[¢ÁDzeb[[È=Ǿ>[[³ªaÇ[[Ãɶ=>[[º? 
›Ͷǧ[nº>[³Èfº?ÁÙ(Í [ɶ>ƒ=pÇ[EÌe=aCÍ[·Ufº›¸[®Ù=η¢(°Èfì¶= 
>ð[Ÿ«€f[n¢Íj˜=Ç£uÆ´¶d¶(L>E>^J¾×=Í·Ufº›Æ(± 
=f£¶=›>îg@º 
=Æf»J[i=Æ(d [É«¿J·¶¸[E>®¦f]Að>ÒÉmL>Ÿ«VJ¶=ÅdÂ>ÃJ·£QOÉ}>ÃÉ·¢ 
´[[¶c¤[[ºÆ*ì[[j·ª›H>[[ÂeÝ=Í[[Vª>³º¼[[i>EÍÉ[[nUǶ=¼Ã»Ñ=f[[Q› 
›>[þÙ(Ï 
Æb[QÁÆax«^¿[ÈÆÇ[·£ÈXF[q?ÆÍ{e>„=›OÈbƒ=f»Ji= 
*$>ð¿V{Ïe?×ÆðÍ£R£Q¤?%ÌeÇÃn™=Ͷǯ™=°¯VJ¶Í»»rº¸qÙ= 
XF[[q?Æ(Ä[[ɪK[[®ÆËd[[¶=>[[îg@’±=f[[£¶=›>[[³Èfº?K·§[ mà b[[¯¶ 
K[²fIÆ(± 
=f[£¶=¼ ØJ[U×ͺÆ>¯™=½>º?>ÂaÇ¿QÀº? «€¬É²>ÃjQ> 
Í[{e>]LØ¢>[«J¶ð>É[i>ÉiÆ(Á Æe>[m¼Ñ=f[‚ð>Èf³[j¢6 
ì[j·ª¥ÇuǺ 
K[¾>²Á?‘C¹>ƒ==dÂf»Ji=Æ(LbQÆd¿ºÍJɺ>þ?µebIÊÂÆ(°Èfì¶= 
*½.,,0Á>jɾ›bU=Æ­f{ÀºÁÆe>mÍì] 
[²?Ä[·£QÆÌh[¦À[ºH>V[j¾×=Î[·¢Ä[Jì]›ÁÆe>mh²eb¯¶
.3  

Í«[[v¶=›f²d[[Èa>[[³È×[[jÈeh[[[¿EÁÇ[[É£¶=›a>[[ºf·¶ð=ecÄ[[£FI?Æ(Ä[[»Â 
Í«[[v¶=›Íɾ>ìÉJ[[i×=L>[[£»RJ¶=¼[[u¤[[ºÍÉ[[ nº>¤[[Ee?L>[[ ¿{ÇJ[jº% 
À[ºÇ[ÂÍì„=ĶÆ>¿JIËd¶=H>Vj¾×=Á>³ª*$a ÇÃÈͶÆa‘CÊ·£ª¸³nE 
¸³[[nEÍÉ[v¯¶=¸[¯¿ÈÁ?¥>ìJ[i=Ä[Jì]›ÁÆe>[[mÁ?Ë?(Ìh[[¦¥>[[ì® 
‘C¸[³¶=À[ºSÈeb[J¶>EÍÉ[v¯¶=¸[¯¾›aÇ[Ãɶ=Í[¯Èf{η¢Ìh¦‘Cl>i? 
K[·¯¾¼[M($04Í FÉ·[j¶=ì[j·ª%K¾>²×ð Æ?ÍÉv¯¶>ª*Ð h‚=ÐhRªÐh‚= 
ÁÛ=Æ($23Ìh[¦ÆÍ«v¶=ÀºÐ=hQ?%‘C´¶cb£EÆ($23Ìh¦ÆÍ«v¶=%‘C 
À[¢¸[¯¾>[º>[º?*G 
[jVªÌh[¦¥>쮑CÍÉv¯¶=¸¯¿EÁdzI>ºÄFm?Ê 
>Ã[·»…›Í«v·¶ð×>]aC¸³nI×a>³JªÍ«v¶=›ÍÉnº>¤Ee?L>¿{ÇJjº 
*ÁÆe>mÍì]› 
­f[{À[ºÌh[¦¥>[ì®À[ºH 
>V[j¾×=%Ä[Jì„b[úÁÆe>mÁC¼M 
b [ÈfÈ>º¸²η¢¸rUÆ(.,,0Á>jɾ›Àì¿m=ÆÌe>ÈhE½>®Á@E$bU=Æ 
kÉÑf[¶=[¢b [¯ª(Àì¿m=ǶÌ]Ù=ÅdÂÄ Ie>EgÐ>¿M?ÀE× =pÇETeÇQÀº 
¸[ÉÒÈe=>[TÆf[È[¶=Í[ì^·¶Åb[ÉÈ@IÆÄ[»¢aÀ[¢pÇ[ETeÇQʳÈfº×= 
›ÍÉ[nº>ÂL>¿{ÇJ[jº¤[Ee?ÆÌh¦¥>ì®ÀºH>Vj¾×>EÍÉu>¯¶=ÆÁÆe>m 
ÁÆe>[mÄ [uf¢>[º¬[qÇE´[¶cÀ¢fFä¢(b U=ÆG¾>QÀº(Í ÉEf§¶=Í«v¶= 
**¥>RmÆʍe>I¸»¢ľ@E 
›ÁÆe>[m¤[ºÅb[¯¢µ[nºÊ«V[qf“Ö[º›)pÇ[E¹ >[®>»² 
›É¿Éì[[j·«¶=Ò[[Qض={Ç[[IG[[‹Ä[[¾C).,,0+0+-/›Àì¿[[m=Æ 
Íð [ºb] F[²¹g>[¿I›Æ*$¸ÉÑ=f [iC%›kÉ[¶ÆÍÉ·F¯Jj™=ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ͶÆb¶= 
s[>[»ÉªL[§Ib[®ze×=η¢­ÆfŸ¶=ÁC¹>®) Ê ·ÉÑ=fi×=¬®Ç»·¶ 
*ÍÉEf§¶=Í«v¶=›ÍÈaÇÃɶ=L>¿{ÇJj™=À¢¸ÉÑ=fi=Ê·
.4  

Lef[®>[º=c=6x 
ÉE×=KÉF¶=›ÁÆe>nEÄ¢>»JQ=G¯¢pÇE¹>®Æ 
¹Ç[rƒH>[F¶=´[¶cXJ«É[jª($Á Æe>[mÍ[ì]%Í ì„=ÅdÂ¥>FI=­=f{×= 
*>£¶=›L>¢=h[¿¶=b¯¢=ÀºbU=Ƕ=bU¤vÈÆ(½b¯I 
Í[¶ÆaÍ[º>®=‘=>[vÈ=´[¶cËaÖ[Èb[®Æ6Ê ³Èfº×=kÉÑf¶=­>u?Æ 
**Ì>ÉV·¶Í·E>®ÆÍÉ{=f¯•aÆ͙>jºÍÉ¿Éìj·ª 
(>þǻ[jÈ>[»²(Ê Ñ>[ÿ¶=¸[ƒ=>È>[v®¼[jUb[®pÇEÁdzÈ=dÃEÆ 
*ÁÆe>mÍF¦eGjU 
ͶÆb¶ÍFj¿¶>E¸vª=>£®=Æ°·^JiÄJì]ÁCÁÆe>m¹>®(ÄF¾>QÀºÆ 
* 
É¿Éì[j·«¶=¤[ºL>[uÆ>«™=­>¿ÒJ[i×>ði>i?¸³nIÁ?À³•Æ¸ÉÑ=fi= 
$KjÉ¿³¶=%Ê·ÉÑ=fi×=Á>™¶=›0+..› 
Ê ·ÉÑ=fi×=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑeÀ·¢?Æ 
*Ä [¶°E>[i×>ð[U>ˆ¸ ³[nÈÌh[¦ÀºH>Vj¾×=Íì„ʳÈfºÙ=¼¢b¶=Á? 
TeÇ[QkÉÑf[¶=Ä[¿¢[¢Ëd[¶=¼¢b·¶ØM>š>»¢a°·J¾>¿J¶ÆaÁØ¢=d¿º 
$p 
Ç[F¶%Í[EÇJ³™=L=b[ãJ¶=Á=ÁDzeb[ȐɿÉìj·«¶=Á=­>u=Æ*pÇE 
*-504›>¿¶Ø¯Ji=ÁØ¢=d¿º¼KÃQÆÍEfuÎj®=Ê  

º×=e=b‚=Ð>¿E¤ÈfjIbÈfÈľ=Ê·ÉÑ=fi×=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑe­>u=Æ 
¹Ø[]ÁÇ[ɲº×=>[ãì®[¶=ÍEÇJ³™=L=bãJ¶>Ef²ò c Æ(Í ÉEf§¶=Í«v¶=› 
*xÉE×=KÉF¶=‘=Ì]×=ÄIe>Èg 
›>[³Èfº?ÍÈbQ½b¢b²ÖÈÁÆe>mÍì]η¢ÄJ¯ª=ǺpÇEÁØ¢DEÆ 
G[[¢ØJ¶=¼[[¦eÆÄ[[¾Ù(Í[[ɶ>ƒ=pÇ[[EÌe=aCb[[â›°[[Èfì¶=Í[[{e>]d[[É«¿I 
pÇ[EÁ>[²Ç[¶Æ*>[ÂaÇ¿EÀ[ºN[²›Í{e>„=¬j¿IÍì„=ÁDª(ž>«¶Ù>E 
ÁÆe>[nEÄ¢>»JQ=G¯¢¹>®>™ÆÁÆe>mÍì]η¢°ª=Æ>™ÄJ{e>]›ð=aä >Q 
($Á Æe>[mÍ[ì]%Í ì„=ÅdÂ¥>FI=­=f{×=Lef®>º=c=xÉEÙ=KÉF¶=›
.5  

›L>¢=h[¿¶=b¯¢=ÀºbU=Ƕ=bU¤vÈÆ(½ b¯I¹ÇrƒH>F¶=´¶cXJ«Éjª 
Ç[Â>÷ŒËd¶=Á?Æ(Í·³n™=¸U›ÄJ{e>]À¢¹g>¿J¶=£È=dÂÆ*>£¶= 
*$ÁÆe>mÌea>Fº% 
›>[»Â¸[E(ÁÆe>mÍì]Àº¸vª?°Èfì¶=Í{e>]Á?=d£È×Æ 
>ð³V[uÁ>²°Èfì¶=Í{e>„pÇEzf¢Á?£È=dÂÀ³¶(Á>¯E>jJÈÐÇj¶= 
¼[þ?¼[·£ÈÇ[ÂÆ)¼Âf¢>[nºÍ[¦b¦b¶Hf[£¶=½>[³UÆÍì·j¶=ÁÇ®cη¢ 
*.,,1Å>[[r®?b[[¢Çº›ðÍ[ ¶Æa¼[ b[[ÈfÈpÇ[[EÁ@[[E)ÐÊ[[mË?ÁÇ[[·F¯È 
Åe>[³ª?.,,.+,2+.0›Ä[E>ì]›À[·¢?>ºb[¿¢pÇE¼ÃÈÁ>²Ëd[¶>ª 
$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%Æ Íì·[j·¶>û·[iÆð>[Ée>[ÿ·[¢?>[™¼[M(°[Èf[ì¶=Í[{e>[] À¢ 
>[ÃEfUÆ>[³Èfº?ÍV·[rº×C´[¶cÀ[º Ä[»[à ÈÀ[³ ȼí¶(.,,/+0+/,› 
(½Ø[³¶=¹Ç[j£ºx£FEHf£¶=½>³ƒ 
=ÆÍì·j¶=f¢>nºͦb¦aÆ(±=f£¶=› 
Í[ºgÙ¸[Ua>[‹CÇ[ÂÆ(Ä[EÁÇMb[[VJÈ>[º¼[°¯Uľ@E>EÆeÆ?¸É·vI¼M 
*œiÆÙ=±fn¶= 
Ͷ@jºÀºHdEdJ™=ÍɲºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=¬®Çº>ðvÈ?Í Èb‚=½b¢b²ÖÈÆ 
Åd[[›ÁÆe>[mįÈb[q¤[ºpÇ[EÖ[[{=ÇIÎ [·¢¹b[ÈËd[¶=¸ [q>«¶=e=b‚= 
(Í [ÈbQÌeÇ[rE°[Èfì¶=Í[{e>]¤[º¸ÉÑ=fiC›bU?¸º>£JÈ=d¶*Ͷ@j™= 
*>ïÉFìJ¶Íɪ>²ÍÈbQËc¦pÇEÁ?aÇÃȼ·£¶´¶cÆ 
À[º>[ÃÉìÆ(K¢b]à b®>þ@ELf£mÍÉEÆeÆ×=¹Æb¶=Á?ÆbFÈÆ 
Î[·¢>ºÆaKƒ?>EÆeÆ?Á?Æ >»Éi×(Á Æe>mÍì]>ÃÉ¿FJEÍɲºÙ =Ìe=aÝ= 
Í[É¢=f¶=Í[É¢>Ef¶=Í[¿R·¶=Í[·ŸºK[€(Í [É¿£™=­=f[{Ù=EÄɶC¸qÇJȸU 
Ê[i>ÉieÆb[E¼[·€K[¶=g×[¶=>[EÆeÆ?À[³¶(œiÆÙ=±fn¶=›½Øj·¶ 
b[[®>Ã[[j«¾Lb[[QÆ(Ê[[EÆeÆ×=a>[[€×=¼[[i>E(œ[[iÆ×=±f[[n¶=›¸[[¢>ª
/,  

¸[UËÙËa>[rJ®× =ÐG[£¶=¸[»€>þ?¼¦e(e>FJ¢× >Ed]ÖIÆKn»ë Âà 
¼[[þ?ÁÇ[[ÉEÆeÆÙ=Í[[ÉQe>„=Ð=egÆ À[[·¢?b[[¯ª=d[[¶(Í[[¯ì¿™=Î[[·¢zf[[«È 
­=f[[{Ù=¤[[ºL>[[¢>»JQ=b[[¯£E(°Èf[[ ì¶=Í[[ ìÈf]Ð>[[ ÉUC‘CÁÇ£[[jÉ[i 
>É[[iÆeÆÌb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÙ=ÆÌb[[VJ™=L>[[È×Ƕ=Ê[[ÂÆ(>[[Í[[»[¢=b¶=Í[[£[EeÙ= 
*ÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×=Æ 
ÅaØ[El?[IËd[¶=(Ëb[¿¶fÈ×=Í[ÉQe>„=f[ÈgÆÀÈÇ[²Á>[ÈfEb²=Æ 
Á=a>€×=ÍÉQe>]Ð=egǶ¥>»JQ=G¯¢(Íɶ>ƒ=ÄIeÆa› 
ÊEÆeÆ×=a>€×= 
›¼Ñ=a½Øi°É¯€η¢Ìea>¯¶=ÌbÉUǶ=ÍÉi>Éj¶=ÍɶÛ=Ê°Èfì¶=ÍìÈf] 
*ͯ쿙=Åd 
K[FUfªLa>[¢(Åc>[¯¾CÀ³•>ºc>¯¾CLa=e?>þ@²Æ(>EÆeÆ?Á?×C 
Ìb[VJ™=¼[º×=Æ >É[iÆeÆÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=%]Ù=ÍÉ¢>Ef¶=¥>»JQ=¹Ø] 
( 
É¿Éì[j·«¶=¤[º¸r«·¶Ê·ÉÑ=fi×=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑeÍì~$Ê EÆeÆ×=a>€×=Æ 
›Ìea>[¾Í[qfªfªÇ[I[¶=ÌÇ[ì„=Åd[¸[Nº¤RnIÆGUfI>þCK¶>®Æ 
x[£EÎ ·¢¹bȹ ǯ¶==dÂÆ*œ 
iÆ×=±fn¶=›½Øj¶=¹ØU=‘=Ê£j¶= 
¹>[=µ[IÆ >[ÉÑ>þe>[ì¯ ¶=>[ÃIÇ«È×Î[JU(Í [ɲºÙ=Íi>Éj·¶¥>Ér¾×= 
>[EÆeÆ?Í[i>Éi¬¶>[eÇ[º?Î[·¢K[¯ª=Æ´¶d[¶(>ÂbUÆ>²ºÙ>UÇJ«º 
ÁÆa¿Éì[j·«¶=À[¢¹>[r«¾Ø 
¶ÁÆe>mÍì]η¢K¯ª=Ǫ(¸ F®ÀºÍ¿·£™= 
KUb[º´ 
[¶c¤[ºÆ(° Èfì¶=Í{e>]¤º>i>i?ze>£JÈ>ºÇÂÆ(L>uÆ>«º 
*ÁÆe>mÍì] 
>[»«É²Í[ɲºÙ=Í[i>Éj¶=fÈ>[jI[¶=>[ɾ>ìÈfE¬®Çº­Ø~=dÂÆ 
Ëd[¶=K[®Ç¶=›(>[ÃÉ·¢ž>[«ƒ=Æ?>[r™=x£E¸Ér€ͶÆ>†¤º(K¾>² 
›¸[N»JÈ=d[ÂÆ(Ê [EÆeÆÙ=a>€× =¤ºÍFÉ{L>®Ø¢η¢>ɾ>ìÈfEÄɪ ª>€
/-  

6>[Ãɪ¹>[®Ëd[¶=.,,0+,0+-0_Èe>JEpÇEL>ŒfrIb£E·EXÈfrI 
´[«¶ÁÆe>[mœ[ì„Åb[ÉÈ@IÀ[¢ÅeÆ bEÍɾ>ìȶ=ͺdzƒ=kÉÑe¢b®Æ% 
›>Âb[£E [·E\f[qO[ÉU($*b [U=ÆG[¾>QÀºÉ¿Éìj·«¶=¤º>FIe×= 
°[Èfì¶=ÍìÈf]Á=%6.,,0+,0+-3_Èe>JEp 
ÇE¤ ºÄI>Ma>†b£EÀì¿m=Æ 
*$>[>ð[Éì[J£I×ÁÆe>[mÍ[ì]Á=Æ(½Ø[j¶=L>[uÆ>«™l>[i×=¸ŸI 
Á?À[[º¼¦f[¶=Î[[·£ª(Ëh[É·ˆ Ý=Ð>Âb[¶=ÆÁ=eÆb[[¶=Ƭ[·¶=H>[[EÀ[º=d[ÂÆ 
[J£I%Á Æe>mÍì]Á?×CL>ÒÉj¶=›Á>²nI(ÁÆe>mÆ°Èfì¶=6Jì„= 
*bɲ@J¶>E°Èfì¶=Í{e>„$>ðÉì 
›Í[¶Æh£ºÍ[ÈaÇÃÈL>¿{ÇJ[jº¤Ee=ÐØ]=η¢s 
¿IÁ Æe>mÍì^ª 
Åd[ÂÀ[º¸ÉÑ=f[i=H>V[j¾=Æ(Ìh¦¥>쮛Ϳ{ÇJjº.-Æ (Í ÉEf§¶=Í«v¶= 
[EaÆb[ƒ=¹Ç[{Î[·¢b[J•œÈf[mÇÂÆ(>É«¶aØɪœ]Ð>¿NJi>Eͯ쿙= 
¥>ªb[¶>EÊ[i>iÙ=°ƒ>E>Ãj«¿¶¸ÉÑ=fiC «J€Á ?η¢*$¸ÉÑ=fi=%Æ frº 
¹Ø[]À[º(af¶>[E´¶d[²Æ¥ 
aeL>[É·»£E½>[ɯ¶=´[¶c›>[’(k«¿¶=À¢ 
*>[ÿºGV[j¿Ji[¶=°{>¿™=›@n¿Ji¶=L=bÈbÃJ¶=buÌǯ¶=½=b^Ji= 
Ë?(Í ì·[j¶=Ä[ɶÇId[¿ºÁÆe>mÄuf¢>º×CÉ¿Éìj·«¶=Êì£IÀ¶>þ?Ë? 
Ð=Ç[=Æ?Ð>[™=Î[·¢ÌfìÉiË?xªe¤º(Í ÉEf§¶=Í«v¶=Àº!0,¹a>£È>º 
*\Øj¶=Í¢Æh[¿ºÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=$ÍÈeÇ{=ºÝ=%´·IÁdzIÁ?η¢Æ(fE>£™=Æ? 
›>[»²­=f[{Ù=zÆ>«JEĶͮآ×Æ(bU=Æ­f{Àº=d¸²Æ 
\Ø[j¶=Í¢Æh [[¿º ͶÆa×(ͶÆaη¢s¿È×Ç´¶d²Æ*° Èfì¶=Í{e>] 
*°Èfì¶=Í{e>]›ae=Ƕ=¸ÉF¯¶==dÂÀº¥Ç¾Ë?×Æ(Í·ÈhÂÌe=aCͶÆa×Æ 
K[jɶÌh[¦À[ºH>Vj¾Ø¶ÁÆe>mÍì]Á?f²d¾Á?>¿Eeb‹>¿ÂÆ 
ÁÇ[[£Í[[q>]Æ´¶d[[EÊ·ÉÑ=f[[iÝ=e>[[jɶ=G[[¶>{>[[™>ì·ª(b[[Èb‚=fºÙ>[[E
/. 

‫ﺑﲑﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺰﺓ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﲎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﲡﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻏ ‪‬‬
‫ﻏﺰﺓ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺭﺍﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻳﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺎﻃﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻄﻮﻝ ﻛـﺮﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻀﻌﺔ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻖ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﻬﻮﺩ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻼﻟﻪ ﻟﻠـﻀﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺒﻬﺔ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﻋﺮﺿـﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻟـﺬﺍ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺰﺓ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﺄﰐ ﺑﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪١,٣‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﻳﻘﻄﻨﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻏﺰﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻓﻴـﻪ )ﺇﺳـﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ( ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺎﺟﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻐﺮﺍﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺔ ﻭﻏـﺰﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲞﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺶ ﺍﻟﺪﺑﺎﺑﲑ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻪ ﺳﺎﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﲟﻌﱪ ﻓﻴﻼﺩﻟﻔﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺠﻦ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﲔ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﺗـﻪ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﲝﻔﺮ ﺁﺑﺎﺭ ﺇﺭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊـﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﲣﺰﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﲔ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘـﺐ ﻳﺰﺩﻫـﺮ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳉﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻻﳓﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣـﱴ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺭﺗﻮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻀﺦ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﺎﳊﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
‫‪٣٣‬‬ 

K[[jɶÍ[[É·»£¶=Åd[ÂÆ*z 
eÙ=K[[€Í[Ed£¶=Å>[[ə=¸[[†¸[VJ¶f[[VF¶=Å>[ɺ 
‘CÅ>[ə=_[uÀ[¢ØF¯J[jº$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%K[£¿Jº=ǶÎJUľ?ο£’(ÍÉj³¢ 
Á?´¶c(X ·»J¶=>ÃE>q?¶=°{>¿™=›>ÃJUÇ·ºη¢ίFJiÅ>ə=Á DªG¯¿¶= 
Í[Èb·EÁ?>vÈ?½Ç·£™=ÀºÆ*Í ÉÑ>ɻɳ¶=L>É·»£¶=Æ L 
>¾ÇÈÝ>EÍìFIfºÍÉ·»£¶= 
ÍÈb·EaÆbUTe>]ÌbÈbQe>EAf«}L>¿É¾>»N¶=ÍÈ>þd¿ºÆ L 
?bEÌh¦Í¿Èbº 
´[¶cÆ(>[ÉÂ×K[ÉEÆ >[ɶ>FQ ÍÈb·F¶Í£E>J¶=Íɶ>»n¶=°{>¿™=›=bÈb€Æ(Ìh¦ 
Åd[Âaf[iÀ[ºzf[§¶=ÁC*>[Í[£E>J¶=>[Âe>EAKE>[q?¶=ÍUÇ·™=Ͷa>£™ 
Í[É®>«I× ÍÈf[j¶=°Uؙ>[Eœ[E¶Ç[ÂÌh[¦›Å>[ə=Í·³[nºÀ[¢L>ºÇ·£™= 
°Èf{À¢¸ É¿¶=Å>ɒ$¸ÉÑ=fiC%bÈÆhIη¢Kr¾¶=frº¤ºbÉ«ÈaGº>² 
Ð>[ºÌf[ì®>[ÃɪÎ[¯FÈÀ[¶Ìh[¦Á?e>[FJ¢×=£E>¾d]?Ç·ª($½ Øj¶=Í¢fI% 
>ð[»Ñغð=f[ÈIÁ dzÉi=dÂÁ Dª(.,.,½>¢¹Ç·}L>£®ÇJ¶=GjUHd¢ 
Ìh[¦¥>[쮑Ca=b[Jº×=Æ(¸ [É¿¶=Å>[ɒÐ>¿É[ib[ÈÆhJ¶$½ Øj¶=Í¢fI%Ð>n¾Ý 
 Ð>™>EÉ¿Éìj·«¶=bÈÆhIÆÌh¦¥>ì®ÍR}´¶cÆ($¸ÉÑ=fiC%Æ 
ef[²>[™>ì¶pÇ[EÁ?Ç[ÂÆ(½>»JÂ×>EfÈbQfº?f²cÀºbE×>¿ÂÆ 
(½ Ø[j¶=¹Ø[UCη¢Ìea>®¦>þ?>ðÉ¢bº(Í É¿Éìj·«¶=Ìa>ɯ¶=ɧJEÄJF¶>ìº 
ËaÖ[I Í ¢>R[mL=e=f[®c>[Cη¢Ìea>®ÁdzIÍ·ÈbEÌa>É®a>‹DEG¶>{Æ 
Kì§[uÍ[ɲºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=ÁD[ª=d[¶*œ 
iÆ×=±fn¶=›½Øj¶=¹ØUC‘C 
a Ç[»†Ð>QÁ?Á>²Æ(Ð =egǶ=kÉÑeGr¿ºÐ>n¾ÝÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=Íì·j¶=η¢ 
[·§J¶=¹Æ>VÉ[iÄ[¾?µea?>ºb[¿¢Í¢fjEL>ªf¢Ä¿ºs·Ëd¶=(l>F¢ 
G 
Ìh[ÃQ×=ÆL>[«·™>E°·£JÈ>’Íq>](ÄI>ÉUØqÀºÅbÈfRJEÍì·j¶=›ÄÉ·¢ 
ÍÉ·]=b·¶=fÈgÆÁdzÈÁ?>VmfºÁ>²Ëd¶=(Á ØUab»>ÃÑ>ì¢CÆ(ÍÉ¿ºÙ= 
*ĶÅÐ×ÆÀ»vÈʳ¶¤Èf¯EL>ªf¢Ð>QÆ(l>F¢ͺdzU›
/0  

ÌfÈ>[[jºœ[[iÆÙ=±f[[n·¶>[[ÃI>ì쇛>[[²º?fÈ>[[jÈL>[[ªf£ª 
f[ÈfVJ¶=Í[²fUÌ@[n¾d¿ºÆ(Ç ê(r·^™=>ÃI×>QeÀºÀ³ÈÆ(Í®a>q 
›ʾ>[ìȶ=cÇ[«¿¶=s·¯J[¶=f[Ÿ¾Æ*h [É·ˆÝ=¤[ºjÈ( 
Éìj·«¶={Ƕ= 
›Í[¶ÆbE¸[F¯ª(Ê[²ºÙ=œ„=ÌfÈ>j’hÉ·ˆÝ=ÄÉ·¢e>m?œiÆÙ=±fn¶= 
6L 
>¾>Èb¶=ͪ>³¶ìj·ª›Íɾ>»·¢ͶÆbEG¶>ìÈÁ>²Á?b£EÌh¦ÆÍ«v¶= 
¹Ç[F®¸ÉÃ[jJ¶>[ɾ>ìÈfEÏfIK¾>²>ºGjU(a ÇÃɶ=ÆÏe>r¿¶=Æ »·j™= 
Í[q>~Æ>[EÆeÆ@E¤[ì¯IÄRÑ>[mÆÀ[³¶Æ*>ÃÉ·¢¼ÃJ¿»ÉÂÆa ÇÃɶͯ쿙= 
´¶d[¶(SÑ>[J¿¶=;ǻ[vº[¦>[³Èfº?>[ÃIJ¢=>[³ÈfºÙÄIfÈ>[j»ª>ɾ>ìÈfE 
×ÍÉ¿Éìj·ªÌa>ɯEÁ>ÉIÝ=Æ( 
¿Éìj·«·¶Ìa>ɯ²Ä¿ºs·^J¶=ÌeÆfuK¿·¢? 
>[ÃEÍ[[ìFIfºÁÇ[[³I¸[E(>[EÆeÆÙðÌaÆb[[nºÎ[¯FIÆG 
[jVª>[[²º?fÈ>[jI 
Ð =egÇ[¶=kÉ[ÑeÌf³ªK¾>²=d*´ 
¶c›>³Èfº?aÇÃÈK£FIb®Æ(>ÂbUÆ 
>[»²(ðÍ[ɶÆað>[ªÆfžÁ?×C*L 
>[ªf¢¹ bEÍÉUØr¶=GU>qÁdzɶͺb¯º 
Î[·¢¸[º>²¸³[nEÆð>[É·£ª½b[¯I×>[³Èfº?K·£Q(ÍÉEÆeÆ?Íq>~Æ(ÆbFÈ 
dÉ«¿J¶ðÌa>QK¾>²ǶÆ*S ÈebJ¶>EÄI>ÉUØqt>¯¾C¼JÈÁ?L?e¸E(Ä·ÈbFI 
kÉ[¶ÆaÇ[ÃÈËb[È?¹Æ>[¿Jº›¸[Qf¶>ª(Ä [J·£«¶Ê ¶>ƒ=K®Ç¶=›f ºÙ==d 
*ÄJU=gÝÍFi>¿ºT=f]CÍÉ·»¢a>‹Cð>F£q 
>[EÆeÆ@EÄ[J®Ø¢Æ( L>[ªf¢¼¢b[IK[¶=g>[º>[EÆeÆ?ÁD[ªú¸[²η¢Æ 
*Ìf»J[jºÄ[E>[EÆeÆ?L×>[rI=´¶d²Æ(ðÌf»JjºK¶=g×>ɾ>ìÈfEÍq>~Æ 
Í[F¦eze>[£IÁ?Æ; Ä [»¢a›f»J[jIÁ?>[EÆeÆÙÀ³•¸Â6Ç Â¹=Öj¶=Æ 
>[EÆeÆ?¤ÉìJjI×Á?¤®ÇJ™=ÀºÁC; =ða>Qð=e=f®ÍF¦f¶=KVFq?=cC>³Èfº? 
´¶cÆ*ÌeDzd™=>ÃJF¦edÉ«¿I>³Èfº?Lef®=cCÅ>ÃJ¿º‘CÇn¶=›j¶= 
½g>ƒ=e=f¯¶=b¿¢Æ(>Ãɪ>³Èfº?ze>£I>EÆeÆ?K¾>²>È>v¯¶=Àºð=N²ÁÙ
/1  

¤[º(>[EÆeÆ?¸[rIÁ?À[³º?=cCÍ[q>~Æ(>EÆeÆ?¤Q=IK¾>²>³Èfº?Àº 
ÁD[ª´¶d[¶*>[³Èfº=LfÈ>[iǶ>»ÉªÍV·r™=x£E>°¯Œ>º‘C>³Èfº? 
(=ðf[[i>]ð>¾>[[rUXF[[q?=cCL>[[ªf£¶>[[EÆeÆ?¼[[¢a¬[[Á?¤[[®ÇJ™=À[[º 
×Ä[£º>[êǮÆÁ?>[EÆeÆ?L 
?eÆ(Ìðf[i>]´¶d[²Ä[É·¢Í¿Â=f™=KVFq?Æ 
*>Ã>rº°¯Œ 
[E¸[¢>«JIL 
d]?b®( Ìa>ɯ¶=ɧI(ÍÉv¯¶=ÅdÂÁ ?fŸ¿·¶KªØ¶=Æ 
›Æ h [ºf¶=f[q>=kÉÑf[¶=¤[ºÀº>[vJ¶=›L>[»Ÿ¿™=°E>jJIÆ(aeÆd]? 
(f[Rƒ=ÆfR[n¶=Æf[nF¶=¸[J¯IÆ(µ=cÆ=d[Â$¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%¹>[J§I´¶c¼v] 
>ºb[¿¢Á=f[ÈhU͕hÂÌiaÇ£IÆ(ÐÇjEk•×>ÃÈbȐEfq>=kÉÑf¶=Æ 
(Ä[¿ºN[²¸[JU=ÁCÆÎ[JU(À{Ƕ>[ª~¼É¢h¶=ÆbÑ>¯¶=½=a>º6¹ >¯ÈÁ>² 
*~Çê 
6ÁÇ»·j™=>ÃÈ? 
Á>vU?›ÁǓfȽ>³UaÇÃÈkQeÀº>ÂefŒ×ìj·ªÍÉv®ÁC 
pf[¢Î[·¢ð>ž>«U(ð=e>þð=e>ÃQͺÙ=L>ib¯ºÀ¢¼ÁǶg>¿JÈÆ(Ð=b¢Ù= 
*¹Ç[[{×Æ>[[¹Ç[[U×$Íì·[[i%>[[Âef€×´¶d[[²Æ*¸[[ɶcT>[[IƸ[[Èh 
‘CT>[J€Ê[ÂÆÀÈb[¶=\Ø[qÉFÉ·[r¶=Àº> efUÆf»¢>ÃVJªìj·ª 
*aÇÃÈkQeÀº>ÂÆefVɶÀÈb¶=\Øqa>«U?Æf»¢a>«U? 
(¼ Âb[UÆHf£¶=Æ?ìj·ª¸Â?ÍÉv®ÊÂKjɶìj·ªÍÉv®ÁC 
ÍÉ[v®ÆÍɺØ[iCze?ÍÉ[v®Í{>jFE>þC*Í ɺØiCÍÉv®>ã®=ƛʸE 
6Ï 
[³¶=f[«³¶=¹ÆaÀ[ºÌeg=֒Ìf«³¶=aÇÃɶ=>ÃFrJ¦=ÍɺØiCL>ib¯º 
b[·Eì[j·«ª*Ð Ø[»£¶=»·[j™=½>[³UÀ[ºÁÆ>[£JEÆ(>[²º?Æ>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Ø[ª(¼ ÃÑ>ºb[EÁÇ»·[j™=ÄVJª(½ >n¶=aØEÀºÊEÇ¿‚=Ðh‚=ÇÂÆ(ʺØiC
/2  

´[·ºÇÂÆ(b ÉÃn¶½aÌfì®ÀºÆ?(b Â>lfªe>F¦ÀºÄɪmÇ·a>³È 
¸ÉF[[i›\=ÆeÙ=ÆS[[Ù=¹d[[E»·[[j™=Î[[·¢G[[Q=ÆÆ(»·[[j™=¤[[É»‚ 
>ª(¿ºÖ»·¶ÆĶÇif¶Æ;>É]ÇÂÄ¿ºmË?›œÈf«IË?Æ(Åa=ai= 
¹>[rÒJi×Æ(aÇ[ÃÈͶÆaÀºìj·ªc>¯¿Ji×a>Â=»·j™=η¢GQÆ? 
*>ÿ¢Ìfª>³¶=¹Æb¶=¸²Æ>²º?Í¿»É¤ªeƐìj·ªÀºËaÇÃɶ=Á>ɳ¶= 
Í[ɶÆa¥=f[qÍF·U‘CK¶Ç€b®(>ã®=ÆÇÂ=dÂÆ(ÍÉv¯¶=Ê ÂÅd 
À[ºͶ@[jº‘CK[¶Ç€Æ(ÍÉ[u>™=a Ç[¯£¶=Ïb[ºÎ[·¢>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>²º?E 
K[¶ÇIÆ(Í [ɾ>»N£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=Kì¯[iÁ?b[£E´¶cÆ(ÍɶÆb¶=L>®Ø£¶=¸Ñ>jº 
*>ÃJÈÕf¶ð>¯ªÆ(bÈbQÀºͯ쿙=ͦ>ÉqÌa>¢CÌfª>³¶=Hf§¶=¹Æa 
=Ç[¶=g>ºÆ(Í Éu>™=aǯ£¶=Í·É{¥=fr¶==dÂaß Ç®Æìj·ª¸Â?Á>²Æ 
>ð[F¶>¦(­
æ =b[Â?°[ɯ€¸Q?Àºð>¿¼ÃU=Æe?ƼÃÑ>ºaÀºÁÇ£ªbÈÁÛ=ÎJU 
*f»£Jj™=fª>³¶=ͺb]›GrIÁdzI>º 
L>[[E(ì[[j·ª›¥=f[[r¶=_Èe>[[IÀ[[º[[]Ù=b[[¯£¶=›>[[²º?ÁC 
ÐØ[»¢ÁC¸[E(>ÃÑØ»¢η¢œ¯ªkɶ(Í ¯ì¿™=›ÏÇ®Ù=M@J¶=ÇÂ>ÂM@I 
ÁÆaÇ[£È>[ºÁ>¢f[jª=Ç«®ÆÁCÆ(>ÃÃQÆ›­Ç®Ç¶=ÁÇ£ÉìJjÈ×>ɾ>ìÈfE 
±f[n¶=Í[ºgÙÍ[uÆf£™=$¹ Ç[·ƒ=%η¢ʳÈfºÙ=¤E>ì¶=G·¦Æ*lÇ·R·¶ 
ÁÆf []Û=ƤÈe>[n™=Æœ[ì„=¤vI>²º?Á ?lÇj=bÂ>n™=Æ*œiÆÙ= 
Æ?¼Ãƒ>[r™ð>[¯ªÆ>[ÃE[j¶=ÁǶÆ>[ŒÆ(¤ Èe>[n™=Æœ[ì„=Åd[ÂÁÇ [«¯·JÈ 
¹Æb[[¶=Æ(d[[É«¿J¶=×C¼[[eÆa×Hf[[£¶=½>[[³Vª(¥=f[[r¶=›¼ÃI>ÈÇJ[[j™ 
Åd[›eÆa>[ÁdzÈÁ?¹Æ>€>j¾fªÆ>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>ÉiÆe›Í·N»J™=ϳ¶= 
[¶=ÊÂ>³Èfº@ª(ÍɲºÙ=¤Èe>n™=›j¶=›>²º?G¾>Q‘CͲe>n™= 
›X[[u=Æ=d[[ÂÆ(>[[Ãɪ[[jIÆÏf[[]Ù=¹Æb[¶=>[[믷JI¼[[Mð×Æ?>Ã[[uf£I
/3 

‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺪﻭﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻜﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﻭﻣﺴﻬ‪‬ﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛـﻲ ﻭﻟـﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﻮﻗ ﹰﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﹶﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺇﺯﺍﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻞ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﲤﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟـﺴﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺘـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﳌﺎﻝ ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺘﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻮﺍﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻼﻡ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻬﺮ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺰﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺟﺎﳍﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﻋﺘﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﲤﻜﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺄﺯﻗﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻓﻘـﺪ‬
‫ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻫﻴﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳍﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻـﻨﻌﺖ‬
‫ﳍﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻛﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫـﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻛﻴﻬﻮﺩ ؟!‬
‫ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻭﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺷﱪ ﺍﺣﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﻞ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﻧﺸـﺮ ﺍﳋـﲑ ﰲ ﺭﺑـﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌــﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻮﺩﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﲑ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻜﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﻪ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ א‪  ‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷـﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻓـﺒﻼﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺫﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌـﻈـﻴﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌـﻈـﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻪ ﲢﻴﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻨﻘﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻐﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻄﺠﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻗﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻼﺩﻛﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻣـﺴﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺫﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﳌﻮﻗﻌﻬـﺎ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺮﻭﺍ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺨﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻴﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺭ ﻋﻈﻤـﺔ ﺧﲑﺍﺗﻜـﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌـﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻤﻀﻮﻥ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻭﻫﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ؟‬
‫ﺃﻟﺴـﺘـﻢ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘـﺢ ﺍﻟﻔـﺘـﻮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﳑﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﹰﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﺩﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃـﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻴﺎﺗـﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼـﺒﺢ ﺃﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﳚﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳛﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ؟‬
‫ﺃﻟﺴـﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘـﺘـﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻨﻔـﻮﺍﻥ ﻗـﻮ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻠـﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻄﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﴰـﺎﻝ ﺑـﻼﺩ ﺍﳌـﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﲢﻤـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ؟‬
‫ﺃﻟﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴﺒﻴﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻨـﻮﺍ ﳑﺎﻟـﻚ ﻭﺩﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺿـﻜﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻔﻈﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺪﺣﺮﻭﺍ ﺧﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﺫﻻﺀ ؟‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻃﻮﺍﻏـﻴـﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄـﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟـﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻌﺮﻛ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﺣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻬﺰﻭﻣﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺣﻄﲔ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﻟﻠﺼﻠﻴﺒﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﲔ ﺟﺎﻟﻮﺕ ﻓﺎﲢـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻ‪‬ـﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ـﺪ ﺑﻨﻴـﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻏﲑ‪ ‬ﺍﳋـﻼﻓﺔ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻛﺔ؟ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﻧﺎ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﺡ‬
‫‪٣٩‬‬ 

>[ÃIf]AK[¢>Fª(>ɾb[¶=ÆÀÈb[¶=a>[j«¶(¸[I>¯I¼[·ª(F[³¶=bnƒ=ƪǶ= 
*¸É·®>ɾb¶=Àºzf£E 
À[[¢>[[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[[³Èfº?Í[[U=gDEÍ[[·É«³¶=Ê[[Â>Âb[[UÆϬÚ^^^†@ÁC 
c>[[¯¾CÆ(ʶÆb[[¶=¬®Ç™>[[E>[ ³Èfº?¼[[³€Î[[·¢Ð>[[v¯¶=Æ(ʶÆb[[¶=\f[[j™= 
Î[[·¢Ð>[[v¯¶=Æ(¼ [[[¶>£¶=¥Ç[[Ee›[[„=f[[n¾Æ(>ÂeÆf[[mÀ[[º¼[[[¶>£¶= 
Íð [ ·º>²>[[ÃIa>¢CÆ(T=f[[£™=ÆÐ=f[[iÝ=ze?(ì[[j·«¶¸[[J=aÇ[[ÃÈÁ>[[ɲ 
*½ØiÝ=e=a‘C 
À[¶Æ¼[³£º=ÆÁÇ[·¢Ù=¼J[¾?Æ@6Á Ç»·j™=>ÃÈ?¼³ÈbÈ@E´¶c¸² 
*>¼³¶>»¢?¼²È

0,  

$.% 
»[n² 
H>ÂeÝ=ͪÆh£ºaafIÊÂÆ(»n²buÌeÇ£j™=>ÃJ·»}b¿=½Ç¯I 
Á?l>[¿¶=x[£EÀŸÉ[¶ÍÉ[v¯¶=Î[·¢ð>«ÉN²ð>E>Fuʯ·IÁ?bÈfI(ÉE>ÂeÝ=Æ 
Á?Æ(¼[û³UK€ÁdzIÁ=¸qÙ=Á?Æ(lÆb¿=µØº?ÀºÍ£ì®»n² 
Í[¶Æb¶=Î[·¢TÆf[]Ç[¼ÃÉ[·¢b[¿=Á=Æb[¢afE»n²›»·j™=½>É® 
=ðfÈÇ[rIÍÉ[v¯¶=fÈÇ[rIÁÆb[ÈfÈ=d³ÂÆ*¼ ÃÉ·¢Ð>v¯¶=>ïUÀºÆÍÈb¿= 
>Ã[·²b[¿=Ƹ[EʺØ[iCb[·E»[n²Á?ÍÉv¯¶=ͯɯUÁ?U›(ð>«Ñ=g 
Î[JU>[Ãɪ½Ø[iÝ=Á>ì·if»Ji=Æ(½Øžb£E>ÂÆÕ>u?Æ(ÁÇ»·j™=>ÃVJª 
(Í[Èb¿ =Ìe>[¯¶=ÄF[mη¢>ɾ>ìÈfELbJ¢=U(fn¢¤i>J¶=Áf¯¶=¬rJ¿º 
*fRƒ=ÆfRn¶=ÆfnF¶=K¶>{L>²>ÃJ¾=Æeg>R’=Ǻ>®Æ 
½Ø[iÝ=>Ã[·]aÆÁÇ»·[j™=>[ÃVJªʺØiCb·E>þ?»n²¤®=ÆÁC 
À[Eb[»†¼·[j™=b[Ñ>¯¶=L>[UÇJª¹Ø]ÀºËfR=¹ÆÙ=Áf¯¶=f]=Æ?› 
e>[[nJ¾=b[[È=hI¼[[M$½3-.%[[[Â50›L?b[[E[[¶=(b[[¿=Æb¿[[j·¶(¼[[i>¯¶= 
¼[rJ£™=Ê[i>F£¶=Í[«É·„=b[â›Í[Èb¿=Ìe>¯¶=ÄFmÊ®>E›Æ>Ãɪ½ØiÝ= 
›f»J[i=ƽØ[iÝ=Á>ì·[if»Ji=¼M($½4/5)4//%[Â..1).-4 
*paا¿EÆ»n²ÆÁ>Jj²>EÆb¿>E½Çɶ=­f£È>º›>÷²Ìe>¯¶=ÄFm 
K[ÃEÇQb[®Æ½-4-5Í¿[iÍ[Èb¿=Ìe>[¯¶=ÄF[m>[ɾ>ìÈfELh¦b¯¶ 
>[ɾ>ìÈfE[Eð×>[[R[iHf[[ƒ=Lf[[»[J[i =Ɛ»·[[j™=À[ºÍ[«É¿¢ͺÆ>¯’
0-  

(¼[¦ƐÈcÇ[EÆ_É[[iÆlÆb[¿ÂÀ[ºf[«³¶=ÏÇ®x£E>þÆ>£ÈÍÈbJ£™= 
e=f¯J[[i×=>[[ɾ>ìÈfE¤ìJ[[jIÆ(Ìe>[[¯¶=ÄF[[m›ʺØ[[iÝ=¼[[³ƒ=[[EÆ 
¤[[ºÌb[[nEÌf»J[[j™=HÆf[[ƒ=À[[ºÍ¿[[i$.3%b[[£E×C>[[ÃÉ·¢ÌfìÉ[[j¶=Æ 
*½-402Í¿i›Ë?(»·j™= 
>ÃJ»[j®Æ(Í[¯ì¿™=Î[·¢>ÃIfìÉiœjE>ɾ>ìÈfEK¢>ìJi=´¶cb£E 
=d[ÂÆ(Ìe>¯¶=ÄFmÀº!11aÆbU›Ìfm>FºÄJ»³U¼j®6½ >j®?ÍMØM‘C 
6L 
>[È×ƽ>[³U°[Èf{À[¢ÄJ»³U¼j®Æ(ÌF²Äɪ»·j™=ÍFj¾¼j¯¶= 
O[¶>M¼[j®Æ*Ê [I=c¼[³UÍÈ×Æ$121%η¢¼ÃJFr¾(»·jºÆlÆb¿Â 
b[¯¢G[Qǒ´[¶cƽ>[¢ÍÒºÌbºÊiÆb¿ÂÊ¢>ì®C‘CÄIf[äQ?»n²Ç 
ÍÉ®>«I×=K¾>²Æ*e >Jifº?ÍÉ®>«I>E­f£ILe>qÆ$e >Jifº?%›¤®Æe>‹C 
*-502‘C-402Àº 
>ð[¯F{lÆb[¿=À[º¼[³€(ʺØiÝ=b·F¶=(»n²KVFq?=d³ÂÆ 
*ÌeDzd™=Q@J¶=ÍÉ®>«I×
. 
b[¿=ÆÁ>J[j²>E>[ÃEœÉ[€ ¼ [²$.-35/1%»n²ÍU>[jº¨·FI 
!41(Í»[[j¾ÁÇ[[É·º$-.%>þ>³[[iab[[¢¨[[·FÈÆ(Á>J[[j¾>§ª?Ɛ[[r¶=Æ 
* 
ÈcÇF¶=Æ_Éj¶=ÆlÆb¿>²Ïf]Ù=¬Ñ=Çì¶=Àº!-1Ê®>F¶=Æ(ÁÇ»·jº 
Î[·¢=Í[¿QÆ?>ɾb[¶=¬¯[i»[n²Î[·¢ÁÇ»·[j™=Áǀ>«¶=°·{?b®Æ 
¼[»®Î[·¢?aÇ[QǶÆ(>[ÃI=]Ìf[ªÆÆ>[ÃI>E>¦ÌfN²Æ>Ã]>¿ºGÉì¶zeÙ= 
>[ÃÉ«ª(>Âe>þ?Æ>ÃÂ>ɒÍÉ¿¦ze?»n²Æ*>Ãɪ$>ÈØ»Â%>£¶=›¹>F‚= 
Xì[iÀ[¢Í[£«Ifº½>[¢Ä[QÇE»n²ze?Æ*H 
>¿QƼ÷QÆb¿j¶=fþ 
Ê[ÂÆ(ÌeÇÃ[n™=f[Èfƒ=°[Èf{>[Ø]f[“Æ(½$-.,,%He>[¯È>[’fVF¶= 
>ðNÈb[U>ÃɪLÇ®>ɶ=­>nJ²=b¯¶Æ*Á>Jj²>EƐr¶=EbÉUǶ=œE=f¶=
0.  

e=f»J[i=Æ»[n²¹ØJU>[E>ÃNF[nIÀ[ºb[ÈhIb¿=¸£Q>º$-54/Í¿i% 
*>ÃÉ·¢ÌfìÉj¶= 
(Í[[ºf=Í[[ÈbJ£™=Í[[¶Æb¶=($>[[ɾ>ìÈfE%>[[ÃJ·JU=[[¶=»[[ n²Åd[[  
¼[M(>Ã[·ÂÙÆb[¢Í[ɦ>{Ê[iÆb¿>[ÃIfäQ?Ɛ»·[j™=>Ã[·Â?Àº>ÃJFrJ¦= 
¼[»[n²Ê»·[jºÍ[ºÆ>¯ºÁCÆ b¿=ͶÆb¶´·º»n²ÁCÁÛ=ÁÇ¶Ç¯È 
 Á=Æb¢ÆH>ÂeC 
e>[‹Ý=b[¯¢G[Qǒ>[û³UËd[¶=ÊiÆb¿=>Q=fÙ=¸»£Ji=b¯¶ 
½b®ÄÑ=egÆbU?ÁCÎJU»·j™>E¸É³¿J¶=ÆoìF¶=­Ç¿q¸²hÉ·ˆÝ=Àº 
› 
l>[[¿¶=b[[u>[[Q=fÙ=Í[[ºÇ³U>[[ÃJF³Ie=[[¶=¼Ñ=f[[‚=Í¢>[[nF¶ÄJ¶>¯J[[i= 
Ä[EoìF[ÈÆ(ÍÉ[m>™>²±>[jÈ»[n²›G£n¶=ÁCðØÑ>®\fqÆ(»n² 
»[n²›¼[³ƒ=ÁC­>u?Æ(Ä»·ŸI¤»jȐ¶ÆÖj™=ÀºbU?×Ƽ·ŸÈÆ 
; >ÃI=cͯɯƒ>E¬É³ªÐ=b¢Ù=ĶǯÈ>º=dÂ(ð>º>“l>¿¶=À¢¹Æh£º 
L>[[ib¯ºµ>[[ÃJ¾=b[[»£JÈ»[[n²›Ê[[iÆb¿=¼[[³ƒ=Á>[[²b[[¯¶ 
b[U?½>®>ºb¿¢-5/-Í¿iPbU>»²bQ>j™=ƼÈf³¶=ÁAf¯ ¶>²»·j™= 
ÌeÇ[MK·£J[m=¼[MÀ[ºÆ(¼Èf[³¶=ÁAf[¯¶=kɾb[JEÊ[iÆb¿=À[ºÙ=>Fu 
›¼ÃJEØ[qƼÃIÇ[®È»[n³¶=»·[j™=À[¢­Æf£™=Æ( µ>¿Â»·j™= 
Ç»·[jº>ÃÃF[nÈ[¶=-5/-+3+-/Í[Ma>U¼ÃJEØ[qG[ÉR¢ÀºÆ*°ƒ= 
»·[j™=À[ºF[²ab[¢½ Ç[ɶ=´[¶c›¤[»JQ=b[¯ª(ÍIÖºͲf£’»n² 
Î[¯¶?Ëd[¶=Á>]fÈb¯¶=bF¢΢bÈs^m¤ºÀº>vJ¶=ÁآݐȻn³¶= 
½>[¯ª»·[j»·¶ÍÑÆ>¿™=ÊiÆb¿=´·™=L=e=f®buÍ£»‚=ÌØq›ÍFì] 
Ð>[¿M?ÆÀR[j¶=›Ä[QgÆÍ[Fì„=Ð>[¯¶CÀ[ºÄ[£¿’Êi Æb¿ÂÍ{fmœE>u 
Á=cÙ=¤[ªfE¼Ã¿ºbU?½>¯ªf߶=ÌØqK®ÆÁ>UÀR 
j¶=Ð>¿ª›Àº>vJ¶=
0/  

¸[»³Èf]A½>®¼MðØÉJ®ÅÆae?ÆÄÉ·¢e>¿¶=ÍÉiÆb¿=ÍÉ¿ºÙ=L=ǯ¶=K¯·{@ª 
[r™=k[«¾Ê[¯¶ÆÄ[IÇ]=ÄE½>®>’f]A½>®Æ¸J®Æe>¿¶=ÄÉ·¢°·{@ªÁ=cÙ= 
*¸º>³¶>EÁ=cÙ=ÎJUð>r^m..ÍMa>ƒ=Åd›¸J®Á?‘C 
h[É·ˆÝ=Á?[¦Ê [iÆb¿=¼[³V·¶»·[j™=Í[ºÆ>¯ºLf»Ji=b¯¶Æ 
Ä[É·¢=ÇQeaËd¶=OF„=·»£JjºÊiÆb¿=>Q=fÙ=>r¶Ìǯ¶>E=Ç·]bI 
*e Ç[ºÙ=Åd[ÂO[VFI´[¶cb[£EÆ-502›ÊÃJ¿É[i±>«I×=Á?›f³™=Æ 
Ê[i>Éi¼É[Ÿ¿I¹Æ?Á>[²O[ÉUʺØiÝ=f“Ö™=HhU»n²›¸³nIÆ 
*Q@J¶=±>«I=ÌbºÐ>ÃJ¾=b£E>ºÍ·Uf™vVJ·¶»n²›Ê·]=a 
(hÉ·ˆÝ=Àº¼¢bElÆb¿=¼³Uf»Ji=Æ(KÃJ¾=±>«I×=ÌbºÁ?×C 
¼Éj¯JE-503h É·ˆ×=½>®¼M*e >JiÐ=eÆÀºÌe>IÆ(À·£º¸ ³mη¢Ìe>I 
(Á>³j¶=GjUÁ>Jj²>EÆb¿=6 
J¶Æa‘C»n²ÁÆaÍÈb¿=Ìe>¯¶=ÄFm 
Á>³[[j¶=Í[[F¦eÁÆab[[¿=‘C¼[[v¾=Ê[[iÆb¿=»[[[n²¼²>[[UÁ?×C 
Ìe>[¯¶=ÄF[m¼É[j¯JE>[ɾ>ìÈfEK[º>®>[™Ä[¾?Åf[²cfÈb‚=ÀºÆ([»·[j™= 
>ÃIf²d[º›Í[ɾ>ìȶ=Í[Èe=gǶ=Í[N£F¶=Lb[²?Á>J[j²>EÆb[¿=EÍÈb¿= 
Í[Èb¿=121[[¶=L>[È×Ƕ=½>[³U‘CÍÃQǙ=ƽ-502+1+-.›Í]e֙= 
J¶Æb[¶=Ïb[UC‘C¼ÃI>[È×ƽ>»[v¾=e=f[®›>ÃEÇ£mL>[F[¦ fE½=h[J¶×>E 
*Á>Jj²>F¶=Æ?b¿= 
a>[E?ebÉUÊÂÆÁ>Jj²>E‘C>ú>»v¾=¸Éì£IL>È×ÆPØMÀ³¶ 
a>[E?eb[ÉUÍ[È×ÆÁ?Ç [¸ [Éì£J¶=´[¶c›GF[j¶=Æ( »[n²Æ=f¦>¾ÇQÆ 
À[º¼ÃJÉF¶>[¦›>»Ã¾>³[iƐ»·[j™=À[º>[»Ã»²>UÁ>²=f¦>¾ÇQÍÈ×ÆÆ 
À[º>[ÃɪÁ>³[j¶=ÍÉF¶>¦K¾>²»n²>»¿ÉEb¿=‘C>»Ã»u¼JªlÆb¿= 
h[É·ˆÝ=hÉèVJª*b ¿=‘Cð>vÈ?>ûu¼JªÊiÆb¿Â>û²>UÀ³¶Æ»·j™=
00  

Í[q>]Æ>[PØN¶=L>È×Ƕ=Åd¼uÀºb¿=À³ºËd¶=ÇÂlÆb¿=¤º 
À[ºÊiÆb¿=¼³ƒ=Æb¿=EHÆf UÌb¢KFn¾¼MÀºÆ* »n²ÍÈ×Æ 
Ê[N·Mb[¿=K·JU>ª(Ïf]?ÍÃQÀº»n²›»·j™=ÆÁ>Jj²>EÆ(ÍÃQ 
[[r¶=K¶ÇJ[[i=Æ($!/,%ʾ>J[[j²>F¶=G[[¾>‚=›Ê[[¯EÆ($!21%»[[n² 
*>ðɶ>U»n²ÄÉ·¢>ºÇ¤®=Ƕ==dÂÆ*»n²Àº$!1%η¢ 
À[¢»n²Á@nE¹ÆÙ=e=f¯¶=ebq-504+4+-/Hfƒ=ÍÈ=bE› 
À[ºÍ[ɶÆaÍ[F®=fºÌÇ[®¸É³[nI¼M¹>J¯¶=¬®ÇEÎv®ÆʶÆb¶=ÀºÙ=k·… 
L=Ç[¯¶=H>Vj¾>Ee=f®Ä£FI¼M(e>¿¶=±Ø{C¬®Æe=f»Ji=Àºb²@J¶=¸Q? 
G£[n¶=ef[¯ÈÐ>J«J[i=Ð=f[QÝð=b[ÉÓ»n²¼É·®CÀºÍɾ>Jj²>F¶=ÆÍÈb¿= 
Á>J[j²>EÀ[º¸[²K[¯ª=Æ-505+-+1›Æ*Ê Ñ>[ÿ¶=Å[rºË»n³¶= 
¹×fÂ=Ç[QÀ[·¢?¼[M(H>V[j¾×=K[vªeb[¿=Á?×C(e=f¯¶=η¢b¿=Æ 
Ëb[¿=oÉ[‚=Ä[É·¢fìÉ[jÈËd¶=¼j¯¶=›ÍÈ×Ƕ=¼u-512Í¿iÆf[þ 
×ð=Ðh[Q>[ÂJ¢=Æ(Í[ɺdzƒ=ʾ>[F™=±Ç[ªËb[[¿=¼·[[£¶=¤[ªeÆb[¿=‘C 
*b¿=Àº?hRJÈ 
Î[[·¢b[[²ÖÈÀ[[ºÙ=k[·…À[[ºf[[]Ae=f[[®eb[q-513+.+-0›Æ 
K[[·Â>b[[¿=Á?×C(Í[[È×Ƕ=À[[ºÍ[[Èb¿=L=Ç[[¯¶=H>V[[j¾=HÇ[[QÆ 
[[¶=Gɶ>[[iÙ=leb[[ILd[[]?¼[[M(>[[ɾ>ìÈfE¤[[ºÖ{=ÇJ¶>[[E>[[ÃIa>£²e=f¯¶= 
¹>»£J[i×(¼Ã¿[ÈaÀ[¢¼Ã¿[JªÆ»·[j™=ƽØiÝ=Hfv¶Ì>§ì¶=>÷»£Ji= 
Ð=[„=Àºð=bªÆ-521Í¿iK·ie=b¯ªÄÉ·¢Æ* »n²›Gɶ>iÙ=Åd 
Ç¯[ib[£Ek¶b[¾Ù=›»·j™=η¢Ð>v¯¶=¬É²=Çiebɶ>ɾ>FiC‘C 
Ç[†Gɶ>[i?Í[i=ebEdz[iǺ›>«[ib[¿=K[«·²´¶d²Æ*Í{>¾f¦ 
aÇ[QǶ=bu°E>j¶=ÉɪÇj¶=a>€×=>Ãie>•Á>²¶=ÍɺØiÝ=ÍÉr^n¶=
01  

b[£EaÇ[ÃÈͶÆa¤º>þÆ>£IÀºÍÈb¿ =L>ìj¶=K«N²¼M*µ >¿ÂʺØiÝ= 
›aÇ[Ãɶ=L>[ìì‡leb[ILe>qÆ(ìj·«¶>ÃE>rJ¦>EÆ>ÃEKª¢=Á? 
XÈf[rIÊ«ª(ÁÆ>£J¶==d¼ÃI>ŒfrIK«n²b®Æ* 
»·j™=bu¼Âeg>… 
¸ÉÑ=f[iCÍ[¶ÆaÆb[¿=ÁC%ͯE>[j¶=º>mͺdzUÐ=egÆbU?(Á>mº>É¿F¶ 
b¯¶* »n²Æìj·ª›ÍɺØiÝ=ÍɶÇqÙ =ÇÂÆð>²nºð=fì]Á>ÃQ=ÇI 
b[¿=aäÆh[¾­Ç[i>¾eÆb[EÀ‰Æ»·j™=ÆHf£¶=¤º¸º>£J¾¬É²>¿²ea? 
*$¹>==d›L=]Àº>¿Èb¶>’ 
a>[‹Ý»[n²›Gɶ>[iÙ=ÎJ[m¹>»£J[i=Î[·¢b[¿=K[E?ab[¯¶ 
>[ÿºð>[¿ž (XÉV[r¶=ÄQǶ=η¢>úØiCÊ£I×Æ?(>ÿÈaÀ¢ÌbÉ£E¹>ÉQ? 
Á?×C* »[n²À[º½Ø[iÝ=¹>[rÒJi=¿[j¶=À[ºÌ[ªb£E¤ÉìJjI>þ? 
ð>³[[j“ÁÆa=ah[[Èl>[[¿¶>ª(b[[¿=Ê[[Ã[J[nI>[[º[[¦Î[[·¢K[[¾>²S[[Ñ>[J[¿¶= 
L>ì·[j¶=>ÿ[nIÍ[ifmÍ[»R¸[²¤[º½ØiÞ¶¼ÂÕ×ÆbJnÈÆ(¼Ã¿ÈbE 
Ïf[[]?Í[[ÈÇJ·ºGɶ>[[i@E½?¸[[ɳ¿J¶=ÆoìF¶>[[E´[[¶cÁ>[[²?Ð=Ç[[i(Í[[Èb¿= 
*¸É·vJ¶=ÆÄÈÇnJ¶>EÆ 
.1¸[J®‘CLa?-545Í¿[i»[n²›eg>[R’b[¿=K[º>®b¯¶ 
Í[ÒÉÂK[¢=c?b[¯ª(Í[ɶ>J¶=L=Ç¿j¶=›Ïf]?eg>R’>ÃJ£FI?¼MbÉÃm¬¶? 
À[ºÆÌb[VJ™=¼[ºÙ=ea>[rºÀ[º>ÃJ¯J[i=L>ÉÑ>rUC»n²Ê»·jºÍM>¦C 
ÀÈd[¶=È»n³¶=ea>rºÀºÆ(Íə>£¶=Ð>F¾Ù=L×>²ÆÆÍÈb¿=ͪ>Vr¶= 
ʾ>[N¶=ÁǾ>[²d[¿ºK[F³Ie=»[n²›ÍÈb¿=L>ì·j¶=Á?(¼ÃE¹>rI×= 
6Íɶ>J¶=¼Ñ=f‚=-554¹Æ?ÁǾ>²ÎJUÆ-55, 
(t>qf¶>Eð>ɺe=Çì¯ið=bÉÃm$2/.31% 
(¼ÃJÉ«rIK“bQ>j™=Í»Ñ?ÆÐ>»·£¶=ƐÉi>Éj¶=Àº$331%
02  

(LǙ=ÎJU¼ÃFÈd£Ið=bÉÃm$//3,% 
*Í»²>†ÁÆaÁÇRj¶=›$4--2-% 
Î[Uf‚=ÆK[j¾a¶=L>ºfƒ=ÆK³ÃJ¾=¶=z=f¢Ù=‘Cͪ>uÝ>E 
Í[ɶÆb¶=L>[»Ÿ¿™=fÈe>[¯ILÚJº=b®Æ*­×Û=L>Ғ¼ÂÀÈd¶=ÀÈaǯ«™=Æ 
ea>r¶=ÍɶÆb¶=Ç«£¶=Í»Ÿ¿ºfÈf¯I¸Nº»n²›b¿=>ÃF³IfI¶=¤Ñ>Ÿ«¶>E 
*-555+.+2› 
›Í[Èb¿=L>ì·[j¶=Ä[EK[º>®Ëd[¶=¸É³¿J¶=ÆoìF¶=ÀºÐÊm=d 
L>ì·[j¶=Lb[»¢b[¯ª¸É·vJ¶=ÆÄÈÇnJ¶=ÆÏf]Ù=Gɶ>iÙ=>º?*»n² 
Í[[ɺdzƒ=le=b[[™=›Í[[ÉEf£¶=Í[[§·¶=ƼÈf[[³¶=ÁAf[[¯¶=kÈeb[[I­>[[¯ÈC‘C 
LØ[»}½Ø[¢Ý=¸Ñ>[iÆK·»£J[i=¼M(ÍÈe>FQCͧ·²ÍÈb¿=ͧ·¶=¹>]aCÆ 
‘Cͪ>[[uÝ>E(Ì?f[[™=l>[[F¶ÆÌf[[iÙ=›ÍɺØ[[iÝ=¼É[[¯¶=Hf[[v¶Ìh[[²fº 
»·[[j™=[[Eœ·J[[^™=T=Æh[[¶=¾=Ç[[®Æ(»[[n²›eÇ[[[»[„=S[[[ÈÆfI 
Í[ÉU=fQL>[É·»¢zfª°Èf{À¢¸j¿¶=bÈb€Sº>¾fEdÉ«¿I¼M(lÆb¿=Æ 
›½>[iÆÎ[·¢?Î[·¢K·[rUÍ»·j™=ÍÉF¶>§¶=L=c»n²ÍÈ×ÆÁ?ÍQeb¶ 
*¸j¿¶=bÈb€ 
ÍÉ[nUǶ=¹>[»¢Ù=À[ºʾ>[£IK¶=g×ÆK¾>¢¶=»n²ÊÂÅd 
>ÃJÉ[v®Æ*>[Ãɪ»·[j™=b[uÍÈb¿=Í{fn¶=ÆËb¿=oɂ=>ÃF³Ifȶ= 
›b[®»[n³¶lÆb[¿=¹ØJ[U=Áä CÆ(ì[j·ªÍÉ[v¯EÁÇ[³I>[ºÄFm? 
>[»²Æ*Íð [¶Æa>[Ãɪ¼[=Ǻ>®?Ɛìj·ªaÇÃɶ=>Ãɪ¸JU=¶=>Ãj«¾Ì«¶= 
>[Âc>¯¾CÀ[¢=Ç[j¢>¯IÆ>[ÃÉ·¢ž>[«ƒ=›ìj·ª¹ÇUHf£¶=½>³ƒ=fª 
*»n²Å>Á>Jj²>E½>³U¸£ª´¶d·² 
½>[[¢Ç[[ÂÆ(½-503½>[[¢d[[¿ºÍ[[·ÈÇ{Ì[[«¶ÆÁ>J[[j²>EK[[·žb[[¯¶
03  

L=e=f[¯¶=°[ÉFìJEG[¶>ìIÊ[Âƽ.,,/½>[£¶=ÎJUÆ(¹ دJi×=ƼÉj¯J¶= 
xªf[Ib[¿=K[¾>²>[»¿ÉE(»n²G£n¶r™=f Èf¯I°UÐ>ì¢CÆÍɶÆb¶= 
›[§I¸[rUÁ?‘C($¸ ÉÑ=f[iC%¸[£«I>[»²L=e=f[¯¶=Åd[½=Æb[¶=η¢ 
L>[uÆ>«™=À[¢K[·OÉU(½.,,0½>£¶==d¤·ìº›Á>Jj²>E¬®Çº 
b[¿=¤ºL>uÆ>«™>EK·F®Ær™=fÈf¯I°UÆÍɶÆb¶=L=e=f¯¶=l>i?η¢ 
Íɾ>J[j²>F¶=Æf[n¶=>¯[iCK 
[·F®Æ(ÍÉv¯¶=¸ÈÆ bIÁÆaÊÑ>¿Ml>i?η¢ 
*»n²¸ÂÙr™=fÈf¯I°}ͯ·£J™= 
ÄFF[ikɶ»n²Ê»·jºÀ¢¥>ªb¶=›œÈf«J¶=Æ»n²¥>ÉuÁC 
À[ºͶÇÃ[jE»[n²=ÆajÈÁ?Ádz·•¼Ãª(Á>Jj²>E›»·j™=¬£u 
¹g>[¿J¶=ÁǶg>[¿JȼÃJ·£Q¶=ÊÂ>²ºÙÁ>Jj²>E½>³UͶ>»¢À³¶(b¿= 
½-521½>¢›ð>EfUÁ>]HÇÈ?z>]b¯·ª(»n²À¢b¿Ã·¶¹g>¿J¶=Ç·I 
>[º?Æ(b[¿=‘CÁ>Jj²>EGÉr¾ÀºK¾>²e>þ?ÍMØM¼õ·jª»n²GFjE 
½-53-Í¿[iÍÉ®f[n¶=Á>J[j²>E>¢>[u@ªÇ[IÇEÊ[·¢e>¯«¶=ÆcÆÁ>]ÎɌ 
* 
[n¾>Éi¼[»®aÇ¿=¸ JU=°ƒ=Ð>Éubâ›Æ(paا¿E‘CK¶Ç€¶=Æ 
À[ºʾ>J[j²>F¶=oÉ[‚=ÆÀÈbÂ>=Á>ºfUb¯ª¬Èfmg=Ǿbâ›>º?Æ 
b[[®ÁÇ»·[[j™=Á>[[²Á?b[[£E-555Í¿[[i¸[[ɦe>²L>[[£«IfºÎ[[·¢ž>[[«ƒ= 
oÉ[R·¶Åf[º=Æ?Î[ì¢?b[®¬Èf[mg=Ç[¾Á?×C(fr¿¶=°É¯€η¢=dzmÆ? 
kÉ[ÑeÊÈ>FQ>ªa>¿iÝ´ 
¶cÆ(>²º?fº=ÆÙÍE>RJi=H>Vj¾×>E·I>¯™=Æ 
b[¿=›f“Ö[™=HhUÄjª>¿º½>º?ĶÍÉF£mͶÇìEa>‹CÆ(µ=d¾Ab¿=Ð=egÆ 
*»·j™=Ð>ºaH>jUη¢ 
Ð>[ì¢CÀ[¢Ìfº¹ÆÙÆÊ·^J¶=b¯ª­fnºhÈÆfEbâ›Æð=]?Æ 
*aÇ¿=ÍvF®Àºµ>³«¾×=Ær™=fÈf¯I°U»n²G£m
04  

Ìe>[Ègd[¿ºËb[Q¸³[nEÍ[¶Æ>ì¶=Î[·¢»[n²Ͷ@jºK£uÆb¯¶ 
½.,,/+2+.0›b[[ɪ=aG[[º>²›Ä[[¶pÇ[[E¹>F¯J[[i=Æ>[[³ÈfºÙ­f[[nº 
* »[n³¶Ëf³[j£¶=ÆÊ[i>Éj¶=¸»£¶=›ðØr«ºÌe>Èh¶=´·IK¾>²OÉU 
»[n³¶ðØ[UÀ[·£ÈÁ?Á>J[j²>E›¼²>[UË?Õf‹×´¶c¸F®Á>²b¯¶ 
zf[¢¸[²›ð>V[u=Æf[ºÙ =Á>²¸E(>ú>jJ®×b¿=¤º>ÇUzÆ>«J¶>E 
Á>J[[j²>E¤[[º[¶=$»[[n²a=g?%>Ã[[·²»[[n²XF[[rIÁ?>[[ÇUÊ[[i>Éi 
K[¾>²Æ(b ¿=À¢ðÍ·¯Jjºð>£º>÷²XFrI(b¿=¤º¶=$ »n²ÆǺ>Q%Æ 
ÁØ[¢C›Ð>[Q>[»²>[ÿºÐã h[Q»n²ÆǺ>QÁ?ÏfIÆ´¶cxªf Ib¿= 
*½-512½>¢Æfþ 
° [Èf{Í[{e>]Î[·¢Ä[J¯ª=ǺðÍU=f[q­fnºÀ·¢?Ìe>Èh¶=´·I› 
¼Èb[¯J¶Åa=b£J[i=­>[u?Æ(œ[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=e=f[¦η¢»n²ÍÉv®¸ƒ 
Á>[²b[®Æ(»[n²¹Ç[Ub[¿=¤[º¼[Ñ=a¸U‘C¹ÇqÇ·¶ͻúL×g>¿I 
›Àì¿[[m=Æ›É³Èf[[º?H=Ç[[¾¤[[ºL>[[n®>¿º¹Ø[[]$¹g>[[¿J¶=%zf[[£¶= 
Ä[QÆ›¬¯Éiľ?ð>«ÉvºÀ·¢?¼M*ÌeDzd™=ÄIe>Èg¹Ø].,,/+2+.2 
*»n²›¸I>¯I¶=L>¢>»‚=Ë?»·j™=ªfìJ™= 
.,,/+,4+--›­ 
f[[[nºh[[[ÈÆfEʾ>J[[[j²>F¶=kÉÑf[[[¶=>¢b[[[ª 
ab[nI[¶=­fnºL>ŒfrILÐ>QÆ*b ¿=¤ºL>¢=h[¿¶=¸ƒL>uÆ>«™ 
Ëb[¿=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑeXÈfrIÀº½ÇÈb£EÊaÇɾ¤ºL>Ma>>Eĺ=hJ¶=η¢ 
*ÀÈb·F¶=EÐ>ºb¶=Í®=e=¬®ÇIÌeÆfvEÊÈ>FQ>ªËe>ÃÉE¹>I= 
¤[ºÍ[·E>¯ºb[£E.,,/+-.+-3› 
Ð >[F¾Ú¶gÈÆe Ͷ>²ÆK·¯¾Æ 
ÀÈe>[‚=E½Øj¶=aÇÃQ›>¾fºÆ>¢>RmÁdzÈÁÙb£Jjºľ= 6­fnº 
>[¿²=c=¹>[®Æ* »[n²Á@[nEÍ[¾ÆfºÍ·E>¯™=›­fnºÏbE?Æ*ÈÆÇ¿¶=
05  

x£F[¶=>»Ã[v£E¤ºPbVJ¶=‘=Á>Q>JŒF¾>‚=Á>ªͶ@j™=Åd¸UbÈf¾ 
**¬rJ¿™=›Ð>¯J¶×=ÆÍ¿·£™=¬®=Ǚ=gÆ>Æ;Æf’ 
Í[È?ͯÈ>[vºÆ¤[¿º›ÁǾ>[¯¶=Ç[·IÁǾ>[¯¶=e =b[qDE­f[nº½>[®¼M 
¤[ºÄ[¢>»JQ=Á>[²Á?‘C* »[n³¶b[¿=¹ØJ[Uא»·[j™=ÀºͺÆ>¯º 
b¿=¤ºzÆ>«J·¶ÍÉ·»£¶=kiÙ=¤uÆ?bEOÉU½.,,0+-+1›ÊÈ>FQ>ª 
*»n²Á@nE 
\fqb¯ª(ÀÈb·F¶=EzÆ>«J¶=OÉUÀºÍEe>¯J™=¬®=Ǚ=L?bE¼M 
Á=.,,0+,/+-.›Ëb[[¿=Ð=egÇ[[¶=kÉ[[ÑeG[[Ñ>¾(ʾ>[[ªa?>¿[[nÈf²¹× 
Á@[nEÁ>J[j²>E¤º½Øj¶¸qÇJ·¶ͶÆ>†›Ð>죶=Æd]Ú¶Ìb£Jjº ÅaØE 
*>ÃÉ·¢¥g>¿J™=»n²ͯ쿺 
›Í [[[£»‚=ÊÈ>[[[FQ>ª¹>[[[®(Á>J[[[j²>E‘Cea>[[[¾\=[[[®=›¼[[[M 
* »[n²‘C½Ø[j¶=G·‚ÌbÉUǶ=¸ÉFj¶=ÇÂe=ǃ=ÁC(.,,0+,0+-4 
b®Æ*>ÉE>‹C=eÇìI¸³nI>þCØÑ>®(ÌÇ¢b¶>EGÉU¶=‘Cʶ>–¥e>iÆ 
¹ÇUL>Ma>†Ð=fQ Czf£Eʶ>–=f«žʾ>Jj²>F¶=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑeGUe 
ʶ>[–¨[·E?Æ*Ê È>[FQ>ªËe>ÃÉE¹>IAËb¿=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑeÄE½b¯I»n² 
À[³¶Æ*Ä [¶>UÎ[·¢¹=g>[ºÁ>J[j²>E¬[®ÇºÁC6a >EA½ØiC›·i=f™= 
*F¾>‚=زÀº;Æfº´¶>¿Â***ÁdzJiL>uÆ>«™=?bFI>™>U 
Ëd[¶=e=Ç[ƒ=.,,0+,.+-2Á>J[j²>EÆb¿=K«¾@Ji=b ®K¾>²Æ 
*½>[[£¶=¬[[r¾Æº>[[¢¸[[F®Ä[[IÆec‘=fIÇ[[J¶=¹Ç[[qÆÏb[[¶>[[»Ã¿ÉE¤[[쯾= 
¹>[»¢=¹Æb[Q¤[uÆ­b[ÃEa>[EA½ØiC›L>Ma>†ÀÈb·F¶=Ç·NšÏfQ?Æ 
( »[n²Î[·¢>»Ã¿ÉE¥=h[¿¶=¼jU‘=ËaÖIÁ?›¸ºÖÈL>uÆ>«™e>{=Æ 
*L>ªØ„=¬·º›ÍÉjÉÑf¶=Í쯿¶=>Âe>FJ¢>E
1, 

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺮﺻﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﳍﻨـﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﺑـﺪﺃﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﲢﺠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺎ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺷـﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﻟﻠﻬﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٤٧‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺬ )ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ( ﺍﳍﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﻮﺫ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻟـﻪ ﻣﻐـﺰﺍﻩ‬
‫ﺭﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٠‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻌﺜﺖ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺟﻴﺘﺲ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﻻ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﱂ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﳎﻲﺀ ﻋﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺟﺒـﺎﻳﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪.١٩٩٨‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺑﺘﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺘﻮﱃ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺷﺤﺖ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲟﺎ ﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻛﺸﻤﲑ ﺗﺜﻘﻞ ﻛﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺷـﻮﻛﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻤﺪﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺰﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻟـﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻨﺼﺐ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺗﻔﺮﻏﻬﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻠﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﻲ ﻻ ﺗـﺆﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺨﻮﻧﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻛﺸﻤﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺘﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﻭﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﲢـﺖ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻮﺫﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﲡ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﺸﻤﲑ‪ .‬ﻭﻏـﲑﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳊﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳـﺔ ﺗﺮﻳـﺪ ﺗـﺪﻭﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻵﻥ ﲢﺚ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﺃﻱ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬
‫‪٥١‬‬ 

Ìef[=»n 
²ÁdzIOÉ}(»n²¼Éj¯IÀ»vJÈÁÛ=XFq?¸ƒ==d› 
L=c°{>[¿™=Î[ì£IÆ*b [¿Ã·¶b[¿=ÌfìÉ[iK[€¶=»n²Æ(Á>Jj²>F¶ 
¤[ºÊI=d[¶=¼[³ƒ=À[º>[ºð>[¢Ç¾b¿=>÷J€¶=»n²ÀºÍ»·j™=ÍÉF¶>§¶= 
¸[F®%ÊÈ>[FQ>ªÆ­f[nºÁÇ[²¼[¦eÆ*b [¿=Í[ºÇ³U­=fmCK€>ÃÑ>¯E 
Í[[ì]½>[[º?L>[[F¯¢µ>[[¿ÂÁ?×C(>[[³Èfº?b[[È›$Ì[[]Ù=b[[¿=L>[[E>^J¾= 
fq>¿¢Æʾ>Jj²>F¶=oɂ=›fq>¿¢›¸N»JIL>F¯£¶=ÅdÂÆ(Åd¼Éj¯J¶= 
K[[U>I?.,,-»JF[[i--P=b[[U?LÐ>[[Q>[[»·ª*Ìab [[nJºÍÉ[[iÆb¿Â 
Î[[·¢Á>J[[j²>Ee>[[FQDE´[[¶cÆ(>Ã[[·ÈhIÆL>[[F¯£¶=Åd[[ÂÄ[[Q=ÇIÁ?>[[³ÈfºÙ 
*ÀÈabnJ™=lÆb¿=½>º?ÊÈ>FQ>ªh²fºÏÇ®>ºL×g>¿IÆL>ÈÇjI͢ǻ… 
(a>[Â=L>[¢Ç»…¼[¢aG 
V[i6Á >J[j²>EL×g>[¿IK¿»[vIb®Æ 
œ[]Hf[®ʾ>J[j²>F¶=oɂ=aÇQƬɫÆ (GÈebJ¶=L=f³j£º¹>«®CÆ 
h[ÈÆE¹>[ƒ=¸[qÆð=[]?Æ* »[n²Ê»·[j™¼[¢aË?­>[¯ÈCÆ(¸r«¶= 
¸[qÆ(Í[¯ì¿™=´[·I›¹ÆÙ=»·[j™=Æb¢ÆF³¶=>²º?¸É»¢­fnº 
Î[·¢Ä[J¯ª=Ǻ>[²ºÙÄ[Ie>Èg›À[·¢?Á?‘C( >ð¯E>i>¾f²c>»²(Ä E¹>ƒ= 
œ[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=°[Èf{Í[ìÈf]e =f¦η¢»n²ÍÉv®¸ƒ°Èf{ÍìÈf] 
¸[[ƒ=¥Ç[[uǺ›O[[VF¶=¹Ç[[Ub[[¿=¤[[ºÌf[[m>FºL>[[uÆ>«º‘CËaÖ[[I 
L>[¢>»‚=Ë?»·[j™=$ 
ªf[ìJ™=%Ä[QÆ›¬¯É[iľ@E¹>®Æ(ʳÈfºÙ= 
*Á>Jj²>E›ÍɺØiÝ=H=hUÙ=ÆL>²fƒ=Æ»n²›¸I>¯I¶= 
ÍÉF£[m›Ìa>[ÈgL×g>[¿J¶=Åd[ÂÀ[¢SJ[¿ÈÁ?¸[º@I>³Èfº?K¾>²Æ 
ÊÈ>[FQ>ªK[»¢ab[®Ê[ÂÆÍ[q>~Æ(Ëb[¿=G[]>¿¶=b¿¢ÄEhUÆÊÈ>FQ>ª 
¼É·[jI¸[ÉQ@I¸[Nº%ÌeÇ[ìJ™=ÍV·[iÙ=Á>Jj²>EÀ¢¤¿“K¾>²Æ>ðÈf³j¢ 
›b[¿=¤[ºK[·]aÆ$>[ÿÁ>J[j²>E¤ªaÀº¼¦f¶=η¢L=fÑ>ì¶=ͯ«q
1.  

Ëb[¿=G£ [n¶=½>[º?ÊÈ>[FQ>ªfßÈÁ?¸Q?Àº( ÍÉRÉI=i=Ͳ=fmÍÉ®>«I= 
*Á >J[[j²>E¼Ã»[[r]Ìeb[[®Î[[·¢ÍÈf³[[j£¶=¼ÃIeb[[®±Ç[[«I›GF[[iÄ[[¾? 
>[þÙ´¶c¸²*Ë 
a>rJ®=p>£J¾=a>‹Ý>ðÈa>rJ®=ÊÈ>FQ>ªK»¢a´¶d²Æ 
×­ØJ[Ñ=À[º¤[»>[I>¾>QÁ?ÆËÇ®f“Ö™=HhƒbÉqf¶=Á?ÏfIK¾>² 
*¼¢aÁÆaf“Ö™=½>º?­Ç®Ç¶=¤ÉìJjÈ 
Ë 
a>[rJ®×=Í[q>~Ƽ ¢b[¶==d[ÂÀ[ºÐ>[Q>I>¾>QHhU¸J¯ºÀ³¶ 
Í[[ºÇ³ƒð×=Ç[[º?K^[[uÆð>Èa>[[rJ®=ð>[ »¢aÌb[[VJ™=L>[[È×Ƕ=K®b[[¦?b[[¯ª 
Í»^[[uL>²f[[mµ>[[¿ÂKVF[[q@ª*$Í[[r^r„=%Î[[¿FJɶÄ[[J£ªaÆ>[[I>¾>Q 
(ÌÆf[N¶=h[²fI›Ìa>[ÈgË?ʶ>[?f¶=œ»¿[¶=η¢Ä¿³¶ÆËa>rJ®=p>£J¾=Æ 
Í[ɶ>ºL>²f[mÆÐ>[É¿¦?bQÆ´¶d¶(f¯ «¶=>ÃɪfnJ¿Èð=aØEGi>¿È×=dÂÆ 
*Ïf¯¶=Æ­>ÈeÙ=›Íq>~Æð=f¯ª=Æa=ag=Ð=f¯«¶=À³¶Æ(Áb™=›¤¾>rºÆ 
oU>ªâο¦6 
ªf{Ex®>¿J™=%Ëa>rJ®×=¤uǶ==d¬Éu?b®Æ 
lÆb[¿=b[¿¢ʺÇ[¯¶=Èb¶=abnJ¶=ÇÂÆôÁ>Mfr¿¢Ķ¬Éu?$¤ ®bºf¯ªÆ 
¸[E>Ã[v£E=Ǻb[ÂƼÂbQ>[jºb[uƐ»·[j™=b[ueg>…=ÇF³Ie=OÉU 
*Ïf]?$Íð É¿Èa%æL>Òª=ǯÈ>uÆ 
ÅÕ>[[ÂaÆf“Ö[[™=Hh[[UÍ[[®=f¢Ç[[ ÂÆO[[ ¶>Mf[[[r[¿¢¬[[ É[u?¼[[ M 
e>[[ÞDEÈb[[¶=>[[I>¾>Qab[[nIHe>[VªÍ[[ɾ>ìȶ=Í[[¯Èfì¶=Î[[·¢Ê[[i>É[j¶= 
Í[[ɶ>?eHe>[[[UÆ(f[[[]AÁÆaÀ[[Èa¤[[ºK[[[jɶ>[[þ@Ef“Ö[[™=Í[[ɾ>»·¢ 
Í[[¶Æb¶=>[[Â×ÇJI¤Èe>[[nºa>[[‹ÝÌÇ¢b[[¶>E$ÄJÈe>[[jÈ%e>[[ÞDEÍ[[r[^[r[„= 
ÍF[j¿¶>E>[I>¾>QHhU¬®Çºη¢h²e¼M*Ð =f¯«¶=ƹ>»£·¶ð×>»¢?bQÇIÆ 
×f“Ö[™=Hh[UÁÙÁ>J[j²>E½>[º?¬£[uÄ[¾?η¢ÅfÞ?OÉU»n³¶ 
Í¿[ie=f[¯E>ûub®ÆfþÁÙzÆ>«I¤uǺÍ·J=»n²ÁdzIÁ?¸F¯È
1/  

*b¿=Àº?hRJÈ×ð=ÐhQ>Âe>FJ¢=À·¢?Æ-512 
[[¶Ìe>j]6.,,0+1+-,›ͺ>£¶=L>E>^J¾×=SÑ>J¾LÐ>Q=d³ÂÆ 
Ïa?>[º(>[ɾ>ìȶb[È֙=f“Ö[™=Hhƒ\>ˆÆ(¼²>ƒ=>I>¾>QHhU 
He>[¯J¶=a>[‹C°[Èf{À[¢»n²η¢¥=h[¿¶=¸ƒ>³Èfº?Íì]¬j¾‘C 
Ë?(¤[iÆÙ=>[³Èfº?Í[ì„ðÍEf[u͕hÂKÃQÆb®Æ* 
J¶Æb¶=E 
*Íɺ>¿J™=ÍÉ¿Ér¶=Ìǯ¶=ÄQÆ›b¿=¤uÆ 
À[ºf[N²?»[n²Î[·¢>ÃJvF®abnJib¿=Á?£Èf“Ö™=\>ˆÁC 
.,,0+,1+,5Ê[«ª*f “Ö[™=\>ˆb£EXìj¶=η¢=bE>º=dÂÆ* 
ÁdzÉ[ib[ɲ@J¶>E 6 
ʶ>[ƒ=Ë 
b[¿={Ƕ=ÀºÙ=e>nJjº¹>® 
Ǻ>Q›b¿=ze?À¢¹ g>¿IË?>¿Èb¶ÁdzÈÀ¶***ÏÇ®?»n³E>¿³j“ 
œ[]¹Ç[{Î[·¢ÍÉ[nº>ÂL>VÉV[rIÇÂÄ ¶ÇrUÀ³•>º¸²*»n²Æ 
e=Ç[J¾%Ëb[¿=Í[ÉQe>„=ÁÇÒn¶=fÈgƹ>®.,,0+,1+./›Æ*¸r«¶= 
($-53.%Ø 
»ÉiÍÉ®>«I=ÇÂb ¿=ÆÁ>Jj²>EEL>®Ø£¶=l>i?Á@E$¨¿Éi 
äae.,,0+,1+.0›Æ*À Èb[·F¶=[EL>Œf[rIÆL 
>[É®>«I=Àº>ãFI>ºÆ 
b[QÇÈ×Ä[¾?£È$e=ÇJ¾%Á>²=cC 6ĶǯE$e=ÇJ¾%L>ŸUغη¢­fnº 
=d[ÂÁC*Ä £º¬·J]?Á?ʶX»jÉ·ª(Ͳfƒ=Æ?dzÉI>Jj¶=Ͷ>UÁ@nEe=f® 
=d[ê(f[ºÙ=Î[ÃJ¾=Æ(ð>[É»Ñ=aXF[rÉi¸r«¶=œ]Á>²=cC*¸ ƒ=ÇÂkɶ 
*Ä£º°«I?×>¾@ªØ»ÉiÍÉ®>«I>EÊ«J³¾Á?£ÈÁ>²=cC*¸ƒ=ÇÂkɶ 
¤ºðÍÈäaÆæL>®Ø¢bÈfÈľ?X uÆ?b®f “Ö™=HhUÁ?Àº¼¦f¶=η¢Æ 
À[[ºÆ¼ÃJV·[[rºÀ[[ºÆ>¿JV·[[rºÀ[[º 6$¨¿É[[ie=Ç[[J¾%¹>[[®>[[»²(>[[²º? 
ðÍ^[[i=eÌb[[VJ™=L>[È×Ƕ=Æb[[¿=[[EL>[[®Ø£¶=ÁÇ[[³IÁ?>[[£¶=ÍV·[[rº 
¥>ªb[[¶=ÆÀºÙ>[[EÍ[[¯·£J™=f“Ö[[™=Hh[[UÍ[[¯ÉMÆÁ?×C*Íð É[[ußf¢ß K[[jɶÆ
10  

>ð[»ÉŸ¢ð=b[·EÁ?¬[i֙=Àº 6>ÃɪÐ>Qb®.,,0Í¿iÌea>r¶=Íi>Éj¶=Æ 
ÁÇ»[vºÅ[J£I¶=ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ç·¶¤E>Iaf…XFrɶÄ»ÉR€ç¼Ißb¿=¸Nº 
>²º?Íi>Éi½b¯I¶=  ͺdzU Íi>ÉiÍRÉJ¾ÅdÂ*>ÍÉ£FJ¶= 
ÁC***{Ç[¶=Ä¿º?ÆÍÉQe>„=ÄJi>Éi›b¿=>rºη¢>²º?ÅbÈfI>ºÆ 
Ä[É¿É¢G[r¾ð>£u=Æ(ð=bÈbQð>Â>=ÍÒÉj¶=Íi>Éj¶=ÅdÂÄQÇÉif“Ö™=HhU 
Á>[[ÉEÇ¢b[[ÈÆ*>[[¦›Æ>[[¿J¯ì¿º›ÍÈa>[[rJ®×=ÆÍÉ[[i>Éj¶=L×Ç[[VJ™= 
‘C[nÈ>[º(ÆfþÌfŸ¾η¢ÍÉQe>„=b¿=Íi>ÉiÐ>¿F¶ð>vÈ?f“ ֙=HhU 
f“Ö[™=Hhƒ¸»¢¼Â?ÁC 6s 
¿¶=›Ð>Q(>ɾ>ìȶÍɶ=ǺÍÉQe>]Íi>Éi 
\ÆeÊ[ÂÅd[Â***Í[ÉQe>„=Ä[I>®Ø¢e>[ÉJ]=›Í[Èfƒ=b[¿Ã·¶fªÇÈÁ?Ç 
°[ª=ÇJ¶==dÂ(ð>É¿{Æð>¯ª=ÇIÆfþ¹×fÂ=ÇQ>ÃÉ·¢οE¶=ÍÉQe>„=Íi>Éj¶= 
*  ¼³U̪Ð>¿M??Â=Ëd¶= 
¤ªb[[Ib[[®Æ*b[[¿=À[[º>[[ë®Çº¤Q=[[i>[[²º?Á?[[£ÈÄ[[·²=d[[ 
­>£[uÝ »[n²›Í[ºÆ>¯™=\>[–XF[²Íi>ÉiÀ¢η^JIÁÙÁ>Jj²>E 
Ê»·[jºb[¿¢Ëǯ¶=eÇ£n¶=Á ?×Ƕ(¼ ÃÉ·¢œ§v¶=ÆÄÑ>«·UÆf“Ö™=HhU 
­çf[n™¥h[¢h™=¤[uǶ=Æ(ĺ>¿[iÌÆec(a>[Â=Æ½Ø 
[iÝ=ÌaÇ£¶Á>Jj²>E 
Hh[UÁ?>[²º?Å>[?ÇiÙ=Æ*Ìf{>^™=ÅdÂη¢½b¯I×>²º?ÁØ£‹ 
Í[»É—L 
>[®Ø¢>Á>²¶=ÍV·j™=b¿=L=Ç®¸É³nIÌa>¢C›?bEf“Ö™= 
*Í [ɲºÙ=¹Çə=ËÆc>Fv¶=Àºoɂ=ÃìJEðØ£ª?bEb®Æ*>²º?¤º 
ÍV·[j™=L=Ç[¯¶=›M@J¶=η¢>²º?Ìeb®¬£vÉi=dÂÁDª´mÁÆbEÆ 
>[²º?Á?X[QeÙ=Æ*e >[ŸJ¾×=ò×Ce>[É]Ë?ÁÆa>²º?¸£‹>º*ÍÈb¿= 
*.,,0Í[È>þ›Í[ɲºÙ=L>E>^J¾×=¸F®b¿=Å>Íi>ÉiË?©ÇrIÀ¶ 
>[ÃɶCLd[«¾Á?b[£EͶÇÃ[jEb[¿=µ[IÀ¶¹=ÇUÙ=¤É–›>³Èfº?À³¶
11  

e>[[«³¶=>[[êc>¯JÈ»[[n²ÍÉ[[v®Î [ ¯FI¼[[MÀ[[ºÆ*Ê È>[[FQ>ª¼[[³UÍ[[·É{ 
*¼ÂcÇ«¾Æ¼Ãƒ>rº°ªÆÁÆf»£Jj™= 
°[}Á>J[j²>E½>[³U¸[F®ÀºL>¾>Ʉ=Åd¬®Ç¶¸ÉFj¶=¬É²>º? 
; »n²›»·j™=ÆÀÈbÂ>= 
 
»·[j™=¸[F®À[ºa>‚=¸»£¶=›frV¿È¹=Öj¶==dÂη¢H=ǂ>ª 
Á>J[j²>F¶=›ÍɺØ[iCÍ[¶ÆaÍ[º>®CÆ­f[nºͺdzU>¯iݐɾ>Jj²>F¶= 
b[¿=Í[¢e>¯º›f»J[[jIÆ(\Ø[j¶=ÌÇ[¯EÆa>[Â>E»n²a=ai>E½Ç¯I 
¸[F®À[ºK[¾>²>»²½ØiÝ=¬¿²‘C>ãɖÍÈb¿=Ìe>¯¶=ÄFmbÉ£IÎJU 
¼É»[rJ¶=Æ Ìa=eÝ=ÆÁ >[•Ý=ÌÇ[®LfªÇ[I>[º¹>[V’´¶ckɶÆ(Í·ÈÇ{Ìb™ 
›»·[j™=­=b[Â?°[¯VJIÎ[JU°[Èfì¶==d[ÃE[j¶=›e=f»J[i ×=η¢ 
´[·J“Á>J[j²>EÁ?ÆÍ[q>](lÆb[¿=f [¯F¶=ÌbF¢kQeÀº¼ÂaØEfÈf€ 
»[n²c>¯¿J[i×>[ÃE\Ç[·IÁ?¤ÉìJ[jIÍÈÆǾÌÇ®ÆÍEe>[u 
ÍÈf³[j 
¢ÌÇ® 
À[ºf[N²?K 
[¶>{Ìb[º>Âc>¯¿[[J[i =›Í[[É[i>[º Ç·Eb¶=±f[[ì¶=K[·[n 
ª¶= 
*Áf®¬r¾ 
6ÁÇ»·j™=>ÃÈ? 
>[[»²Æ(ʺØ[[iCb[[·E>Ã[[·²b [[¿=Ƹ[[EʺØ[[iCb[[·E»[[n²ÁC 
Ê[[ÂϬÚ^^^†@ÁD[[ª(Ëf[[R=¹ÆÙ=Áf[[¯¶=›ÍɺØ[[iÝ=ϬÚ^^^†@>[[ÃJVJª 
Ìe>[[[¯¶=ÄF[[[m‘CÆ»[[[n²‘C½Ø[[[iÝ=Á>ì·[[[iÌa>[[[¢CÎ[[[·¢Ìea>[[[¯¶= 
À[[[ºÍÉ[[[nUǶ=¹>[[[»¢Ù=Æa>Ãì[[[u×=Ƽ[[[·Ÿ¶=Í[[[¶=gCÆ(>Ã[[[·²Í[[[Èb¿= 
ÄF[[[m›»·[[[j™=ÁC*»·[[[j™=Î[[[·¢¤[[[¯I[[[¶=¼Ã¢>[[[FI?ÆlÆb[[[¿= 
´[[¶cÎ[[·¢Ìea>[[®>Âb[[UÆÁ>J[[j²>EÁC(´[[¶cÎ[[·¢ÁÆea>[[¯¶Ìe>[[¯¶= 
=¹h[[¾?>[[’>[[û³Œ(b[[m=eÍ[[«É·](s[[·‡¼²>[[U>[[ÂaǯÈ>ºb[[¿¢
12  

=Ð=b[[¢?>[[ÃEb[[Â>‹Æ 
ϬÚ^^^a¹¸Í [[ɪ>³¶=L>[[ºÇ¯™=>[[ÃɪÁ>J[[j²>EÁC* 
¼ÃFÉ[[rI[[¶=Ê[[iB™=À[[º¼Âd[[¯¿IƐ»·[[j»·¶h[[£¶=b[[É£I[[¶=Ìb[[m=f¶= 
½>[[³ƒ=Ëb[[È?Î[[·¢¸[[EG[[jVªe>[[«³¶=Ëb[[È?Î[[·¢kÉ[[¶e>[[þ¸[[ɶ 
»·[[j™=¼Ã¾=Ç[[]C¹>[[J®›b[[¿‚=Í[[®>{ÁÆeb[[ÃÈÀÈd[[¶=(´¶d[[²ÐØ[[»£¶= 
*b¿=>rºÆ(>³Èfº?>rºÁǟ«Œ(>ÃEf¦ÆaØF¶=±fm› 
(b[ÈbQÀ[º[„=Í·£[m=Æb[®ÇIÁ?Á>J[j²>E¸[Â?>[ÈÁÆea>®¼³¾C 
Àº=Áfr¿É¶Æ@=¹Çieb»†=×CĶC×ÍÈ=e(Ï ¬Ú^^†@ÍÈ=e=Ç£ªfIÆ 
*>hÈh¢Ëǯ¶=ÁCÅfr¿È

13  

$/% 
Á>[nÉ[n¶= 
Í[É·FQͯ쿺ÊÂÆ(l>¯«¯¶=Æ?g>®Ç¯¶=ͯ쿺ÀºÐhQÊÂÁ>nÉn¶= 
aØ[EÍ[¯ì¿™=Åd[¸ »[nIÆ($e h[„=%ÀÈÆh[®f[}ÆaÇ[iÙ=f[VF¶=E¤¯I 
ʶ>[›¤[¯IaØF[¶=ÅdÂÆÁ>nÉn¶=ÆÍɶ>»n¶=>ÉJÉiÆ?ÆÁ>Jj¦=aÆpLjÙ= 
>[ɲfIÀ[ºÐ=h[Q?ÆÁ>RÉEec?Æ>ɿɺe?Æ>ÉQeÇQ°{>¿º¸»nI>»²(g>®Ç¯¶= 
*g>®Ç¯¶=ÊEÇ¿Q¤¯I°{>¿™=ÅdÂÆÁ=fÈCÆ 
(ð=f[³Fº½Ø[iÝ=>Ã[·]aÍɺØ[iCaØ[EÊ[Â>ÃEÇ¿QÆ>>g>®Ç¯¶=Æ 
À[Ef[»¢À[ºg[[Â..½>[£¶=Ê[«ª(½Æf[¶=Æle>[ªaØ[E¸[F®ÎJUKVJªÆ 
Ç[E?¸[É·‚=ÊE>V[r¶=>[ÃVJª›¼Â>[iÆ(ÁÇ»·[j™=>÷[qÆWH>ì„= 
Í»·[jºÀ[EG[ÉFU[ºÙ=bÈη¢>ÉQeÇQÍ»q>¢ÊjÉ·FIKVJªÆ(;>Qa 
* WÁ>«¢ÀEÁ>»N¢Àºg 
Í[[ÈǺÙ=ϬÚ^^^†@›½Ø[[iÝ=e=aÀ[[ºð=Ðh[[Qg>[[®Ç¯¶=aØ[[EK[[ɯEÆ 
Ç¯[ib[£EÍÉ[i>F£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=¹>qÆ?›çHaËd¶=¬£v¶=À³¶(ÍÉi>F£¶=Æ 
¼[[³ƒ=ºb[[I‘CÏa?$¹Ç[[§™=%e>[[JJ¶=Ëb[[È?Î[[·¢[[[Â212Í¿[[ia=b[[§E 
ÀÈd[¶=¹Ç[§™=Ð×ÖÂÁ?L>®e>«™=ÀºÆ(¹Ç§™=bÈη¢g>®Ç¯¶=›ʺØiÝ= 
(EÇ[[·§™=g>[®Ç¯¶=¸[Â?Ëb[È?Î[·¢½Ø[iÝ==Ç[¯¿J¢=b[®»·[j™>E=Ç[·³¾ 
f[n¢O[¶>N¶=Áf[¯¶=›¸³[nI(g>[®Ç¯¶=›ð>ɺØ[iCð>[»³Uʶ>J¶>E=Ǻ>®?Æ 
K[[ÈÇ®Æ(¼[[û³ƒÍ»[[q>¢dz[[iǺ Ê®f[[mÁ=g>[[®À[[º=Æd[[=ÆËaØÉ[[™=
14  

bJº=Æ(g>®Ç¯¶=°{>¿º>ÃɶCK»vªð>EÇ¿QK£iÇIÆ(>ÂaÇ¢bJm=Æ(¼ÃJ¶Æa 
Í[ÉFÂd¶=Í [³·»™>E­f[£IKVF[q?Æ>Ã[j«¾dz[iǺÆ>ÈFÉi‘C¼Ã¾>ì·i 
À[ºη¢>þ@mÇ·¢Æ>ÃÑ=fMÌbn¶Æ(>ÃJ»q>¢›GÂcÀºK£–>ºÌfN³¶ 
b[ÉUÇIÆ(ÍÉ[iÆf¶=Í[¶Æb¶=ÐÇ[n¾Á?×C*Á >[ºh¶=´¶c›¹ÆaÀº>ÂeÆ>Q 
‘CÏa?dz[[[iǺÍ[[[º>¢hE>Âb[[[UÇIÆ(ÍÉ[[[j²cÇMeÙ=ÍÉVÉ[[[j™=>[[[ÃI=e>ºC 
b[£E½a>[rJ¶==d[ÂÎ[ÃJ¾=Æ(ÍɺØiÝ=ÍÈe>JJ¶=ͶÆb¶=¤º¸q=ÇJ™=½=bìq×= 
(Á=g>[[®>ÃJ»[[q>¢ºb[[IÆ(Í[[Èe>JJ¶=Í[[¶Æb¶=Ç¯[[i‘CÁ>[[ºh¶=À[[º¾f[[® 
(>[ÂeDzcη¢Ð>v¯¶=Á?b£EÌǯ¶>ElÆe‘C¼Ã·ÈǀÆ(>÷Â?ÍU>FJi=Æ 
aÇ[[QǶ=Ìa>[[EC´¶d[[EÆ(lÆe¹>[[Qe‘C>ÃÑ>[[j¾À[[ºN[[³¶=SÈÆh[[IÆ 
¤[[º=Ç·[[q=ÇJÈ ÀÈd[[¶=»·[[j™=À[[ºÍ[[·«¦›>É[[iÆeG[[·®›ʺØ[[iÝ= 
Í[¶Æb¶=K[¾Ç³IÐ>[¿MÙ=Åd[›Æ*Í [¶Æb¶=h²fºOÉUHÇ¿‚=›¼Ã¾=Ç]C 
KVF[q?Æ(¼ÃJÈ>[¢fEÆg>[®Ç¯¶=Ê»·[j™L=b¢>j™=fÈf»JEL?bEÆÍɾ>»N£¶= 
‘CK[¶Ç€[¶=Í[Èg>®Ç¯¶=°{>[¿™=Î[·¢ÌfìÉ[j¶=ÍÉiÆf¶=ͶÆb¶=¤º¥g>¿JI 
*Íɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶=Æ>ÉiÆe>»ÂIF²J¶ÆaEÍÈaÆbU°{>¿º 
Ð>¿NJ[i>Eg>[®Ç¯¶=Î[·¢>ÃIfìÉ[izf[ªÀ[ºÍ[ɾ>»N£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=K¿³“ 
½>[¢›´[¶cÆÁ=f[ÈC›ÍÈÇ«[r¶=Í[¶Æb¶=cÇ[«¾‘CK[Qf]¶=Á>RÉEec? 
½>[®O[ÉU½-3..Í¿[iÎ[JU>[ÃɪʺØ[iÝ=¼[³ƒ=f»Ji=Æ*½-134 
À[[³¶*>[ÿºð>»[[j®¸[[JU=Æg>[[®Ç¯¶=Í[[–>Ò[[²Ù=lf[[ìE>É[[iÆef[[rÉ® 
Hf[ƒ=Lf»J[i=¼[M(ð>[J®Öº½-3/1½>[£¶=›lÆf¶=afìE=Ǻ>®»·j™= 
*lÆf¶=Ɛ»·j™=Eð×>Ri 
¸[ª>VQ½>[º?aÇ»[r¶=É¾>»N£¶=Àº¼¢bEÆÁÇÈg>®Ç¯¶=¥>ìJi=b¯¶ 
(Í[ɾ>»N£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=K«£[uÁ?‘CÁÆf[®Í[MØN¶=À[¢b[ÈhÈ>ºÊiÆf¶=Æh§¶=
15  

=Ç[uf«ÈÁ?Æ(ÍɺØ[iÝ=Í[ºÆ>¯™=η¢=ÇF·§JÈÁ?´¶cb£ElÆf¶=¥>ìJi=Æ 
*fn¢Àº>N¶=Áf¯¶=Àºʾ>N¶=¬r¿¶=›g>®Ç¯¶=η¢¼ÃIfìÉi 
À[º¼¦f¶>[ElÆf¶=Ìfq>ɯ¶=buLf»Ji=g>®Ç¯¶=¸Â?ͺÆ>¯ºÀ³¶Æ 
r¿J¶=ÆÌa>EÝ=EKUÆ=fI¶=ÍÉnUǶ=Gɶ>iÙ=ÎJn¶lÆf¶=½=b^Ji= 
L>[§·¶=¸[†ÍÉ[iÆf¶=Í[§·¶=¹Ø[UCÆL>[E>§¶=°[Èf€ÆGÈd[£J¶=ÆRÃJ¶=Æ 
*ÍÉie>«¶=ÆÍɲ¶=ÆÍÉEf£¶= 
K[ª×¸³[nEÍ[Èg>®Ç¯¶=Í[ºÆ>¯™=[EÀºÍɾ>nÉn¶=ͺÆ>¯™=LgfEÆ 
G£[n¶==ÆaÇ[¯ÈÁ?=Ç¢>ìJ[i=ÀÈd[¶=ÁÆb[Â>=ÆÐ>[»·£¶=>[ÃɪgfEÆ(fŸ¿·¶ 
ÁÇ[®eÖÈƽ>Ÿ£¶=L>ÉVvJ¶=ÁǺb¯È¼Ã·£QÍVQ>¾ÍÈa>ÃQÌa>É®ʾ>nÉn¶= 
Í[ºÆ>¯™=À[ºgf[EÆ*¼ [³ƒ=Î[·¢=ÇF®>[£IÀÈd[¶=lÆf[¶=Ìf[q>ɯ¶=¤Q>vº 
eÇ[[r¿º_É[[n¶=Ìf[[q>ɯ¶=½>[[È?Ê[[iÆf¶=¹ØJ[[U×=b[[uÌb[[É¿£¶=Íɾ>[[nÉn¶= 
½-341Í¿[iÀ[ºÊiÆf¶=¹ØJU×=buð>iÆfuð>EfUa>®Ëd¶=ʾ>nÉn¶= 
½>[[ºÝ=Ä[[£FI¼[[M*lb[[¯™=a>[[Â=Hf[[U>ÃÉ»[[jÈÁ>[[²Æ½-350Í¿[i‘C 
Í¿[i‘C½-4.0Í¿[iÀºlÆf¶=·J=buÍ«É¿¢ð>EfUa>¯ªb»†Ë×Ǻ 
b[uð>[º>¢MØN[¶Í·[q=ÇJºµe>£ºz>^ª¸º>m½>ºÝ=Ð>Q¼M*½-4/. 
*½-415Í¿i‘C½-4/.Í¿iÀºlÆf¶= 
($¬ÉÈÆa>[[ºÆ?%ʾ>[[nÉn¶=Ìa>[[ɯElÆf[[¶=b[[uÌeÇ[[N¶=Lf»J[[i=Æ 
¼É¢h[[[[¶=Í[[[[²fUÆ$¬ÉÈ>[[[[™g%Í[[[[²fUÆ$¬ÉÈ>[[[[u?ÊE>[[[[{%Í[[[[²fUÆ 
Í¿[[iÊ[[¾gÆf¦›lÆf[[¶=Ä[[ºb¢?Ëd[[¶=$Ê Q>[[U´[[EÊ[[·¢%ʾ>[[nÉn¶= 
>[[º¸[[³Ea>[[Â=À[[¢Á>[[nÉn¶=b[[qÀÈb[[Â>QlÆf[[¶=¹Æ>[[UÆ*½-434 
›¼Ã¢>ªb[[¾==Ç[[¦f«É¶ÍɪÇ[[r¶=±f[[ì¶=‘C¼ÂÇ[[ÃQǪ(Í[[·ÉUÀ[[º=Ç[[IÆ? 
Á>[[nÉn¶=¸[[²ÁÙlÆf[[¶=b[[«È´[[¶cÀ[[³¶(f²d[[¶=L>[[¯·UÆ>[[È=Æh¶=
2,  

*ÍɪÇr¶=¼ÃɪÀ’lÆf¶=bu¹>J¯·¶ÁÇFÃÈ=Ǿ>²¼ÃFÂ=dº¸³E 
ÌbÈb[[mÊ[[iÆf¶=oÉ[[R·¶g>[[®Ç¯¶=›»·[[j™=Í[[ºÆ>¯ºK[[¾>²b[[¯¶ 
K[¯ƒ[¶=¼Ñ=h[=Í¢f[if[jª¿[ɶÁ?Í[Qeb¶lÆf[¶=K[¯Âe?ÍEØr¶= 
Ëd[¶=±>[ÂeÝ=Í[RÉJ¾K¾>²>þ@E‘ÆÙ=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ=›ÊiÆf¶=oɂ>E 
*g>®Ç¯¶=›ÁÆf®Ìb¢ÌbnELf»Ji=HfUÀºoɂ==dÃE°ƒ 
Ê[«¿EÍ[ɾ>N¶=Í[ə>£¶=Hf[ƒ=Í[È>þ›¶>Ji½>®Ê¢ÇÉn¶=bã¶=›Æ 
Î[«¿™=›L>[ºÆÁ>J[j]=g>²Æ>ÈFÉ[i‘CÅb·EÀºÄ·²ʾ>nÉn¶=G£n¶= 
Î[«¿™=›=Ç[·žÆ(Í»[j¾¬[¶?ÒºÆÁÇÉ·’eçb¯™=ʾ>nÉn¶=G£n¶=¬r¾ 
*ÌaÇ£¶>E¼XOÉU½-513½>£¶=ÎJU 
½>[È?ÄÉ·¢Á>²>»¢Á>nÉn¶=»·j™>ElÆf¶=É¢ÇÉn¶=¸É³¿Ia=gÆ 
Ê¢ÇÉ[n¶=f³«¶==ÇufªÆÈb¶=¼É·£J¶==ǧ¶?ÆbQ>j™==ÆfºaOÉUÌfq>ɯ¶= 
*¸É³¿Ibm?l>¿¶=›=Ç·³¾Æl>¿¶=η¢Ëa>ƒÝ= 
¼Âah[I¼Ã¿Èb[EÐ=h[¢?¼ÃEf[EÐ>ÈÇ[[®?Á>[[nÉ[n 
¶=Ê[¯E´[¶c¤[ºÆ 
À[ºN[²´[¶cÎ[·¢bÃ[mb®Æ*>ðI>FMÆðÍEØq×C¼ÂbuÍÉ¢ÇÉn¶=¼Ñ=fQ 
*lÆf¶=Ð>EaÙ= 
>ð[E>R¢CÁÇ[¿³È(ËÇJ[j¶ÇI´[¶c±ÇªÆ(­ÇJ¿º¶Æ³mÇEÁ>²Æ 
a =f[ºT>[ƒ= ËÇJj¶ÇIÍÈ=ÆeÀ³IÆ*Á >nÉn¶=Ð ×Ö(ÍFÂf¶=Àº>ðFÈf® 
¹Ð>[jIÆ*f ª>[³¶=Í[¯EeÀºef [VJ·¶¼ÃF[UÆÁ >nÉn¶=Í ¢>Rn¶bÉR“ÏÇi 
*Ë 
f[nF¶=k¿[‚=ÀºÍq>]Í·Érª‘CÁÇ»J¿ÈÁ >nÉn¶=Á >²=cC>»¢Ág 
ÁÇR[[j¶=À[[ºÍ·[[j·iÇ[[ÂÆ(¸[[ÉF]e?±×ǧ¶>[[E>Â>[[v®[[¶=Ì[[«¶=Ð>[[¿M?Æ 
¹>®Æ*µ >¿ÂÀÈhRJ†ÍɺǮ-1,Àºt>^m>EjJ¿‚ÇiίJ¶=(ÍÉiÆf¶= 
*Á>nÉn¶=¼Â=Ǿ>²Ð×֐EÀº=Æfj³¿ÈÀÈd¶=ÀÈbÉUǶ=ÁC
2-  

½>[£¶=›Í[ÈeÇÖÌf[n¢k[˜‘CÊI>ɪÇ[j¶=a>[€×=´³«Ib£EÆ 
Lf»J[i=¸[EÍ·¯Jj™=L>ÈeÇû‚=ÀºÌbU=Æg>®Ç¯¶=aØEÀ³I½-55›¬ÉÈ=aÆafÂÇQÌa>ɯEÁ>nÉn¶=À·¢?Æ(ÍÈa>€×=>ÉiÆeÍÈeÇû|ͯV·º 
>[ÃE­=[¢×=ð=eÇ[ªlÆf[¶=xªf[ª¼[Í·¯JjºͶÆa½>É®½-55.+--+›=Ç·[nªlÆf[¶=Á?×C½-551½>£¶=›>Âǖ>¼M(Ìa=ÇÂØE>ÂÇEe>UÆ 
Σ[[jIÍɾ>[[nÉn¶=Í[[¶Æb¶=K[[ɯEÆÍ[[Ua>ªfÑ>[[j]=Æb[[F³IÆHf[[ƒ=Åd[[ 
lÆf[[¶=X[[ˆ½-555½>[[£¶=›Æ*>ð[ º>Ið×>[[r«¾=dz[[iǺÀ[[¢¹>[[r«¾Ø¶ 
Ø
ð É[³¿IÆ(Í£i=Æeg>…>Ãɪ=Ç·»¢?Æ(Í¿·£™=ͶÆb¶=Ð>§¶DEÆÁ>nÉn¶=¹ØJU>E 
¼ÃIeg=֙Æ?Á>nÉn¶=¸Â?Ìfr¿¶>£¶=¹ÆaÀºͶÆaÍÈ?µfVJIÆ(>ð£ÉŸª 
*ÍÉnUƸ²K®>ª¶=ÍÉiÆf¶=ÍÉnUǶ=bu 
›Ê[iÆf¶=oÉ[‚=¼Ñ=f[QÀ[¢ð>[E>J²>È>³jªÇ³JɶÇE>¾AK 
FJ²b¯¶ 
À[º>È>³[jªÇ³JɶÇE>[¾AÆ*$Ê [iÆf¶=e>[£¶=%>ð[¾=Ç¿¢ĶK£[u 
ÆÁ>[nÉ[n¶= 
Ë?$>[JÈg>¦>È>ªÇ¾%Í·[i=fºÊ[ÂÆ(ÍÉ¢ÇÉ[n¶=Í[F¯ƒ=b [£EL>É«Vr¶=f[Ã[m? 
(-555½>[[¢d[[¿ºL=f[[ºÌb[[ ¢Á>[[ n[É[n¶=Le=gb[[®Æ(ÌbÈb[[ ‚=Í·[[ = 
b [¯¶*Á >[nÉn¶=Hf[U›lÆf[¶=¼Ñ=f[‚ðÍ[ÉUbÂ>[nº>[ÃE>J²›K·¯¾Æ 
Ê[¾gÆf¦Í»[q>£¶>ª(Íɾ>[[nÉ[n 
¶=Ì>[[i@™=¤[®=ÆH>[[J[³ ¶==d›Lfìi 
*\ 
>F[m?ÓE>[‡¸[NºÍɾ>[[nÉ[n¶=Ï 
f[¯¶=À[ºL>ҙ=ÆbFI>»¿ÉE½>²f¶>EÍÒÉ·º 
›Í[jÑ>E­Æf[ž›Á>³[j¶=¬[r¾oÉ[£È>[»¿ÉEÍ[É¢>–fE>¯ºaØF¶=›Æ 
Í[[»Ñ>®>È>³[[jªÇ³JɶÇEKºb[[®>[[»²ÌeÆ>[[=>É[[mǧ¾@EÐÇ[[ R·¶=L>[[»É‡ 
¸[[ÉU¶=L>[[É·»¢¸[[Nº(Á>[[ nÉ[n¶=›K[[F³Ie=Hf[[ U¼Ñ=f[[QK¿»[[vI 
¼Âe>[[ÈaÀ[[¢Á>[[nÉn¶=Á>³[[i¬[[r¾a>[[£ECÀ[[¢Lf«[[i=[[¶=Ê¢>[[»‚= 
>ɾb[º-1,½=b[¢CÀ[¢>È>³jªÇ³JɶÇEK«n²>»²(ÍÉ¢>»‚=L>º=b¢×=Æ
2.  

*Í»²>†ÁÆbEÍÉiÆf¶=L=ǯ¶=Íìi=ÇE>ɾ>nÉm 
Á>[j¾×=±Ç[¯UÀ[¢¥>ªb[·¶Íɺdzƒ=¦¹>ÈeǻɺÍÉ£–K¾>²Æ 
>[[’ÍÃÉF[[m>[[®f{Á>[[nÉ[n¶=›le>[[“>[[þ@EÍÉ[[iÆf¶=L>ì·[[j¶=K[[»ÃI= 
›b[¯¢›>V[qf“Ö[º›Æ* 
ɶ>Jj¶=¤»¯¶=L=Ç¿i´·U=¹Ø]½b^Ji= 
>ªÇEÇ[iÇÈ=b[ɶK[»ÃI=Á>[[j¾×=±Ç[¯UL>[ìE=f¶Í[ɶÆb¶=Í[ɶ=ebÉ«¶=f¯º 
­Ç[¶eÆ=¨[ɶÆ=ÆÊ[¾gÆf¦Íɾ>[nÉn¶=Í»[q>£¶=›¹>[ÈeǻɺÍÉ£–ͯ[j¿º 
±f[{Ê [¶=ÐÇR·¶>E>ÉiÆe(dziǺ›ÍÉ£»R·¶Á>j¾×=±Ç¯Uh²fºfÈbº 
›Íɿɶ>J[[j¶=ÍÉ[[i>Éj¶=Í{f[[n¶=g>[[ÃQ>úb^J[[jÈÁ>[[²±f[[ìEÍÃÉF[[m 
Íɾ>[nÉn¶=ÆÍÉ[iÆf¶=L=Ç[¯¶=Á=>ªÇEÇiÇÈK¶>®Æ*L 
>¿É£Ee×=ÆL>¿ÉMØN¶= 
Ê[[·¢œ§[[v·¶>Ã[[·»²@ELØÑ>[[¢¬[[ì~b[[È=hJº¸³[[nE½Ç[[¯I>[[Í[[ɶ=Ǚ= 
Í{f[n¶=±f[{ͺb^J[jº(½Ø[jJi×=Ê[·¢¼Ã[·—ƐEÇ[·ì™=t>^m×= 
*Íɿɶ>Jj¶=ÍÈfj¶= 
b[ÈbQÀ[ºÁ>[nÉn¶=\>ÉJQ>EÍÉiÆf¶=L=ǯ¶=Kº>®-555½>£¶=› 
zf[«IÁ?Á>[nÉn¶=La>[²Á?b[£E>É[iÆe>r¶Íɾ>nÉn¶=Ͷ@j™=¼jƒ 
Ëf[i¼Â>[«IÀ¢°NF¾=ÊiÆeʲº?¼Â>«Iη¢Ð>¿E´¶cÁ>²Æ>دJi= 
¼[¦eƸ[F®À[º=Ç[ªf¢>[»²Æ Á >[nÉn¶=Á?×C*KÈ=¶Æ?Æ ­Ç¾>«ÈCE 
ÍÈf³[j£¶=ͶÛ=bu\>«³¶==Ç·q=ÆƼÃJ•h¢ÀÃIfÑ>j]Àº¼ÃE°ƒ>º 
*ŽQÁÆa>÷»²@EÍÉiÆf¶= 
H 
>[ÂeÝ=η¢Hfƒ=pÇEÁØ¢CÆ .,,-+,5+--P=bU?b£EÆ 
Í·º>mHf}Ïa>¿ª(Á>nÉn¶=›>ÉiÆe>r¶Í·Uf™=¹Ø§Ji=IÇE¹Æ>U 
Á>[nÉn¶=›Hf[ƒ=Á>[EʶÆa­=¢>ETÆf„=η¢¸»¢Æ H 
>ÂeÝ=η¢ 
>[¢a[U>[Âf]AÁ>[²Æ=d[Âef³È¸ž>™>ì¶Æ(H>ÂeÝ=η¢HfUÊÂ
2/ 

‫ﻓﻼﺩﳝﲑ ﺑﻮﺗﲔ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٤/٠٢/٠٦‬ﺍﻻﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻻﲢـﺎﺩ ﳌﻜﺎﻓﺤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﻪ "ﺁﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺸﺮﻳﻦ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ ﺑﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ‪ .‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻮﺭﻳﺲ ﻣﲑﻭﻧﻮﻑ ﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ‬
‫"ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ" ﺇﱃ ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺠﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺸﲑﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻕ "ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ" ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﺠﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٩٩‬ﻭﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﲏ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺱ ﻭﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﻬﺒﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻗﺎﺯ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻮﺗﲔ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺠﺢ ﺑﻔﺮﺽ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﺟـﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﺍﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﺸﻴـﺸﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻏﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺑـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﲑ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ ﺃﻟﻜﺴﻨﺪﺭ ﻓﲑﺷﺒﻮ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻼ "ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻠـﻒ‬
‫‪ ٢٠٠٤/٠٢/٢٩‬ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﻫﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺮﻓﺖ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲦﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﱄ‬
‫‪٦٤‬‬ 

L=b¢>jºÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=Kºb®Æ(¥ 
=fr¶==d›Ìb¢>¯¶=¸]bI>¾çaß ?íÆ 
¹Ç[qÆÎ[·¢°[Èfì¶=¤[쯶L>[ºÇ·£™=¹a>FI¢bÉ£r¶==dÂη¢dziǙ 
¼ÈÇ[¯I›¬[·JŠ(´ 
¶c¼¦eη¢À³¶Æ*Á >nÉn¶=‘=¹=ǺÙ=Æ?ÍV·iÙ= 
cCH>[Âe×>Eœ[¯ªð>[ìFIfºk 
ɶµ>¿Â¥=fr¶=Á@Eb¯J£¾ÆÍɾ>nÉn¶=Ͷ@j™= 
×=Ä[·UÀ[³•×Æ(Ê ¶>r«¾=) Ê i>Éiµf€ÀºSI>¾ÇÂÆÍÉ·†ÅeÆdQÁ= 
ÁÛ=Î[JUdz[iǺ>ÃJ¶d[E¶=aÇÂ=Á@Eb¯J£¾Æ(Í Éi>Éi¸Ñ>iÆa>»J¢>E 
>[»²$Í [ÈeÇûR·¶kÉ[ÑeH>[^J¾=Æʾ>[nÉmeÇJ[iae=f[®=%Í[ɪ>²Kjɶ 
Í[[ɶ=fÈbÉ«¶=L=Ç[[¯¶=G[[¾>QÀ[[ºÁ>[[j¾Ý=±Ç[[¯UL>[[²>ÃJ¾=Í[[¾=a=¸[[q=Ǿ 
Á=¹>[®Æ*$G 
[^J¿™=ʾ>nÉn¶=kÉÑf¶=%­Æea>®b—ÙÍ£E>J¶=ÌhÃQÙ=Æ 
½>[º?¼[ÂÙ=Ëb[VJ¶=¸³[nJi°E>[j¶=ÊI>ɪÇ[j¶=Ð>[v«¶=›cÇ[«¿¶=Ͷ@jº 
*ÍɲºÙ=)ÍÉiÆf¶=L>®Ø£¶= 
dz[iǙÄ[Ie>ÈgÐ>[¿M?¹Æ>[EÀ¶Ç[²Ê[²º×=Í[ÉQe>„=f[ÈgÆÁ>²Æ 
dz[iǺÍ[i>ÉiG[¾=ÇQx£EÐ=gCÅaØE°·®À¢Hf¢=.,,0+,-+.2 
Í[ìE=f¶=¹Æa›>ÃI=e>Q¤º>ÉiÆeL>®Ø¢´¶d²Æ(Á >nÉn¶=›ÍÉ·]=b¶= 
f[Ÿ¿I>[ÿ³¶ÍÉiÆf¶=Êu=e×=ÌbUƽ€Àì¿m=ÆÁ=­>u?Æ*Í·¯Jj™= 
Åd[[ÂÁ?f[[Ÿ¿·¶K[[ªØ¶=Æ*>É[[iÆeÁ=[[Q±Ç[[¯U‘=Ä[[j«¾e=b[[¯™=› 
*>ÉQeÇQÀºð>ºa>®dziǺ‘=ĶÇqÆeǪ¹Æ>EÀºLÐ>QL>ŒfrJ¶= 
Ìe>[Èh¶=¬[qÆÇ[mªeb¿[j³¶?dziǺ›ʲºÙ=«j¶=Á>²Æ 
Í[[¯·£J™=¸Ñ>[[j™=Í[[n®>¿ºËÇ[[¿È¹Æ>[[EÁC¹>[[®Æ*Í [[É»ÂÙ=Í[[¯Ñ>ª>[[þ@E 
¼Â?bU?Á?‘Cð=nº(Ê iÆf¶=G¾>‚=¤ºͯE>j¶=ÍÉI>ɪÇj¶=L>ÈeÇû‚>E 
Ê[iÆf¶=ªf[ì¶=[EÐ >[¯J¶=>[¯¾À[¢O[VF¶=›¸ N»JIÌe>Èh¶=­=bÂ? 
*°E>j¶=ÊI>ɪÇj¶=Ð>v«¶=›ʲºÙ=Æ
21 

‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﺾ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻗﺎﺯ‬
‫"ﺟﻮﺭﺟﻴﺎ" ﻭﻭﺳﻂ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻕ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫"ﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ ﲢﺘﺮﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ "ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﱃ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺟﲑﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﻴﻨﻮ ﺑﻮﺭﺩﺟﺎﻧﺎﺩﺯﻩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺒﻴﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﱪﺕ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻬﻴﺄﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳـﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺭﺟﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻮﺭﺩﺟﺎﻧﺎﺩﺯﻩ‬
‫ﳌﻮﺳﻜﻮ ﻭﻟﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻓﻼﺩﳝﲑ ﺑﻮﺗﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺮﳛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﲑ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ ﺃﻟﻜﺴﻨﺪﺭ ﻓﲑﺷﺒﻮ ﻓﻼ ﲣﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻫﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻏﻴﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﳌﻮﺳﻜﻮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﺮ ﺑﻮﺣـﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺬﻭﺭﻩ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻙ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﱄ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﳏﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻀﺔ ﺗﻘـﺎﻳﺾ ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻗﺎﺯ ﻭﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ‬
‫ﺧﻀﻌﺖ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻻﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﻓﺴﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺣﺎﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺭﻭﺳﻴﺎ ﻷﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻓﺴﺘﻔﺘﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﲑ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺘﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺸﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻮﻋﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﻮﺭﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻘـﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻌـﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺸﻴـﺸﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻋﻬﻤﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﻼﺫ ﺁﻣﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ )ﺻﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻀﺔ( ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺳـﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔـﻲ‬
‫‪٦٦‬‬ 

HA›Á>[nÉn¶=b[uÌfºb[ºÍÉ[nUÆð>[EfU>É[iÆeÄɪK¿mËd¶=K®Ç¶= 
h•>[IµeÇÈÇɾÍ«ÉVqLfn¾Æ*>²º?¤ºÍvÈ>¯ºͯ«qL 
b¯¢½-555 
Ͷ>[ie¼õ·[i>É[iÆeÍ[ÉQe>]fÈgƭǾ>«ÈCeǧÈCÁ?½-555+--+-5› 
›>[»Ã¢>»JQ=Ð>[¿M?>[²º?Í[ÉQe>]Ìf[ÈgÆKÈ=¶Æ?¶a>º‘CÍÉe¦ 
$ͯ«[[q%\=[[®=Î[[·¢Ͷ>[[if¶=Åd[[ÂËÇ[[ì¿I½-555+--+-4›>[[ɲfI 
b[uÍÉ[iÆf¶=ÍÈf³[j£¶=L>[É·»£¶=À[¢f[Ÿ¿¶=>[²º?>[Ãɪx[§IÍvÈ>¯º 
L>[Eǯ£¶=Á@[m›À[ºÙ=k[·…›ÊiÆf¶=HÆb¿™=;Æfº¸E>¯ºÁ>nÉn¶= 
À[ºg>[§¶=Æœ«¿¶=¸¯¿¶GÉE>¾?bºη¢>ÉiÆeLdzi¸E>¯ºÆ(±=f£¶=η¢ 
*œiÇJ™=fVF¶=η¢ʲ¶=Á>ÃÉQÐ>¿Éº‘CÁ>RÉEec? 
6ÊEÆeÆÙ=¬[®Ç™= 
›l>[i×=O[ÉUÀ[ºÊ[²º×=¬[®Ç™=Ê[EÆeÆ×=¬®Ç™=fÈ>§È× 
(Í [q>„=ă>rº‘C¹ÇqǶ=¸Q?ÀºÁ>nÉn¶=η¢xÈ>¯È>»Âسª(Óm 
G[¦fI×Æ (Ê EÆeÆÙ=a>€× =e>{C›>®fm¤iÇJ¶>Eͯ·£Jº>rº>EÆeÆÙÆ 
ÁÆ>[[£JE>[[EÆeÆ?G[[¦fI´¶d[[²(a>[[€×=Ì [[jºÄ[[Q=ÇIÍÉ[[iÆe¸[[É®=f£E 
(Í [ɲº×=L>[ìì^™=Í[ÃQ=Ǻ›>Âb[UÆ>ë£[v¶>É[iÆe¤ºÊRÉI=i= 
›Á>[F·ÉªÆa´[ɿɺÆa°F[i×=Ê[j¾f«¶=Í[ÉQe>„=f[ÈgÆÄɶC>¢a>º=dÂÆ 
Í [ɯɯUÍÉRÉI=[i=Ͳ=f[mÐ>¿E‘C>¢aOÉU.,,0+,-+./dziǺ 
*¥>ªb¶=ÆÍÉQe>„=Íi>Éj¶=ÆÀºÙ=¹>…›>EÆeÆ?Æ>ÉiÆeE 
›Í [»Ñ=aÍÉI>[jiÖºÍ[ɶA¤[uÆð>[qÇr 
]Êj¾f«¶=fÈgǶ=\®=Æ 
HØ[{½>º?>EÆeÆ?Æ>ÉiÆeÆ>j¾fªÀ¢H>ì]Ð>¯¶CÐ>¿M?´¶cÆÀºÙ=¹>…
23  

*­Ç¾>«ÈCeǧÈCÊiÆf¶=ÅŸ¾G¾>Q‘C(ÍɶÆb¶=L>®Ø£·¶ÊiÆf¶=bã™= 
Í[rr‡ÁÇ[³IÍ[»Ñ=aÍÉI>[jiÖºÍɶA¤uÆ>¿¿³•6Á >F·ÉªÆa¹>®Æ 
e>[nJ¾=¹>[…›ð>[qÇr]ÆÍ[ÉEÆeÆÙ=Ìe>[¯¶=ÄQ =ÇI¶=L=bÈbÃJ¶=Íi=eb¶ 
³«J[·¶a=b£J[i=Î[·¢>j¾fªÁ?ð>vÈ?b²?Æ*H 
>ÂeÝ=ÆËÆÇ¿¶=\Øj¶= 
Í[i>Éj¶=¹>[…›>É[iÆe¤[º°[ÉMÆÁÆ>[£IÁ@[nEÉ[EÆeÆÙ=>ÃÑ>²fm¤º 
›Ͳ[nºL>[É·»¢›³«J¶=\®=>»²*Ê EÆeÆÙ=¥>ªb¶=ÆÍÉQe>„= 
*½Øj¶= «U¹>… 
µ=[mµ>[QÊ[j¾f«¶=ƐIÇ[E[•aتÊ[iÆf¶=Á>jÉÑf¶=b²?>»² 
½Ç[[¯È>[»¿ÉE(k 
Èe>[[EÆdz[iǺ[EÍ[[¶a>FJ™=Í[¯N¶=Î[·¢$.,,0+,0+,/% 
K[¾>²>[EÆeÆ=±f[mÆœiÆ›×ð Æa¸»nI¤ÉiÇIÍÉ·»£EÊEÆeÆ×=a>€×= 
µ=[me=g(>É[iÆe‘ 
=>[ÃE½>[®Í[«{>]Ìe>[Èg¹Ø[]Æ*Í É¢ÇÉm>ûŸ£º 
*Ç ³[iǺÊU=Ç[u›´j¿Éº>¾gÇ¿i=f²›ÍÈf³j£¶=LBn¿™=IÇEįª=fÈ 
a>[€×=Æ>É[iÆe[EL>[®Ø£¶=F[²b[U‘=>[»Ã¿ÉEL 
>Ma>=K¶Æ>¿Ib®Æ 
¸[º>¢>É[iÆeÆÊ[EÆeÆ×=a>[€×=EL>®Ø£¶=ÁCµ=m¹>®Æ*ÊEÆeÆ×= 
e=f ¯J[i=ÆÁg=Ç[J¶Ê[i>i=¸º>¢(´¶cÀº¼ÂÙ =Æ>EÆeÆ×Æ>ÉiÆf¶Êi>i= 
>ÉiÆf¶Êi>i=´ÈfmÊEÆeÆ×=a>€×=Á=IÇE¹>®(ÄJÃQÀº*b §¶=>¢ 
¤É[iÇIÊ[¶=Ìe>[m=›(Í [¶ÇF¯º¹Ç[·UÊ[¶=¸qÇJ¶=ÌeÆfu=b²Öº(ÍNÈbƒ= 
ÍÉ[v¯¶=¹Ç[UÆ*>Ã>[rºÎ[·¢fMÖ[Èb[®Ä[¾=dz[iǺ¹Ç¯IËd¶=a>€×= 
(H 
>[Âe×=Í[Vª>³º$***%e>[{=›>Ãɶ=>®fìI>»Ã¾=µ=m¹>®(Íɾ>nÉn¶= 
*ͺgضÊi>ÉiTf‡‘=¸qÇJ¶=›Ä·º=À¢¢Ä¿³¶ 
.,,0+,0+..›b[[¯J¾= 
IÇ[[E[[•aتÊ[[iÆf¶=kÉÑf[[¶=Á>[[²Æ 
dz[iǺ‘CÍ[ÃQǙ=ÌÇ¢b[¶=Áe>[®ÆÁ >[nÉn¶=À ºÊEÆeÆ×=a>€×=¬®Çº
24  

ͺ>[i=À[¢eb[qËd¶=Ð=b¿¶>EÁ >nÉn¶=ÉE>ÂeÝ= ¼Â>Àº¤ºe=ÇV·¶ 
›¹>[[®Æ*L 
>[[uÆ>«™=Ìb[[Ñ>º‘ClÇ[[·‚=‘C>[[EÆeÆ=Ä[[ɪ>[[¢aÆÁa×À[[E 
b[UÙ´jJFɶ›>ɶ>ìÈ=Ð=egÆkÉÑeʾdzj¶EÇÉ«·Éi¤ºÄU>JJª=zf£º 
‘C>[[»Ñ=a>¾Ç¢b[ÈÀ[[ºµ>[¿Â 6Í ²[n™=Í[[ɶ>ìÈ×=)ÍÉ[iÆf¶=L>¢Æf [n™= 
-¼[®eÊE>[Âe×=Ä[QÇIb[¯¶***** ÉE>ÂeC¼ÂJ£¾ÀÈd¶=´Ò¶Æ=¤ºe=ǃ= 
>[[þ=¼[[·¢=[[¶=L>[[uÆ>«™=Ä[[ɪ\[[¯ÈÐ=b[[¿E>[[EÆeÆ?‘CÁa×À[[Eͺ>[[i? 
>[ºÐ=b[¿¶==d[Âxªf[I>EÆeÆ=¸£QËd¶=GFj¶=À¢¹Ð>jI=¾=*Kvªe 
Í[Vª>³º[J£ÈÄ[¾=IÇ[E¹>[®Æ*Ä [·N’>[¿É¶=Ä[QÇJ¶=¹Æ>[ŒÀºµ>¿Â½=a 
‘Ce>[m?Æ*Ê EÆeÆ×=a>€×=¤º>ÉiÆeL>®Ø¢›ÍÉi>i=Ͷ@jºH>Âe×= 
zf£JiÆ ÍÉEÆeÆ×=Í¿R·¶=kÉÑeËaÆfEÁ>ºÆe=b¦¸F¯JjJi dziǺÁ= 
› 
H>[Âe×=>Ãɪ>’>È>v¯¶=¸³Eͯ·£J™=¸Ñ>j™=Ä£ºL>uÆ>«™=ÌbÑ>ºη¢ 
*>EÆeÆ=‘CÄEÄQÇIËd¶=Áa×ÀEÐ=b¾ÆÁ>nÉn¶= 
Í[[»·²›¹>[[®O[[ÉUËaÆf[[EÁ>[[ºÆeÄ[[QÇI.,,0+,0+./›Æ 
½>[I¸³[nE¼¢b[ÈÊ[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=Á?X[uǾ>¾Ç¢aÇ[³[iÇ º›>Â>¯¶? 
>¿Èb[¶ÁD[ª´[¶c‘Cͪ>[[uCÆ*ÍÉ[[iÆf¶=Ê[u=eÙ=Ìb[[UƝÆf[n 
º¦Æ 
½Ç[Èb[£EËaÆf[E­>[u?Æ*H 
>ÂeÝ=ÍVª>³ºÌeÆfuÊÂͲnºÍÉv® 
Á@[nEdz[iǺ›IÇ[E[•aتÊ[iÆf¶=kÉÑf[¶=¤[ºL>Ma>†Ð=fQCÀº 
e>[È?+Ç È>[ºÀ[º¹ÆÙ=›>É[iÆeaÆbU‘C¸rɶÊEÆeÆÙ =a>[€ ×=¤É[iÇI 
H>[ÂeÝ=Í[Vª>³ºÁC*œ 
[¯ªÌÇ[¯¶=°[Èf{À¢H>ÂeÝ=ÍVª>³ºÀ³•× 
kÉ[ÑeÀ[³¶Æ*ÌeÆf[uf[N²?Í[É{=f¯•b¶=¼É¯¶>[Ef»Jj™=>¿º=hJ¶=Àº¸£ 
b[Œ×Á>[j¾Ý=±Ç[¯U½=[U=Á?>vÈ?b²?° E>j¶=Í ÉEÆeÆÙ=Í[É[uÇ[«™= 
*H>ÂeÝ=η¢Hfƒ=Íɶ>£ªÀº
25  

>[º=Æb[‹ÀÈd[¶=»·[j™=½>[³UÐÇ[{=ÇIÆ ¹ c>[¸[ž›Æ =dÃE 
¹Æ?ÀÈf[nI›b[¯£¾=Ëd¶=Ê ºØi×=f“Ö™=Í»Ÿ¿º Í»®e =f®×CľǺb¯È 
ÄÉQÇIÆÍ É·]=aÍÉiÆeÍ·³nº Á >nÉn¶=› 
¥=h[¿¶=e>FJ¢=Êu>™=½>£¶=Àº 
f“Ö[ºeÇvƒIÇE•aت 
»·j™=e=h Q[É·r¶=fª>³¶==Æb£¶ÌÇ¢b¶= 
¸[ž›Æ*¹ >[ìE×=¹>F¯Ji=ÅÇ·F¯Ji=OÉUeÇFº×=Dz›b¯£¾=Ëd¶=Í»¯¶= 
Í [Èfƒ>E±b[nJI[¶=¹Æb[¶=[E>[r™=Î[·¢Í[vÈ>¯»·¶¼ÃJÉv®¥Çv] 
¸ŸÉ[iÆ ( ¼[>[¿É£º=×CÁ>[nÉn¶=b[‹×Á>[j¾Ý=±Ç¯UÆ ÍÉ{=f¯•b¶=Æ 
=ðÐh[QXF[q=>[’eËd[¶=fº×=ÇÂÆ(Í •b¯¶=¼ÃJÉRÉI=i=Gj}ÆÁ>nÉn¶= 
½b[¢°[·ì¿ºÀ[º¹>J¯¶=>»Ñ=aK¾>²¶=Æ(¹ >ìEÙ=Á>nÉn¶=Ð>¿E?Í£ÉF{Àº 
*>»Ñ=a¼ÂbUÆÁ >nÉn¶=H 
e>Ub¯¶´¶cη¢=Æa>J¢=¼Ãª*Ð >®bq=aÇQÆ 
Î[[Jº‘D[[ª(T>[[RJU×>Eb[[U=ÆLÇ[[q¤[[«IfÈÁ>[[nÉn¶=fß [ R
ë Âà >ºb[[¿¢Æ 
; ¼ÂbUÆÁÇEe>ŒÁÇ·ŸÉi 
pÇ[[ɂ=fäÉ[ jÈƽ>[[£¶=«¿[[¶=À[[·£ÈÍ[[«É·]»·[[j»·¶ÁdzÉ[[iÎ[[Jº 
lÆf[[¶=Ê[[j¿IL>Ef[[vE¹>[[«{Ù=ÆÐ>[[j¿¶=Æ`ÇÉ[[n·¶½>[[¯J¾Ø¶Æ¼ÃIf[[r¿¶ 
; ½ØiÝ=Í»Ÿ¢¤®=Æ‘C»·j™=bÉ£IÆ(Á>ìÉn¶=lÆ>iÆ

3,  

$0% 
Á>[J[j¾>[§[ª? 
Ï[³¶=ÏÇ[¯¶=À[ºÍ[¢Ç»…[EÌhQ>UͶÆa>þ@EÁ>Jj¾>§ª?hÉ»JI 
Ìe>[¯¶=ÄFmÆ>ÉiÆeEÌhQ>UͶÆaÊê*>ÉiAœiÆ›Íɻɷ®Ý=Ïǯ¶=Æ 
Ëb[¿=œÉ[=›Í[Òª=b¶=Å>[ə=‘ClÆf[¶=¹Ç[qÆÀºÍ£¾>ºÊÂÆ(Í[Èb[¿= 
*Hf£¶=f}Æ 
>ð[ɯɯUð=hQ>[UÁ>J[j¾>§ª?K¾>²b¿Ã·¶ʾ>ìȶ=e>»£Ji×=½>È?›Æ 
Á>[[§ªÙ=½>[[³Ub[[U?Á?Î[[JU(Í[[ɶ>È ºÝ=>[[ɾ>ìÈfEÆÍÈf[[rɯ¶=>É[[iÆe[E 
¼[ie›Ê[¢ÆàeÆ(ʾ>[ìȶ=b[iÙ=ÆÊ[iÆf¶=Hb[¶=E¤¯IÌ>nE>ÃÃFm 
f[šÆº>[F¶=ÍF[v±>[ƒC>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>ÉiÆeEÁ>Jj¾>§ªÙÍÉi>Éj¶=aÆbƒ= 
Î[[·¢Ê[[iÆf¶=ÆÉ[[r¶=Æʾ>[[ìȶ=¥=f[[r·¶Tf[[^»²) [[É])Á>[[]=Æ 
ÌgÆ?°[¿¢¸[NºÊ®f[n¶=¹>»[n¶=ÍÃQÀºÁ>Jj¾>§ª?ÍìÈf]LbFª(ͯ쿙= 
›Í·N»J™=ͯE>j¶=>ãE=ÇIÀ¢Æ>ÉiÆeÀ¢Á>Jj²>EðØq>ªr¶=ÎJUð=bJš 
´[[·ºG[[Ñ>¾ÁÆgeÇ[[²aeÇ[[·¶=>ÃÉ»[[jÈÁ>[[²Æ(Îì[[iǶ=>É[[iAL>[[ÈeÇÖ 
*>ÃÉu=e?η¢HÆfƒ=°UØJ¶ð=fŸ¾$>ÉiAΦÆÍU>jE%b¿=›>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Ø[EÍ[¶Æa>[þDzÆ(Á>Jj¾>§ªÙl>jƒ=›=f§‚=¤®Ç™==dÂÍ£ÉF{ÁC 
Ìe>[¯¶€>[«¶=ÆÌ=h[§¶=¸[³¶ðÍ[E=ÇEÆ(ð=fšÆ(½b®Ó{Ǻ>÷£Q(ÍÈf}dª>¿º 
Æh[[§¶=›Ä[[¶½b[[®Ó{Ç[[ºʾÆb[¯™=eb¿³[[i×=>Âd[[=¼Èb[[¯¶=Ê[[«ª*>É[iA 
>[Âǯƒ?Æ>[ÂÇVJªÁÇ»·[j™=Æ(aØÉ[™=¸[F®/.5½>£¶=›±fn·¶ʯÈf¦Ý=
3-  

fç [º>[»²(Á>]hɳ¿QpÇÉQ>ÿºLçfºÆ(½210½>£¶=¹Ç·} ½ØiÝ=e=bE 
>[ÃE=ÇE?±f[{b[¯ªOÈb[ƒ=f[r£¶=›>[º?Æ*l 
f[«¶=ÆaÇ¿=Ƶ=fIÙ=>ÿº 
=Ç[²ea?Á?b[£E(Á>[²ºÙ=ð=[]?ÆL>ɪÇ[j¶=ÆlÆf[¶=Ìfq>ɯ¶=ÆhÉ·ˆÝ= 
>É[[iA°[[Èf{À[[¢[[r¶=Æ>É[[iÆf¶e>[[rƒ=Í[[E=ÇEÊ[[ê(Á>J[[j¾>§ª?Í[[É»Â? 
Îì[iǶ=>É[iAÀºg>§¶=Æœ«¿¶=GÉE>¾Ùf»»²>ÃJÉ»Â?À¢ðØvª(ÎìiǶ= 
›>÷U=Ç[iη¢>ÃJº>®?¶=Í»^v¶=Ó¾=Ǚ=¼MÁ>Jj²>E‘CÁ>Jj¾>§ª?¢ 
b[¿¢Ä[F¿Ih[²fºÇ[Âb[QÆO[ÉUœ«¿[¶=¥ÇuǺÆ*H 
f£¶=f}Æb¿=f} 
*Ä®f{η¢Æ(ÄÉ·¢Í¿»É÷¶ΣjI>³Èfº? 
ÁÇJ[m>EÀ[ºÄ[®=f¢?ÆÄ[I>ɺǮab[£IÀ[º¼¦f¶>[EÆʾ>§ªÙ=G£n¶=Æ 
bÈb[m¼·[jºG£[m½>[¢¸³nEľ?×C¼Â¦Æ=e=hÂÆ´ÉEgÆ?Æ´ÉQ>{Æ 
*ÄnÉ£¶ͯÈf{ÆÍɺÇɶ=ÄI>Ƀð>º>Ÿ¾½ØiÝ=§EÀºÖÈ×(ÀÈbJ¶= 
ʾ>[ìȶ=¥=f[r·¶Í[jÈfªÁ>J[j¾>§ª?K[£®Æf[n¢¤[i>J¶=Áf¯¶=› 
HÆf[UÍ[MØMÁ>Jj¾>§ª?Î ·¢ÌfìÉj¶=¸Q?Àº>ɾ>ìÈfEKu>]Æ(ÊiÆf¶= 
ʺ>[[¢[[EK[[¾>²‘ÆÙ=Hf[[ƒ=(>É[[iÆe¼É[[RVJ¶ʾ>[[§ªÙ=G£[[n¶=b[[u 
¼³ƒ=‘ÇIÆ(Ìf³¿º͕hÂʾ>ìȶ=oɂ=>Ãɪ½hÂƽ-40.)½-4/5 
[EÌb[È>†Í[ÉQe>]Í[i>ÉiSÃJ[¾=Ëd¶=Á>]À—f¶=bF¢Hfƒ=ÅdÂb£E 
½=Ç[[¢Ù=[[EK[[¾>²Í[[ɾ>N¶=Hf[[ƒ=Æ*Í [ɾ>ìȶ=ÆÍÉ[[iÆf¶=JÈeÇ[{=ºÝ= 
›¼Ãª=b[Â?=Ç[¯¯ŒÆ(ð>[vÈ?ÁÇɾ>[ìȶ=>Ãɪ½hÂƽ-44,)½-434 
½-5-5½>[[£¶=›K[[¾>³ªÍ[[N¶>N¶=Hf[[ƒ=>[[º?Æ(Á>J[[j¾>§ª?Î[[·¢ÌfìÉ[[j¶= 
¤[ºÄ [j«¾½ >[£¶=À[ºHA-5›Ëb[¿F¶=ÆeÌbÂ>£º>ɾ>ìÈfE¤É®ÇJEKÃJ¾=Æ 
*Á>Jj¾>§ª?›ʾ>ìȶ=Êi>Éj¶=cÇ«¿¶=hõ²eËd¶==Á>º?ʾ>§ªÙ=´·™= 
>ÃIe>[[vUÀ[[ºÍ[[ɾ>§ªÙ=aØF[[¶=Tf[[^àÈÁ?´[[·™==d[[¹Æ>[[U>[[™Æ
3.  

K£¶b¾=(Á>Jj¾>§ª?‘CÍÉEf§¶=ͧFr¶=¹>]aCÆH>Rƒ=Ð>§¶Ceçf®ÆÍɺØiÝ= 
ÅÕ>[r®CÆ$>¯j¶=ÀE>E%G¯·™==GÉFUÌa>ɯEÅbuÍɺØiCÍÉF£mÌeÇM 
>[ɾ>ìÈfEÀ[³¶Æ*Á >J[j¾>§ª?‘CÍɺØ[iÝ=ͧFr 
¶=Ð>«u 
CÌa>¢CƼ³ƒ=Àº 
À[E=¸[J®ÀºK¿³“=Á>º?¼³U›Á>Jj¾>§ª?η¢ð>Èf³j¢LfìÉi¶= 
=Á>[ºÙ¶=Ǚ=¯E>j¶=Èf³j£¶=Ìa>¯¶=bU?Å>mea>¾°Èf{À¢>¯j¶= 
*bÈbQÀºÁ>Jj¾>§ª?›hÉ·ˆÞ¶ʶ=Ǚ=ʳ·™=½>Ÿ¿¶=Í·³ÉÂa>¢?Ëd¶=Æ 
-5Åf[»¢ÆÅ>[mea>[¾ÀE=Å>mfÂ>ž¼³ƒ=‘ÇI½-5//½>£¶=›Æ 
L=[ª>Ã[··^JI(h[É·ˆÞ¶ð>[ɶ=Ǻð>[º>¢£EeÙ=ÍE=f®¼³ƒ=›f»Ji=ÆÍ¿i 
Á>[[²>ºb[[¿¢(L>¿ÉJ[[j¶=ÆL>¿É[[j»„=›Í[[q>~Æ(ÄI>[[i>Éi›$¹ دJ[i=% 
Ìb[É£EÍ[i>Éi T>ÃJ¾×Á>Jj¾>§ª?›>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>ÉiÆe>rºHe>vI¸§JjÈ 
b[»†Ä[»¢À[E=ÄE\>{?Á?‘C(bÈbQÀºhÉ·ˆÝ=Íi>Éj¶aǣȼM(>»Ã¿¢ 
*½-53/½>£¶=›ÊI>ɪÇj¶=a>€Ø¶ÌbÈ֙=ÆÍÈe>jɶ=¹Çə=ËÆcaÆ=a 
a>[€×=À[³“Á>J[j¾>§ªÙÍ[·ÈÇì¶=Å>[mfÂ>[ž´[·™=¼³U̪›Æ 
ÍÈf³[j¢L=b[£º¤[ÉF²(ÄJV·[r™L>®=]×=x£EP=bUCÀºÊI>ɪÇj¶= 
Hh[UÀÈÇ[³J¶¼¢b¶=¼Èb¯J²Æ(½-51/½>£¶=›Íɾ>§ªÙ=ͺdzV·¶ÍNÈbU 
¥>ìJ[i=Æ>[»²(Ê®=e>[{eǾb»†ͺ>¢hE½-521½>£¶=›ʾ>§ª?Ê¢ÇÉm 
›ÍÉ[i>Éj¶=¸[®Ø¯¶=x[£EÌe>[MCÅ>[mfÂ>[ž¼[³UÀºÌ]Ù=½=Ç¢Ù=› 
K[¾>²[¶=L>[¯Fì¶=[E¥=f[r¶=ÆL>v®>¿J¶=a>‹CͯÈf{η¢Á>Jj¾>§ª? 
*Ìa>¢ÍÉ¢ÇÉn¶=>ÃRÃJ¿I 
Á>J[j¾>§ª?K[Qf]½-53/½>[£¶=›¼[³ƒ=‘CaÆ=ab»†ÐÊR’Æ 
k[»~´[¶cb[£EͶÇÃ[jE¼³ƒ=‘CÁÇÉ¢ÇÉn¶=¸qÆÆ(hÉ·ˆÝ=ÍvF®Àº 
‘CÍÉ¢ÇÉ[n¶=¹>[]aC›¼Âb¢>iËd¶=aÆ=ab»V’=ÇU>{?OÉU(L=Ç¿i
3/  

›¤[õ®ÆËd[¶=½-534½>[£¶=›¼[³ƒ=‘ 
CÊ®=e>{eǾb»V’=ÇI?Æ(b·F¶= 
a>[€×=L=Ç[¯¶X»[jIÊI>ɪÇ[j¶=¼É¢h[¶=¬[ɿɋfE¤ºÌbÂ>£ºÄj«¾½>£¶= 
>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[²º?Í[ŸÉ«Ue>[M?>[ºÇ[ÂÆ(Á>Jj¾>§ª?‘C¹Ç]b¶>EÊI>ɪÇj¶= 
aÇ[¯¢d[¿º(‘ 
ÆÙ=Ìf[»·¶Í[ɶÆb¶=ÏÇ[¯¶=ÀÈg=Ç[º›°É®b¶=Ág=ÇJ¶>Eç¸]?Æ 
*ÌeÇì„=ͧ¶>EÆÍi>jUͯ쿺›lÆf¶=>r¶(Í·ÈÇ{ 
b[uÁ>J[j¾>§ª?¹Ç[U¥=f[r¶=›>[³Èfº?eÆagfEÍ·Uf™=ÅdÂ›Æ 
Ê¢ÇÉ[mb[ÈÎ[·¢Ê®=e>[{eÇ[¾b»†buð>Eد¾=LfEbª(ÊI>ɪÇj¶=a>€×= 
›ð>É¢ÇÉ[mÅeÇ[ßElÆf¶=¥b]b®Á>²º?= É«UÄ=Hf§·¶¹ô =Ǻ 
‘ÇJ[i>ª(Í[ɳÈfºÙ=L=fE>[^™=¤[ºÍUÇJ«º Ì>¿®η¢ÄɪÁ>²Ëd¶=K®Ç¶= 
¶=Ç[[™=É¢ÇÉ[[n¶>E¸[[³õ ¾ÆÊ®=e>[[{¸[[J®Æ½-535½>[[£¶=›Íì·[[j¶=Î[[·¢ 
À[º.3›Á>J[j¾>§ª?=Æh[¦Á@[E¬[¿£E´[¶cη¢lÆf¶=çafª(L>ɪÇj·¶ 
ÍÉ¢ÇÉ[mÍ[ºÇ³U=ÇFçr¾Æ(º?= É«U=Ç·J®ÆÄj«¾½>£¶=Àº¹Æ?ÁǾ>² 
(>É[iÆeÀ[º¼[ãºÄE=ÆÐ>QËd¶=¸Éºe>²µ=fE>EÍ i>ÑfE¹ÇE>²›ÌbÈbQ 
°ªb[IÆ(aØF¶=Ð>‰?¤É–›LfnJ¾=ÆÍ«É¿¢ͺÆ>¯ºK£¶b¾=´¶cfMCη¢Æ 
À[ºÌb[ÈbQÍV«[qL?bEÆ(Ìb¢L>ÉnÉ·º›ÁÇ·I>¯™=¼ŸJ¾=Æ(ÁÆfQ>Ù= 
\Æf[¶=LfnJ¾=Æ(É¢ÇÉn¶=¹>J®›a>Â=fr¿¢>ÃɪgfEʾ>§ªÙ=_Èe>J¶= 
*Ì=h§¶=É¢ÇÉn¶=e>«³¶=buʺØiÝ=>£¶=e>ì®?¸²›ÌǯEÍÈa>Â= 
>Ã[·¯M¸³EK·]bIÆÁ>Jj¾>§ª?›bÈb‚=¤uǶ==dÂ>²º?K·§Ji= 
L>[®>«I×>Eç¸[]?Ëd[¶=Í[ɾ>§ªÙ=aØF[·¶ÊI>ɪÇ[j¶=Æh[§¶=Í[R}´¶cÆÄɪ 
´·I›ÍÉi Æf¶=L=ǯ·¶X»jI׶=L>É®>«I×=´·I(>ɾ>ìÈfE¤ºÍɍe>J¶= 
ÍÈf³[j£¶=L>[¾Ç£™=L?b[EÆ($Á Ç[VÉQ%>Èe=aǺ?fþaÆbUgÆ>RJEÍ£¯F¶= 
KVF[q?O[ÉU½-54,½>[£¶=À[ºÁ>[§ªÙ=ÀÈb[Â>=Î[·¢°ªbJ¶>EÍɶ>™=Æ
30  

À¢=b¢(ð>ÈÇ¿ie×ÆaÁÇÉ·ºÍÑ>»£Fi¨·FIÀÈbÂ>R»·¶ÍɲºÙ=L=b¢>j™= 
›ÀÈb[Â>=Ëb[È?‘ 
C¸[rIL?bE¶=fR¿ÉJi_Èe=ÇqÍq>~Æ(ÍV·iÙ= 
ÊI>ɪÇ[j¶=Á=[ì¶=¸[m›ð>É[jÉÑeð>FF[iK[¾>²[¶=ƽ-542½>¢f]=Æ? 
*ÍÉI>ɪÇj¶=L=fÑ>ì¶=L>Òº>¯iCÆ 
Í[qf«¶=Åd[ÂÀ[ºÌa>«Ji×=Ǹ]bJ¶==dÂÀº>²º?zf¦Á>²Æ 
ʶ>[J¶>EXFrJ¶Æ(¸F®Àº>ú=b®?>Â@ìIͯ쿺‘CTǶǷ¶Í¿É»N¶=Íɍe>J¶= 
a>[[€×=±>[[ÂeC›¥e>[[jJ¶Æ([[r¶=Æ>É[[iÆeÀ[[º¸[[²½>[[º?Ä[[QǶð>[ÃQÆ 
¼É¶>[®?›Ê[jÉÑeG[¢×‘C¹Ç[VJJ¶ÆÄ{>¯[iC¼MÀºÆð>Èa>rJ®=ÊI>ɪÇj¶= 
>[r™>ES[£Iͯ쿙=Á?OÉU(>£¶=›‘ÆÙ=ͶÆb·¶ÍFj¿¶>EÍÉ»ÂÙ=ͧ¶>E 
f[}ÆÎì[iǶ=>É[iA°{>[¿ºÀ[ºÍ[FÈf®>[þ?ÆÍ[q>](>²ºÙÏb™=ÌbÉ£E 
*Í«·J^™=L=ÆfN¶=Æg>§¶=Æœ«¿¶>E§¶=ÀÈÆh® 
Í[{eÇEÁ>J[j¾>§ªÙ>[ÂÆh¦À[ºL=Ç¿[i¤F[ib[£E>É[iÆeKjU?Æ 
(ÍÉI>ɪÇ[j¶=L=ǯ¶>EfÑ>j„=\bª?¤®ÇIKVFq?ͺÆ>¯™=ÁCOÉU(ÍɯɯU 
[§¶[jILe>[qÁ>J[j¾>§ª?›eǺÙ=Æ(­h[¿ÈÊiÆf¶=a>rJ®×=XFq?Æ 
›K¶bFJ[i>ª±g@[™==dÂÀº>Êi>ÉiTf‡a>‹CK¶Æ>U´¶d¶(>Ã>q 
½b[®O[ÉU(ÍÉ»·[iÍ[¯ÈfìE¸[ºe>³E=G[Ɉ½-543½>[¢Í·m>ªͶÆ>† 
)L=e>F^J[[iضð>[jÉÑeÁ>[[²Ëd[[¶=)=G[[Ɉ‘Ç[[IÆ(ÄJ¶>¯J[[i=[[]Ù= 
=ðb[ÉÓÍ[ºÆ>¯™=L=e>[ÉI¤ [º$Í É¿{Ƕ=̓>r™=%Íi>ÉjEËa>¿È?bEÆ(Íì·j¶= 
cCXR¿[[Ið>[ vÈ?Í[[i>Éj¶=Åd[[ÂÀ[[³¶(aØF[[¶=À[[ºL>ɪÇ[ j¶=H>V[[j¾× 
lÆf[¶=η¢L=e>rJ¾×=ÀºbÈh™=ÁÆbÂ>=°¯UÆ(ÌÆ=fuHfƒ=La=ag= 
*ÍÉI>ɪÇiÌfÑ>{Ñ>ºÍE=f®=Çì¯i=Æ 
>[º¼ÂaÇ[¿QÀ[º¸[J®ÆÁÇ[ºÆhú¼Ã¾@[E´¶cb£EL>ɪÇ[j 
¶=À[¯È?
31  

À[¢¬[®ÇJIÀ[¶>[² º?Á@[E=Ç[[¿[¯ È?Æ(¸[Q e¬[¶?f[n 
¢Í[j 
˜À¢bÈhÈ 
>F[m-0›Á>J[j¾>§ª?ÀºH>Vj¾×=‘C´¶c¼Âfìu>ª(ÀÈbÂ>=¼¢a 
*½-545½>¢ 
L>ɪÇj¶=f»Ji=¶==GɈͺdzUÆÀÈbÂ>=E¹>J¯¶=f»Ji=Æ 
Ëb[[È@E¹ÇE>[[²Í»[[q>£¶=Kì¯[[iO[[ÉU½-55.½>[[£¶=Î[[JU>ÃIb¢>[[j’ 
*>ðÉÑ>þÁ>Jj¾>§ª?›Ê¢ÇÉn¶=¼³ƒ=ÎÃJ¾=ÆÀÈbÂ>= 
Í[É£»‚=kÉ[Ñeʾ>[EeÀÈb[¶=Á>[ÂfEÍ[¯Uض=Ì«¶=›¼³ƒ=‘ÇIÆ 
Å>[mb[—?>Âaǯȶ=ÍÉ£»R·¶ÍÈf³j£¶=>Énɷə=L=ǯE½Ç¢b™=ÍɺØiÝ= 
´[ÉQ>ì¶=À[ºÄ[J¢Ç»…Æʾ>[EeÁ?ÊÂL@n¾¶=Í·³n™=À³¶Æ(aÇ£jº 
ºÇ¢b[º¦¼Ã¾?´¶cÀº¼ÂÙ=Æ(Á>Jj¾>§ª?›ÍÈfN²?ÁÇ·³nÈ×ÀÈd¶= 
ÀÈb[Â>=K[»¢a[¶=ÆÁ>J[j¾>§ªÙÍÉ[jÉÑf¶=ÆÍ[Èǯ¶=Ìe>[‚=Á>Jj²>EÀº 
Í[[¢Ç»=K[[vªe´¶d[[¶(L>ɪÇ[[j¶=b[[uÍ[[·ÈÇì¶=Hf[[ƒ=L=Ç¿[[i¹=Ç[[{ 
Ìa>[ɯE¼É·jJ¶=µ=d¾AÁ >Jj²>F¶Íɶ=Ǚ=e>ÉJ»³UÀÈb¶=G·®ͺ>¢hEÍɾÇJnF¶= 
f[ºη¢>ÃIa>ɯELfM@Ji=b®ÍɾÇJnF¶=¸Ñ>F¯¶=K¾>²¶=ÆͶÆb·¶´ÉQ>ì¶= 
aÇ£[jºÆʾ>[EeL=Ç[®[E¼ÈbJjºÊ·]=a¹>JJ®=´¶cÀ¢SJ¾Æ*ÁÆf¯¶= 
=d[[Â>È>V[[uK[[§·EÆ(ÁÇJ[[nF¶=À[[ºe>[[ÉJ»³UL=Ç[[®[[EÆ´[[ÉQ>ì¶=À[[º 
Ð>[¿M?›Æ*Ê ¾>[§ª?¬[¶?ÀÈf[n¢ÆÍj˜J¢Ç»=EÊ«Ñ>ì¶=¹>[J[J[®×= 
¹>[[™>Eʾ>[[EeÍ[[¢>–Á>»¢ b[[IÁ>J[[j³ÉQ>{ÆÁ=f[[ÈCK[[¾>²¥=f[[r¶==d[[ 
À[vJ€Á>Jj²>EK¾>²>»¿ÉE(ÍɶÆb¶=¸ª>=›Êi>Éj¶=a>¿iÝ=Æ\Øj¶=Æ 
*e>ÉJ»³UÍ¢>– 
(Á>J[j²>E>[r¶ʾ>[Ee¤[º¥=f[r¶=¼jUÀ¢e>ÉJ»³UhR¢>™Æ 
Í[¢Ç»…¸É³nJE½-550½>£¶=›L?bEÆ(Íɾ>Jj²>F¶=ͺdzƒ=Ä¿¢K¶Ç€
32  

L=e>F^J[i×=Ìh[ÃQ?K[¶ÇIOÉU($Á>F¶>ì¶=%¼i>EKªf¢ÌbÈbQÍɾÇJnE 
À[¢¸ Èb[F²Í[ɲºÙ=L=e>F^J[i×=Ìh[ÃQ ?Àºͪf£’>Âa=b¢CÍɾ>Jj²>F¶= 
*e>ÉJ»³UÍ¢>– 
K[U>JQ=Æ(Í¢f[iÆÌÇ[¯EÁ>J[j²>EÀ[ºÍ[ºÇ¢bºÁ>[F¶>{K¯·ì¾=Æ 
›Æ(Ïf[]Ù=Ç[·IÌbU=Ƕ=>ÃÈbÈ?›Kì®>jI¶=Íɾ>§ªÙ=Áb™=ÆÊu=eÙ= 
K[·]aƹÇE>[²Í»[q>£¶=¸[J€Á?Á>[F¶>{K¢>ìJ[i=œ[¯ªº>¢ÁÇv¦ 
Í[i>ÑfEÁ>J[j¾>§ª?›ÍɺØ[iCÌe>[ºCK[º>®?ƽ-552½>£¶=›>ÃɶC>ÃI=Ç® 
°{>[¿™=‘C>[ÃI=Ç®Lf[ª[¶=(ʾ>[EeÍ[ºÇ³}K[U>{?Æ*f »¢b»†ؙ= 
*Á>Jj³ÉQ>ì¶ÌeÆ>=ÍÉ®fn¶=Íɶ>»n¶= 
K»[j‰=ÆÁ>[F¶>{¼[³}L=e>[ºÝ=ÆÍÈaÇ£[j¶=ÆÁ>Jj²>EKª¢=Æ 
Í[·É»£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=Á>Jj²>E°Èf{À¢>²º?>r¶Á>Jj¾>§ª?›eǺÙ=´¶dE 
*$Á>F¶>{%ÌǯEÆðÌfm>Fº¼¢bIK¾>²¶=ͯ쿙=›>²ºÙÍjÉÑf¶= 
L=Ç[®ÆÁ>[F¶>{L=Ç[®E¬®ÇJÈÁ>Jj¾>§ª?ʶ>›¹>J¯¶=À³¶ 
(¼JiÆabÉmf¶=bF¢Ìa>ɯEÍɳEgÆ Ù=>Énɷə=L=Ç®>»Ã£ºÆaÇ£jºÆʾ>Ee 
L=Ç[¯¶¼¢b[¶=½b[¯Ib[¿=ÆÁ=f[ÈCÆ>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>É[iÆeÀº¸²K¾>²OÉU 
¼[¢a‘ÇJIʲº?a>¿iDEÍÈaÇ£j¶=ÆÁ>Jj²>EK¾>²>»¿ÉE¼JiÆaÆaÇ£jº 
*Á>F¶>ì¶=L=Ç® 
Àº¶ÆÖjºEL>uÆ>«ºLb¯à¢½-554Æ ½-552º>£¶=EÆ 
Á>[F¶>{Í[²f}>[²º?­=¢>[E°[·£JIÉ² º?¶ÆÖjºÆÁ>F¶>ì¶=ͲfU 
›f¦>[n¶=Á>J[j¾>§ª?b[£¯ºÁ>[F¶>ì¶=¼É·jIÆÁ>Jj¾>§ª?›ÍÉeͺdzV² 
²f[mÆÁ>[F¶>ì¶=Í[²fU[EÏf[]?L>[uÆ>«ºLb[¯à¢Æ(ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ= 
>É[iAÀ[ºg>[§¶=¸[¯¾ͯ«[q½=f[EÝÍÈaÇ£[j¶=$>[J¶a%Æ ÍɲºÙ=$¹>²>¾ÇÈ%
33 

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻋﱪ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﺠﲑ ﺳـﻔﺎﺭﰐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻴﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﻨـﺰﺍﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٩٨‬ﻡ ﺃﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔـﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭ‪‬ﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻋﺸﻖ ﺃﺑﺎﺩ ﻋﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻤﻨﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪١٩٩٧‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﻭﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺠﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﲰﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻻﺩﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﲝﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺗﻔﺠﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻨﻬﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﺼﻒ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪١٩٩٨‬ﻡ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺗﺮﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺼﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﶈﻄﺔ ‪MBC‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑـﻦ ﻻﺩﻥ ﻟﻠـﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲡﺮﻱ ﻣﻔﺎﻭﺿﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪١٩٩٨‬ﻡ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻷﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﺕ ﺣﺎﻣﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻈـﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﻌﺘﱪﻩ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﺇﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﻔﺠﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻭﺗﻐﲑﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﻐﲑﹰﺍ ﺟﺬﺭﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ )ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ( ﻛﺄﺳـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻮﺵ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻋﺠﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﳎﻤﻮﻋـﺔ ﺭﺑـﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﺩﻭﺳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻﺟﺌﹰﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻄـﺮﻭﺩﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺪﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺩﻭﺳﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻭﲣﻠـﺖ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫‪٧٨‬‬ 

¬¶>[VJE%>ð[ɲº?Í[ºÇ¢b™=L=Ç[¯¶=ÅdE¬¶>VJ¶==d­f¢Æ(Á>F¶>{ 
Ê[[·Á?b[[£EÁ>J[[j¾>§ªÙÊ[[nUǶ=Ê[[²ºÙ=Æh[[§¶=?b[[E¼[[M$¹>»[[n¶= 
>[ÃÑ=ÇQ?½=b^J[i>E>[²ºÙK[VÁ?b£EÆÁ>F¶>ì¶>û¢aÀ¢Á>Jj²>F¶= 
›Á>[F¶>{K·çR[iÆ(Á>J[j¾>§ª?Î[·¢½ÇRÃ[·¶ÍÉueÙ=>Âb¢=Ç®Æ>ÃÒ¾=ÇºÆ 
¸[N“Æ(ʾ>Jj²>F¶=ÆʲºÙ=ÀÈcÇ«¿¶=Àº>î>J£¾>E>ðÈÇ®>𫠮Ǻ>ú>È?f]=Æ? 
>[²º?L>[F·{d[É«¿J¶Íɾ>Jj²>F¶=Ç§v·¶ÍE>RJi×=>ÃvªfE±>J£¾×==d 
ÌbÈb[n¶=Ç§[v¶=>[ÃÉ·¢K[ie>º[¶=Íɾ>Jj²>F¶=Íɺdzƒ=aǪǶ=LaeÆ 
Lf[nUÁ?b[£Eð=f]@[JºÐ>[Q=dÂÀ³¶Æ(>ÃI>F·ì¶¤vÆ(>ÃE>¯¢?η¢ 
*ÍÈÆ=h¶=› 
Ì>[nºL=Ç[®ÍE>N’ʶ>»n¶=¬¶>VJ¶=L=Ç®½=b^Ji>E>²º?Kº>®Æ 
›Æ=d[[[³ÂÆ*>ÂfÑ>[[[j]¸[[[É·¯J¶ÍÈf[[[nE¥ÆeaÆÊ[[[²ºÙ=oÉ[[[R·¶ 
Íð É[nUÆð>[EfU>[ɾ>ìÈfE>[ÃJ«É·UÆf[«³¶=l
à ?e>³Èfº?K¿m.,,-+-,+3 
a>[EA¹Ø[QÆe>Âb[¿®Æ¹ÇE>²6Í ɾ>§ªÙ=Áb™=¬r¯EKº>¯ª»·j™=η¢ 
b[®Æ*Í V·[iÙ=¥=Ç[¾?ÎJ[mƸE>¿¯¶=L>ªc>®ÆµÇÂ>ºÇI_Èe=ÇrE>Â¦Æ 
½>[³ƒ=¼[>[ÃU>E?[¶=»·[j™=Ê[u=e?ÆÅ>[ɺÆÐ=ÇQ?Àº°·ì¿IK¾>² 
¤ÉE>[i?Ïb[ºη¢´¶cf»Ji=Æ*Á>Jj³ÉEgÆ?ÆÁ>Jj²>E›Íq>~Æ;DŽ= 
>Â=b[E?[¶=Í[¯Ñ>«¶=ÍEØ[r¶=ÆÍ[»ÉŸ£¶=Í¢>R[n¶=À[º¼¦f¶=η¢Æ*Íɶ=ÇJº 
ÏÇ[¯¶ÍF[j¿¶>EÍìÉjEÍV·i?Àº¼fjÉI>’(ÀÈbJ£™=ͺÆ>¯º›ÁÇ»·j™= 
¹Ç[U½>[³ƒ=Í[¾>É]ÆÀÈb[J£™=À[ºÊ[nUǶ=½ÇR=ͪ>N²Á?×C(Á=Æb£¶= 
*½.,,-½>£¶=›>²º?bÉEÁ>Jj¾>§ª?Ç¯i‘CLa?Á>Jj¾>§ª? 
áʾÇÉ·ºlj]Ù=Áf¯¶=¤Ee¹Ø]Á>§ªÙ=>È>VuÍ·ÉrUK§·Eb¯¶ 
Ê[iÆf¶=Æh[§¶=d[¿ºœ¯ª>È>Vv¶=ÀºF³¶=ab£¶==dÂœ¯iľ?Ë?(Í»j¾
35  

½>[£¶=›>[Ê[²ºÙ=Æh[§¶=b[£E>[ºÎ[JUƽ-535½>[£¶=›Á>Jj¾>§ªÙ 
bÈb[[n¶=¬[[iÚ¶ÆÍ[[·Ñ>=Í[[ɾ>§ªÙ=L>ÉV[[vJ¶=Åd[[ÂK[[QÇIÆ*½.,, *Á>Jj¾>§ª?›>²ºÙÍɺa¼²>V²$Ë=gf²%Ë>uf®bɗGÉr¿JE 
›b[[Èb‚=ʾ>[[§ªÙ=eÇJ[[ib¶=K£[[uÆ[[¶=ÁÇ[[EÍ[[¯ÉMÆK[[£®ÆÆ 
¼[[®ee=f[[¯¶=À[[ºÙ=k[[·…À[[º>[[²º?Leb[[rJi=[[¶=ƽ.,,-+-.+2 
=ðge>[Eð=eÆa>[²º?Í[¯ÉMǶ=›aeÆËd[¶=eÇJib¶=Îì¢?Æ(>ÂbÉÈ@J¶-44/ 
(Í[ÉQe>„=ÆÍ[É·]=b¶=ʾ>[§ªÙ=G£[n¶=ÁÆÖmfÈf¯I›ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=HÇNE 
Í[¯ÉMǶ=K{[m>ª(Á>J[j¾>§ª?›ÌF[²Æ̧[q¸[²Î[·¢­=fmÝ=›Æ 
Í[[ºb^·¶Í[[ÒÉÂkÉ[[i@I›Æ(ÍÈeÇJ[[ib¶=Í[[ÒÉ=kÉ[[i@I›ð>[ɲº?ð=eÇ[[vU 
b[[¢=ǯ¶>E°[[·£JÈÉ[[§IË?›Æ(Í[[ºÇ³ƒ=L>ÉUØ[[qƹ>[[»¢?›Æ(Í[[ɾb™= 
(Í[É®>«I×=ÊU=Ç[¾¤[ɖdÉ«¿IÍF®=fº›Æ(ͶÆb¶=L>jiÖº¤É»‚ÍÉÑ=fQÝ= 
* 
=Ð>[m>[º‘CÍ[¶Æb·¶Ê[·£«¶=¼²>[ƒ=>Ã[j«¾À[ºKF[çr¾>²º?Á?Ë? 
Í[¯ì¿™=Î[·¢Í[¿»É=Ç[Âb[r¯¶=Á?À[º>³Èfº?L>¾Ç¿³º¬n³È>º=dÂÆ 
[¶=>[ÃEfUÁC¸[E(¼¢h[I>[»²$=ðef†%>ð»³UbQÇIÁ?kɶÆ(ÍɺØiÝ= 
Î[[·¢ÍÉFÉ·[[qHf[[ƒ¸]b[[º×CÊ[[Â>[[ºH>[[ÂeÝ=Í[[Vª>³ºÍ[[R}>[[ÃJ¿·¢? 
À[º½Ø[iÝ=a>[£EÝÆ(¼[ÂaØEÎ[·¢ÌfìÉ[j¶=½>[³UÝ(»·j™=ƽØiÝ= 
›eÇì[jºÇ[Â>[»²Æ(±=f[£¶=ÆÁ>J[j¾>§ª?›ÁÇ·£«ÈÆ=Ç·£ª>»²¼ÃI>ÉU 
¹>[»¢Ù=>ÃJ«[n²ÍÉFÉ·[qHfUÊê*$F³¶=œiÆÙ=±fn¶=%¼Ã¢Æfnº 
aØF[¶=›K[·UO[ÉU>[³Èfº=>Ã[ie>“¶=Íɻɷ£J¶=ÆÍÉi>Éj¶=ÆÍÈf³j£¶= 
5+--P=b[UÙ‘ÆÙ=½>[ÈÙ=d[¿º>ë[n²À [E×=p 
Ç[EÁC¸[E(ÍɺØiÝ= 
Ê[ÂH>ÂeÝ=η¢ÄEfUÁ?À·¢?OÉU.,,-+5+-2›ÄE>ì]›´¶cÆ 
eDzd[™=¸[Ñ>=R«J[¶=Pa>[UÎ[·¢Î[vº b[®À[³ ÈÆ(Í ÉFÉ·qHf[U
4,  

‘C¸[rÈ×Pa>[U¹Ç[U°[[É[¯[€ ¹>[[»[² ÝÊ[[«[³ I×½ >È?Í£Ee?ÏÇi 
b[uÁ>[³ÈfºÙ=Í [i>j¶=ÀÑ=h[]›ÐÇ[F‡ÇÂ>ºη¢¹bÈ>šÅe>n£ºfn¢ 
*»·j™=ƽØiÝ= 
>[þ?×CÄ[¶ÇU½Ø[iÝ=Ð=b[¢?¤»Rɶ$Í ÉFÉ·qHfU%>>®ÁCÆÇÂÆ 
Î[JUbJnIÆÏǯIÁ>Jj¾>§ª?›ͺÆ>¯™=ÊÂ>ÂÆ*Ä JºÆ>¯™ 
»·j™=K£– 
(ʺØ[iÝ=Hh[ƒ=kÉ[Ñee>[ÉJ»³UÆÁ>F¶>{¸NºkºÙ>E=Ç«·J]=ÀÈd¶=ÁC 
*ÌbU=ÆlÇ®À¢>³Èfº?ÁÇ·I>¯È¼Ã¾?e>F]Ù=K·®>¿I 
Ìa>[É®Æ$­ 
>[jÈC%ÍɚÙ=L=ǯ¶=>ãºÆÍɳÈfºÙ=L=ǯ¶=¤ìJjI¼í¶Æ 
(Í »[q>£¶=η¢×C$½ >I¦¸³nEÆ%¹ØJU×=cÇ «¾bºÀºÊj·{Ù=¬·U 
ÍV·[j™=L>[É·»£·¶ð>Uf[jº¹ÇE>²Te>]Íɾ>§ªÙ=°{>¿™=¤É–KɯE>»¿ÉE 
*Á>Jj¾>§ªÙʳÈfºÙ=¹ØJU×=b£Eð>ºÇȬ®ÇJI¼í¶¶= 
b[¯¢Î[·¢(>ÿºÌ]Ù=Í·Uf™=›(ÌeDzd™=ÁÇ EÍÉ®>«I=Kr¾b¯¶ 
Í[»Ÿ¢Á?×C(Á>J[j¾>§ª?›Íɾ>™fEÆÍÉi>Ñe(½.,,0Á=fÈhU›L>E>^J¾= 
Ë=gf[²Í[ºÇ³U¼[MÀ[ºÆ·J[=LQ?ʳÈfºÙ=¹ØJU×=buͺÆ>¯™= 
L>[E>^J¾×=¸[ÉQ@Iƽ>[£¶==d[¹Ç[·È?‘CÍÉ[i>Ñf¶=L>E>^J¾×=¸ÉQ@Iη¢ 
*½a>¯¶=½>£¶=¤ÉEe‘CÍɾ>™¶= 
›Í[É®>«I×=À[º‘ 
ÆÙ=Í[·Uf™=›ð>¯E>[iK[Vˆb®>³Èfº?K¾>²Æ 
eÆaoÉ»ÃI›ð>vÈ?KVˆÆ(Ë=gf²>÷ɻ¢Íi>ÑfEÍɶ>¯J¾=ͺdzUÐ>n¾C 
*Ķ>QeÆÅ>mfÂ>žͺdzƒ=l?fÈÁ?ÏfIK¾>²¶=>EÆeÆ? 
Ìb[[VJ™=L>[[È×Ƕ=ÊMÇ[[£FºÁ?h•>[[IµeÇ[[ÈÇÉ¿¶=Ìb[[ÈfQK[[·¯¾b[[®Æ 
e>[ÉJ]=>¦Q>ÈÇ·¶οjJÈʲe>Ÿ¾Ù=À¢GVj¿Èʲ´·™=η¢=Çì§u 
(´ 
[¶c¹Ç[UÄ[È?fEÐ ×aÝ>[EÅ>[mf Â>[Ÿ¶\>JÈÁ?¸F®Æ*>Ãj«¿EͺÙ=bÑ>®
4-  

$Á >J[j¾>§ª?›Ìb[VJ™=L>[È×Ƕ=«[iÁÛ=Ç[ÂÆ%a =g¸[É·]Ë>[™=gÀ·¢? 
Ç[ÂÆ*Í [ɶ>¯J¾×=Íì·[j¶=›Gr¿™Xmfº¦°E>j¶=´·™=ÁC6ͪ>Vr·¶ 
**Ë=ge>²k·=kÉÑe¸²ÇÈ 
Í[È>¢eK[€Æ½.,,0ʾ>[MÁǾ>²+f È>¿ÈÀº/›>³Èfº?KVˆ¼M 
eÇJ[iae=f[®Ý$>¦Q>ÈǶ%Á >§ªÙ=Ê·Nšk·…η¢œ§v¶>EÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ= 
¸[·¯ÈÆkÉÑf·¶ÌF²L>ì·ieÇJib¶==dÂX¿•Æ*Á >Jj¾>§ªÙbÈbQʾbº 
°[UÏÇ[iÄ[IgÇ}kÉ[¶Ëd[¶=$Á >[™¶=%k·R»·¶ÍUÇ¿»™=L>ì·j¶=Àº 
(Á>J[j¾>§ª?›Ê[³ÈfºÙ=«[j¶=ÄÉ·¢°·{?b®Æ*Ð=e gǶ=¥>»JQ=›ÇJÉ«¶= 
Î[¿M?Æ*Ê ºØ[iÝ=>[£¶=›ð>[¾>£™f[N²Ù=I>ib¶=bU?6a =g¸É·]Ë>™=g 
¸³[nÈľ@EðØÑ>®Àì¿m=ÆÀºĶXÈfrI› 
eÇJib¶==dÂη¢pÇEkÉÑf¶= 
K¯[[mÍ[[¯Èfì¶=Åd[[ÃEÆ*Á>J[[j¾>§ª?›Í[[É{=f®Ç•b¶=L>[[jiÖ»·¶ð>[ i>i? 
Í[[ºÇ³UK¢fç [ mÆ>[[»²ʾ>[[§ªÙ=G£[[n·¶=ðb[[ÈbQ>ð[ ɾ>»·¢>ð[ ¯Èf{>[[³Èfº? 
Á?Ç[ÂÍ [É®>«I×=¸[U=fº°[ªÆÄ [E½>[ɯ¶=G‹>ºf]AÆ*Í ɶ>¯J¾×=Ë=ge>² 
Í[·Uf™=L>[E>^J¾=[¢Ìb[ÈbQÍ[ºÇ³U¸³[nÈÆÍÈeÇû‚=Ë=ge>²l?fÈ 
*L>E>^J¾×=¸ÉQ@I‘CÏa?b®¼®>«J™=ºÙ=¤uǶ=(À³¶Æ*Ì]Ù= 
>ÃIb[nU[¶=aÇ[nƒ=¸[²¼[¦eSQ@[J™=Í[ºÆ>¯™=¤uÆf»Ji=b¯¶ 
‘Cͪ>[[uÝ>EÍ[[ɳÈfº?L=Ç[[®ÆÊ[[j·{?¬[[·UÆÍ[[ɶÆaL=Ç[[®À[[º>[[³Èfº? 
À[ºÙ=œFuaÇnƒ=Åd¤ìJjI´¶c¤ºÆ(Íɾ>Jj²>F¶=L=ǯ¶=Ìb¢>jº 
Ð=Ç[QÙ=Í[ÒÉÃIÍ[¶Æ>†‘CÍɳÈfºÙ=Íi>Éj¶=Çìì‡@R·ª(L 
>E>^J¾×=b¯£¶ 
*ÍÉi>Éj¶=¹>»¢Ù=°Èf{À¢L>E>^J¾Ø¶ÍÉ¿ºÙ= 
G[[¾>QÀ[[ºÍ£[[i=ÆÍÉ[[i>ºÇ·EaL>[[²f€Á>J[[j¾>§ª?LbÃ[[m=d[[Æ 
›Ͳe>[[n»·¶Á>[[F¶>{ÌÇ[[¢a>[[ÿº(µ>[[¿ÂÉ[[²ºÙ=ÆË=gf[ ²Í[[ºÇ³U
4.  

ef[¯™=À [ºÁ>[²[¶=Æ (¸ [F¯™=$¹Ç·È?%»JFi› 
>Âb¯¢¤ºh™=L>E>^J¾×= 
»JF[i‘=>Ã[·ÉQ@Ief[¯IÀ[³¶Æ¸[F¯™=$Á =f[ÈhU%Ç[ɾÇÈ›>ÂÕ=fQ=Øq= 
*ÍÉ¿º?­Æ>‡GFjE 
Ë=gf[²Í[ºÇ³UÎ[·¢ÍÉ¢f[n¶=Ð>«[uC‘CL>[E>^J¾× =ÅdÂʺfIÆ 
Í[[ɻɷ®Ý=œ[[ì„=½>[[“ÝÁ>J[[j¾>§ª?›Ê[[i>Éj¶=e=f¯J[[i×=a>[[‹CÆÍ[[·É»£¶= 
½Ç[[È¥e>[[iÁ >[[F¶>{›F[[²b[[Ñ>®Ç[[ÂÆ=a=aØ[[™=À[[³¶Æ(Í[[ɲº×= 
L>E>^J¾×=¹>nªDEbÈbÃJ¶=ef²ÆË=gf²zf¢xªe‘=.,,0+,0+.1 
¤[ºL>[Ma>†Ëf[Á>[F¶>{Á=Î[«¾>»²*Á>Jj¾>§ª=› 
Íɾ>™¶=Æ ÍÉi>Ñf¶= 
Í[²fƒ=¤[ºL>[Ma>†Ëf[Ä[JºÇ³UÁ=¹>[®b®Ë=gf²Á>²Æ*ͺdzƒ= 
*ËǺb¶=>Âaf“Ð>þ×ÌabnJ™= 
›Ê[[²ºÙ=¸[[JV»·¶Í[[ºÆ>¯™=¹>[[»¢?e=f»J[[i=¸[[ž›=d[[ÂÓ[[‹Æ 
×½Ç[ÈÊ[v•a>[³È×cCÍ[·É»£¶=Ë 
=gf[²Í[ºÇ³UÀ[ºÄJɾ>EgÆ Á>Jj¾>§ª? 
¸[J=¤[ªa>[º(µ >[¿ÂÄ[E>¾c?Æ f ª>[³¶=¸J=¤Q>vºL=e>R«¾× =Äɪ±eÖI 
ÄIb¢>[j™>Ã[mÇÉQ¹>ieDE>â>¿®C¤ ÉìJjȶ=¹Æb¶=ÀºbÈh™=À¢OVF·¶ 
*Á>Jj¾>§ª?› 
›ÇI>[[[¿¶=Ïb[[[¶Ê[[[²º×=«[[[j¶=h[[[¾El×Ç[[[³É¾¹>[[[®=d[[[Æ 
Ïf[[]=¹Æa¤F[[iÆ>[[ɾ>™=G[[¾>Q‘=>[[ɲfIÆ>ɾ>F[[i=Á=(.,,0+,0+.2 
›L 
=Ç[¯EͲe>[n»·¶>Âa=b£J[i=À[¢KEf¢=$± 
=f£¶=›L=Ç®>ÃÈb¶kɶ% 
*¸ [E>²Í[ɾ>§ª×=Í»q>£¶=Te>]ÄJ»Ãº¤ ÉiÇIÀº¬·ƒ=³»J¶Á>Jj¾>§ª? 
¹Ø[]À[º×=e =f[®C›Ͳe>[n™=>ÿ³•¹Æb¶=ÅdÂL 
=Ç®Á @E>vÈ=\fqÆ 
kÉÑf[¶=G[·{Î[·¢Ð>[¿E$¹ Ç[·È=%»JFi›Ëf¶=Íɾ>§ª×=L>E>^J¾×= 
ÍEfì[v™=¼É¶>[®×=›L>[E>^J¾×=Î[·¢ÎnËd¶=(Ë=gf²bɗʾ>§ª×=
4/  

[ºη¢Éª>Vr·¶h¾E¹>®Æ*Í ìFv¿º¦Íq>]>ÉnɷɺL>»ÉŸ¿IÀº 
Ð=f«[iÆÊ[j·{×=¬[·ƒËf³j£¶=bÑ>¯¶=h¾ÇQk»ÉQ¹=f¿‚=¸¯IÌfÑ>{ 
›µe>[nI×L>[ºÇ³ƒ=À[ºab[¢µ>[¿Â 6¸ [E>²‘=¬·ƒ=›ͶÆa.2 
*L=ǯ¶=ÀºxÑ>ª>ÃÈb¶>ɾ>Fi=¸Nº±=f£¶=ea>§I¶=Æ=±=f£¶= 
¬[·U¥>[ªaÐ=egÆÁ? .,,0+,.+,2› 
Ê [iÊ[E[¶=Lf²cÆ 
Î[·¢_ɾÇ[ɺ›b[¯¢Ëd[¶=¼Ã¢>[»JQ=›=Ç[¯«I=$Ç I>[¿¶=%Êj·{×=¹> 
*Á>Jj¾>§ª?›ÌfnJ¿™=¬·V·¶Í£E>J¶=½Øj¶= «UL=Ç®Ìa>Èg 
Ìb[ºÍ[ÉÃJ¿™=Á>J[j¾>§ª=›ÇI>[¿¶=L=Ç®bÑ>®GÑ>¾ʶhɶÆeb¾=¹>®Æ 
>Èb[¿Q¬[¶=-.‘=¸[rJ¶>[ÃI=Ç®gh[£IÁ=G[‹­>jÈ=L=Ç®Á=ÄJºb] 
*ÀºÙ=η¢ž>«ƒ=ÀºÀ³»JIÎJU 
b[®Ìb™Á>Jj¾>§ª=›>ÃJ»Ãºf»JjIÁ=À³•ÇI>¿¶=L=Ç®Á=­>u=Æ 
*L=Ç¿ifn¢‘=¸rI 
Í[ɶ>ƒ=ͻÙ=Á?η¢b·É«jº=eb¶>¾ÆaʳÈfºÙ=¥>ªb¶=fÈgÆabmÆ 
*aÇ¿‚=ÀºbÈhº¹>ieC¸F®Í¿³šÌÐ>«²η¢@EÏaÖIÁ?G‹ 
‘ÆÙ=ÇI>[¿¶=Í[»ÃºÁ?b[¯J¢?6À ì¿[m=ÆÀº>ºa>®ÄJ·UeÐ>¿M?¹>®Æ 
**Á>Jj¾>§ª?›bÉQ¸³nEÐ=aÙ=ÁdzIÁ?G‹ 
L=Ç[®[EœE=Æf[¶=Í[ÈǯIÎ[·¢¸[»£¶=ÇI>[¿·¶½>[[£¶=[ºÙ =\®=Æ 
-.>[ú=Ç®¨[·FÈ[¶=ÆÁ>Jj¾>§ª?›ÌfnJ¿™=ÍɳÈfºÙ=L=ǯ¶=EÆ­>iC 
**Ëb¿Q¬¶? 
Í[[[ºÆ>¯™=­>£[[[uC›¸ [ [n«¶>ELÐ>[[[EaÇ[[[Â=Åd[[[¸[[[²À[[[³¶ 
Á>[[F¶>{À[[º»·[[j™=Í[[ºÆ>¯ºÁ?Í[[RÉJ¿¶=K[[¾>²Æ(>ðÉ[[i>ÉiÆ?ð>Èf³[[j¢ 
e>[[«²¼[[þِ·J[[=¹>[[J®Á?Æ(LbJ[[m=ÆK[[ÈÇ®b[[®¼[[¦ÆÌb[[¢>®Æ
40  

*ÌÇ®η¢ðÌÇ®a=ag=ÆÁ>§ªÙ=Á>Âc?›h²fIb® 
>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[³Èfº?HfUÄɶCKÃJ¾=>ºÇ Â=dÂÆ(Á>Jj¾>§ª?ÊÂÅd 
Ê®>[[EÆe>[ÉJ»³UÆÁ>[[F¶>{¼[MÍ[[¶Æb²Á>[F¶>{Æ(G 
[¾>QÀ[º>[[»[Ã[ªØU?Æ 
¼[³UÍ[q>~ƽ>[»JÂ×>EÌfÈb[QÊ[ÂÆ*Í [ºÆ>¯»²Á>Jj¾>§ª?›»·j™= 
*Á >Jj²>EÆ>³Èfº?eÆaÆ(Ë=gf²¼³UÆ(¹>»n¶=¬¶>€¼³UÆ($Á>F¶>{% 
>Ã[iÆeaÀ[º£¶=d]ÙÆ>ÃJÉ»ÂÙ>Âb¿¢­Ç®Ç¶=¸Â@JjIP=bUÙ=ÅdÂÆ 
×O[ÉU½b[¿È¼ [MÆb[£¶=¸Ñ>FU›¤¯ÈتÅfº?ÀºÍ¿ÉEη¢¼·j™=Ádzɶ 
*½b¿¶=¤«¿È 
¿[QÙ=fª>[³¶=¤[ºÁÆ>[£J¶=½b[¢HÇ[QÆÇÂl 
Æeb¶=Åd¹Æ?ÁC 
Í[ºÙ=Åd[ÁÆb[ÈfÈ×e>[«³¶=ÁÙ(¹=ÇUÙ=Àº¹>UË@EÄE±ÇMǶ=½b¢Æ 
ÁÇ[rEÈÆÍɺØ[iÝ=ͺڶÁÆbɳÈÆ(Á>ìÉn¶=¸ÉFi›ÁÇ·I>¯È¼Ãª(ð=] 
( >ðÒÉ[m>[ÿº=ÆbÉ«J[jȼþDª>²º?¤º=Ç«¶>€ÀÈd¶=ÎJUÆ*f Ñ=Æb¶=>ÃE 
*>³Èfº?¼ÃJŸ«¶¼Âe=Æa?KÃJ¾=>º=cDª 
a>[»J¢=Ç[Â>[ÃÉ·¢a>[»J¢×=Æ(Á>ìÉ[n¶>E±ÇMÆÇÂ>²º@E±ÇMǶ>ª 
Î[JUÆ*>ð[»Ñ=aÐ=b¢>ÃI>Òª¬·J^’ÍɺØiÝ=ͺÙ=Gq>¿Èb®>UÆb¢η¢ 
Á>J[j¾>§ª?‘C¹Ç]b[¶=À[º>[²º?K[¿õ³ºÆÁ>[F¶>{K[¾>][¶=Á>Jj²>E 
>[ÃJ¾>É]Ð=f[Q>[²º?À[ºð>ÒÉmÏf]Ù=ÊÂb«JjIÁ>F¶>{η¢Ð>v¯¶=Æ 
Á>J[[j²>F¶[[²Ù=Æb[[£¶=b[[¿=¤[[ºK[[«¶>€>[[²º?ÁCcC(Åd[[ÂÍ[[£ÉŸ«¶= 
*ÀÈbÂ>=¤»¯É¶Æ»n²À¢¹g>¿Jɶ­fnºhÈÆfEη¢Kì§uÆ 
½>[Ÿ¿¶=Á>[²b[¯ª(>[³Èfº?ÐØ[»£E±Ç[MǶ=½b[¢Ç[Âʾ>N¶=leb¶=Æ 
[¦>[³Èfº?ÍV·[rºK[F·ìI>[»·ª(Á>[F¶>{Ð>n¾CÐ=eÆÁ>Jj²>E›¼²>ƒ= 
*±>¿„=>ÃÉ·¢=ǯÉuÆÁ>F¶>{=ǟ«¶´¶c
41  

×(À[[ìå ªíkëÉ[[²í ÀºÖ™>[[ª(Êi>[[É[j¶=Ê[[¢Ç¶=Ç[[ÂO[[¶>N¶=leb[[¶=Æ 
¤[ºÊ[ÿ¶=Æf[ºÙ=›>[Ee>Âb[[nÈÁ>[F¶>{K[¾>²b[¯¶*Í ·«¦Àºd]ÖÈ 
´¶d[E>[þ?À[ŸIÁ>[F¶>{Æ(>[³Èfº?Á>vU?›±e>¦ÇÂÆÁ>Jj²>E¼²>U 
*>ð£¿qÀj€ 
η¢Á>²b¯ª(œiǶ=¹Ç·ƒ=¸F¯È×½ØiÝ=ÁDª]Ù=leb¶=>º? 
ÐØ[»£E>Ã{>FIe=´«IÁ?ÆäϬÚ^`>ÿ·£IÁ?(¼ ³ƒ=‘CK·qÆb®Æ(Á>F¶>{ 
Ìeb[¯¶=¸[Â?À [ºÁÇ[£¶=¸[F¯I´¶d[²Æ(£J[jIÁ?Æ(Á>J[j²>E›>³Èfº? 
¼Ã¿[³¶*¼ [·¢À[¢>[ÃɪÄ[¯«J¶=Æ>[ÃÃQÆη¢¥fn¶=½>³U?°ÉFìJ¶Ìǯ¶=Æ 
Í[ÉU>¾À[ºÆ(Í[ÉU>¾À[º½Ø[iÝ=‘CðÌaÆb[nºðÌe>ºC>ÂÇ¿·¢?´¶cÀºð×bE 
He>[VÈàϬÚ^†@½>Ÿ¾OÉU>³Èfº?>ÂÐ=eƶ=Á>Jj²>E‘CðÌaÆbnºÏf]? 
*>»Ã¿ºÌbnE 
(´[¶cÀ[ºHf[®?Ç[¸[E(¹>¿™=bÉ£EkɶfºÙ=TØ¢ÁC¸²η¢ 
¼[³U½>[É®ÆÊ[³ÈfºÙ=cÇ[«¿¶=Í[¯EeÀ[ºÁ>Jj²>E±>J£¾=‘ 
C×CT>JŒ×Æ 
›b[Â>Æ=¥fm°FìIÌbm=eϬÚ^`(±a>qʺØiC¼³U(>Ãɪs·‡ 
¥ØJ®=‘CÁ >Jj¾>§ª?¦ÆÁ >Jj¾>§ª?›ÀÈbÂ>=¸²¤ºÄQÇJIÆ(=¸ÉFi 
½Ø[iÝ=Í[È=e¤«IfI´¶dE*Ï ¬Ú^^a¹¸>ûuÆÁ>Jj¾>§ª?ÀºʳÈfºÙ=cÇ«¿¶= 
=¹Çieb»†=×CĶC×%ÍÈ=e 
ð>F£qÍ·ÂƹÆÙ=bEÁCÆfºÙ==dÂÆ*$ 
*>hÈh£E=η¢´¶c>ºÆ@Ķ=ÅfjÈÀ™eÇjɺÄ¿³¶

42  

$1% 
t® 
ÍFU>[qÊ[ÂÆ(ÍɺØ[iÝ=aØF[¶=¸[–?Ƽ[Â?À[ºÌbU=ÆÊÂt® 
Á>[ª´¶d[¶(œ 
[iÇJ™=f[VF¶=±fm›ÍÈÆ=h¶=fRUÆ(¼ÃºÊRÉI=i=¤®Çº 
*>ÃÉ·¢ÌfìÉj¶=¸Q?ÀºÍ»Ñ=aÆÌF²aÇÃQ>Á>²럣¶=¹Æb¶= 
WÁ>[»N¢b [m=f¶=Í«É·„=b â›>Ãɪ½ØiÝ=fn¾Æ>ÃVJªb¯¶ 
½>[¢›´ 
¶cç Æ(t®XJ«ÈÁ@EÍÈÆ>£ºµ=d¾A½>n¶=ʶ=ÆÀºG·{OÉU 
¤[i>J¶=Áf[¯¶=f[]=Æ?ÎJU>Ãɪ 
»·j™=Á >ì·if» Ji=b®Æ( ËaØɺ205 
L=Ð=bJ¢=‘CÌf]@J™=aÇã¶=¹Ø]Á>ÉUÙ=x£E›zf£JIK¾>²Æ(fn¢ 
>[ÿº¼Ã¾Æaf[ìɪÁÆaÇ[£È=Ǿ>[²»·j™=À³¶Æ(ÉFÉ·r¶=ƐÉì¾hÉF¶=Àº 
*bÈbQÀº>ÃÉ·¢½ØiÝ=Á>ì·iÁÇìjFÈÆ 
À[º>[ÃɪÊ[¯EÀºÆ(ÍɺØiCÌfÈhQÆ(ʺØiCb·Et®ÁDªµd¶Æ 
¼[ÁÇ[³ÈÁ?X[rÈ×ÁÇ[ɺc¼[þ?¼[û³U(¼Â¦ÆÉ¾>¾Çɶ>²e>«³¶= 
*Ïf]Ù=»·j™=aØE›¼>Nº?Á@m´¶c›¼Ã¾@m(>ÃÉ·¢Á>ì·i 
ab[ÃÈð=f[ì]KVF[q?Æ>É[iÆeÌÇ[®K»ž>£Ifn¢¤i>J¶=Áf¯¶=› 
K[¾>²b[¯¶*>[ɾ>ìÈfEµ=d[¾A‘ÆÙ=ͶÆb¶=abÃÈ´¶d²Æ(Íɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶= 
b[¿=‘C±e>[{¸[FQ°É[v’f[•Ëd¶=ËÇɃ=>ïÈf{η¢În>ɾ>ìÈfE 
f[VF¶=Ìf[q>]›t[®‘C>É[iÆe¹Ç[qÆÁ?µeb[IÊÂÆ(kÈÇj¶=¢ 
Á?ÆÍ[q>~Æ(Ê [iÆf¶=b[ÈbÃJ¶=K€kÈÇj¶=Ì>¿®¸£‹±fn¶=›œiÇJ™=
43  

)-312%E>º>j¾fª¤º¿i¤Fj¶=HfUÀºK¦fªb®K¾>²>ɾ>ìÈfE 
KVF[q?Æ(b[¿=À[ºð>ÉÑ>þ>j¾fªcÇ«¾Tf]?îOÉU(b ¿=¹ÇU$½-32/ 
eh[‚=À[ºËf[VF¶=°Èfì¶=Àº=e=f»Ji=Á>²Æ*>ɾ>ìȶð>r¶>]ð>³·ºb¿= 
b[¯ª´¶d[¶Æ*>[ɾ>ìȶð>[ÈÇÉUð=f[º?Ì>[¿¯¶=Æ°É[v™=¢b¿=‘CÍɾ>ìȶ= 
Î[·¢Ìa>Éj¶=ÍFU>qÍɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶=¤ ºÊi>Éj¶=>ÂÐ>Âa>ɾ>ìÈfEK·»£Ji= 
(Í[ÉU>¾À[º=d[Â*Ìf[Èh‚=‘C¹Ç[qǶ=À[º>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ³»JJ¶t®ÌfÈhQ 
>É[iÆeÌÇ[®¼ž>[£Iµeb[Iµ=d[¾AÍ[ɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶=K¾>²Ïf]?ÍÉU>¾ÀºÆ 
b[Á?ÌÇ®h²fºÀºf³«I>ɾ>ìÈfEK¾>²b¯¶*t 
®‘C>ÇqÆÎnÆ 
¬£[u¬[®ÇºÀ[ºf[³«IÍɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶=K¾>²Æ(t 
®›½b®Ó{Ǻ> 
Æ?¥>[[¿®C›>[[ɾ>ìÈfEK[[Vˆb[[®Æ*t 
[[®›>þ>ì·[[iÎ[[·¢ ª>[[€Á? 
À[[ºt[®Í[[È>—>[ÂfÂ>žÍ[[É®>«I=b[¯¢›b[[É»ƒ=b[F¢(Í[[«É·„=$¥ 
=b[]% 
›=d[Â(b[£E>[»ÉªÁÇ[Qf¼[Mh[É·ˆÞ¶K[®ÖºaÇ[QÇE>>ÉiÆe¹ØJU= 
¼Ñ=a¹ØJU×ð=bÉÓK¾>²b¯ª>ɾ>ìÈfEL>E>jU›>º?Æ(Í «É·„=L>E>jU 
>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆÍ[ɾ>»N£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=EÍÉ®>«I=Lb¯¢=d³ÂÆ*ÌfÈhR·¶>ɾ>ìÈfEÀº 
6Ê·È>ºη¢s¿I½-432Í¿i› 
*Íɾ>»N£¶=ϬÚ^a¹¸ÍÉi>Éj¶=ÆÍÈf³j£¶=Ìa>Éj¶=Ð>¯EC)- 
*ÍÉFÂcͣ쮬¶?5.Åe=b¯ºð>ÈÇ¿ið=fQ?hÉ·ˆÝ=¤ªbÈ). 
Ìa>[[¯¶=Ìf[[ºCK[[€Ìf[[Èh‚=›¼ÂaÇ[[QÆÐ>[[¿M?h[[É·ˆÝ=ÁÇ[[³È)/ 
*É¾>»N£¶=Èf³j£¶= 
Ä[[[J»¢gËd[[[¶=Ê[[[iÆf¶=f[[[ì„=¹=Ægb[[[£Eh[[[É·ˆÝ=Tf[[[)0 
¸É¾aeb[[[¶=¼Q>ÃJ[[[i>É[[[iÆeÁ?ðÍ[ [®ÇMǺæL>[[[ºÇ·£º>ÃÈb[[[¶Á@[[[E=[[[·ˆC 
*t®‘C¼MœiÇJ™=‘Cd«¿IÆ
44  

Ê[i>Éj¶=ÄÑ>ÂbE´¶d²­Æf£™=ÇÂÆbÉ»ƒ=bF¢Á>ì·j¶=Á>²b¯¶ 
¤[º¥=h [[¿¶=‘C=[·ˆC$f [‹%Á@[ElÆf[¶=½>[º?Í[¶Æb¶=¬£[u͂>£ºbÈfÈ 
(h[É·ˆÝ=Tf[Æ(Ìf[Èh‚= [í«VàIÆt®À¢lÆf¶=fì]¬®ÇJª(lÆf¶= 
Æb[FÈÁ>[²(=Ä[—e(Ä[¾?¤º(¼Ã¢=b]ÆhÉ·ˆÝ=f³ºH>jUGjŒÆ 
fÂ>[Ÿ¶=À[³¶Æ¼Ã¢=b[]Æh[É·ˆÝ=OF]η¢ô¥=Æľ?ÄI=f²dº› 
Ð>Q>»² 
ÁÆaÆÍ[É®>«I>Et[®›h[²f»J¶=Î[·¢ÁÇ»»[rºhÉ·ˆÝ=Á?ÏfÈÁ>²ľ? 
ʶÆb[[¶=¤[[®=Ƕ=[[§IÎ[[·¢ð>[¿Â=fºÌaçb[nºÆf[[nEÍ[[É®>«I×=fMB[[ª(Í[[É®>«I= 
b[F¢Á>ì·j¶=G¦fÈ>»²fjIeǺÙ=À³¶Æ*Í È>ÿ¶=›hÉ·ˆÝ=T=f]CÆ 
*½-5,4›¼[³ƒ=À[¢ÅÇ[r®?ÆĶÇ[ieÆ=Ð=b[¢?ÄÉ·¢ fºBIb¯ªbÉ»ƒ= 
¼ÃJ[»ÂLf[r®Æ>þgÆͶÆb·¶=ǟ«Œ¼·ªÊ®¶=Æa>€×=Í¢>–Åb£EÐ>QÆ 
Hf[ƒ=KF[n¾´[¶cb£E* 
=ėebÉ»ƒ=bF¢Í«É·„=ĶœìÁ>²>»¢ 
t[®¼[uÆÍ[É®>«I×=Ð>[§¶C>[ɾ>ìÈfEK[¿·¢?>Âb¿¢Æ(½-5-0Í¿i‘ÆÙ= 
Í[ə>£¶=Hf[ƒ=›>[ɾ>ìÈfEb[u>ɾ>™?¤ºÍɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶=¬¶>€ÍR} >ÃɶC 
*½-5-0+--+1›ð>Ée>ûuÁØ¢CÁ>²Æ*‘ÆÙ= 
(h[[É·ˆÝ=À[[º¼¢b[[EÍ[[«É·„=Î[[·¢¹>[[»²Ϋì[[ rºaf[[“Ð>[[¿M?¼[[M 
¤[ºzÆ>«J·¶aǪǶ=Ķ>ieCÆ(Í«É·„=Íì·j¶ÍÈg=ǺðÍì·iÌf¯¾?›ķɳnIÆ 
Í[[i>ÑfEÁ>[[²ÆÅb[[ªÆ¹>[[»²Ϋì[[rºf[[º?(X·[[r¶=Æf[mÎ[[·¢h[[É·ˆÝ= 
gÇ[[“›Ìb[[Â>£º¤[[É®ÇJEÅf[[º?(Ä[[jÉÑe¸[[Nºh[[É·ˆÝ=¸[[É»¢Ç[[¿É¾CK»[[r¢ 
h[É·ˆÝ=ÌfìÉ[jEÌf[¯¾?Í[ºÇ³U>[[Ã[F[Qǒ­[[£IhÉ·[[ˆÝ=¤[º½-5./ 
Ç[Â>[»²Æ*Íð [ÈhÉ·ˆCÊß [u=e?>Âe>FJ¢=Æ>ɾ>ìÈE>î>ƒCÆt®η¢ð>ÉÑ>þ 
Ϋì[rº½f[=>úb[®[¶=L>ºb[„=À[ºð=Ðh[QK[¾>²Åd ÁDª­Æf[£º 
Î[·¢ðÍ[¶×aÏ ¬Ú^^†@ÅÕ>[§¶CÁ>[²L>ºb[„=ÅdÂl?eη¢Æ(hÉ·ˆÞ¶¹>»²
45 

‫ﺇﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻟﻺﳒﻠﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻴﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌـﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻗﱪﺹ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﳉﻨـﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ٢١‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗـﻨﺺ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪" :‬ﻷﺗﺮﺍﻙ ﻗﱪﺹ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴـﺔ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻇﺮﻑ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺛـﲏ ﻋـﺸﺮ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻖ‪".‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺇﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﱪﺹ ﰲ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ‪١٩٢٥‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﺃﻋِﻠﻨﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﹰﺓ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﱐ )‪ (Crown Colony‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺿـﻊ ﻗـﱪﺹ‬
‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘ ﹰﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﱐ ﺭﲰﻴﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٥٩‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻋﻠﻨﺖ ﻗـﱪﺹ‬
‫ﺭﲰﻴﹰﺎ )ﲨﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﰲ ﻗﱪﺹ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻺﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊـﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺿﻌﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻭﺯﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﺣﻴـﺚ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺩﻭﻟ ﹰﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗـﱪﺹ ﺃﻣـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﰲ ﻗﱪﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﻫﺘﺰﺍﺯ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻗﱪﺹ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻵﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑـﺎ ﻭﺍﻟـﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳـﻂ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺰﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺮﺙ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﺎﺻـﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺧﻄﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡـﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳـﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫‪٩٠‬‬ 

Ä[¾?Ä[JRÉJ¾t[®G£[n¶âÐ>J«J[i=Lf[Ã[ž?>³Èfº?Àº¼[¢ bEÍ[j[É[¿[³¶= 
ÍF[[j¾Á?Æ(Á>[[¾Çɶ=‘C½>»[[v¾× =Æ>[[ɾ>ìÈfEe>»£J[[i=À[[ºTÆf[[„=b[[ÈfÈ 
K[[®Ç¶=´[[¶cd[[¿ºLgf[[EÆ*-51,+-+-1›!52K[[¾>²KÈÇ[[rJ¶= 
*t¯EÁ>¾Çɶ=ÍF¶>ìº 
À[ºÍð [ºÆhúK[Qf]b[®Æ(>ɶ>ìÈCÁ?fN²?ÍF¶>ì™=ÅdÂgfE?Ëd¶=Æ 
b[®K[¾>²[¶=Æ͋Cf}›ÌfÈhQ-.¼É·jJEKº>®(Í ɾ>N¶=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ= 
K£®Æ¶=½Øj¶=ÌbÂ>£ºfMCÁ>¾Çɶ=‘C½-5-.)-5--ʺ>¢>ÃJ·JU= 
À[ºb[ÉÈ@IK[€t[¯¶>[ÂfŸ¿EÄ[RJIÁ>¾Çɶ=¸£QËd¶=fºÙ=(kÈe>E› 
xÈf[VJE(K 
[º>®Á @[E½-510)-51.ʺ>¢E´¶cK£FáI?íÆ(>³Èfº? 
Àº=·ˆCH>Vj¾=ÄɪG·ìIÌbVJ™=¼ºÚ¶ÊeG·{¼Èb¯JE(>³Èfº?Àº 
kì[[j¦?-2›Ìb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÚ¶=[[·ˆCb[[uÏdz[[nEK[[º>®¼[[M(t[[® 
À[[³¶Æ*Å[[rºf[[Èf¯I°[[UÊ[[q¯¶=G£[[n¶=Ð>[[ì¢DEK[[F¶>{ƽ-510 
œF[€K[¾>²(ʶÆb¶=\fj™=›ÁgÆĶð>F¢×¹=hI×K¾>²b®Æ(>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Í[ue>£™>[òf€(>[ô¹=Ç[º>[Ãɪ¼[³ƒ=O[ÉU>ɲfIµf€Æ Ê¢>j™=Åd 
Á>[¾ÇÉ·¶t[®¼uÍÉn]´¶dEʲ¶=½>£¶=Ë?f¶=´Èf€Æ(Á>¾Çɶ=G·{ 
*ʲ¶=G£n¶=ÄvªfÈ>ºÇÂÆ 
=[·ˆ=Î[·¢°ÉÉ[vJ·¶Á>[¾Çɶ=η¢>Ãì§vELf»Ji=b¯ª>³Èfº?>º? 
k²cÇ[[MeÙ=½Æf[[¶=xÈf[[VJE½-511½>[¢>[[³Èfº?L?b[[E´¶d[[¶Í[RÉJ¾Æ 
K[¾>²Ø[q?½Æf[¶=Æ*h É·ˆÝ=η¢Fr£J™=$Ï 
e>r¿¶=Àºt®Á>³i% 
(>ÃEð>º>“>î>ƒCÆ?Á>¾Çɶ=¤ºt®a>€=£I¶=$kÉiǾ=%Ìf³ª¼ÃÈb¶ 
¤[uǶ==d[Â>[³Èfº?K·§J[i=Æ(Ìf³«¶=ÅdÂÁÇue>£È=Ǿ>²hÉ·ˆÝ=À³¶Æ 
¸[E(Ìf[Èh‚=›>[ÃÑØ»¢°[Èf{À[¢¸[®Ø¯¶=Ìe>[MDEh É·ˆÝ=af{K¶Æ>UÆ
5-  

O[ÉU-511¸Ñ=Æ?›PbU>»²¸E>¿¯¶>EL>É·»¢‘C¸®Ø¯¶=ÅdÂLa=g 
*hÉ·ˆÝ=ÀºL>ҙ=>ÂfM?η¢¸J® 
½-511kìj¦?.5›Áb¿¶›ð=f“Öº=·ˆCL 
b¯¢´ 
¶cfMCη¢ 
ÍÉ[q¯¶=Ͷ@[j™=›>[ɲfI¹>]aCÀºK¿³“b®Æ(t®›¤uǶ=OVF¶ 
f[Ÿ¿¶=›J¶Æb¶=­ 
ØJ]×f“Ö™=¸n«È=dÂÁ?µebIÊÂÆ(Á>¾Çɶ=G¾>| 
Í[ɍe>J¶=Í[É»ÂÙ=À[³¶Æ(SÑ>[J¾Í[È@Ef“Ö[™=Tf[¼·ª=d³ÂÆ*t 
®‘C 
ÀºÍ·³n™=›­fì²Êe¸³nEÌfº¹ÆÙ>ɲfI¹ÇF®ľ?Áb¿¶f“Ö™ 
*ÍÉi>Éj¶=ÍÉU>¿¶= 
¼Ã¢>FI?ÆÁ>¾Çɶ=°Èf{À¢>³Èfº?>ÂNIt®›¸®Ø¯¶=Lf»Ji=Æ 
>[ºC>ÃɪʳÈfºÙ=cÇ«¿¶=¹>]aCÆ(>ÿºËhÉ·ˆÝ=cÇ«¿¶=T=f]ÝÌfÈh‚=› 
*>[³ÈfºÙðÍ[ɶ=ǺK[¾>²[¶=Á>¾ÇÉ·¶>ûvEf m>Fº¦°ÈfìE>ºCÆðÌfm>Fº 
JÈf³[j¢Ib[¢>®K[º>®?b®K 
¾>²>ɾ>ìÈfEÁ?ðÌbm¥=fr¶=a=gËd¶=Æ 
ºÇ[·É².12[[¶=He>¯IzeÙ=ÀºÍU>jºη¢ÌfÈh‚=¸]=a›IF² 
*Í·º>²Íɾ>ìÈfEÌa>ÉjEÁ>Ib¢>¯¶=Á>I>¤J»JIÆ*¤Efº 
Ëh[É·ˆÝ=cÇ[«¿¶=ƐIb[¢>¯¶=I>[ÂT=f[]C>[ûÃÈ>[³Èfº?K¾>²Æ 
Í[ɾ>N¶=Hf[ƒ=›>EÆeÆ?Ld¯¾?b®Æ>þ?>³Èfº?ÏfIK¾>²OÉU(Ä·º>³E 
>[»²>[ÃÉ·¢¬[É¿£¶=¥=f[r¶=çHa=d³ÂÆ*>ÃI=f»£JjºPfIÁ?G‹>þDª 
>[²º?K·£[m?OÉU½-514½>£¶=›bJm=Æ>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>²º?Eð>«¾A>¿ÉE 
ÁÇF¶>[ìȼÃ[·£QƐɾ>[¾Çɶ=Ìe>[MC°[Èf{À[¢h[É·ˆÝ=b[ut®›ÌeÇM 
À[³¶Æ(Ìf[Èh‚=À[º¼ÃQ=f]ÝhÉ·ˆÝ==Ç·I>¯ª(Á>¾Çɶ=‘CÌfÈh‚=½>»v¾>E 
>Ã[·É»¢K[£ªaÌf[Èh‚=›ð=b[ÉQeÇ[ºÙ=½>[ºhE´[j“K[¾>²¶=>ɾ>ìÈfE 
>ð[F¶>ìºʾ>[ìȶ=¹ØJ[U×=b[uÌeÇ[N¶=¼¢h[JɶlÇÈe>³ºÁ=fì™=s·^™=
5.  

Ê[[«¿EÁÇɾ>[[ìȶ=½>[[®¼[[M(Á>[[¾Çɶ=‘CÌf[[Èh‚=¼[[vEkÉ[[¶Æ¹Ø¯J[[i×>E 
b[£EaÇ[£É¶¼[M(ÄJÉF£[ma=ahJ¶Ëb¿=œÉ=›¸nÉiÌfÈhQ‘ClÇÈe>³º 
G[¶>ìÈÆÁ >[¾Çɶ=‘CÌf[Èh‚=½>»[v¾=Ìf[³ªœF[VɶÆt[¯¶ð>[»É¢g´¶c 
½>»[v¾==Ç[ue>£É¶µ=f[IÙ=>[ɾ>ìÈfEK[£ªaÏ 
f[]?ÍÃQÀºÆ*¹Ø¯Ji×>E 
>[[²º?Í[[ì]Hf[[u´¶d[[E>[[ɾ>ìÈfEK¢>ìJ[[i=Æ(Á>[[¾Çɶ=‘CÌf[[Èh‚= 
Ìf[ÈhQÐ>[ì¢C°[Èf{À[¢>[ÃJF£¶K[·»²?Æ(t®›>ÂaÇQÇEž>«JU×=Æ 
[¶=_ÈeÇ[ÈgL>[Ma>†f[M?Î[·¢ÍÈeÇÖ‘CK¶Ç€OÉU>دJi=t® 
Í[É®>«I=¤É®ÇJEKQ ÇI¼ M(-515ʾ>N¶=ÀÈfnI$--)1%E>ºLf»Ji= 
À[ºðØ[²X¿[“Æ(ðÌa>[º.3À[ºÍ[¾Ç³ºÊ[ÂÆ$_ ÈeÇ[ÈgÍÉ®>«I=%¹Ø¯Ji×= 
°[·£JIÍ[»Ãº¸Ñ>[jº›$Ç [JÉ«¶=%x¯¿[¶=°[Ut[®›É¾>¾Çɶ=Ƶ=fIÙ= 
*ÌfÈh‚=r’ 
K[·£Rª>ÃIfìÉ[iÀ[º>[ɾ>ìÈfELa=g-52,ʾ>MÁǾ>².,›Æ 
*O¶Ç¾ÇºÇ³¶=›ð=Çv¢t® 
Ìa>[º¹Ø§J[i>EÌfÈh‚=›¼³ƒ=Í·R¢Í·®f¢K¶Æ>U>³Èfº?Á?×C 
*Ìf[Èh‚=[r’°[·£JÈ>[»Éª¥=h[[¿¶=›f[ì¶x¯¿[¶=°[UX¿“¶=eÇJib¶= 
*t 
[®¼[ubÈfIÁ>¾Çɶ=Á?¼Ã¿ÉEðÌfm>¾(µ=fIÙ=´Èf€›>ÂbÃQK¶dFª 
‘C¬[¯ÈÇ[ê>[ɲfI›½>[£¶=Ë?f[¶=6¹ ÆÙ=Á=f[º?´¶c›>³Èfº?b¢>iÆ 
f[ºÙ=Æ*t 
®η¢Á>¾Çɶ=ÌfìÉiÌbnEze>£ÈÆÍqe>F¯¶=µ=fIÙ=G¾>Q 
­Ç[®Ç¶=Î[·¢-52,Hد¾=›=ÆÐ>QËd¶=>ɲfI½>³UÌ?fQ½b¢ʾ>N¶= 
¸[v«EHØ[¯¾×=› 
¤[®ÇºÄ[¶e>[qb [®¼ Ã[v£EÁÙ>[³Èfº?ÄQÆ›½h} 
h[É·ˆÝ=Ð>®bq?ÀºHد¾×=kÉÑeǿɾCK»r¢Á?Àº¼¦f¶=η¢>³Èfº? 
Ê [³¶Ê[²¶=¥e>[n¶=´[Èf€›>[³Èfº?=b¢>[iÁغ>£¶=Á=dÂ*¯Èf£¶=
5/  

›lÇÈe>[³º­f[rIÎ[·¢z=¢×>[EÍÈeÇJ[ib¶=Ìa>[™=µ=f[IÙ=¸»£JjÈ 
>[ɾ>ìÈfELaeÆ(>[ɾ>ìÈfE=d[ÂS¢g@[ª*µ =fIÙ=Íqe>F¯¶=>ufE×CÌfÈh‚= 
¥Ç[Qf¶=ÆeÇJ[ib¶=Ð>[§¶DEÍ[ÈeÇû‚=kÉ[ÑelÇÈe>³º>÷ɻ¢‘Cg>£ÈÝ>E 
K·§J[i>ª(lÇÈe>[³ºbuµ=fIÙ=µf€Á?ÍRÉJ¿¶=K¾>²Æ(ÍÈfN²Ù=¼³ƒ 
b[¢=ǯ¶=Í[¶=gC>êbÂÁ>²Æ(¼ºÙ=ÍÒÉÍÉv¯¶=¸¯¿EKº>®ÆÎuÇ«¶=>²º? 
Í[ÒÉ=›Ð>[v¢Ù=¹Æb¶=η¢Kì§u>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ³¶Æ(ÌfÈh‚=ÀºÍɾ>ìȶ= 
‘Cœ¯ª>ɾ>ìȶͯÈbqL=ǯEÌfÈh‚=‘CÍ·if™=ÍɚÙ=L=ǯ¶=LfrUÆ 
Í[ɲºÙ=Í[ì„=´¶d[EK[ìFU?Æ(>[Í[ɶ=ǺÍÈb¿²L=Ç®Æ>ÃI=Ç®G¾>Q 
À[ºÍ[ɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈf³[j£¶=b[¢=ǯ¶=Í[¶=gÝÌb[VJ™=¼[ºÙ=½=b^Ji>EÌbÈb‚= 
*Ìf™=ÅdÂÀºÙ=k·…¼i>Eð>É·£ª>ɾ>ìÈfEbÉEÌfÈh‚=KɯEÆ(ÌfÈh‚= 
af{¹Æ>€‘ÆÙ=(>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>²º?EÌfÈh‚=η¢¥=fr 
¶=f»Ji=Æ 
ž>[«ƒ=¹Æ>[€Í[ɾ>N¶=Æ(Í[ɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈf³j£¶=b¢=ǯ¶=Ͷ=gCÆʾ>ìȶ=cÇ«¿¶= 
*>Âb¢=Ç®Æ>ÂcÇ«¾η¢ 
›f[m>F™=>[ÂcÇ«¾½=b^J[i>EK[º>¯ªf[]Að>EÇ·i?>²º?KEfQ¼M 
À[º>[ÿ³º?>ºK·»£Ji=Æfm>Fº¸³nEJ¶Æb¶>EK·rI>ª(Á>¾Çɶ=Æ>ɲfI 
aÇ[[QǶ=af[[{›G[[rI>Ã[[·²ÆÌf[[ÈhR·¶¹Ç[[·UÍ[[MØMK[[uf¢ÆÇ§[[u 
6ʹǷƒ=ÅdÂÆÌfÈh‚=Àºʾ>ìȶ=Ëf³j£¶= 
(Í[ÈfN²Ù=¼[ɾ>[¾Çɶ=Á?Í[R}Á>[¾ÇÉ·¶Ìf[Èh‚=¼[v[¿IÁ?)- 
×ð b[Eœ[iÇJ™=f[VF¶=›Íɾ>¾ÇÈÌfÈhQ>ÃÑ>[ì[¢ DE>[ɲfIÁ>¾Çɶ=zÇ£IÁ?Æ 
*t®Àº 
*Á>¾Çɶ=Æ>ɲfIEð>É·£ªÌfÈh‚=¼j¯IÆt®ͶÆaΧ·IÁ?). 
*ÍÈa>€=ͶÆa>»Ã£»ÌfÈh‚=›Á>J¶Æa½Ç¯IÁ?)/
50  

Í[ɾ>ìȶ=b[¢=ǯ¶=Í[¶=gCÀ[»[v 
IÍMØN¶=¹Ç[·[ƒ 
=Åd[Â Á? [Uؙ=Æ 
*ÌfÈh‚=Àº 
ʾ>[ìȶ=cÇ«¿¶=ÌÇ®GFjEð>£É–¹Ç·ƒ=ÅdÂK·nª?>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ³¶Æ 
>[²º?Á ?×C(Á>[¾Çɶ=Æ>ɲfIÀº¸²›ʲºÙ=cÇ«¿·¶Ëg=Ǚ=µ=d¾A 
>[²º?Æ>ÉiÆeϳ¶=¹Æb¶=À»vIÁ@EÊv¯Èð=bÈbQðØUKuf¢Æ?bÃI 
×L=d[¶>E>É[iÆeÁ?Å>[¿£º¸[ƒ==d[ÂÆ(t[®¹Ø¯Ji=>j¾fªÆ>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ 
=d[ÂÆÌf[Èh‚=›Í[ɾ>ìÈfEb[¢=Ç®aÇ[QÇEÌf[Èh‚=¹Ø¯Ji=À»vIÁ?¸F¯I 
*b¢=ǯ¶=Ͷ=gCÊvJ¯È 
[¶=Ìb¢>[rJ™=ÍÉi>Éj¶=>ɾ>ìÈfEaÇÃQGFjEð>vÈ?¸ƒ==d¸nªÆ 
*ϳ¶=¹Æb¶=Á>»uÌf³ª>»Ãvªe‘CÏa?>º(Á>¾Çɶ=Æ>ɲfI¤º>ÃJ¶dE 
É¾>[¾Çɶ=Ƶ=f[IÙ=Íqe>F¯¶=EL=fIÇJ¶=ÆL>²>³JU×=Lf»Ji=Æ 
h[[Èh£J¶L=fIÇ[J¶=Åd[ÂÀ[[º>[ɾ>ìÈfELa>«J[i=Æ(lÇÈe>[[³º¼[³U¸[ž› 
(¹Ç[·ƒ=›>[ɾ>ìÈfEͯÈf{η¢Æe=f¯Ji×=½b¢¸ž›Ëf³j£¶=>ÂaÇQÆ 
Ð=Ç[ið=f“Ö[ºb[¯£IÆ?ðÍ[¿‚ÁÇë [³IK[¾>²>[þDª(ÌÇ®ÆcÇ«¾>Á>²>ºb¿¢ 
>[ɾ>ìÈfE>Âd[^JIL>uÆ>«ºÆP>}@EÌfÈh‚=¸§nÈÄ¿³¶ÆXR¿È¼í¶½?Xˆ? 
Áb[¿¶f“Ö[™K[¢a>ºb[¿¢Ä[J·£ª>[º=d[Â*>[Ãɪ>ÃI>E>[jUbÉ£IÐÆbÂ̪ 
_Èe>[[JEÁb[[¿¶›Ä[[ɶCK[[¢aËd[[¶=f“Ö[[™=‘C´¶d[[²Æ(-511›°E>[[j¶= 
L=fIÇJ¶=Lf»Ji=Æ(įE>j²ÍRÉJ¾‘CaÖÈ¼í¶´¶d²ÇÂÆ(-520+-+-1 
*ÌfÈh‚=› 
t[®›P=b[UÙ=L>Èf…η¢LfM?eǺ?KMbUÐ>¿MÙ=ÅdÂ›Æ 
[E­ØJ[Ñ=kië ?îƽ-53/½>¢›>ɲfI›ÍÉE>É¿¶=L 
>E>^J¾×=LfQb¯ª 
(h[É·ˆÞ¶s[·^™=¸[É»£¶=b[ÈÆ>Q?b[¿¶ÇEÍi>ÑfEË 
eÇû‚=G£n¶=HhU
51 

‫ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺰﺏ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﳒﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻜﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺻﺮﺡ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺑـﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺣﺰﺏ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺇﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺳﺲ ﲢﺖ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻔـﺬ ﺣﺮﻛـﺔ‬
‫‪١٩٧٤‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﲢﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻟﻘﱪﺻﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛـﺔ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﻛﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺮﺕ‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﰲ ‪١٩٧٣‬ﻡ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺭﺅﻭﻑ ﺩﻧﻜﺘﺎﺵ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺭﺋـﻴﺲ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺣﻀﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﺭﻳﻮﺱ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ ﻭﺍﺧـﺘﲑ‬
‫ﻛﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪١٩٧٤‬ﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﺭﲰﻴﹰﺎ ﺍﺋﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺣﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ‪ ١٩٧٤/٧/٥‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺑـﺎﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋـﺴﻜﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺟﺢ ﰲ ﻗﱪﺹ ﺃﻃﺎﺡ ﲟﻜﺎﺭﻳﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺗﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻓـﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻮﻃﺌـﺔ ﻹﺯﺍﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺭﺩ‪‬ﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻧﻘـﻼﺏ‬
‫ﺑﺈﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﻻﻧﺸﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﺬﺍﻙ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻭﺗﺮ ﻏﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻧﻴﻜﺴﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﻮ‪‬ﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺑﻴﲔ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺑﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﻘـﻼﺏ‬
‫‪٩٦‬‬ 

(\Ç[v«™=HØ[¯¾×==d[F[²ʙ>[¢e>³¿J[i=b[QàǪ(>²º?Àº½Ç¢b™= 
½Ç[R=K[¾=a?Æ>[»²(>[ÿºÙð=bÈbÃIÄIJ¢=ÆHد¾×=bu>ÉiÆeKFÂÆ 
À [¢ 
É[Eد¾×=Ð>[»¢h¶=h[R¢›¼Â>[iÅeÆbE=dÂÆ(ÌfÈh‚=η¢ʲ¶= 
*ÌfÈh‚=¸²À¢ðØvªÍ»q>£¶=η¢¼ÃIfìÉizfª 
›Í[[ɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈf³[[j£¶=b[[¢=ǯ¶=¸[[Èǀ›¤[[»ìI>[[²º?K[[¾>²Æ 
>ÃIfìÉ[i¹Ø[]À[º>[ÃÉ·¢ÊÂfìÉjJ¶ÇI>¿¶=¬·U¤FJIb¢=Ç®‘CÌfÈh‚= 
Î[·¢>[Âaf«’ž>[«ƒ=›Ìe>[FQð=aÇ[ÃQ>[ɾ>ìÈfEK¶d[E>»¿ÉE(¬·ƒ=η¢ 
*t®›>ÃɶCÍFj¿¶>Eð=bQÍÈÇɃ=>Âb¢=Ç® 
[E¬[É¿¢Ê[¶Æa¥=f[qÍ[¯ì¿º‘Ct[®Ìf[ÈhQK[¶Ç€=d³ÂÆ 
t[®›Í [ɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈf³j£¶=b¢=ǯ¶=K¾>²Æ(Í·ÈÇ{Ìb™>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>²º? 
ÍÈf³[j¢b[¢=Ç®ÍÉ[v®KVF[q?t[®ÍÉv¯ªʶ>J¶>EÆ(¥=fr¶=Ìa>ºÊ 
*Íɾ>¾Çɶ=ÆÍɲ¶=J«Ñ>ì¶=ÍÉv®Æ?(e>»£Ji=ÍÉ«rIÍÉv®>ÿºfN²? 
Ìf[Èh‚=¼É[j¯Ið>[É·£ªlçf³IÌfÈhR·¶ʲ¶=Ëf³j£¶=¹=h¾Ý=b£EÆ 
ʶ>»[n¶=Ðh[‚=Î [·¢µ=f[IÙ=fìÉiOÉU(µ=fIÙ=Ɛɾ>¾Çɶ=Íqe>F¯¶=E 
Í[¾g=Ǚµ=f[IÙ=ab[¢a=ahɶÌfÈhR·¶>ɲfI{=Ǻ¹Ç]a=Ç¿³ºÆ(ÌfÈhR·¶ 
=d[ÂÆ(J«Ñ>ì¶=EbEÙ=‘C¼Éj¯J¶=lf³JɶÆÌfÈh‚=›Íɾ>¾Çɶ=ÍÈfN²Ù= 
K[ÉFNI›¼Â>[jÈÆ(Ìf[Èh‚=›¤[uǶ=e=f¯J[i=½b[¢›b¢>[jÈ´m×Æ 
*ÍÈ>þ×>º‘CÌfÈh‚=›Íɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈf³j£¶=b¢=ǯ¶= 
ÁØ[¢CÁÆaÊ[²¶=¹=h[¾Ý=b[£EĶ>[[UÎ[·¢¤[u 
Ƕ==dÂf[»J[i=Æ 
‘CÌaÇ[[[QǺ>[[[þ?Ê[[[·£«¶=¤[[[®=Ƕ=Á>[[[²ÁCÆ(ð>[[Ée¹>»[[[n¶=›Í[[[¶Æa 
Ê[²¶=f[[ì[n 
¶=¼²>[Up>[ì[³ ¾a­ÆÕeÀ[·[¢?O[ÉU-54/+--+-1 
¹Ø[]À[ºX[u=ÆËh[É·ˆC¼¢b[Et[®¹>[Í[¶ÆaÐ>[n¾CÌf[[Èh[‚ 
=˼
53 

:   
    

$% &$' () *!"#!   
  
6+$7 *!"#5 $+,  -., /0 12 .  3. 4  
82 *79 

4 ; < =' >?@A *B /C >D 
/$H >4 8% C.?7  =' "?F G" 4 ?9  
F 1 
)I JK  L M N% O 2P 1Q MP &7
R2 >, C . O 2P 1% ST 0  % 9 
$ L 3\ ST [ &U >VC WS -., 6+ X  YZ
b
Mc *!"#5 
a !`  -. (^ 17) . V 6+
*  &7 8% C.?7 X'4
4 
, 6+ /c (FP 7
j$2< *!"#i ^h Xc !g  dc   6+ .ef
3$\ 
L4 ^h Xc !#  .6+  0 V k  S <l 
S$0 $4 $p q rC4 JK W4 
n'o S0 O 2P 1Q X%
>$, uC *!"#t .4 !i  ggs . X% 3\ . C4 
n'o
d?7 (A >4 Oav baw >M dc   6+ .ef
n'l
.- L 
9 .O c O   & n7 j x)4 eB X
!"#i *' |.y -}. 4 &' dy 4 r?C4 z RSB { ;
.  dy 4 e' 4  S !"#" *' .ev -}. [
dy 4 $e' O, d~  c 6+ .ef *  
$D?P $'B€ 4 $ (!""i  !"#i) 
% &'
&$? >$' j ' u)4 &c X   B X 6+ d    

If³[j¶=¸[F®À[ºh[Ãë Qà Ëd[¶=t[®ÍÉ®>«I=œì‡f«[j 
ÈÆ*½-54, 
-542le>[º.5›ÆµeÇ[ÈÇÉ¿E-541fÈ>[¿È-3›Ìb[VJ™=¼ºÚ¶½>£¶= 
*SÑ>J¾ÍÈ?À¢ 
Ç[‰>[ÂfŸ¿E>[ÃÂ>=Æ(>[³Èfº?\>[ÉIe=ÆɪÇj¶=a>€×=´³«Ib£E 
>[³Èfº?Íi>ÉiÀ³¶(bÈbQÀºÍÉq¯¶=Ͷ@j™=KÉÉU?(ÍɺØiÝ=Êu=eÙ= 
À[ºÄ[É·¢K[¾>²>[»¢ðØÉ·®L§Ib®K¾>²Ìae>F¶=Hfƒ=b£Et®lj 
>[³Èfº?Í[i>ÉiÁÙ(>ÃJ[i>ÉikÉ[¶Æ>ÃEÇ·[i?ǧIËd¶=ÐÊn¶=Æ(¸F® 
*t®Àº>ÉÑ>þhÉ·ˆÝ=af{η¢ð>»Ñ=ab»J£È>Ãi>i?Á>² 
(205e=f[®À[ºÙ=k[·…d[=ƵeÇ[ÈÇɾÍ[»®KÈfQ?½-55,› 
(t[®›ªf[ì¶=‘CÐ=b[¿Ee=f[¯¶==d[¹Ø]ÀºÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=KÃQÇI 
$ 
£»J[…%½Ç[뺸[»ŒÁ?G‹¸ƒ==dÂÁ?>»²(ĶÇF®À³š¸Ua>‹Ý 
Í[쯿¶=>[º?(Ä[QǶ>[ÃQÆÌf[m>Fºªf[ì¶=>[jÉÑe¸E>¯JÈÁ?Æ($»[j®%Æ 
kÉ[¶ÆL>¿ÉJ[j¶=›Á>[²>[º¸[²Î[·¢Åa>»J¢=Êêe=f¯¶==d›Í[»[Ù= 
*½-530η¢ 
Í[»¯¶=f“Ö[ºÌf[³«E¼ J[Â=Æ¥Ç[uǙ>E½>[»JÂ×=¹=gÆ?K[¦eÇIef® 
ÁÇ[³IÁ?G[‹t[®Ͷ@[jºÁ ?Î[·¢s¿I¶=(½-55-½>¢›ÍÉ¢>Ef¶= 
.4›Æ*½ Æf[¶=Í[qe>F¯¶=ÆÍ[ɲ¶=t[®Í[ÈeÇÖÆÁ>[¾Çɶ=Æ>ɲfIE 
›¶Ç[[²Ëah[ÈEÌb[[VJ™=¼[ºÚ¶½>[[£¶=If³[j¶=¨[[·E?½-55-Á=f[ÈhU 
b[r¯™=Á>[²b [¯¶*Í [É¢>Ef¶=Í[»¯¶=f“ÖºÌf³«E¸F®ľ?ÀºÙ=k·ÅfÈf¯I 
$¸ Jî®Æ?%› 
ÇIľÙ´¶c› 
° ªÇȹ=gÆ?À³¶(=·ˆCa>£ECÇÂÊ¢>Ef¶=Àº 
*Ìr®Ìªb£E 
e=f[®ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=›ÀºÙ=k·… ¸F®½-55-fEÇJ²?--_Èe>I›
55  

¶Ç[²Ëah[ÈE½>[£¶=If³[j¶=½>[®Ëd[¶=fÈf¯J¶=b¾>jÈËd¶=3-2¼®e 
k[·½b[®Ëd[¶=f[Èf¯J¶==d[ÂÁ>²Æ(t®Ͷ@j’°·£JÈËd¶=ÆÅvVJE 
>[º?(¹=gÆ?>úb®¶=ÍÉ¢>Ef¶=Í»¯¶=Ìf³ªð>vÈ?ËnjÁ=fÈhU.4›ÀºÙ= 
e>[³ª?Í·[j·i%­=f[{Ú¶À[ºÙ=k[·…¸[F®À[º½b®b¯ª½-55.½>¢› 
À[ºÍ[«·J‡¹Ç[·UÎ[·¢ËÇJ€Ìa>º-,,η¢ËÇJ€¶=Æ$ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ= 
(Í ·[j·j¶=À[ºa=Ç[™=¸[²ʲ¶=­fì¶=¸F¯È*­ 
=f{Ú¶L>Â=¤É– 
À[³¶(ðغ>[²Ä[·F®b[¯ªÊ[²ºÙ=¸É»£¶=ÇÉ·Éi>ªʺÆf¶=­fì¶=kÉÑe>º? 
x[ªeO 
[ÉUk[Èa·²h[É·ˆÝ=¸[É»¢Ä·†¸UÆÇÉ·Éi>ª¹h¢´¶cÐ>[¿[M? 
*a=Ǚ=¸² 
¤[[ É[®Ç[JEÓ[[ n¾?b[[ ®Á>[[ ²Ëd[[ ¶=Ê[[EÆeÆÙ=a>[[ €×=¸[[ ]a¼[[ M 
[U¥=f[r¶=Í[F·U›¸]a(=b¿¶Ç›-55.+.+3›ÍÉi>Éj¶=ÄIbÂ>£º 
*t 
[¯¶ðÍ[·Nša>[€Ø¶½>»[v¾×=Í[ɾ>¾Çɶ=t[®G[·{›fŸ¿¶=η¢°ª=Æ 
b[£EÆ(>Ã[j«¾Í ¿[j¶=›*Í [ºgض=Æf[n¶=¸[²¸[»€>þ?a>€×=\fqÆ 
ͯE>[[ib[[QÇIÁ@[[E>[[ɾ>ìÈfELf[[³õ ª(Í[[ÈeÇûR·¶>[[jÉÑelb[[È·²e>[[ÉJ]= 
¸[ÈhJª[[¾>ɲ>[[»[Âe>[FJ¢=Î[·¢t[®ÆÁ>[[¾Çɶ=[EÍÉÑ>¿[[N¶=L>®>«I×= 
Ìf[³ªLef[¯I´ 
¶d[¶(Á>¾ÇÉ·¶t®¼uË?Á>ɲ>»Ã¾@EÍɳÈfºÙ=Ìf³«¶= 
xªf[IÁ? 
f[nE(Ê[ºÆf¶=Ê[q¯¶=¼[j¯¶=ÆÁ>[¾Çɶ=[Eµ[n™=¥>ªb¶= 
a =h[IÆ(Ê[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=ÍÈÇ[v¢›¥fä [jÈÆÌb[VJ™=¼[ºÙ=e>³ª?Í·j·i 
a>[jªCÆt®›aÇQǙ=¤uǶ=η¢͟ª>V»·¶´¶c¸²(X·jJ¶=L>ɶ>£ª 
K 
[¾>²=·ˆ=Æ*>³Èfº?ÄJºb®\=®=ÊÂe>³ªÙ=Í·j·iÁÙ>³Èfº?œì] 
›=Ç[v¢t[®KVF[q?=cCÄ[¾ÙÊ[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=ÍÈÇ[v¢Î[·¢O[[€ 
s[Ͷ@[jº>”CÆÍɶÆaͶ@jºÁdzIÀ¶t®Ͷ@jºÁ>ªÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×=
-,,  

*¸]bJ¶=>³Èfº?¤ÉìJjIÀ¶>ÿÉU(ÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×= 
>MbU/,, ) l 
C_Èe=Çqͺg?K¾>²b¯ªX·jJ¶=À¢>º? 
/,, ) l 
C_Èe=Ç[[q¤uÇE=·ˆCKº>®b¯ª(½-553›>»Ãº 
Íì[i=ÇEt[®À[ºÍ[FÈf¯¶=Í[ɾ>¾Çɶ=K 
Èf²ÌfÈhQ›ÊiÆf¶=¤¿r¶=L=c 
¼[[j¯¶=ÆÁ>[¾Çɶ=[[Eµ[n™=¥>ªb[[¶=Í[i>ÉiÀ[[ºÐh[R²Ê ¾>[[¾Çɶ=oÉ[‚= 
^[jI´[¶cÀ[ºb[r¯¶=Á>²Æ($Ê j²cÇMeÙ=ʺÆf¶=%ʾ>¾Çɶ=Êq¯¶= 
Á?e>[[FJ¢=Î[[·¢(µ=f[[IÙ=Ɛɾ>[[¾Çɶ=Í[[qe>F¯¶=[[EÌf[[Èh‚=›Ð=Ç[[QÙ= 
t[®›Í·[q>«¶=ͯ쿙=b¿£ª´¶d¶Æ( 
ɾ>¾Çɶ=Íqe>F¯·¶ÄÈǯI_Èe=Çr¶= 
G[·QÁ D[ª´¶d[¶Æ*¤ [uǶ=Î[·¢ÌfìÉ[jºL>¢=fr¶=ÆL=fÂ>Ÿ™=K¾>² 
>ÃJºb[[®[[¶=½Ø[[j¶=¹Ç[[·U¹>[[nªÝÁ>[[²/,, ) lC_Èe=Ç[[q 
>ð[£ºÁ>[j·‹Ø[ª 
¯Èf«¶=E¬®Ç™=b É£rJEÌb VJ™=¼ºÙ=Í{>iÇE>³Èfº? 
K[º>¯ªð=[ì]Ä[IJ¢=Æ¥Ç[uǙ>E>[³Èfº?K[»JÂ=´¶d[¶*L 
>Ma>†ÍÈÙ 
Á>[¾Çɶ=Î[·¢Í[ÈÇ®Ç§[vEÆ(_ Èe=Çr¶=ebrº>ÉiÆe¤ºÌa>QL×Æ>V’ 
*_Èe=Çr¶=ͺg?KÃJ¾>ª´¶c›KVˆÆ(_Èe=Çr¶=GVjE 
Ê[«ª(Ê[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=Íi>Éi› 
j¾ ɧIP 
bUÄj«¾K®Ç¶=› 
Í[·º>³¶=t[®ÍÈÇ[v¢Á?Ê[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=\f[q½-553Ê ¾>[MÁǾ>² 
›µ[[nÈÁ?G[[‹>[[vÈ?Ê[[²¶=­f[[ì¶=Á?ÆÊ[[i>Éj¶=¸[[ƒ>EÍ[[ìFIfº 
Ê[[q¯¶=­f[[ì¶=G[[·{›f[[Ÿ¿¶=kÉ[[¶Ë?Ê[[EÆeÆÙ=a>[[€×=L>[[U¯º 
¸[£ªÌaeÁ>[¾Çɶ=Lb[E@ª7>ð¯E>[iÁ>²>»²ÌfÈhR·¶¸N»»²ÅbUÆʾ>¾Çɶ= 
›Ç[v¢>[þÙÇ[JÉ«¶=°U½=b^Ji>E½Ç¯Ji>þ?K§·E?ÆXÈfrJ¶==dÂη¢ 
G 
F[jEÇ [ÂÊ[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=Íi>Éi›ɧJ¶=Á>²b¯¶*Ê EÆeÆÙ=a>€×= 
›Í [ɾ>¾Çɶ=t 
[®ÍÈÇ[v¢Á?Ïf[IK[¾>²>³Èfº?ÁÙ(ÄÉ·¢>³Èfº?œ§u
-,- 

‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﻬﺘﻤ ﹰﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﺩ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﱪﺹ ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻳـﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﲔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻛـﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ‪١٩٩٩‬ﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ ﻟﻌـﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﲢـﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﰲ ﻗﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻴﻠﺴﻨﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﺘﺎﻩ ﻭﺃﻳﺪﺗﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺒﻌﺪ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﻛﻠﻴﻨﺘﻮﻥ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪‬ﻨﺌﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ..." :‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺗﻜﻢ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺎﻥ ﻗﱪﺹ"‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺣﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻗﱪﺹ‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺮ ﱂ ﻳﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺿﻢ ﻗﱪﺹ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﺘﺎﻋﺐ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨـﺰﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜـﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻗﱪﺹ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺘﺎﻋﺐ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻟﻼﲢـﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﻤﺔ ﻫﻴﻠﺴﻨﻜﻲ ﻫﻲ ﲦﺮﺓ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬـﺔ ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴـﺎ‬
‫)ﺣﻠﻲ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻗﱪﺹ ﻭﺍﺩﺧﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ( ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺰﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻗﱪﺹ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﳍﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﻗﱪﺹ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎﺀﻩ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻗﱪﺹ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺛﺎﱐ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻـﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻗﱪﺹ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ )ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ( ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﱪﺹ‪ .‬ﺇﺛـﺮ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺍﻧـﺴﺤﺐ‬
‫‪١٠٢‬‬ 

¼ºÚ¶½>£¶=If³j¶=°Èf{À¢eÆbI¶=Ìfm>F™=¦L>Ma>=Àºp>J³¾a 
›ËaÆf[Eʾ>ºÆeÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×=›k·=kÉÑeÀ·¢?>Âb£EÆ*ÌbVJ™= 
>[>Uη¢ÊÂÆÊEÆe ÆÙ=a>€×=›¹Ç]b¶=t®Á>³ºDEľ?.,,-½>¢ 
¸Èb[EÆ?À[Ë?¤ªb¶ÌhÂ>Q>þ@E>ɲfILae´¶cfMC*Í ¶@j™=¸UÁÆa 
À[ºL>[NU>F™=.,,-¹ Æ?ÁǾ>[²›L?b[Eb[£E>[»Éª*t 
[®¸[Q?Àº 
½>[£¶=If³[j¶=L>[Ma>=Åd›¼Ã¯ª=eÆ*l 
bÈ·²Æp>J³¾aEbÈbQ 
½>[¢›Æ*Ç IÇ[iËaÆe>[«¶?t>„=t®¸NšÆÁ>¿¢›Ç²ÌbVJ™=¼ºÚ¶ 
µe>[[mÆt[[®‘CÄ[[j«¿EÌb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÚ¶½>[[£¶=If³[[j¶=G[[Âc.,,Ä[Ñ=eAd[]Ùp>J³¾aÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€Ý=>¢a.,,.¬Èf]›Æ*L>NU>F™>E 
p>[[J³¾a(Ìb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÚ¶½>[[£¶=If³[[j¶=>[[¢a´[[¶cÐ>[[¿M?Æ(Í[[Éf¶=[[¦ 
›p>[[J³¾ae=f»J[[i=Á?¼[[·£I>[[³Èfº?K[[¾>²Æ*µeÇ[[ÈÇɾ‘Clb[[È·²Æ 
›Ä[J¯E?ÆÄ[uf’K¢ed[I´¶d[¶(¼Ã¯Èf[{›Ä[F¯¢Ä·£‹¸²>n™=±ØJ]= 
½>[£¶=If³[j¶=Á>[¿¢›Ç²hÃQ´¶cÐ>¿M?Æ*>ÃɶCÄÒɅb£E̪µeÇÈÇɾ 
*Á>¿¢Íì]ÌbVJ™=¼ºÚ¶ 
cÇ[«¿¶=(>[ɲfI¼[³ŒÊ[MØM­ØJ[Ñ=µ>[¿ÂÁ>[²b[¯ª>[ɲfI›>º? 
Ì[ª›´ 
[¶cÆ(Ìð[r®K¾>²ÁCÆÄɪð=bÈ>³ÈfºÙçÀ³¶hÉ·ˆÞ¶ÄɪG¶>§¶= 
Ä£[vI¸[UË?a>[£Eݸ ²>n»·¶p>J³¾a±ØJ]=ÆÅdÂÍÉq¯¶=L>NU>F™= 
¸ [É»¢6¼ ­ØJÑ×==dÂÐ>v¢?Á>²b¯¶*ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=°Èf{À¢>³Èfº? 
Á>[³ÈfºÙ=¸ [É»¢(Ê {=f¯•b[¶=G£[n¶=Hh[UkÉÑebÈÆ>Q?b¿¶ÇEhÉ·ˆÝ= 
g>[»·ÈaÇ£[jºh[É·ˆÝ=¸ [É»¢Æ(Í ɺǯ¶=Ͳfƒ=HhUkÉÑeÊ·nà EK¶Æa 
ÁD[ªÍ[ɲ¶=Í [ºÇ³ƒ=›ËhÉ·ˆÝ=aÇQǶ=¸¯N¶Æ(½ Ù=À{Ƕ=HhUkÉÑe 
>[³Èfº?K[º>®´¶d¶(t 
¯¶¸U¼Èb¯I›ÍEÇ£qÀºʾ>£IK¾>²>³Èfº?
-,/  

ÉºØ[iÝ=%Í[¢>–¸ É[qÇIƼ²>[ƒ=­ØJ[Ñ×=>¯[iÝÍ ÉueÙ=vVJE 
G[É{G[QeƹÇ[¦=b [F¢Ìa>[ɯE>[ãº=Æe>[ib®=Ǿ>²ÀÈd¶=$Ð>ºb¯¶= 
(>[ɲfI›¼[³ƒ=‘C>[ʶ=Ǚ=ÍÉ»¿J¶=ÆͶ=b£¶=HhU¸ÉqÇIË?Á>¦Æae? 
>[ÃEK[º>®½>[»JÂضÌN[ºÌÇì]fN²?À³¶ÆL=Çì„=ÀºbÈb£¶>EKº>¯ª 
‘CÏa ?Ëd[[¶=ÆËh[[²f™=´[[¿F¶=À[[ºe×Æae>[[É·º1>ÃFV[[iÊ[[Â>[[³Èfº? 
ÍÉF£[[m¹=h[[¾C›KFF[jIÍÈa>[[rJ®×=Í[[ºgÙ=Åd[Â(ÍÈa>[[rJ®=Í[[ºg?P 
=b[UC 
>[³ÈfºÙʶ=Ç[™=Ê·[nà EK¶ÆaXÈfrIÁ>³ª(f «r¶=‘CÌaÇQǙ=ͺdzƒ= 
À[[ºGV[[j¿¿iÆ?ʾ>[[MÀÈf[[nI»ªÇ[[¾/›L>[[E>^J¾×=Ïf[[Á?>[[ºC 
›Æ(Ìf[³F™=L>E>^J¾×=e=f®c>=‘Cͺdzƒ=Lfìu==d³ÂÆ­ØJÑ×= 
Í [¶=b£¶=Hh[U¸[rUÆL>[E>^J¾×=KÈfQ?½.,,.Ê ¾>MÀÈfnI»ªÇ¾/ 
*L>E>^J¾×=›°U>igǪη¢Á>¦Æae?GÉ{GQeÌa>ɯEÍÉ»¿J¶=Æ 
*>[³ÈfºÙ>ð[º>“Í[ɶ=Ǻ>[ɲfI›Í[ºÇ³UK¾Ç³I͟V·¶=´·Id¿ºÆ 
Á>[[¿¢Í[[ì]Ä[[Jì]¼Èb[[¯JEÌb[[VJ™=¼[[ºÚ¶½>[[£¶=If³[[j¶=½>[[®>Âb[[¿¢Æ 
*>[[ɲfI›¼ [ ³V·¶>[[³Èfº?Ëb[[ÈÖº¹Ç[[qÆðاJ[[jºt[[®›­=f[[{Ú¶ 
b[£EË?(½.,,.Ê ¾>[MÀÈfnI--›kÈbÈ·²Æp>J³¾b¶Kºb®Íì„>ª 
*¥ÇFi@EÁ>¦Æae?gǪ 
>[³Èfº?Hf[UÆÊ[EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=›ÍÈÇv£¶=Æ t 
®Ͷ@jº¸ž› 
>[[ÃI=e>Èg›Ê[[i>É®¼[[®eHf[[vEÁ>[[¦Æae?Í[[ºÇ³UK[[º>®(±=f[[£¶=Î[[·¢ 
ÍÈÇ[v¢Æ (t 
®Í·³nº¸VJi>þ?K¿·¢?Æ(G 
¾>QÙ=¶ÇÒj™=>>F¯Ji=Æ 
Î[·¢>Ã{ǧ[uÀºLa=gÆ*Äj«¾K 
®Ç¶=› Æ ÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×= 
›Í[¯É»¢eÆd[QĶp>J³¾aÁÙ(ÅgÆ>>ÂeÆb¯’À³ÈÀ³¶Æ(p>J³¾a 
É[§J¶=µ eb[Èp>J³¾aÁ>²b¯¶*Ê ²¶=oɂ=› 
b ÉÈ@IĶÆ(t 
®Ͷ@jº
-,0  

¸[U›>ÃÉ¢>[jº­=b[Â?µeb[ÈÆ(Í[ɲ¶=Í [ÉQe>„=Í[i>Éj¶=›Ëed‚= 
›ÍÉ[i>®Í[R÷Ep 
>[J³¾aP 
b[€´¶d[¶$Á >[¿¢Íì]%>þ@Et®Í·³nº 
>[ÃÑa>FºÀ[¢η^JJ[i>[ɲfIK[¾>²=cC6Ø
ð Ñ>[®½.,,/Ê ¾>MÁǾ>²fÈ>¿È 
>Âb[¿¢(Í U=f[rE´[¶cÀ·£J[·ªÊÂ>»²Á>¿¢Íì]¹ÇF¯¶ÌhÂ>QÆ(Íɺǯ¶= 
¤É®ÇJ¶>[E½Ç[¯ÈÆ(Ê [Â>»²Íì„=ÅdÃE¸F¯È˦s 
^mη¢ eÇN£¶=¼JÉi 
*Í·³n™=ÅdÂÊÃJ¿IÆ 
°Ñ>[MÆÍ[j»~° [V·IÍÉ[i>i?Í[¯ÉMÆÎ[·¢ËÇ[J€Á>¿¢Íì]K¾>² 
°Ñ>[MǶ=Åd›*>ÃEÍìFIfºÌbÈb¢Ïf]?°Ñ>MÆ°Ñ>MǶ=ÅdÁ>²Æ(Ïf]? 
(t 
[®Í·³[nºÐ>[þCÍ[·Ufº°ª=fIL>»ÉŸ¿I(k 
Éi@IÌbÂ>£º6µ >¿ÂÁ>² 
Á>[[¾Çɶ=Æ>[ ɲfIÆt[[®%Á @[[n¶=L=c¹Æb[[¶=[[E¼JJ[[i[[¶=L=b[[Â>£™= 
eÇ[ºÙ=(ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ =ÆÀºÙ=k·>Ãɪe=f¯¶=µÉi¶=eǺÙ=($=·ˆ=Æ 
-52,½>¢eÇJia(Ä ɪt®ÍÈÇv£¶ÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×=ÆfnEͯ·£J™= 
(Ê·]=b[[¶=À[[ºÙ=L>ºb[[](Í[[ɳ·™=(ÍÉ[[j¿‚=(z 
eÙ>[[EÍ[[¯·£J™=eÇ[[ºÙ=Æ 
Í[ÉQe>„=L>[®Ø£¶=¼É[Ÿ¿JE°[·£JÈf[º?¸[²° Ñ>[MǶ=Åd[›Á>²e>rJ]>E 
›JÈh[É·ˆÝ=JÈf³[j£¶= 
Ib[¢>¯¶=f[²c=ðbE?¼JÈÆ (t 
¯¶ÍÉ·]=b¶=Æ 
b[®Ä[¾?Î[·¢¹b[È=d[ÂÆ(b[É£EÀº×ÆGÈf®Àº×Ë 
IÆf²?Æ>ɷɳÈa 
ÁC¹Ç[¯¶=À[³•´¶d[EÆ(>»ÃEl>j™=½b¢η¢>³Èfº?Æ=·ˆCE¼Â>«J¶= 
Í[É®>«I=›Ð>[Q>[»²Ä[JÉFNIÆÄ[jÈf³Ib[®b[¢=ǯ¶=´·J¶ʾǾ>¯¶=¤uǶ= 
Ìf[[Èh‚=›ð>[N¶>Mð>[¾>ɲÍ[[ɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈf³[j£¶=b[[¢=ǯ¶=ÁÇ[[²À[[º¹Ø¯J[i×= 
>÷ɻ¢Í {>iÇE=·ˆ=K¾>²´¶cG¾>Q‘CÆ* 
ɾ>¾Çɶ=Ƶ=fIÙ=ʾ>ɳ² 
L=É[§IP=b[UC›´[¶cGFjIb®Æ (L 
>F¯£¶=±ØJ] =›f»JjIp>J³¾a 
G[‹Á>[²b[¯ª>Âd[É«¿Ib[É¢=Ǻʶ>J¶>EK·Q@IÆ(ÌbÈb¢L=f™Á>¿¢Íì~
-,1 

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﻟﻘﺎﺀﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﱴ ‪ ٢٨‬ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ ﺷﺒﺎﻁ ‪٢٠٠٣‬ﻡ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﺍﳋﻄـﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺟﻠﺖ ﺣﱴ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻘـﱪﺹ ﰲ ‪ ١٤‬ﺩﻳـﺴﻤﱪ ﻛـﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫‪٢٠٠٣‬ﻡ ﻧﺎﻝ ﺩﻧﻜﺘﺎﺵ ﻫـﺰﳝـﺔ ﻧﻜـﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﳔﻔﻀﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺻـﻮﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻧﻜﺘﺎﺵ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺋﺰﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺘﻪ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﺿﻄﺮ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻨﺢ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ ﻟﺮﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﺺ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻃﻠﻌﺖ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻗـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﺑﺘﻜـﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﺋـﺘـﻼﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺩﻧﻜـﺘـﺎﺵ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻴـﺮﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﻧﻜﺘﺎﺵ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻐﻮﻁ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﺭﺩﻭﻏﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﺭﺿـﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗـﱪﺹ ﻟـﺼﺎﱀ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻨـﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘـﺪ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﻫـﺪﻑ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻄـﺔ ﻋـﻨـﺎﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻳـﻦ ﻗـﱪﺹ ﻣﺘـﺤــﺪﺓ ﳉﻌﻠـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ ‪ EU‬ﻛﺎﲢﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻗـﱪﺹ ﻣـﻦ ﺣـﻮﺯﺓ‬
‫ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ ﻓﻜـﺎﻥ ﺗﻔﻜﲑﻫـﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﲔ ﻣﻨﻔـﺼﻠﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺗـﺴﻌﻰ‬
‫ﻹﻓﺸﺎﻝ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺩﻋﺎﻳـﺎﺕ ﺿـﺪﻫﺎ ﺳـﺮﹰﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ ﰎ ﺗﻨﻔﻴـﺬ ﺧﻄـﺔ ﻋﻨـﺎﻥ ﻓـﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﱪﺻﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺧﻄـﺔ ﻋﻨـﺎﻥ ﻟﺘـﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺷـﻌﺐ ﻗـﱪﺹ ﰲ ‪٢٤‬‬
‫ﻧﻴﺴﺎﻥ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺮﻏﻢ ﻗﺒـﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﻄـﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺭﻓﻀﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﻫـﻮ ﺍﻧﺘـﻬﺎﺀ ﺧﻄـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻘـﺪ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ ﻣﺮﺿـﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧـﺔ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٠٦‬‬ 

\ 
>[[[ˆC¤ìJ[[[jI>[[[³Èfº?Á?¼¦f[[[ª*Ê [[[EÆeÆÙ=a>[[[€Ø¶Æ=[[[·ˆ×Æ 
(¹ >»[[n¶=›Í[[»ÃºÍÉ·[[vª?Î[[·¢K·[[rU>[[þ?×CF¾>[[‚=›Í[[ì„= 
Ø
ð F¯J[[jº>[[³Èfº?eÆb[[¯º›ÁdzÉ[[iÆ(¸V»[[u=Ƹ [ ®b[[®=[[·ˆ=cÇ[[«¿ª 
e>[[rƒ=¤[[ªfIÊ[[ÂÆ(f[[ºÙ=½h[[¶=cCÏ 
f[[]?Ìf[[ºt[[®Ͷ@[[jºµf[[€Á? 
($´¶d[[[EG[[[[¶>ìIL=Ç[[[[q?ÁÛ=µ>[[[[¿ÂÆ%¹>»[[[n¶=À[[[[¢H 
Æf[[[v™= 
(>ð[ »Ãº>ðÉU>É[[iÆ>ð[ Èe>=ðh[[²fºÄ·£RJ[[iÆ(>ðÈa>[[rJ®=>ðº b[[¯IÄ[[¶ÀºÖJ[[iÆ 
›>ðÈf³[[j¢=ðh[[²fºÓ[[n¿IÁ@[[E¹>[[»JU=µ>[[¿ÂÆ(ÌfÃ[[n¶=Ä [[¶ÀºÖJ[[iÆ 
Å>[[=›\Ø[[iÍ[[ÂǪÁÇ[[³É¶$Ìf[[Èh‚=¸[[Èc%g>[[Ef²GÈb[[¶=Í[[¯ì¿º 
­f[[n™=ÊRÉI=[[i×=$G¾d[[¶=%Î[[·¢LfìÉ[[ib[[®ÁÇ[[³I´¶d[[EÆ(>É[[iA 
ÁCÆð>[U>ˆK[[¯¯U>[[³Èfº?ÁÇ[[³IÄ[[É·¢Æ*œ[[iÆÙ=±f[[n¶=Æ>É[[iAÎ[[·¢ 
*\>R¿¶=¸²À³È 
X»[jI>[þÙ>ðvÈ?\>R¿¶=ÀºGÉr¾η¢K·rUb¯ª=·ˆ=>º? 
(µ >[¿ÂÍÈf³[j£¶=>[Âh²=f’l>[j™=Æ?t[®›>ÂcÇ«¿¶efuË?PÆb} 
­b[ÂÁ?¼[·£I>[þÙÍ[U>Ifº >[þ?¹Ç[¯¶=À[³•×´[¶cG[¾>Q‘CÀ³¶ 
=d[µ[IÀ[¶>[³Èfº?Á?Æ(t 
[®À[º>[[Âaf[{ Ç[[ÂÊ[i>[i Ù=>[³[Èfº? 
*ͶÇÃjE­b= 
Ä[ɶC¼[v¿IÆt[® b [VJIÁ?aÇ[ÈÁ>[²b[¯ªÊ [EÆeÆÙ=a>[€×=>[º? 
Åd[[ÂÀ[[º>[ EÆeÆÙÌe>[[j]Ê[[ê´¶d[[¶(Pb[[Œ´[[¶cÀ[[³¶Æ(a>[[€>² 
½b[[®Ó{Ç[[ºÎ[[·¢¸ [ rUb[[®Ïf[[]?Í[[ÉU>¾À[[ºa>[[€×=À[[³¶(Í[[ÉU>¿¶= 
À[[»ªt[[®>[[º?*>Âb[[UÆÍ[[ÉEÇ¿‚=t[[®¹Ç[[]a›f[[Ÿ¿¶=¹Ç[[F¯E¼[[ú 
>[[³Èfº?Æ=[[·ˆ=¸[[NºÌF[[²×ð ÆaÁ?>[[™>{Ìb[[Ñ>ªÎ[[·¢¸[[r€Á?G£[[r¶= 
>[[[þ?¹Ç[[¯¶=À[[³•À[[³¶(Í[[[ɶÆb¶=ÍU>[[j¶=›Æ>ð[[É·†>[[ÃÉ·¢¥e>[[rJI
-,3  

>[[[ã®ÇºÀ[[[º>ÃIa>«J[[[i>EÍ[[[ÉÑhQÌb[[[Ñ>ªÎ[[[·¢¹Ç[[[rƒ=K¢>ìJ[[[i= 
*Êi>Éj¶=ÆÊRÉI=i×= 
¹Æb[[[¶=Åd[[[Â>÷»£J[[[jJiL 
>[[[E>^J¾×=Í[[[RÉJ¾ÁD[[[ª´¶d[[[¶Æ 
>[[ÃU>ˆÍ[[É»¿J¶ð>[ ¯·ì¿º$Ê [ EÆeÆÙ=a>[[€×=Æ>[[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[[³Èfº?%Í¢e>[[rJ™= 
*>ê=bÂ?°¯Œðغ>²ð>U>ˆXFrɶj¿¶= 
>[[£I>[[ºðͳÑ>[[mÆðÍ[[¯¶>¢ðÍÉ[[v®ίFJ[[it[[®ÁD[[ª=d[[³ÂÆ 
>û[[jQ‘CÍ[[·º>²>[[ÃIa>¢C×CkÉ[[¶T 
Ø[[£¶==d[[ÂÆ*X ÉV[[r¶=TØ[[£¶= 
Í[[É«Ñ>ì¶=L>[[‚>£™=>[[º?Æ(>[[ɲfIð>[ ɶ>UÆ?Í[[ɾ>»N£¶=Í[[¶Æb¶=Ç[[ÂÆÊ·[[qÙ= 
TØ£¶>[[ª(ÍÈe>»£J[[i=L>[[‚>£º´[[m×ÆÊ[[êÏ[[³¶=¹Æb[[¶=½b[[[[¶= 
×ÆʺØ[[[iÝ=>÷[[[q?‘CÌf[[[Èh‚=¥>[[[QeDE×CÁÇ[[[³È×>[[[Ê[[[¯É¯ƒ= 
*ŦTآ 
›¼Ã¾=Ç[[]C¤[[º=Æb[[u>£JÈÁ?»·[[j™=À[ ºG[[·ìJÈTØ[[£¶==d[[ÂÆ 
G[Èf§¶>ª(>[Ãɪ»·[j™=¼Ã¾=Ç[]ݼÂfÞ=ÆfÈbÈÁ?×>ɲfI›ÆÌfÈh‚= 
G[¾>‚=‘Cð>[ºÆaÍ[¶>ɺK[¾>²ʺØiÝ=>£¶=›Í»Ñ>¯¶=Í·É»£¶=¹Æb¶=Á? 
Í[ÈeÇÖÐ>[n¾DEµ=f[IÙ=½>É®b£EÆľ?Ƽ·j™=ʲ¶=G¾>‚=buʾ>¾Çɶ= 
K[«®Æ»·[j™=aØ[E›Í[»Ñ>¯¶=¹Æb¶=ÀºͶÆaµ>¿ÂKjÉ·ªt ®¹> 
Í[ɾ>¾Çɶ=Ìa>É[j¶>E¹Æb[¶=Åd[ÂKª¢=>»¿ÉE(ÌfÈh‚=›»·j™=Ìa>Éi¤º 
*ÌfÈh‚=¸º>²η¢ 
Í [»Ã™=»·[j™=>È>[v®Å>»·j™=½>³ƒ¹c>^J™=¬®Ç™==dÂÁC 
½>[º?ľǷR[jÈËd[¶=½Ø[iÞ 
¶ð>[¯ªÆÁÇ[·»£È×½>³ƒ=Ð×ÖÂÁ?η¢¹bÈ 
>ð[¯ªÆÁÇ[·»£È>[”CÆ(¼ ÃEÇ£[m>[r™ðÌ>¢=fºÎJU×Æ(¼Ã¯Ñ>MÆ›¼ÃÑ>? 
*Ìf»£Jj™=Ìfª>³¶=¹Æb¶=Àº¼Âa>Éi?>r™
-,4  

F[IÎ[·¢=ÆÕf[‹À[¶»·[j™=aØE›ÐØ»£¶=½>³ƒ=Á?µeb¾>¿¾C 
›kÉ[¶ÆÍ [ºÙ=>È>[v®¸[²›­Æf[£º¼>[Vª(»·j™=>È>v®ÀºÍÉv® 
aØ[[EK[[ɯE(G[[jVª¼Âa>É[[i?Ð>[[ueCÇ[[¼[[ûÂÁC*>Âb[[UÆt[[® 
*ÐÊm>Âfº?Àº¼Ã»ÃÈ×(K¢>u½?»·j™= 
Á?Æ=ÁcD[[E[[]Î[[·¢Í[[·F¯ºÍ[[ºÙ=Á?µeb[[¾´¶d[[²>[[¿¿³¶Æ 
Ê[[ÂÆ(=ÁcD[[EÍ[[ºa>®Ìb[[m=f¶=ϬÚ^^^†@Á?Æ(¹=Æg‘C½>[[³ƒ=Ð×Ö[[ 
±f[[[m›¤[[[nIðÌe>[[[¿º>Âb[[[É£IÆ(½Ø[[[iÝ=e=a‘CÌf[[[Èh‚=¼[[[vI[[[¶= 
* 
€>[[[«¶=±Ø[[[ì¾×ð=h[[[²fº‘ÆÙ=>ÃI[[[iaÇ[[[£J¶(œ[[[iÇJ™=f[[[[VF¶= 
*>hÈh£E=η¢´¶c>ºÆ@

-,5  

$2% 
Á=aÇ[j¶= 
$HÇ¿‚=% 
‘Cͪ>[uÝ>EÇ[ê(>[ɯÈfª?›ð>[»Ãºð>ÉRÉI=[i=ð>£®ÇºÁ=aÇj¶=¸JŒ 
›¸§·§JÈð>vÈ?Çê( ±fn™=›ͶÆa¼Â?(f r™Ê£ÉFì¶=°»£¶=¸³nÈľDz 
¸[ìÈÆ(Îì[iǶ=>[ɯÈfª?Æ>[ɿɲÆ=b[¿¦Æ?Æǧ¾Ç³¶>[EðØrJº>ɯÈfª?±>»¢? 
(Hf[£¶=ÌfÈhQÀºg>Rƒ=Æͺ>ÃI¸E>¯É¶f—Ù=fVF¶=η¢´¶d²Á=aÇj¶= 
=d[ÂÆ*>[ÉFɶÆa>[nJE¸rJɪHf§¶=Àº>º?Æ(ð>®fm>ÈJÈe?ÆÍnFƒ=eÆ>‹Æ 
L>[ɾ>³ºÝ=Æ`>[¿™=Æae=Ç[™=›¥>[jI=Ä[·E>¯ÈÁ=aÇ[j·¶›=f[§‚=¥>jI×= 
(Í[É¢=eh¶=¸Éq>=¬·J^™SJ¿ºb·E²?ÁdzÈÁÙðØÂֺķ£Q>º(Í·Ñ>= 
ÄJEfI¸£QÌN³¶=Åbª=ÆfE¸É¿¶=Á?ÆÍq>](Íɾ=ÇɃ=ÌÆfN·¶SJ¿ºb·E²?Æ 
Á=b[·E¤[É»‚Ê[jÉÑf¶=Ð=d[§¶=Í·iªÇI¤ÉìJjIOÉ}(Á >³’ÍEÇr„=Àº 
×Ëd[¶=(Ê Ñ=d[¦Àº?ÀºÁÇ»·j™=ÄQ>JŒ>ºʶ>J¶>EfªÇJª(Ê ºØiÝ=>£¶= 
*Êi>Éj¶=ÀºÙ=Æ?Ëf³j£¶=ÀºÙ=À¢ÍÉ»Â?¸¯È 
Ä[[ªÇQÁC¸[[E(Ê[[¢=eh¶=¹>[[=Î[[·¢Á=aÇ[[j¶=L=Æf[[Mf[[rJ¯I×Æ 
GÂd[[¶>²Í¢>¿[[r¶=Í[[·R¢´[[ÈfVJ¶ÍÈeÆf[[v¶=ÆÍ[[•f³¶=Áa>[[£™>EÓ[[·J• 
(Ìe=h[[§EÄì[[iÆ›œ«¿[[¶=e>[[EAf[[R«I‘Cͪ>[[uÝ>E(>[[³È>™=ƽÆf[[³¶=Æ 
*Í [[»·³¶=Î[[¿£º¸[[³EÏ[[³¶=Í[[¶Æb¶=L>[[ºÇ¯º´[[·•¤[[®=Ƕ=›Ç[[ê 
Î[[·¢ð>NÈb[[UÆð>•b[[®Ï[[³¶=¹Æb[[¶=¥e>[[rJIÁ?ð>[[FÈf¦À[[³È´¶d[[¶
--,  

*Gv¿I׶=Íɶ>Ʉ=ÄI=ÆfMη¢ÌfìÉj·¶Á=aÇj¶= 
Í¿[if[³FºK[®Æ›½Ø[iÝ=Ä·]acC(°Èf¢ʺØiCb·EÁ=aÇj¶=Æ 
*frº›WÁ>»N¢¸º>¢\fj¶=ÊE?ÀE=bF¢bÈη¢ÌfR÷¶/›ð>[¾Ç¾>®Í[[ɾ>ìȶ=Ìe=aÝ=Leb[[q?ʾ>[[ìȶ=e>»£J[[i×=¸[[ž›Æ 
¤[¿º­b[ÃEÍ·[r«¿ºÆÍ[·«¯ºÍ[¯ì¿ºÁ=aÇ[j¶=HÇ[¿Q¸£‹½-5..½>£¶= 
L@[n¾?Æ(HÇ¿‚>E¹>»n¶=¸Â?ØJ]=¤¿ºÆ¹>»n·¶HÇ¿‚=¸Â?HfjI 
[E¹>[r«¾×=¤[®=Æ°[·„h[É·ˆC>FuÌa>ɯEHÇ¿‚=Ð>¿E?Àºð>É·†ð>nÉQ 
*f³FºK®Æ›HÇ¿‚=ƹ>»n¶= 
¸[³E½>[ɯ¶=Î [·¢ÍÈ[nFJ¶=LØ[»ƒ=HÇ[¿R·¶¹>«®Ý==dÂb¢>iÆ 
»·[j™=ʾ>ìȶ=e>»£Ji×=½fU>»¿ÉE(Ä·ÂÙÍ£i=Ær¿IL>É·»£EÍÈfU 
f“Ö[ºÍN£E¤º¸rU>»²´¶cÆ(Ä ɶCÍÉºØ 
iCL>N£E¹>ieCÀº¹>»n¶=› 
‘C½Ç[{f„=À[ºÍɺØ[iCÍ[N£E¹>[ieCK[¶Æ>U¶=½-5/4½>¢‹f„= 
*½ØiÝ=fn¿¶HÇ¿‚= 
¸[Â?Àºð=ab¢>EÇQf“Ö™Íɾ>ìȶ=ͺdzƒ=K¢a½-503½>¢›Æ 
ÄJF[r¾Ê[e_[ª¹Æ?f“Ö[™==d[ÂÁ>[³ª(HÇ[¿‚=¸Â?Àºð=ab¢Æ¹>»n¶= 
*Á=aÇj¶=›¾>ɲaÇQÇEÉ¾=aÇj¶=­=¢×Á=aÇj·¶>ɾ>ìÈfE 
l>[i?Î[·¢½Ç[¯IÁ=aÇ[j·¶>[ɾ>ìÈfEÌf[Ÿ¾›l>[iÙ=Á>[²´¶d¶ 
Á>[ɲf[]Û=ƹ>»[n¶=›¼·[jºÊ[Ef¢Á>[ɲ>»Âb[U?Ä[ɪ¾>ɲaÇQÆ 
*b£E>»Éª>²º?ÄJ¿FIËd¶=Äj«¾l>iÙ=ÇÂÆ(HÇ¿‚=›MÆ) ʾ=fr¾ 
½>[[[£¶=›Á=aÇ[[[j¶=À[[[ºʾ>[[[ìȶ=e>»£ J[[[i×=¸[[[ÉUe¸[[[F®Æ 
½-511Í¿[[[iÁ=aÇ[[[j¶=HÇ[[[¿Q›ÌeÇ[[[M>[[[ɾ>ìÈfEK·£[[[m?½-512 
¼[[³UÎ [[·¢K[[F®>£I[[¶=Íɾ=aÇ[[j¶=L>[[ºÇ³ƒ=¸[[²>[[ÃɪK·§[[n¾=
---  

*ÅdÂ>¿º>È?ÎJUÆ_Èe>J¶=´¶cd¿ºÁ=aÇj¶= 
=Ç[·F®Á=aÇ[j¶=›ÐØ[»¢ð>[º>³U>[ɾ>ìÈfEKF[çr¾ß¹Ø¯J[i×=b£EÆ 
Ìb[Ñ>™=f“Ö[ºÊ[«ª(t>[]¸[U‘CT>[J€Í[MÆeǺÍ·³nºHÇ¿‚=e>FJ¢>E 
H=h[U?ƹ>»[n¶=H=h[U?K[£»JQ=½-521½>£¶=›b¯¢Ëd¶=ÌfÈbJj™= 
Æ>[ɾ>ìÈfEÄJ£[uÆËd[¶=Ä[j«¾l>[iÙ=Î[·¢¸[ƒ=›=ÇNU>FIÆHÇ¿‚= 
*fN²@ªfN²?Í·³n™=K»®>«IÆ(±>«I×=Ç·qÇJÈ 
d[¿º( 
ɾ=aÇ[j¶=É[i>Éj¶=gf[E?bU?(Ë 
bÙ=±a>r¶=­¢=b®Æ 
¸[ÈÇVJEG[¶>{Æ(Í ·³[n™=Åd[ÃEÍÉjÉi@J¶=ÍÉ£»‚=½>º?f³F™=K®Ç¶=´¶c 
HÇ[[¿‚=Ð>[[ì¢CÆ(Í [[Èa>€=Í[[ÈeÇÖ‘CÌb[[UǺÍ[[ÈeÇÖÀ[[ºÁ=aÇ[[j¶= 
¹ÆÙ=ÁǾ>[²fÃ[m›¹>[®Æ*>ð[q>]ð>£[uÆĶÁ?ÍR}ÊI=d¶=¹Ø¯Ji×= 
‘CÁÛ=K·[[qÇIb[[®Í[[ÉEÇ¿‚=ÆÍɶ>»[[n¶=H=h[[UÙ=ÁC6½-521Í¿[[i 
Ä£[uǶH>£ÉJ[i=Í[E>N’ÁÇ[³Èð>[ɻɷ®Cð>£[uÆHÇ¿‚=Êì£È±>«I=¥Æfnº 
*>ðÈh²fº×ð>»³Uð>vÈ?Îì£ÈÆt>„= 
Ê[«ª(Á Ç[³È¬[ɲÁ=aÇ[j·¶t>[„=¤uǶ=¹ÇUÍi>j¶=¬·J]=Æ 
Î[·¢ð>[«É¿¢ð>[ºÇRÂËf[ÂgÙ=¸[É¢>CÍ[ºÇ³ƒ=kÉ[ÑeÀm½-523½>£¶= 
HÇ[¿‚=Ð>[ì¢DEÐ>[«J²×=‘C>[¢aÆ(ËbÙ=ÄɶC>¢aËd¶=ʻɷ®Ý=¼³ƒ= 
Î[«¿ºÍ[ºÇ³UÁ>[vJU>E=b[¿¦Æ?K[«ù·²î K[®Ç¶=´[¶cd¿ºÆ*>ðÉI=cð>»³U 
*HÇ¿‚=Æh§¶g>³Ie=Í쯾XFrJ¶ 
Î[·¢Ä[EÁ=aÇj¶=K·§m?ð>¿É«iCHÇ¿‚=Í·³nº>ɾ>ìÈfEK²fIb¯¶ 
¹>»[n¶=À¢HÇ¿‚=¹>r 
«¾=ÌedEK£uÆb®Æ(¹Ø¯JiضÍɶ>J¶=aǯ£¶=fº 
>ÃJ¯[iÆÌed[F¶=Åd[ÂÍ[ÉEf§¶=¹Æb[¶=K[¢e¼[M(Á=aÇ[j¶=ÀºTfÁ?¸F® 
À[º>[³Èfº?ÐØ[»¢×ƽ>[³ƒ=À[º>[ɾ>ìÈfEÐØ[»¢f[Ÿ¾¬·JÍQeb¶
--.  

>ð£[uÆHÇ¿R·¶Á?‘C¼ÂfŸ¾¬·J(Á=aÇj¶=η¢=ÇF®>£IÀÈd¶=½>³ƒ= 
Í[«Ñ>ì¶>²>³Èfº?¤FJIK¾>² ?Ð=ÇiH=hUÙ=G¶>¦fŸ¾Á>²=d³ÂÆð>q>] 
¤[FJIK[¾>²½?([¦™=ͺ>¢hEÊ{=f¯•b¶=Ëa>€×=Hhƒ>EÍ·N»™=ÍÉ»J„= 
*Ë 
b[Ù=Í[º>¢hEÍ[ºÙ=Hh[}Í[·N»™=ÍÈe>[r¾Ù=Í[ÈbÙ=Í[«Ñ>ì¶>²>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Á>[²­ØJ]×=À³¶Æ¹>³mÙ=Àº¸³nE¹>r«¾×=ÌeÆfvE=Æf®?¤É»‚>ª 
*Gɶ>iÙ=› 
(ʻɷ®Ý=Æ?ÊI=d¶=¼³ƒ=l>i?η¢e=ǃ=LfQ?ËbÙ=ͺdzVª 
¼[³ƒ=Ìe=aÝÎ[·¢?ð>j·…K¿çÉ¢Æʻɷ®Ý=¼³ƒ=Ld«¾Ë»¿¶=ͺdzUÆ 
Ld[«¾[nF¶=b[—?À[jUf[»¢>[Âa>®[¶=c>[¯¾Ý=ͺdzUÆ(HÇ¿‚=› 
¬[·JÆ(HÇ¿‚=¸ÂÙr™=fÈf¯I°UÌf³ªKUf{Æʶ=eb«¶=¼³ƒ= 
¤»RJ¶>[Eλ[jÈ>[ºÁ?¸É¶b[EÌf[³«¶=ÅdÂη¢nF¶=¤ºÍue>£™=H=hU? 
[¶=c>[¯¾Ý=Í[ºÇ³ƒÍ[ue>£™=H=h[UÙ=Í[¢Ç»…ÇÂÆ(Ê {=f¯•b¶={Ƕ= 
›Í[EÇ¿¶=¹>[FQÆHÇ[¿‚=¸[ÂÙ[r™=f[Èf¯I°UKuf¢(nF¶=>Ãi?fÈ 
*½-551½>¢>ÈJÈe?Í»q>¢=f@Eb¯¢Ëd¶=ÍÈr™=>È>v¯¶=f“Öº 
¸[ÂÙ[r™=f[Èf¯I°[UÆ(Í[ɶ=eb«¶=¸[NºÍ [ɾ>Ʉ=e>³ªÙ=K¶ÇVJª 
Ð>[¿E?¹Ç[€=d[³ÂÆ*Í ¢Æf[nºÍÉi>Éi¤Ñ>®ÆÆÍÉi>ÉiG¶>캑CHÇ¿‚= 
¹ØJ[[U×=b[[u½-44-½>[[£¶=›K£¶b[[¾=[[¶=ÍɺØ[[iÝ=Í[[ÈbÙ=ÌeÇ[[N¶= 
Ð Ø[²Æ‘C=Ç[¶äǀ( Á=aÇj¶=›½ØiÝ=À¢Æ(Á=aÇj¶=À¢ð>¢>ªaËhÉ·ˆÝ= 
Ëh[É·ˆÝ=oɂ=Kºh¶=ͻɟ£¶=ÌeÇN¶=´·I(ËhÉ·ˆÝ=¥Æfn™=dÉ«¿J¶ 
½-441½>[¢›½Ç{f„=Í»q>£¶=K£Qi=ÆÌf³¿º¼Ñ=hÂK®Ç¶=´¶c› 
*>Ãɪ>ɾ>ìÈfEHÆb¿ºK·J®Æ(hÉ·ˆÝ=ËbÈ?Àº 
Ê[¶Æa¥=f[r¶(L=f»£J[j™=À[ºÅ[¦Á@[mľ@[m(Á=aÇj¶=zf£I
--/  

*>[²º?b[Èb‚=f»£Jj™=Æ>ɾ>ìÈfE¼Èb¯¶=f»£Jj™= 
EÄÉ·¢ÌfìÉj·¶¬É¿¢ 
Ìa>[ɯE´[¶cf»J[i=Æ>[ɾ>ìÈfEb[ÉE½-512½>[£¶=›¹Ø¯J[i×=½>È?Á>³ª 
b[m›´ 
[¶cf»J[i=Æ*À Èf[]Û=h[É·ˆÝ=¹>QeÆËbÙ=HhUÀºÌfMÖº 
Ë[”f[«£Qa>[®O[ÉU½-525½>[£¶=Î[JU=[·ˆCÆ>[³Èfº?EHdQÆ 
)K 
[®Ç¶=´¶c›ͯ쿙=› 
ÊjÉÑf¶=>²º?¸É»¢)fq>¿¶=bF¢Àºa>¿iDE 
Ë»¿[¶=‘Ç[IÆ(¼ÃE=h[U?Æh[É·ˆÝ=L×>[Qeb[uð>[VQ>¾ð>Èf³j¢>ðEد¾= 
Á?>[²º?K¢>ìJi=ð>ÉFj¾Í·ÈÇì¶=Ä»³UÌbº›Æ(f³j£¶=ÍvF¯EÍì·j¶= 
*bÉQ¸³nEoɂ=›>ÂcÇ«¾h²fI 
(ð=b[ɯ£ILa=ag=ÆHÇ[¿‚=Í·³[nºK[»®>«IË»¿[¶=¼³U¸ž›Æ 
½>[³ƒ=¤[ɖ¸ßF[[®åÀ[ºÄ[JÉ»¿I½b[¢ÆHÇ[¿‚=¹>[»ÂC>Âb[ɯ£I›¼Â>iÆ 
¸Â?Ð>ì¢CÌeÆfvE¼Âe=f®Cð>vÈ?>Âbɯ£I›¼Â>iÆ(Íì·j¶=η¢F®>£J™= 
›°[[¾f®ÁÇ[[Q¼[[ˆgf[[EÆ*¹ >[[r«¾×=‘CÊ[[v«Èð>[ q>]ð>£[[uÆHÇ[[¿‚= 
oÉ[‚=>F[uÀ[ºð>ìE>[uÁ>[²OÉUË”f«£Q¼³UÍÈ>þ›HÇ¿‚= 
À[[¢¸[[r«¾>ª(À [ ºÙ= [[«U›Ìb¢>[[j»·¶HÇ[[¿‚=‘C¸[[ie?ʾ=aÇ[[j¶= 
>[²º?¤[º°É[j¿J¶>EÆ=b[¿¦Æ?Ìb¢>[j’Ä[EÍ[q>]>É[nÉ·ºÁçDzÆͺdzƒ= 
´¶d²Æ*H 
Ç¿‚=›½ØiÝ=e>nJ¾=ÄQÆ›¬¯IÍÉ¿MÆÍɾ=fr¾ÌÇ®a>‹Ý 
½h[¶>[»·²Á=aÇ[j¶=Í ºÇ³Uη¢>³Èfº?bÉEœ 
§uÌ=a?°¾f®ͲfUÁdzJ¶ 
Á=aÇ[j¶=›¸²>n™=K»²=fI>™Æ*b ÈfI¶=Íɫɳ¶>E¼³ƒ=xÈƶfºÙ= 
>[²º?L?e(ÍÉ¢>»JQ×=ÆÍÈa>rJ®×=ÆÍÉi>Éj¶=ÆÍÉ¿ºÙ=6Ê U=Ç¿¶=¤É–Àº 
L×=f[¿Qb[U?(G 
Âd[¶=e=Ç[i½>[¯ª(Ë[”f[«£QÀ[ºs·^J[¶=ÌeÆfu 
¹Æ>[U>ºb[¿¢Æ(Á=aÇ[j¶=Te >]ÇÂÆË»¿¶=f«£Qη¢Hد¾>E(oɂ= 
µe>[Fº[jUÄ£¿º(\>R¿¶=ÀºHد¾×=¤¿ºÆÁ=aÇj¶=‘CÌaÇ£¶=Ë»¿¶=
--0 

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﺑﺄﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻭﺃﺟﱪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﲔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﻮﻻﺋﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﱐ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻـﺒﺤﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﻫﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻠﺒﺚ ﺳﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ ﻷﻣﲑﻛﺎ ‪ -‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳـﻠﱠﻢ ﺑﻌـﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﳊﻜـﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻭﲰﺢ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٨٥‬ﻡ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﳌـﺪﺓ ﺛـﻼﺙ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻇﻞ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲞﻄﻂ ﻓـﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﻧﺪﻭﺓ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ ﰲ ﺷﺒﺎﻁ ‪١٩٨٧‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﺤـﺚ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿـﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺗـﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ‪١٩٨٧‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻼ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻭﺃﳘﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﱐ ﺷﻜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻳﺮﺍﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻛﺜﺐ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻳـﺘﻤﲎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪١٩٨٩‬ﻡ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻤـﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﲑ ﺑﺎﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻧﺎﺟﺢ ﺃﻃﺎﺡ ﲝﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻤﲑﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﻌ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺑـﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﰊ‪ ،‬ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺆﲤﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﺯﻋـﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻛـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻌـﺴﻜﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺻﺒﻐﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺒﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺷﻌﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﲑﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻮﻥ ﻷﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻗﺒﻀﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪،‬‬
‫‪١١٥‬‬ 

À[³“Æ(Á=aÇ[j¶=Î[·¢>ÃJ[vF®oÉ[‚=°Èf{À¢>²º?K»³U?ʶ>J¶>EÆ 
É[i>Éj¶=Àº>ɾ>ìÈfEÐØ»¢Ä¿¢hR¢>’½>ɯ¶>Ef³j£¶=Àº>²º?ÐØ»¢ 
À[¢HÇ[¿‚=¸[rª‘CÊ[v«IÌa>[QÍÉi>Éi¹>»¢?Àº¸F®ÀºH=hUÙ=Æ 
*=ðb²ÖºðØrª¹>»n¶= 
L>[uÆ>«™=Ì[IÆK¢e>[jIÁ=aÇ[j¶=›¼[³ƒ=nF¶=½ØJi=d¿ºÆ 
L>[[ÃQ=Ǚ=Ìb[[U›b¢>[[rI>[[ÃÈg=ÇÈÁ>[[²[[¶=L=ea>[[F™=ÆL>[[¢>»JQ×=Æ 
Åd[›Ërº½b¯Ig=fUÝð=eºÆÍÉ®=brº>ÃÑ>ì¢ÝHÇ¿‚=›µe>£™=Æ 
*Ìì„=ÆÍi>jƒ=ÍÉv¯¶= 
Ê[³ÈfºÙ=kÉÑf[¶=Í[È>¢fE½-545½>[¢Ê[EƾL>[¢>»JQ=K¾>³ª 
(L=ea>[FºÆL>uÆ>«ºÆL>¢>»JQ=Àº>Âb£E>™̀>ªfIe>²Ê»ÉQ°FiÙ= 
Í[i>ÑfEÍɾ=aÇ[j¶=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=bªÆEfIe>²ÍÈ>¢fEL>¢>»JQ=Lb¯¢OÉU 
½>[£¶=›Æ*¹ Ç[²?½×Íi>ÑfEaf»J¶=ͲfUbªÆÆÍ«É·]ºÙ=b»†bɯ£¶= 
¼ÉÂ=f[EC°F[iÙ=ËRÉ[¿¶=kÉÑf[¶=À[ºÌea>[F’L>uÆ>«ºLb¯¢½-55. 
Í[²fUbªÆÆÍ«É·]ºÙ=b»†Íi>ÑfEʺdzUbªÆE>QÇE?›=bÉR¿E>E 
(f[q>¿¶=͢ǻ…À¢¹Ç²½× ÆS¾e>Q͢ǻ…À¢ÁǾ¼É¶ÆÍi>ÑfEaf»J¶= 
Ð>[n¾CÆÌÆf[N¶=¼É[j¯JEÍ·³[n™=¸UÌeÆfu‘CL>uÆ>«™=ÅdÂK·qÇIÆ 
›Í[ɪ>¯N¶=ÆÍ[Èǧ·¶=ÆÍ[É®f£¶=ÍÈab£J¶=Àºl>i?η¢¸»£IÍÉi>ÉiÍjiÖº 
K[€Æ=b[¿¦Æ@E[[ÉJ¿¢›L>uÆ>«ºLb¯¢½-55/½>£¶=›Æ*Á=aÇj¶= 
Ê[·¢Í[i>ÑfEÍ[ºÇ³ƒ=b[ªÆEÉ«ÉiǺËeÇÈËb¿¦ÆÙ=kÉÑf¶=­=fmC 
½ >[£¶=›Æ*S ¾e>[QÍi>ÑfE$af»J¶=ͲfU% 
£n¶=oɂ=bªÆÆb»†T>ƒ= 
[E>[ɿɳEÊ[Eƾ›¥>[»JQ=b¯¢ͯE>j¶=L>NU>F™=ÀºfÃmb£EÆÄj«¾ 
Lf»J[i=Æ(af[»J¶=Í[²fUbªÆÆÄ{b»†Á>»N¢Ê·¢Íi>ÑfEͺdzƒ=bªÆ
--2  

½>[¢e=cA-3›ÊEƾ›¥>»JQ=b¯¢Á?‘ 
C>ÈRɾÆ>ɿɲ›L>uÆ>«™= 
H=e?¹>[ɾ=aÉ[³¶=kÉÑf[¶=Íi>ÑfEa>§ÈÝ=Ð>v¢?Í¿‚ÀºÌea>F’½-550 
À[jUf[»¢kÉÑf¶=eÇv}Æ>ÈJÈe?Æ>ÉEÇÉM?Æ=b¿¦Æ?Ð>iÕeÍÈÇv¢ÆËǺ 
Á?‘CL>[[uÆ>«™=Lf»J[[i=Æ(af[[»J¶=Í[[²fUÊ·É[[rªb[[Ñ>®Æ[[nF¶=b[[—? 
(½.,,/+3+.,›$l 
Dz>[nɺ¹Ç[²ÇIÆfE%Î[·¢¤[É®ÇJ¶=ÍMe>³EK··³I 
Í[EÆÕaaÇÃQÌfÇÂÆ(Á=aÇj¶=À¢HÇ¿‚=¸r«¶Åg>ˆC>ºfì]?ÇÂÆ 
b[®Æ(Í[ÉÑ>ÿ¶=$ ½ Ø[j¶=Í[É®>«I×%Í[ºb¯ºÇ[ÂƐ¿[j¶=L=fn¢K®f§Ji= 
(ÌeÇ[[ì„=›Í[[§¶>E(F[[£J¶=›Í[[¯É®atÇ[[r¾Î[[·¢¹Ç[[²ÇIƶ=ÏÇ[[J[U= 
Lf[QÆ([r™=f[Èf¯I°[U¸Nº¹>r«¾Ø¶vVJ¶=ÄF·ìJÈ>º¸³¶Í·º>mÆ 
›>[[ºf[[ì]?Æ*¬ 
ɶ>[[³J¶=¸[[®@E­b[[=°[[¯VJ¶Í[[¯Ñ>ªÍ[[È>¿£E>ÃJ¦>É[[q 
±>[«I×=aÇ¿EdÉ«¿IÁ>»v¶Ìab†ÍɶAÆʶÆaeÆaη¢s¿Èľ?¹Ç²ÇIƶ= 
¼[[M*Í [ ɶ>J¶=L>[[uÆ>«™=¸[[³¶l>[[iÙ=f[[RUÁ>[[³ª¹>[[r«¾×=°[[ɯVJ¶ 
(>[ɶ>ìÈCÆSÈÆf[¿¶=Æ>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[²º?À[ºÍɶÆ aÍÈ>¢fEL>NU>F™=K«¾ÖJi= 
´[¶c›Í[¯·£ºL[J¢=[¶=¸Ñ>[j™=LØÉ[r«IO[VF¶a>[§ÈÝ=¹ÆaÀºÆ 
Á?L>[¢>»JQ×=› UÇ[¶Æ*>[¦ÆÌÆf[N¶=ÆÍì·j¶=½>jJ®=¸Nº(K®Ç¶= 
[EÍ[q>~ÆL>[NU>F™=Î[·¢­Ø[]Ë?>[ÿÉEf[ßÈÍ[ɶÆb¶=­=f{Ù= 
*>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>²º? 
[EËf³[j£¶=[ºÙ=±>[«I×=¤[É®ÇI½.,,/¹ Ç·È?Àº.1›Æ 
oÉ[Q6p 
Ç[ÉQÍ[MØMaÇ[QÆÎ[·¢K[r¾[¶=Æ(af[»J¶=ͲfUÆͺdzƒ= 
´¶d[EÆ(ÀÈaf[»J™=Æͺdzƒ=ÀºµnºoÉQÆÀÈaf»J™=oÉQÆͺdzƒ= 
>ð[Èg=Ǻð>[nÉQ>ëqÇEͺf=É¶>r«¾×=ÀÈaf»J™=L>E>r¢η¢Ð>¯EÝ= 
HÇ[QÆÎ[·¢±>[«I×=çs[¾Æ>[»²*>ð[ɾǾ>®Ä[£ºÏÆ>jJIʺ>Ÿ¿¶=oÉR·¶
--3  

*¬r¾ÆÁ>J¿i>Â>r®?Ìbº¹Ø]HÇ¿‚=Àºͺdzƒ=oÉQH>Vj¾= 
aØF[¶=›pÇɂ=ab£IÀº±>«I×=ÄɶCʺfÈËd¶=zf§¶=Á?½Ç·£ºÆ 
aØF[¶=f[Q¸Ã[jɪe=f¯Ji×=ÆÀºÙ=abÃÈ>š´¶cÆÏǯ¶=h²=fºab£IÇ 
ÀÈaf[»J™=oÉ[QÀ¢PbVJ¾>¿²=cCÍq>](°Èh“ÆL>¢=fqÆHÆfU‘C 
Á=aÇ[j¶=¸[Â?Àº@ȬɲcC(ð>VÉ·jIÆð=a=b¢CÆð>ªbÂfª>³¶=Hf§¶>EœFIf™= 
±egÙ=¸[É¿¶=HÇ[¿QƽÇ[{f„=›f[n¿ÉiÀÈaf[»J™=oÉQƼÃj«¾?η¢ 
Ìf[³ªÁC; Ä [·»²@EÁ=aÇj¶=HÇ¿Qη¢Åaf«’fìÉjÈÇÂÆ(Í EÇ¿¶=¹>FQÆ 
Î[[·¢>[[²º?>ÃJ[[ufªÍ[[ɲº?Ìf[[³ªÊ[[ÂpÇ[[ÉQÍ[[MØMƐ[[nÉQaÇ[[QÆ 
Lf[[²cb[[¯ª(aÆb[[jº°[[Èf{‘CL>[[uÆ>«™=K·[[qÆÁ?b[[£Eͺdz[[ ƒ= 
>[²º@ª(ÍU=f[rE´[¶c½.,,/+5+.1›Íɾ=aÇ[j¶=½Çɶ=e>F]?Í«ÉVq 
Ê[ÂÁCL=b[ÈbÃJ¶=¥=Ç[¾?ÎJ[nE>ÃIab[ÂÆÍ[ºÇ³ƒ=Î[·¢±>«I×=Kufª 
*±>«I×=Kvªe 
Í[É®>«I=af[»J¶=Í[²fUÆÍɾ=aÇj¶=ͺdzƒ=K£®Æ½.,,0+-+3›Æ 
›Ïf[[]Ù=L=a=f[[ÈÝ=ƹÆF[[¶=L=b[[Ñ>¢¼É[[j¯I>[[ÃɪÆ(ÌÆf[[N¶=Í»[[j® 
Í[ºÇ³ƒ=[EÍ«[q>¿º>[ÃÉ·¢¥g>[¿J™=P 
ØN[¶=°{>[¿™=›ÆÁ=aÇj¶=HÇ¿Q 
ʾ>[N¶=ÆÍ[ºÇ³V·¶b[U=Æ6 
·[r«¿ºÉªf[rºº>[Ÿ¾Í[º>®CÆ (ÀÈaf»J™=Æ 
À[ºlf[²>[»²ÍÈa>[rJ®×=ÍÉU>¿¶=Àº¹>r«¾×=kÈf³J¶´¶cÆ(HÇ¿R·¶ 
*ÍÈf³j£¶=ÍÉU>¿¶= 
›O[VF¶=Î[·¢ÆÍì·[j¶=¼Éj¯Iη¢Ìf»JjºL>uÆ>«™=K¶=g>ºÆ 
(Í[EÇ¿¶=¹>[FQƱegÙ=¸[É¿¶=HÇ[¿QÆÊ[ÉE?Ê[ÂÆ(P 
ØN¶=°{>¿™=¸F¯Jjº 
Í[ɲº?Í[®eÆG[j}ÀÈaf[»J»·¶ÊÉE?À¢¹g>¿JIÁ?nF¶=ͺdzUa>³IÆ 
(Á =aÇ[j·¶pÇ[EkÉÑf[·¶Ê[²ºÙ=PÇ[£F™=PeÇ[«¾=aÁÇ[Qk[¯¶=>÷—
--4  

>[»²[r™=fÈf¯I°UÊÉE?¸Â?Ð>ì¢C>ÃɪÆ(>m>«É¾›uÆ>«J»·¶Kºëb®î 
*HÇ¿‚=¸Â?Êì¢? 
$T%Ìf[¯«¶=›K[r¾ 
¶=Í É¿ºÙ=L>FÉI¶=ÍÉ®>«I=K¿»vI>þC>»² 
$­×A$2%À[ºÍ[EÇ¿¶=¹>[FQ%›Ͳ[nºÌÇ[®¸É³nIÎ ·¢$0%b¿F¶=Àº 
t>[]¤[uÆa>[‹Ýð=b[ÉÓ[£È>º$­×A$2%±egÙ=¸É¿¶=HÇ¿Q%›Æ 
*HÇ¿‚=e=f¦η¢PØN¶=°{>¿»·¶ 
½.,,0+,/+.,_Èe>[[JEÌea>[[r¶=½Ç[[{f„=¬V[[qLaeÆ?b[[®Æ 
Í[ºÇ³ƒ=%>[m>«É¿EzÆ>[«J¶=›f[ì¶Kºb[î®[¶=Í[ɳÈfºÙ=Í[®eǶ=¸Éq>«I 
[¶=L>[U¯™=>Ã[j«¾ÁÇ[³Ia>[³IÊ ÂÆ(Ê ÉE?ÍÉv®¸ƒ$a f»J¶=ͲfUÆ 
Åd[›Ð>[Q>[ºf[ì]?ÀºÆ*Í ºÇ³ƒ=>ÃJvªeÆaf»J¶=ͲfU>ÃEKºb¯I 
Ð>J«J[[i=¤[[ºÀº=h[[Jº¸[[r«¿ºÐ>J«J[[i=›Ê[[ÉE?Ç[[¿{=ǺLÇ[[rÈÁ?%Í[®eǶ= 
›Ð>[¯F¶=[Ee>[ÉJ]ضÍ[ɶ>¯J¾×=Ì[«¶=Í[È>þ¸F®´¶cÆ(Á =aÇj¶=HÇ¿Q 
Ê«V[r¶=f“Ö™=›PÇ«¾=aÁÇQ¹>®Æ*$¹=h §¶=fVF¶½>»v¾×=Æ?¹>»n¶= 
¼[®e>Âab[¢›Í ɾ=aÇ[j¶=½ Ç[ɶ=e>F]?Í«ÉVqÄIaeÆ?Æ>m>«É¿EÅb¯¢Ëd¶= 
Ä[[¾CÆ***S¢h[[¿ºpÇ[[EkÉÑf[[¶=ÁC%6½.,,0+,/+.,_Èe>[[JE$//43% 
Ìe=aÝ=ÁCÆ(Ê ¶>[[ƒ=fÃ[[n¶=Í[[È>þ¸[[F®°[[¯VJÈÁ?À[[³•½Ø[[j¶=Á?b[[¯J£È 
Ì[jº±Ç[£È­f[{ËÙL>[uÆ>«™=e>[Éþ=›ÍɶÇÒ[j™=¸[뻀ÍɳÈfºÙ= 
‘CÍɳÈfºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=¸F®Àº½>J¶=Ƹº>³¶=g>ɉ×=b²@JÈ°Fi>š*$½Øj¶= 
°[ª=ÇIÁCÍ[ºÇ³V·¶XÈf[r¶=>ÂbÈbÃIXvJÈ>»²*a f»J¶=ͲfUG¾>Q 
kÉÑf[·¶t>[„=PÇ[£F»·¶Ê«V[r¶=f“Ö[™=›Ð>[Q>ºGjU%Í®eǶ=η¢ 
Í[[®eǶ=Á?b[[²?Ëd[[¶=Æ7$PeÇ[[«¾=aÁÇ[[QÁ=aÇ[[j¶=›½Ø[[j·¶Ê[[³ÈfºÙ= 
*ÊÉE?ÍÉv®¹ÇUÍɳÈfºÙ=ͺdzV·¶ð>ÉÑ>þð>«®ÇºJ£IÍɳÈfºÙ=
--5 

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻷ‪‬ـﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟــﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟــﺴﻮﺩﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋــﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺭﻗــﻢ )‪ (٢٨٨٢‬ﺑﺘــﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻷﺣــﺪ‬
‫‪٢٠٠٤/٠٣/٢١‬ﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻌﹰﺎ ﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟـﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒـﺸﲑ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺰﺏ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﻔﺎﺷﺎ ﻧﺎﻗﺸﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺘـﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﱪﻭﻩ ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ﻛﺄﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺿﻌﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﺰﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻـﻔـﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻘﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺧﻀﻮﻋﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﻬﻢ ﳌﺮﺿﺎ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳـﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺿﻮﻩ ‪....‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻠﻨـﺖ ﺍﻟـﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺮﻃـﻮﻡ ﻳـﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤـﻴﺲ‬
‫‪ ،٢٠٠٤/٠٥/١٣‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﻴﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ"ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ" ﺑﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﻧـﻖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻭﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻴﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﺘـﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻞ ﰲ ﻧﲑﻭﰊ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻛﺪ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻗﺮﻧﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺗﻔـﺎﻕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻫﺰ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺮﻃﻮﻡ ﺟﲑﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺎﻟﻮﺷﻲ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ )ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ( ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻞ ﺳﻴﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺳـﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺷـﺎﻣـﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻـﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﲑﻭﰊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ"ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ"‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﳏﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﻟﻴـﻞ‬
‫‪١٢٠‬‬ 

¤[ºÐ>[¿F¶=Ê{>[£J¶>EK[®Ç¶=x[£Ed[¿ºL?bEÅaØEÁ=(k 
É»„=)Ð>£EeÙ= 
¸[[º>²¤[[ÉFìI›f[[m>FJiÍ[[ɲº×=Ìe=a×=Á=¹>[[®Æ*Íɾ=aÇ[[j¶=Í[[ºÇ³ƒ= 
L>[FÉIfIÍ[·Ufº©Ç[·EƽØi±>«I=‘=¸qÇJ¶=Ïb¶½Ç{f„=¤º>ÃI>®Ø£¶ 
*¸º>mÆÊÑ>þe>¾±Ø{=¬®Æ 
Íɾ=aÇ[[j¶=Í[[ºÇ³ƒ=À[[¢Í[[ɲº×=L>[[Eǯ£¶=¤[[ªeÊ[[mǶ>²À[[ÂeÆ 
‘=¸[qÇJ¶=Æ(Ê ¶Æb[¶=H>[Âe×=ÍVª>³º¬·º›ÁÆ>£J¶=ÊÂ>È>v®PØNE 
°[ɯ€Æ(a >[§È=Í[É»¿J·¶Í[ɺdzƒ=Íì·[j¶=Í[»Ÿ¿ºaÇ[ÃQ¢½Øi±>«I= 
¹>[U¤[ªef[ŸJ¿IÀì¿[m=ÆÁ=¹>[®Æ*Á >j¾×=±Ç¯U¬·º›¸º>m½b¯I 
ÍÉF£[[n¶=Í[[²fƒ=Lb[[²?(´[[¶c‘=*½ Ø[j¶=±>[[«I=¤[[É®ÇIb[[£EÔe=Ç [ì¶= 
Å>È>[[v®›½Ø[[j¶=±>[[«I=Í[[ÈhÂ>Q°[[¾f®ÁÇ[[QÍ[[º>¢hEÁ =aÇ[[j¶=f[ÈfVJ¶ 
¸É[q>«IÀ[ºÎ[¯FI>º›¼³V²O¶>M­fìE;>£Ji×=ÍU¯º(ÍÉjÉÑf¶= 
Ä[{b[»†Á>[»N¢Ê[·¢ʾ=aÇ[j¶=kÉÑf[·¶¹ÆÙ=G[[Ñ>[¿¶=Î[·¢ed[£[I=cC 
*>÷U°¾f®Æ 
Ä[Q=ÇI¶=L>EÇ£r¶=x£E‘CÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=ea>rºLe>m?>»ÉªÆ 
f[i>ÈÍ ÉF£[n¶=Í[²fƒ=¼[i>EÊ[f¶=°{>[¿¶=¹>®( 
ɾ=aÇj¶=uÆ>«™= 
×?G[‹Á>[²¸É[q>«IÎ[¯FI>ºÆ(>÷UÏfQÍÉjÉÑf¶=>È>v¯¶=Á=Á>ºf¢ 
Ïf[IƐªf[ì¶=À[ºL=e=f[®‘CT>[J€Æ(Ä J®f§J[i=Ëd¶=K®Ç¶=¸²d]@I 
Î[·¢Æ(h Â>[QÍÉjÉÑf¶=Å>È>v®›±>«I×=Á?ð=b²Öº(>÷UÁ>³ºCͲfƒ= 
*ģɮÇIƱ>«I×=Ð>þ=lj>ºb¯JÈÁ?ªfì¶= 
½>[³U=Ìa>¢DE°·£JÈ>»ÂbU?¯mL=cÍɯFJ™=>È>v¯¶=Á?¬n²Æ 
±egÙ=¸[É¿¶=›Ê¢Ç[uǺf[]Û=Æ(± 
>[«I×=À[ºL=f¯ª›ͧ·¶=Æ©Çr¶= 
Ͳfƒ=η¢Kuf¢½Ç{f„=Á?>ðVuǺ(Í Èh²f™=Íì·j¶=ÆÍEÇ¿¶=¹>FQÆ
-.-  

Í[Ñ>™=›2,Æ Í[EÇ¿¶=¹>[FQƱegÙ=¸[É¿¶=›Íì·j¶=ÀºÍÑ>™=›0,ÍFj¾ 
(Í [²fV·¶Í[Èh²f™=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=À[ºÍÑ>™=›.4ÍFj¾Kuf¢>»Éª(ͺdzV·¶ 
ÍÉ[i>Éj¶=ÏÇ[¯¶=µ=f[m=À[¢Æ*Í [Ñ>™=›/4ÍFj¿EG¶>ìIͲfƒ=Á?×C 
[E¸[q=ÇJIÆLf[QÀÈf[]Û=¸[ÉN“Ín®>¿ºÁ?‘CÁ>ºf¢e>m?(Ïf]Ù= 
Í»[[q>£¶=ÍÉ[[v®Á?f[[²c(Í »[[q>£¶=¥Ç[[uǒ°[[·£JÈ>[[º›Æ*ªf[[ì¶= 
*ÍÉjÉÑf¶=fq>¿£¶=η¢±>«I=‘CØqÇIªfì¶=Á?Æ(ͺÇj† 
af[»J™=Ìa>[ɯEHÇ[¿‚=¸[rªL>[uÆ>«ºÐ>[þC¸[ÉF®Æ´¶cÐ>¿M?› 
K»Â>[ib®Æ*Á =aÇj¶=Hf¦$eǪe=a%ͯ쿺η¢hɲ¶=(°¾f®ÁÇQ 
6ÍMØM¸º=Ç¢>û®>«IÆÍ·³n™=ÅdÂÐÇn¾› 
ÊQe>[[]´[[Èf€Æ¸]b[[IÆ(Ê[[¢=f™=ÆzeÙ=Î[[·¢Ê[[·†kª>[[¿I 
>[ÃÉ¿{=ǺÁÆÖ[mÍÈ>¢eÁ=aÇj¶=ͺdzU¹>»ÂCÅb£EÆ=d¸F®Æ(Í·³n»·¶ 
*Á>jUÝ=ƹb£¶>E½ØiÝ=>ÃFQÇȶ=ÍÈ>¢f¶= 
Í [ɯÈfªÝ=$e Ç[ª%[[¶=¸[Ñ>F®>[Ãɪ¼ É[¯Ie Ç[ªe=aÁDªÊ·=kª>¿J¶=>º? 
ae=Ç[™=s®>[¿I¤ºeǪe=aΪ¥ 
=fr¶=?bEÆ(Í ÉEf¢¹Çq?ÀºÏf]?¸Ñ>F®Æ 
Í[F¦eÆ(Í[¢Æeh™=ÍU>[j™=ÆL>[¾=ÇɃ=Î[ªÌF[²Ìa>[Èg¸E>¯ºΪÍÉ£ÉFì¶= 
ΪÆ(Ê ¢f·¶¼ÃJQ>ƒze Ù=µØJº=Ϊ¸EÝ=Ì>¢eÀºÍÉEf£¶=¸Ñ>F¯¶=x£E 
Î[¢f™=ÆzeÙ=› 
Hf[£¶=Ͳe>[nºÍ[ɯÈfªÙ=$eÇ«¶=%¸Ñ>F®Kvªe¸E>¯™= 
*a=bQÚ¶P=»²>ͳ¶>™=>Âe>FJ¢>E 
¸[Ñ>F®¹>[]a==Æa=e?Æ(ÌÆ>[¦h¶=Í[·ÉF®Î[·¢ð=b[»J£ºa f[»J¶=?b[Eb®Æ 
>Ãj«¾¸Ñ>F¯¶=LbQǪ(L 
=Æ>IÙ=zfªÆÌe>¦×>E>ÃE>ÂeC›=Æ?bEÆ(Ïf]? 
À[[º>[[ÃÉ»€L>É[[nɷɺÓ[[n¿IÆ?af[[»J¶=‘=¼[[v¿IÁ?>[[ºC6ÀÈe>[[É]½>[[º? 
e>[nJ¾=¤[ºÍ¢fjEÍÈÇ®KVFq?L>Énɷɺ¸Ñ>F¯¶=ÅdÂL@n¾@ª*L=e>§¶=
-..  

¤ [uǶ=¼®>[«I‘CÏa?>[º*ÌeÆ>=¹Æb¶=Àº>ÃÉI@ÈcC(e Ǫe=a›\Øj¶= 
(K[¯Âg?îb[®\=ÆeÙ=À[º­×Û>[ª(½Ç[Èb[£Eð>ºÇÈð=bɯ£IÆð=ÐÇiÅa>ÈagCÆ 
kÉ[¶(¼Âe>ÈaÀº=Æaëfmà b®­×Û=L>ÒºÆ(K®fU?b®Ïf¯¶=ÀºL>ҙ=Æ 
Ç[R¿ÈÄõ·£¶a>nI‘Cçfª¼Ãv£EÆ(Ð>»çj¶=ÆzeÙ=×CÐ>ì¦Æ?p=fªÀº¼ 
*eǪe=a¼ÉVQÀº 
P=b[U?e>[M?Ë 
d[¶=ÁD[ªÍ·³[n»·¶ÊQe>„=´ÈfVJ¶=Ƹ]bJ¶=>º?Æ 
¸É¶b[¶=Æ(>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>j¾fªL=d¶>EÆ(ÁÇÉEÆeÆ Ù=¼ÂͺgÙ=bQÆ?Æ(eǪe=a 
a>[nIÀº¼¼¢b¶=¼Èb¯IÍɯÈfªÙ=eǪ¸Ñ>F®ÀºÀÈaf»J™=Á?´¶cη¢ 
g>[³Ie×=Í[쯾O[ÉUÀ[ºÆL=a=b[ºÝ=O[ÉUÀº>j¾f«¶ÐØ»¢>ú>³UÆ 
*af»J¶=ͲfUÐ>»¢h¶ʺآC¿»²Áb¿¶K·»¢Æ(ÐÇR·¶=Æ 
Ð>[[«J²×>E([[nF¶=>Ã[[·É»¢Î[[·¢Í[[Éì§J¶=K[[¶Æ>Ub[[¯ª>[[²º?>[[º?Æ 
Á>[²Æ(À Èaf[»J™=¤[»®À[¢¬®ÇJ¶>[EnF¶=Íí ºÇ³Ufº@IÆ(L>ŒfrJ¶>E 
Í[Me>²‘CK[¶Ç€ÆÍ[ºgÙ=K[»®>«IÁ?b[£EÀ[³¶Æ*´ 
[¶c¸[£ª>ÂeÆb¯’ 
)>[EÆeÆ?À[º¤ªb[E)ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=ÆÍɾ>j¾Ý=L>»Ÿ¿™=Kì§u(Íɾ>j¾C 
[¶=$b [ÈÇR¿‚=%Í[ÉEf£¶=L>É[nɷə=¼ ¢aÀ¢¬³¶>EÄJF¶>{ÆÁ=aÇj¶=η¢ 
*¥>nÈ>»²Í®e>ªÙ=bu¸É³¿J¶=¹>»¢@EKº>® 
À[ºeÇ[ªe=aP=b[U?Î[·¢ÐÇ[v¶=½Ø[¢Ý=¸Ñ>[iÆKìò·iÁ?b£EÆ 
À[ºÁÇ[É·™==Ç[§·EÀÈd[¶=ÀÈf[RÙ=Æ­×Û==ǧ·EÀÈd¶=ηJ¯¶=a=b¢?OÉU 
[²?Ä[¾@EeÇ[ªe=a›Ëf[‹>[º¸Ñ>[iǶ=Åd[ÂK«[qÆÁ?b£EÆ(ÒQض= 
ÁÙð=eÇ[ª¸]b[JÈÁ?ʶÆb[¶=¤»J=η¢Á?Æ(fr£¶==d›Íɾ>j¾CÍMe>² 
Lb[QÆÄ[·²´[¶cb[£E(Í®e>ªÙ=Àºð>ÈfÃm­×Û=LǺ£ÈÄ·]bI½b¢ 
Í[ºÇ³ƒ=Lfº?Æ(>ÃIa>ɯ¶ÆÍQǙ=HDzf¶Æ¸]bJ·¶Ìfìvº>Ãj«¾>²º?
-./  

2,,,¹>[[ieC>[[ÿº6L>[[F·{Ìb[[¢°[[Èf{À[[¢Ì>[[i@™=¬[[®ÇEÍɾ=aÇ[[j¶= 
¸[UÆ(Í[®e>ªÙ=¿{=Ç[™=À[º?Î[·¢ž>[«V·¶eÇ[ªe=a‘Cʾ=aÇ[[iÊ{fm 
*bÈÇR¿Q>nɷɺ 
=ÇF¶>[[{Æ(Í[[ɲºÙ=L=Ð=f[[QÝ=Åd[[ÃE=Ç«[[J[³ÈÉ[[EÆeÆÙ=À[[³¶ 
‘CÍɾ=aÇ[i[¦Í[ÉF¿Q?L=Ç[®¹>[ieDEÆ(Á=aÇ[j¶=Î[·¢L>[Eǯ¢¥>¯ÈDE 
zf[[ª›>[[²º?eÆb [E´³[[nI>[j¾fªÍ[[q>~Æ>[EÆeÆ?L?b[[EÆ*e Ç[ªe=a 
*Á=aÇj¶=η¢L>Eǯ£¶= 
Í[[ºÇ³ƒ=b[[uG[[Èf¦¸³[[nEð>ÉÑ=b[¢ʾ>[[ìȶ=¬[[®Ç™=Á>[[²>[»¿ÉE 
±Ø[{CƸÈÇÃJ¶=ÆxÈfVJ¶>E>²º?T=fUCÐ=eÆ>ɾ>ìÈfEK¾>²ÆÍɾ=aÇj¶= 
*Íɾ=aÇj¶=ͺdzƒ=buÍÈg=h«Ji×=L>ŒfrJ¶= 
À[º©=f[«¶=b£E× CeǪe=aÍ·³nºÌe>MC½b¢bÈfI>²º?K¾>²b¯¶ 
›[j¶=Æ(Íɾ=aÇ[j¶=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=Æ°¾f®E±>«I×=¤É®ÇIÆHÇ¿‚=¥ÇuǺ 
>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>j¾fª6>EÆeÆ?>º?Æ*e Ǫe=a‘C¸¯J¿I¼M>Âg>ˆÝ´¶cL=Çì] 
G[¢>J™=a>[‹Ýb[U=ÆÁA›¬[®Ç™=^[jIÆÍ·³[n™=Ìe>[MCbÈfIK¾>³ª 
*>î=]=Æ?>Ã{>¯iÝ>²ºÙÍɶ=Ǚ=nF¶=ͺdzƒ 
b[[¶=Q½Ç[[{f„=›Í[[ɳÈfºÙ=Ìe>«[[j¶=¹>[[»¢@E¼Ñ>[[¯¶=\f[[qb[[¯¶ 
eÇ[ªe=a¼É[·®C›¥>[uÆÙ=Á@E.,,0e>È?ʶ>ƒ=fÃn¶=¬rJ¿ºÊmǶ>² 
(Á=aÇ[j¶=›Á>[j¾Ý=±Ç[¯U¬[·º›ð>[ÈÇÉUð>¢Ç[uǺ¸[N“aØF[¶=Hf¦ 
›½Ø[j¶=°[ɯVJEHÇ[¿‚=›½Øj¶=ÍÉ·»¢œEeη¢ «VJÈľ?­>u?Æ 
¸[r«¶L>[FÉI¶=½>[“C‘CΣ[jI>[³Èfº?Á?‘C[nÈ=dÂÆ*e Ǫe=a¼É·®C 
*¹>»n¶=°{>¿º¥ÇuǺη¢hɲ¶=‘C¸¯J¿I¼MHÇ¿‚= 
Î[·¢Lh[²fªÍ[쯿¶=Åd[ÂK[²ea?>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>j¾fª6>EÆeÆ?À³¶Æ
-.0  

Í[·^·]Æ>[³Èfº?T=f[UÝð>[ɺآCÆð>É[i>ÉiÆð>Èf³j¢eǪe=aÍ·³nºÌe>MC 
>[ÁÇ[³ÈÁ?>[³Èfº?K¢>ìJi=Á?b£E(>³ÈfºÙʶ=Ǚ=nF¶=¼³U¤uÆ 
6>EÆeÆ?La=e@ªÄɪ>EÆeÆ?eÆaKn»ÂÆHÇ¿‚=¥ÇuǺ›¸¢>«¶=eÆb¶= 
¬É£[v¶=>[ÂeÆazÇ£ÈeǪe=a›fMÖºeÆa>ÁdzÈÁ?(>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>j¾fª 
*HÇ¿‚=› 
b[[uL=Ð=f[[QÝ=Åd[[Âd[[^JIÁ?‘CLfì[[u=>[[²º?Á?Í[[q؄=Æ 
Í[ºg?GF[jEʶÆb[¶=½>[£¶=Ë?f[¶=½>[º?KQfU?Á?b£EÍɾ=aÇj¶=ͺdzƒ= 
›K[ɯEÍ·³[n™=Á?Ç[¶Æ(ÓQ>[«º¤Èf[i¸³[nE>÷ÈÇÃI¶=ÆeǪe=a 
(>[²º?K·]b[I>™(>ÂF³I¼JÈÆ(ÌfìÉj¶=K€Æ(ð>ɶÆa¹Ç¯£™=aÆbU 
*>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>j¾fªÊÂL=d¶>EÆ>¦ÇÂ>çÇÂËd¶=À³¶Æ 
*eǪe=aaf“›>ðjÉÑe=ðeÆaÊQe>„=´ÈfVJ¶=Ƹ]bJ·¶ÁDª=d³ÂÆ 
f[ºÙ=Í[‚>£º›>[ÃìFÆÁÆÖn¶=ÍÈ>¢eÁ=aÇj¶=ͺdzU¹>»ÂC>º? 
¸²>[n™=Åd[¹>[Nº?Á?¤[º¼®>«JIƳIÍ·³n™=ÅdµfIÀºXu=ÆÇê 
Á=aÇ[j¶=Hf[¦¤[¯Èʾ=aÇi¼É·®CeǪe=aÁDª*a >J£ºfº?ÍÉ·F¯¶=°{>¿™=› 
(ð>[FÈf¯I>[j¾fªÍU>[jºËÆ>jI¼É·®Ý==dÂÍU>jºÆ(a>nI¤ºaÆbƒ=η¢ 
eǪe=b[E¼É[·®Ý=ßÊ»ë [ài* 
»·j™=Àº>ãɖÆÍɯÈfª?ÆÍÉEf¢¸Ñ>F®Ä¿ì¯IÆ 
›>[ãºK²e>[nIÆÍ[ÉEf£¶=¸Ñ>F¯¶=LÐ>QÆÍɯÈfªÙ=eǪ¸Ñ>F®‘CÍFj¾ 
*r™=ÆÍ·™=ÆoÉ£¶= 
ÍìÉ[jEÍÈb[[É·[¯ I¸Ñ>[[F¯¶=[EÌa>[¢Pb[[€[¶=¸²>[n 
™=K¾>²Æ 
¸²>[n™=Åd[ÂK[¾>²Æ(Å>ə=L>£»ÆÊ¢f¶=ÆËf¶=ÆÍ¢=eh¶=°{>¿’°·£JI 
¥Ç[¿¶==d[ÂÁ?½Ç[·£ºÆ*¸ [Ñ>F¯¶=Ð>»¢g¹Ø]ÀºðØU>b>ºÁ>[¢f[i 
¥Ç[[¾À[[ºÊ[[ÂÆ(Í[[É·F¯¶=°{>[[¿™=¤[[ɖ›ð>[Èa>¢ð>ÒÉ[[m[[J£È¸²>[[n™=À[[º
-.1 

‫ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﲝﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﻭﻋـﻲ ﻭﺇﺣـﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻛﲏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﻋﺎﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺘﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﺎﺭﻗـﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻔـﺎﻗﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻴﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺸﺎﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻐﺬﻯ ﺇﻋﻼﻣﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺳﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﻣﺘﻤـﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﻗﺮﻧﻖ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﳌﻴﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜـﺬﺍ ﺍﺧـﺘﻠﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺑﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﻠﻴـﺸﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﹸﺃﺣـﺮﺟـﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻓﺘﺪﺧﻠﺖ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻛﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺧﺎ ٍﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺒﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﲑ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻴﻠﻴـﺸﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺟﻴﺸﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺠﻮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻌﻠﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺷﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟـﺪﻣﻮﻱ ﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺗﺘﺨﺒﻂ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﳊـﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﻧﻖ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻼ )ﺇﻥ ﻟﻜﻢ ‪ -‬ﳐﺎﻃﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺮﺡ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ‪ ٢٠٠٤/٥/١٤‬ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻧﻖ ‪ -‬ﻋﻼﻗ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻮﺭ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺇﳚـﺎﰊ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ( ﻭﻳﺼﺮﺡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ ﺍﳋـﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺠـﺎﻥ‬
‫‪١٢٦‬‬ 

ÁC%eÇ [ªe=a›Í[ºÇ³ƒ=L>É[qÇI°[ÉFìIÀ[¢ͶÆÖj™=Íɾ=aÇj¶=Íɺdzƒ= 
b[£E°[¾f®ÁÇ[Q°Èf{À¢ÁdzÈÁ?G‹eǪe=a›Í·³n»·¶ÊÑ>ÿ¶=¸ƒ= 
ÁÙ (kÉÑf[·¶G[Ñ>¿²le>[»É¶½Ç[{f„=‘CÊI@[ÈÆHÇ¿‚=Í·³nº¸€Á? 
*$>ÃɪÍ·ÈÇ{Ì]Ä·ªL>¢=h[¿¶=Åd¸Nº¸Uη¢eb®?Ç°¾f® 
°[¾f®Í[²fUÁ?ÁDzeb[ȼ[ÂƹÇ[¯¶==d[ÂÁǶÆÖ[j™=Ð×ÖÂ¹Ç¯È 
Ïb[UC›Á=aÇ[j¶=Í[ÉQe>]f[ÈgÆH>[Q?b[¯ª*e Ç[ªe=a›af»J¶=Ëd§I 
b[[U?¹=Ö[[iÀ[[¢H>[[Q?(.,,0+,1+-0_Èe>[[JEÍÉ«V[[r¶=Ä[[IØE>¯º 
H>[Q@ª; e Ç[ªe=a›af[»J¶=À[¢ͶÇÒ[jº°¾f®Í ²fUJ£I¸Â6É«Vr¶= 
¼[¸[ŒÁ?°[¾f®À[ºÁ=aÇ[j¶=ǶÇÒ[jºG[·ìÈ´[¶c¤[ºÆ*¼ £¾6fÈgǶ= 
À[¢¸[r«¿ÈÁ?Ç[ÂeÇ[ªe=a¼É[·®ÝÅbÈfÈËd¶=Ä·UÁ@E´m×Æ(Í·³n™= 
*HÇ¿‚=¸r«¾=>»²Á=aÇj¶= 
af[[“¼É[[¢gÀ[[ºG[[·ìIÁ?Á=aÇ[[j¶=Í[[ºÇ³U›Á=Ç[[=¨[[·E=d[[³Â 
 eǪe=aaf“>£ÈÁ?HÇ¿‚= 
ËaÖJ[iÍ[¯ÈfìE¬[®Ç™=¤[º¸ [º>£JIÍɾ=aÇ[[j¶=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=K¶=g×Æ 
>[û·¢¼¦f[ª¹>»[n¶=°{>[¿ºÀ[º>¦Æe Ǫe=a›¤uǶ=¼®>«I‘ 
C>ð»JU 
Î[·¢K[¯ª=Æb[¯ª(µ >[¿ÂÀÈaf[»J»·¶\Ø[j¶=¸[¯¿IÍ[M>¦Ý=L>[»Ÿ¿ºÁ@E 
Í[F®=f™=±f[ªÎ [·¢K[¯ª=ÆÆ(µ >[¿Â>[>»¢@EL>[»Ÿ¿™=´[·I½>É®­>¿ÒJi= 
¼ êǫ[[q¤[–À[[º=Ç[¿³»JÈÁ@[EÀÈaf[[»J»·¶Ð>[짶=fªÇJ[[i[¶=Í[ɯÈfªÝ= 
›ʾ=aÇ[j¶=Í[ÉQe>„=f[ÈgƸÒ[i>ºb[¿¢Æ*b ÈbQÀºaf[»[J·¶a=b[¢Ý=Æ 
X»[jÈËd[¶=±>[«I×==d[ÃEbÉ£[iK[¾?¸[Â6ÅØ[¢?ÌeDzd™=Í·E>¯™=L=c 
>[º¸[³Eð=bÉ£[iÁdzI?)H>Q?; Á =aÇj¶=HÇ¿QÍÈb¿¦Æ?L=Ç®¹Ç]bE 
>[’Ä[»·£¶¤[Q=e=d[ÂÆ*>ÃÉ[vJ¯IÌeÆfv¶=ÁÙÐ>Ém?¸£«Ið>¾>ÉU?; Ä·£«I
-.3 

‫ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻫﺶ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺠﻨﺖ ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻤﺎﺓ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺌﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﲏ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺒﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺮﻳـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻹﻏﺎﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺒﺆﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣـﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺒﻄﺖ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻤـﺮﺩﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟـﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺠﻦ ﺍﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﱃ ﻫـﻲ ﺭﻋﺎﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺧﻲ ﻭﲣﺎﺫﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺧﻨﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﲑﻳﺔ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴـﺒﺐ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺳـﺎﺱ ﳌﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭﻓـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺴﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻳﺴﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌـﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ‪%١٠٠‬‬
‫ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺘﺨﺎﺫﻝ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻐﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﲢـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞـﺎﺻـﺔ ﻓﺮﻧﺴـﺎ ﻭﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄـﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﺿـﻰ ﺑﺪﺧــﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻗـﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺜﺎﺕ ﺩﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﻣـﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﲢﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻧﻖ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺋـﻪ‪ ،‬ﻇـﻨـﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻡ ﻣﻄـﻮﺍﻋـﹰﺎ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺳـﺘـﺪﻋــﻤﻪ ﻭﲢـﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﰲ ﻛـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺯﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻌـﻤـﻼﺋﻬــﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗـﻀﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﻛﻠﺔ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٢٨‬‬ 

>Âb[ˆxÉ[EÙ=K[ÉF¶=bÉ[ifº=ÆÙÍÉF·IHÇ¿‚=›>ÃI×g>¿JE>þC¼M 
Æ?ÍÉ[i>Éi(S[Rƒ=ÎJ[nEÁ =aÇ[j¶=Ð>[‰?Í[ª>²›af»J¶=½>º?H>F¶=XJ«I 
>[ÿºξ>[£ÈÎ[J¶=Í[¿U>ì¶=ÍÈa>[rJ®×=Í[ºgÙ=Ï 
b[º¼ ·£È¸³¶=Æ(ÍÈa>rJ®= 
‘Cœ[[¯ª¤[[Q=e´[[¶cÆ( >Âab[[£IÆÍ[[É£ÉFì¶=Åae=Ç[[ºÎ[[¿¦¼[[¦eÁ=aÇ[[j¶= 
¹h[¾?>[º‘C¼³J€×>þÙÆ( 
=¥fm>ÃJ«¶>^™Í·m>«¶=ͺdzƒ=L>i>Éi 
*Á>jUÝ=ƹb£¶>EÍÉ¢f¶=ÁÇÒm΢fI×Æ(= 
ĶÇ[ieÆÍ[¾>Ʉ=Î[·¢Í[JE>MÎ[ì~Æ Í [·F¯ºÍɾ=aÇ[j¶=ͺdzƒ=ÁC 
½ Ø[i±>[«I=Î[·¢¤É®ÇJ¶=>º=cCÆ(>m>«É¾›>úØjJi>E¿ºÖ™=ͪ>³¶Æ 
¹>[»¢@E¼Ñ>[¯¶=¹>[®>[»²(¸F¯™=$ÇɾÇÈ%Á=fÈhU¬rJ¿ºÊEƾ›¸º>m 
H>[F¶=XJ«É[i´[¶cÁD[ª(Ê [mǶ>²ae =[Q½Ç{f„=›Íɲº×=Ìe>«j¶= 
Î[J¶=>Ã[j«¾S Ñ>[J¿¶>EÍ[F¶>ì»·¶Í «·J^™=Á=aÇj¶=°{>¿ºÊ®>F¶ÄÉ¢=f rºη¢ 
À[ºÍ[·ÈÇ{Í·[j·i› 
e Æb[ÈÁ =aÇ[j¶=Î ¯FÉ[iÄ É·¢Æ(H 
Ç¿‚=>ÃÉ·¢¸rU 
*Í¿ºh™=L>¢=fr¶= 
Î[·¢>[¯·£ºjU¼ÉUf¶=bF¢ʾ=aÇj¶=ÍÉ·]=b¶=fÈgÆÅb²?>º=dÂÆ 
>[º¸[NºKVF[q?eÇ[ªe=aÎ[ªÀÈaf[»J™=G¶>ìºÁ?ÆbFÈ e Ǫe=aP=bU? 
¼[ÁÇ[³ÈÁ?Æ[r™=f[Èf¯I°[U¸[Nº(H 
Ç¿‚=ΪÁÇuÆ>«J™=ÄEG¶>ìÈ 
K[€ÁÇ[³É¶»·[j™=ze?À[º[mË?À¢¹g>¿J¶=ÁC*¸ ¯JjºoÉQ 
°{>[¿™=¤R[nÈÇ[ÂÆ(½Ø[iÝ=›Ï[²Í[•fQÇ[Âfª>[³¶=Æb£¶=Á>ì·i 
Í[F¶>ì»·¶Ì?f[‚=Æb[£¶=b[¿¢b[QÇÈ´¶d[²Ç [ÂÆ(¹>[r«¾×=η¢Ïf]Ù= 
ÄÉ¢=f[rºη¢H>F¶=XJ«ÈÇê(¸®ÁCÆ(¹g>¿IË?ÁÙ*¹ g>¿J¶=ÀºbÈh™>E 
*¹g>¿J¶=ÀºbÈh™ 
‡ œ”OÈZ” »ˆWÈai»`…Uˆ 
ˌ”†w‰TŽ…TË¿Ž l 
” ‰Ž ” ‰ˆ
-.5 

‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﻭﺇﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﱂ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣـﺰﺍﺏ )ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷـﻲﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻓـﻖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺮﺩ ﻗﺮﻧﻖ ﺑﺘﺨﻄـﻴﻂ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴـﺐ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﺎﻭﺿـﺎﺕ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻤـﺮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭﻓـﻮﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺁﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻨـﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﻣـﺎ ﻳﻜـﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗـﺴﻤﻲ ﺃﻧﻔـﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻘـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻂ ﺑﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺗـﺘـﻤــﺎﺩﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃــﻞ ﻭﺗـﺴـﺘﻤـﺮ ﰲ ﺳـﻴﺎﺳــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌـﺎﳉــﺔ ﻗــﻀـﺎﻳـﺎﻫـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺟـﻌـﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺷـﺮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻓﺘﻠﻐﻲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺮﻧﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﳏﺎﺩﺛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﺩﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌـﺎﰿ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﲑﻳﺔ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲝﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ــﻼﺩ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ــﺮ ﺍﻟﺒـ‬
‫ـﺎﺫﻝ ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﺠـ‬
‫ـﺎﺯﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨـ‬
‫ــﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨـ‬
‫ﺃﻣـ‬
‫ــﺔ‬
‫ـﻀـﻌـﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﺮﻗـ‬
‫ــﺬﻝ ﻭﺍﻟـ‬
‫ــﻦ ﺍﻟـ‬
‫ـﱪﻯ‪ :‬ﻣـ‬
‫ـﺼـﻴﺒﺔ ﻛـ‬
‫ﻣـ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻔـﻜﻚ ﻭﺍﳋﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﷲ ﻭﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٣٠‬‬ 

À[ºÁ=Ç[ueÆ(Á=f[»¢ÆÌb[UÆÆÍ[¢>–Æ(Í£¿ºÆh¢Çêʾ>N¶=>º?Æ 
* UĶÇieÆľ>VFi= 
(ĶÇ[ieÆ=Ê[ufÈ>[º=Æe>[J^ɪÁ=aÇ[j¶=›½>[³ƒ=ËÇ¢fȸê 
[¶=Ï ¬Ú^^†@Í[¶Æa½>[¯Jª; Ìf[]Û=Æ>ɾb¶=›¼Ã£«¿IÐ>vÉE¬®=Ǻ=Ç£¿rÈÆ 
Ê[Ef§¶=ÆÊ[²ºÙ=cÇ[«¿¶=°VjIÆÀÈaf»J™=η¢Ê v¯IÆÁ=aÇ[j 
¶=b[UÇI 
Ð >[‰?‘ 
CÁ=aÇ[j¶=À[º>ð[ÈÇ®½Ø[iÝ=°[·ì¿ÈÆ(Ä[EÇ¿QÆÄ[¶>Á=aÇ[j 
¶=› 
*=¸ÉF[[i›a>[[Â=ÆÌÇ¢b[[¶>El>[[¿¶=[[EÏb[[=ð=f[[m>¾Í[[ɯÈfªÝ=Ìe>[[¯¶= 
*>hÈh¢Ëǯ¶=ÁCÅfr¿ÈÀº=Áfr¿É¶Æ@

-/-  

$3% 
±=f[£¶= 
¸[E>EÆeÇ[m@²>[ãF¿ºÆÍ[•b¯¶=ÍÈf[nF¶=L=e>[vƒ=búÇ Â±=f£¶= 
(Ͷ>[q?ÆÍ[®=f¢>[û Ÿ¢?ÆzeÙ=¥>¯E¼Â?ÀºÇÂÆ(>¦ÆeÆ?ÆÏÇ¿É¾Æ 
*_Èe>J¶=±>»¢?›ÅeÆdQHe>uÇê 
°[ª=Ǚ=[[Â./)-/%WH>[ì„=À[Ef[»¢ÀºgÁÇ»·j™=ÄVJª 
L>[UÇJ«¶=L?b[EO[ÉU(½Ø[iÝ=aØ[E¼[Â?Àºe>qÆ($½200)2/0 
µe>[[£º¼[[Ÿ¢?Ä[[E>Ue›Le=aÆ(Ä[[¿ºK[[¯·ì¾=Æ(Ä[[EÍ£[[i=Ƕ=ÍɺØ[[iÝ= 
Ìf[rF¶>²½Ø[iÝ=Áb[º¼[Ÿ¢?Ä[ɪK 
[ji@IÆ(ÀÑ=b™=ÆÍÉia>¯¶>²½ØiÝ= 
*¸qǙ=ÆÐ=fº>iÆa=b§EÆœi=ÆÆͪdz¶=Æ 
=f[þÄ[®(Hf[£¶=Ìf[Èh‚a=b[Jº=Æ(>[ëÈaeƽ>n¶=Ç¿q±=f£¶=Æ 
>[£¶=Ê[u=e?¼[Ÿ¢?‘Cœ[jF¿™=¤[i>n¶=Åa=Ç[iÁØÉ[VɪL=f«¶=ÆÍ·Qa 
*Ð>죷¶ð=e=eaCÆÍEÇr] 
±f[{¼[Â?À[ºð=bU=ÆÄ·£QS É·„=l?eη¢hÉ»J™=›=f§‚=Ä£®ÇºÆ 
G[jJ²=OÈb[ƒ=e>»£J[i×=fr¢›Æ(Ëb¿=œÉ=Æ>EÆeÆ?E¹>rI×= 
b[¿Ã·¶ð>É[jÉÑeð>Èe>ð>¯Èf{J£Èľdz¶>ɾ>ìȶÍFj¿¶>EÍq>]ÍÉ»Â?±=f£¶= 
¸[Ñ=Æ?›Ä[ɪœ«¿[¶=­>nJ²=b£EfN²?ÄJÉ»Â?La=gÆ(ʾ>ìȶ=T>J¶=Ìea 
*ÀÈfn£¶=Áf¯¶= 
Í[[ə>£¶=Hf[ƒ=Î[JUÍ[ɾ>»N£¶=Ï ¬Ú^^†@Í[[¶ÆaÀ[ºð=Ðh[Q±=f[£¶=¸[ž
-/.  

Í[ɾ>»N£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=ÆÍ[ÃQÀ[º>[ɾ>ìÈfE[EÄÉ·¢¥=fr¶=bJm=OÉU(‘ÆÙ= 
Í[¶Æb¶=À[ºÄ[¢=hJ¾=Hf[ƒ=Ð>[¿M?>[ɾ>ìÈfEK[¶Æ>Vª(Í[ɾ>MÍÃQÀº>ɾ>™?Æ 
Í¿j¶=›Ìe>»£¶=K·JU=Æ(HfV·¶‘ÆÙ=Í¿j¶=›ÌfrF¶=K·JU>ªÍɾ>»N£¶= 
Í[£E=f¶=Í¿[j¶=›>º?Æ(ÍN¶>N¶=Í¿j¶=›Ldz¶=›ÌF²͕hÃEKÉ¿ºÆÍɾ>N¶= 
½-5-3Í¿[ie=cA--›a=b[§E¹ØJ[U=ÁÇɾ>[ìȶ=¥>ìJi=b¯ªHfV·¶ 
ÀÈf[nI4›¸[qǙ==Ç·JU>[ªð×>[¼Ãºb¯I=Ç·q=ÆÆ$aǺ%¹=f¿‚=Ìa>ɯE 
¤[[v]î?Æh[[É·ˆÝ=Ëb[[È@EÄ[[·º>³E±=f[[£¶=œ¯[[i´¶d[[EÆ*½-5-4ʾ>[[N¶= 
*½-5.,½>£¶=›Íɾ>ìȶ=ÍÈ>qÇ·¶ 
Í[³º¼ ²>[UÊ[·¢À[E[jUÀ[E¸rɪ>÷ɻ£E>ɾ>ìÈfELÐ>Q¼M 
Ëd[¶=g>[RV·¶Åb[¶=ÆÌe>[j]À[¢Ä[¶xÈÇ[£J²±=f£¶=η¢ð>³·ºÄJQÇIÆ 
*aÇ£i¹ÛÊì¢? 
b¢=Ç®PØNE±=f£·¶Ê>=ʳ·™=¼³ƒ=¸ž›>ɾ>ìÈfEKŸ«JU=Æ 
Ìb[¢>®Æa=b[§E¹>[Íɾ>Fƒ=Ìb¢>®Æa=b§E›bÉmf¶=Ìb¢>®ÊÂÆ(ÍÈf³j¢ 
ÁÇÉ[[i>Éj¶=ÆÁÇÈf³[[j£¶=>ÂÆe>[[nJjºÁ>[[²Æ(Ìf[[rF¶=Hf[[®ÍFÉ£[[n¶= 
«[j¶=Á>[²[U›(aØF·¶É¯É¯ƒ=½>³ƒ=¼ÂÁÇɪ>¯N¶=ÆÁÇÈa>rJ®×=Æ 
¹=Ç[{±=f[£¶=¼[³U›Ì[]Ù=Æ‘ÆÙ=Í»·³¶=GU>qa=b§E›ʾ>ìȶ= 
´¶d[E±=f[£¶=¹Ç€Æ*½-514½>£¶=ÎJUf»Ji=Ëd¶=Ê>=¼³ƒ=̪ 
*ÍɯɯUÍɾ>ìÈfEÍU=Æ‘C 
›h[É·ˆÝ=Í[¢g>¿º>ɾ>™?e>nJjºf·J¹Æ>UÍɾ>N¶=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ=› 
Á>[[²ÆÄ[[£º´[[·™=HÆ>[[Æ(±=f[[£¶=´[[·ºËg>[[¦´[[·™>E¸[[rI>ª(±=f[[£¶= 
Ä[J®Ø¢K«[nJ²=>[™Æ(ÄF®=fIK¾>²>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ³¶Æ(Ð=b£¶=hÉ·ˆÝ=Gq>¿È 
Í[È×ÆG[j}Æ*Ìe>É[iPa>[U›ÄJ·J¯ªÄ¿ºs·^J¶=‘CK¢e>iÁ>™Ù>E
-//  

ÁÇɾ>[ìȶ=Ð>[Rª(±=f[£¶=Î[·¢ð>³·ºʾ>N¶=¸rɪ§r¶=Ä¿E=XFq?bã¶= 
T>[J·¶ð>[r·‡¸[žO[ÉUb[ã·¶ð>[ɶÆÆpf[£¶=Î[·¢ð>É[qÆÄ[¶Ý=bF¢Ķ>~ 
*½-514½>¢Hد¾=›Ä·J¯ºÎJUʾ>ìȶ= 
h[É·ˆÝ=À[º±=f[£¶=d[]Ù>[ÃJ¶Æ>†>[ɾ>™?La>¢?½-50-Í¿i›Æ 
›Íì·[j¶=Î[·¢ÐØÉJ[i×=À[ºÀ[³“Ëd[¶=Ê[¾Øɳ¶=ʶ>¢bÉmeK»¢bª 
G¾>Q‘C>ɾ>ìÈfEη¢Hfƒ=ÅeǪÀºÀ·¢?ƽ-50-½>¢e=cAÀºʾ>N¶= 
Ìb[¢¹>ieDEΫJ²=Æ(ÄIbR¿¶ÍÈfEL=Ç®¹>ieC¤ìJjÈf·JÂÀ³¶(>ɾ>™? 
*ʾØɳ¶=¼¢b¶Íɾ>™Ù=L=fÑ>ì¶=ÀºH=fi? 
Ä·õ³[m>ºÆ±=f£¶=›ÓQ>«™=Hد¾×==dÂ>â=e¶=>ɾ>ìÈfEÁ?×C 
>¯[iCÎ[·¢K»ç»[q(Í[É®=f£¶=œ«¿[¶=¤E>¿º‘CÁ>™Ù=¹ÇqÆÌeÇì]Àº 
(Í¢f[[jEa=b[[§E‘C>[[ÃI=Ç®Kºb[[¯Jª(À[[³•>[[º¥f[[i@EÊ[[¾Øɳ¶=Í[[ºÇ³U 
>F[uÍ[£Ee?½=b[¢CÆ(±=f[£¶=aÆb[UTe>]ʾØɳ¶=HfÂÆ(>ÃJ·JU=Æ 
>[ɾ>ìÈfEK[»³U?Æ(pf[£¶=‘CĶÝ=bF¢bÉ¢î?Æ(Hد¾×=›Ä£º=Dze>m 
*aØF¶=η¢>ÃJvF®bÈbQÀº 
Ì[[ª¹=Ç[[{ʾ>[[ìȶ=f»£J[[j™=b[[uÉ®=f[[£¶=Í[[ºÆ>¯º¬[[®ÇJI 
>[ÃJ·I-5.,Í¿[iÍ[«É¿¢Í[ºÆ>¯º¹Ø 
J[U×=buK£¶b¾=OÉU(e>»£Ji×= 
Ä[¶Ý=bF¢Ìa>ɯEÍ·É»£¶=ͺdzƒ=ËbrIÀ³¶(L=ªη¢ÌbÈbmL>ºÆ>¯º 
Ìe>[MC‘Cͪ>uÝ>E(>ÃɪÊ·£«¶=¼²>ƒ=ÆËǯ¶=¸Qf¶=ÇÂÆ(b É£j¶=ËeÇ¾Æ 
Ëd[¶=ÇÂ$b jI±fª%>ɾ>ìÈfEÍi >ÉiGjUGÂ=d™=Ƭ 
Ñ=Çì¶=EÍ®f«î ¶= 
*Í·ÈÇì¶=Ìb™=Åd±=f£¶=η¢ÌfìÉj¶=e=f»Ji=Àº>ɾ>ìÈfEÀõ³º 
Hf[ƒ=G[¯¢>[ÃJ¶h¢À[º>[ÃQÆf]b[£Eœ[„=η¢>²º?K·]a 
(±=f[£¶=œ[«¾Î[·¢ÌfìÉj¶=η¢>ɾ>ìÈfE¤ºkª>¿JIL?bEÆ(Íɾ>N¶=Íə>£¶=
-/0  

>[[ɾ>ìÈfEG[[¶>ìI½-5.,½>[[£¶=›Ç[[•eÁ>[[if“Ö[[ºd[[¿ºK[[¾>²>[[²º?Æ 
‘ÆÙ=Í[¶Æb¶=K[¾>²K®Ç¶=´¶c›>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ³¶Æ(SÉ·„=œ«¾›>ÃJr} 
À[j¶ÇE=b[UËd[¶=f[ºÙ=(ð>[£{>®ð>vªeʲºÙ=G·ì¶=Kvªfª>£¶=› 
6>[Ãɪ¹Ç[¯ÈÍɾ>ìȶ=ͺdzƒ=‘CͶ>ie¹>ieC‘C>ÃJ®ÆʲºÙ=kÉÑf¶= 
Lf»J[i=Æ*Í [•b®ÍuǺXFq?e>»£Ji×=Àº¥Ç¾Íie>šÁÆbÈfI¼³¾C 
Í[[ɺ=f¶=Í[ɲºÙ=Ç§[v¶=Í[ºÆ>¯º›Í[ɾ>N¶=Í[ə>£¶=Hf[ƒ=b[£E>[ɾ>ìÈfE 
¤ìJ[jIÍ[È>ÿ¶=›>[ÿ³¶(S É[·„=œ«¾›>²?GÉr¾η¢¹ÇrV·¶ 
f[«ÉEaeÇ[·¶=‘Cʾ>[ìȶ=Ð=egÇ[¶=kÉ[Ñe¸[mfnIGJ²*´ 
¶cÀº>㿺 
¹Ç[UĶÌf²dºη¢ð=ae>Ãɪ¹Ç¯ÈÍɾ>ìȶ=Hfƒ=Ìe=gÆ›Çv£¶=µÆfE 
>¢Á?În]?À³¶Æð=bÉQ´»Ãª?¾C6œ 
«¿¶=›ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=L>F·{ 
Ìb[VJ™=L>[È×Ƕ=¤[ºÍ[²f£º›À[‰ÆÅ>[¿·]a=cCe>ÿÈb®Hfƒ=b£E>º 
*¹ÆF¶=¹ÇU 
Í[¿‚Í[ɾ>N¶=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ=ÍÈ>þ›K·ªgÆeʲºÙ=kÉÑf¶=O£EÆ 
Á=f[[ÈCƱ=f[[£¶=ÆÍÈaÇ£[ j¶=À[[ºØ
ð [ ²Le=gœ[[iÆÙ=±f[[n¶=‘CÍÉ[[i>Ñe 
kÉÑf[[¶=‘C>[[ÂfÈf¯IKºçb[ ®>[[ÃIaÇ¢b[[¿¢Æ(f[[ì®ÆÀÈf[[VF¶=ÆK[[Èdz¶=Æ 
h[¿²¼[Ÿ¢?Ç[Âœ[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=¹Æ[EÁC6Ìe>[F£E?b[EËd[¶=ÆK·ªgÆe 
­Ç[ih[¿³¶==d[Ê[i>Éj¶=ÆËa>rJ®×=M@J¶=ÁCÆ(_Èe>J·¶Í£ÉFì¶=ÄJ²fI 
6K 
[·ªgÆekÉÑf¶=h¾Ek»ÉQÍÉQe>„=fÈgƹ@i>ºb¿¢Æ*>ðUa>ªÁÇ³È 
±fn¶=¹ÆEÀº>ÃÉ·¢fìÉj¾Á?ʧF¿È¶=kÉÑf¶=Ìa>Éi>ÈÍrƒ=ÊÂ>º 
*!-,,Àº¸®?×6Ø
ð Ñ>®ÄE>Q?¼MÍÂfEK·ªgÆeK³i; œiÆÙ= 
‘CTe>[[„=›É[[²ºÙ=MÇ[[£F™=b[[U?k[[²Cb[[¶Æe>ÂG[[J²Æ 
À[ºÍ·Ñ>ÂÍɾDzÌf…œiÆÙ=±fn¶=ÁC6¹ ǯÈʲºÙ=kÉÑf¶=K·ªgÆe
-/1  

 
        
 !"  # 
$%   &'( )*  !+ ,+ -. $% /0 12 
3 4 5,6  
' 7 88
"9 :;4 $% < "'=>
I #% J
K + ": @ 5>A!+ B #C  /D!4 E F;9 G ? 

$L F;9 M;%NO P 1#! >=9 88
"9 :;4 Q> >( RCC
&K F;9 .> M;S  /=T   = . .>(  U
[> K \> M. ] ( Y> O) .6 :;4 5+ )KC RV W 

.B .% ^ . ' . ' Y' YC 'V   UK E.6 Q+O 
# Babcd B9 B .% ^ . ' .6 PO `T #  

;'  \6 /O G [9 `;!g !" \6 /O G G" : e+
&#% $=> %aj '' $=> %bj  !" \6  : @ hi 
\6 C  /D!4 E F;9 m!n . @G" :k l "!+
J
KC A+ " U> oA+ MT  p qOC  $;9 r% s
 !"
@G t  #  T uOi m;Tv $!''  uOi w : @
.": @ >( F9!'
[9  
 &K= [9 .>( M N=C ] U+ [Y  
%|  Em!'  ) 
&K [9  N=!C s  G  {=> xy$> xz8V
J. }G ) 
y~+ M>T < #U=4    PO /9#. ) 
F;9
B9 [> "6  €U' M  ‚+ `;  ! .+  G .C [>
.Babdd 
ƒi [> ) 
F;9 U- =m :;C ) !i .> M
' 
k S>  „= "9 …ƒ# &† F;9 1~ I ‡Y 9 …ƒ#  

b[F¢Ìa>[ɯE±=f[£¶=›e=f[U?>F[uÍ[²fUÐ>[n¾COÉU(±Æe>ª´·™= 
›e=f[UÙ=>F[v¶=Í[²fUe=f[¦Î[·¢­e>[¢½Ø[j¶=bF¢Æ¼i>®¼Èf³¶= 
›f[[q>¿¶=b[[F¢\>[[ˆ>»É[[i×ð=b[[ÉQÍ[[¯ì¿™=­Æf[[ž¹Ø§J[[i=Æ(f[[rº 
f[UaÐb[EÆ(f [rºb[uÊ[MØN¶=Á=Æb[£¶=¸nªÆ (± 
Æe>ª´·™=buÄEد¾= 
b[F¢Æ¼[i>®¼Èf[³¶=b[F¢a>[®Æ*>ÃJ²Ç[m­>£[uCÆÍ[¯ì¿™=À[º>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Ê[³·™=½>[Ÿ¿¶>E\>{?½-514½>¢gǓ-0›ð>VQ>¾ð>Eد¾=­e>¢½Øj¶= 
(ð=eÇ[ªÉEد¾×>Efq>¿¶=bF¢GUeÆ*Í É®=f£¶=ÍÈeÇû‚=½>®?Æ(±=f£¶=› 
>[»¿ÉE(ÁaeÙ=›>[ÃI=Ç®K[¶h¾@ªHØ[¯¾×=¤[¿™¸]b[J¶=>ɾ>ìÈfEK¶Æ>UÆ 
¤[ºaÆb[ƒ=Î[·¢>Ã[nÉQ>[ɲfILb[nUÆ(Á>[¿F¶›>ÃI=Ç®>²º?K¶h¾? 
‘CÊ[³·™=½>[Ÿ¿¶=Ìa>[¢Ýa=b[§E¬[·U¹ÆaƐ[jU´[·™=>¢aÆ(±=f£¶=
ç [UÆ(eÇ[[ºÙ=Lb[[¯£IÆ¥>[[uÆÙ=LfIÇ[[IÆ(±=f[[£¶= 
ÊI>ɪÇ[[j¶=kÉÑf[[¶=ed[ 
¸]b[J¶=Í[F§ºÀ[ºÌbnE>ɲfIÆ>ɾ>ìÈfEL=d¶>EÆÍÉEf§¶=¹Æb¶=­ÇnIÆf] 
>[ɲfI¤[ºaÆb[ƒ=¹Ç[{Î[·¢Ä[I=Ç®ÊI>ɪÇ[j¶=oÉ[‚=bnUÆ(±=f£¶=› 
K[£Q=fIÆbÉ£[rJ¶==d[Âb[£E(>[ɾ>ìÈfEK[ª>^ª(¼[ãº>[²º?L@{=ÇIÆ 
±=f[£¶=Tf]Æ(±=f£¶=›bÈb‚=ËeÇû‚=½>Ÿ¿¶=f¯Ji=Æ(eǺÙ=L?bÂÆ 
>[»²(a=b§E¬·UÀºÄQÆf~ÍÉi>Éj¶=ÆÍÈf³j£¶=hÉ·ˆÝ=ÍvF®Àº´¶dE 
*ɶiÝ=ͯ쿺ÀºÄQÆf~¼ÃJvF®Àºð>Èb¯¾Tf] 
°{>[¿º¼[Ÿ£ºÌa>£J[i=ÄFQǒÊ®=f¢ÁǾ>®çÀià ½-52-Í¿i›Æ 
°[¿UÌe>[MC‘CÏa?>[ºÍ [É®=f£¶=Í[¶Æb¶=‘CÍ[ÉF¿QÙ=œ«¿[¶=L>²fmg>ÉJº= 
*¼i>®¼Èf³¶=bF¢ͺdzUbuÍÉEf§¶=¹Æb¶=Æ>ɾ>ìÈfE 
Á>[²OÉU(f q>¿¶=bF¢Å>¼ Ãj«¾?η¢»j¯¿ºÁÇÉEد¾×=Á>² 
­e>[¢½Ø[j¶=b[F¢¸v«ÈÁ>²Æ(fq>¿¶=bF¢¸QeÇ­e>¢½Øj¶=bF¢
-/3  

¼Èf[³¶=b[F¢À[³¶(Ìb[VJ™=ÍÉEf£¶=ÍÈeÇû‚=›>ÈeÇiÆfrº¤º¹Ç]b¶= 
›f[^¿º[¦¼[i>®Ä[¯Éªe­e>[¢Ï?e>[»·ª*´ 
[¶c›G¦fȼi>® 
HØ[¯¾Ø¶tf[«¶=VJ[Èe>qÆÄ¿¢°n¾=(ðغ>²ð>{=fŠ=ÍÈfq>¿¶=Íi>Éj¶= 
À[ºÆ( >[Ãɪʾ>N¶=¸Qf¶=J£ÈÁ>²¶=ͺdzƒ=Àº¼i>®ÄQf]?¼M(ÄÉ·¢ 
*ÄJ»²>†ÆĶ>¯J¢=b£E 
›¼[[i>®¼Èf[[³¶=b[[F¢[[iÇ[[±=f[[£¶=›¤[[uǶ=½g?Ëd[[¶=À[[³¶ 
b¢>[ib[m>[ºb[È=hJº¸³[nE( É¢ÇÉ[n¶=¤ºÄ»³UÀºÌ]Ù=L=Ç¿j¶= 
>[²º?ÐØ[»¢Ä[É·¢G[õ¶?=d[ÂÀ[³¶Æ(Ä»³U̪›±=f£¶=›É¢ÇÉn¶= 
ÅÐ>«·U¼Q>ÃÈÆ(ÌbnEĖ>ÃÈfq>¿¶=bF¢XFq@ª(Ð=ÇibUη¢>ɾ>ìÈfEÆ 
a>[£JE×>E¼Ã»ÃJ[ÈÆ>[»²(dziǙͶ>»£¶>E¼Ã»ÃJÈƐɮ=f£¶=É¢ÇÉn¶=Àº 
x[£Ef[q>¿¶=b[F¢¼[¢a´¶d[¶(ÍÉEf£¶=Íɺǯ¶=Àº`Øj¾×=ÆÍ EÆf£¶=À¢ 
H>[ÂǶ=b[F¢b[ɯ£¶=Í ²fU>ÿº¼i>®¼Èf³¶=bF¢buÍÉEد¾×=L>²fƒ= 
(Īǫ[[q¼É[[Ÿ¿JEO[[£F¶=Hh[[U?b[[E´¶d[[²Æ*K·[[nª>[[ÿ³¶Æ­=Ç[[n¶= 
*ÄÉ·¢Hد¾Ø¶vVJ¶=Æ 
¼Èf[³¶=b[[F£EÍ[[U>{Þ¶¸[[»£¶=›ÁÇ[[ɺǯ¶=ÆÁÇ[[ÉN£F¶=b[[€==d[[³ÂÆ 
¤[ªaËd[¶=f[q>¿¶=bF¢¼Ã»¢aÆ(½-515Í¿iðØ£ªĶ>ÉJ¦==ǶÆ>UÆ(¼i>® 
Ëf[[rºÄ[[É¿Q3,,,¨[[·Fºb[[Èfªb[[É=b[[F¢a=b[[§E›Ëf³[[j£¶=Ä[[¯V·º 
µ=d[J®ÆO[£F¶=HhUfiº?Åf²c>™ð>¯F{´¶cƹ>ÉJ¦×=ÍÉ·»¢¸ÉÃjJ¶ 
*K·nªͶÆ>=À³¶Æ(Ëb£j¶=>qÊ·¢ 
(¼[[i>®¼Èf[[³¶=b[[F¢b[[u¤»RJ¶>[[EÍÉ[ i>Éj¶=ÏÇ[[¯¶=Lf»J[[i=¼[[M 
œ«¿[¶=L>²f[mÆ>[ɾ>ìÈfEÆ>[²º?À[º¸[²¸[F®ÀºÏǯ¶=ÅdÂK»¢àaÆ 
¸[[]aÆ(fN²@[[ªf[[N²?eÇ[[ºÙ=K[[»®>«IÆ(>[[ÃI=g>ÉJº=Ð>[[§¶CGF[[jEÌef[[vJ™=
-/4  

KVF[q?Æ(¼[i>®¼Èf[³¶=b[F¢Ð=b[¢?f[N²Æ(¸[Fƒ=b[mÍ[F£¶›a=f²Ù= 
*bÈb‚=Hد¾Ø¶ð>º>“Ìð @Éú­ÆfŸ¶= 
O[£F¶=HhU½>®OÉU½-52/>Fm4›¤®ÇJ™=Hد¾×=Sv¾Æ 
Hد¾>Efq>¿¶=bF¢ÀººÇ¢bº­e>¢½Øj¶=bF¢Ìa>ɯEÍɺǯ¶=Ïǯ¶=Æ 
¸[ɳ¿J¶=ƐɢÇÉ[n¶=°V[iƼ [i>®¼Èf[³¶=bF¢¸J®‘CÏa?¬ 
É¿¢ËǺa 
6H 
Ø[¯¾×=¥Ç[®Æb[£EO£F¶=HhUfiº?Ëb£j¶=>qÊ·¢¹>®*¼ÃE 
›ÁaeÙ=´[·º[jU´[·™=¹>[®Æ(Ê [²º?e>ì¯E¼³ƒ=‘C>¿ÒQb¯¶ 
6>ð¯E>[i½=f[ÂÙ=Ìb[ÈfQf[Èf€kÉÑe¸³É¿jUb»†Ä£º>Â=fQ?Í·E>¯º 
b[®½-52/>F[m4›±=f[£¶=›Ïf[Q>[ºÁC´[¶¹Ç[®?Á?Ê[¶X= 
À[ºð>[ìÉ·]HØ[¯¾×=¹>[QeÁ>²Æ*Í ɲºÙ=L=e>F^Ji×=¼¢bEʟU 
Á?Ä[¶ð>[£®ÇJºÀ[³È´¶d[¶Æ(h[É·ˆÝ=¤[ºÏf[]?Æ>³Èfº?¤º jIâÏÇ® 
*f]Û=η¢­f{G·§IÁÆaf»JjÈ 
Ëb£[[j¶=>[[qÊ[[·¢Ìa>[[ɯEÉ[[N£F¶=À[[ºHØ[[¯¾×=G[[ÉIfIb[[¯ª 
L×>[QeÀ[º¼[¦ÆÈf³J¶=Á=afUÆf³F¶=ÀjUb—?Æp>»¢ËbÃºÆ 
(¼[¦ÆÎ[Ɍ fÂ>[{Æ­e>[¢½Ø[j¶=b[F¢Ìa>[ɯEÉºÇ¯¶=ÀºÆ(hÉ·ˆÝ= 
*>²º?ÄÑ=eÆÀºÆfq>¿¶=bF¢η¢ÁÇEÇj†Ð×ÖÂÆ 
­ØJ[[]×( 
É[[N£F¶=ƐɺÇ[[¯¶=Ð>²f[[n¶=[[E­Ø[[]¸[[rU¼[[M 
b[F¢½>[¯ª*¼ [³ƒ=L>ÉUØ[qη¢(ÍɶÆb¶=¼ÃI=Ð×ÆÆÍÉi>Éj¶=¼ÃI>Â>= 
¼[³U?Æ(Ä[¿ºÈf[q>¿¶=Hçf[®ÆÍì·[j¶=ÀºÉN£F¶=Ð>r®DE­e>¢½Øj¶= 
Hf[¯JÈÆ(¼[³ƒ=Gɶ>[i?›f[q>¿¶=b[F¢ʲ>Œ?bEÆ(Íì·j¶=η¢ÄJvF® 
HØ[¯¾×=ÁÇ[ÉN£F¶=¹Æ>[U¼ÃÑ>[r®Cη¢ð=aeÆ*Ä I>i>Éi¤ºÎ{>£JÈÆ(Ä¿º 
½>[¢›Ä[EÍ[U>{Ý==ǶÆ>[UƼÂ=Ç[®¤»|=Æ?b Fª(­e>¢½Øj¶=bF¢η¢
-/5  

2,,¹>[[ieC‘Cf[[q>¿¶=b[[F¢¥e>[[iÆ(X[[vJª=¼Âf[[º?À[[³¶(½-520 
Í[¶Æ>†´¶d[EK·[nªÆ(­e>[¢L=Ç[®¼¢b[¶±=f[£¶=‘CËfrºËf³j¢ 
b[F¢Ìa>[ɯEÉºÇ[¯¶=¤[ºÁÇ«¶>[VJ™=ÁÇÈfq>¿¶=ӪDzÆ(ÍÉEد¾×=ÉN£F¶= 
*ÍÉ®=f£¶=ͺdzƒ=›ÌbÈbQÍÈe=gÆGÑ>¯U¼ÃV¿’­e>¢½Øj¶= 
(ÌfÑ>[{Pa>[}­e>¢½Øj¶=bF¢›ÇI½-522½>¢Á>jɾ-/›Æ 
›F[²eÆa>[³ÈfºÙÁ>[²Æ*± 
=f[£·¶ð>jÉÑe À—f¶=bF¢ÄÉ]?GÉr¿IÆ 
X·[rÈ×ÆÍÉ[r^n¶=¬É£[uðØ[QeÁ>[²=d[ÂÀ—f[¶=b[F¢À³¶(ÄFÉr¿I 
XF[q?Æ(­e>¢½Øj¶=bF¢Ì>ªÆd¿ºeǺÙ=KEfìu=b¯ª=dÆ*Íi>Éj·¶ 
>[r¶f¯J[i=Á?‘CÍ[ɳÈfºÙ=ÆÍ[ÈhÉ·ˆÝ=Ëb[ÈÙ=Ä·®>¿JI±=f£¶=›cÇ«¿¶= 
ÁÇ[¶=Ǚ=ÁÇ[ÉN£F¶=¼[³ƒ=Î[·¢fìÉ[iOÉU(-524gǓ Hد¾>EhÉ·ˆÝ= 
*jU½=bqÄFÑ>¾Æf³F¶=Ìa>ɯEhÉ·ˆÞ¶ 
½=b[r¶Íì·[j¶=À[¢¹g>[¿J·¶f³F¶=fìu=L=Ç¿ifn£E´¶cb£E¼M 
ÍÉ¿ºÙ=Ïǯ¶=¤–Æ(ĶÇUÀºO£F¶=HhUÏÇ®¤–¥>ìJi=Ëd¶=jU 
ÏÇ[[¯¶=h[[²=fº¤[[ɖÎ[[·¢Î[[v®Á?b[[£E½=b[[r¶eÇ[[ºÙ=Lf¯J[[i=Æ(Åb[[ÉE 
Á=f[ÈC¤[ºHf[U›[jU½=b[q¸[]a´¶cb£EÆ*Í ¶Æb¶=›ÍÈf³j£¶= 
Hf[ƒ=Lf»J[i=Æ(É[»„=ÌeÇ[NELefvI¶=Íɾ>ìȶ=>r™=À¢ÍE>ɾ 
*kE>ɶ=Æfv]Ù=K·²?L=Ç¿iʾ> 
>Ã[·JU=ÆKÈdz¶=buÌbÈbQð>EfU½=bqz>]½-55,½>£¶=›¼M 
Åd[ÂÁÇ[³IÁ?´[¶cÐ=eÆÀ[ºb[ÈfI>ɾ>ìÈf EK¾>²Æ(½>£¶=´¶c¬Éq› 
>Ã[·É»¢g=f[EC¹ÆÙ=6À Èf[º?>[°[¯Œð>[uÆ>«Ib[QÇIœ§uÍ·ÉiÆHfƒ= 
*Í [¯ì¿™=›>[ɾ>ìÈfEh[²fºÏÇ[¯Èʶ>[J¶>EÆÍ[¯ì¿™=›Ëǯ¶=¸Qf¶=½=bq 
*S É[·„=›cÇ[«¿¶=Æœ«¿[¶=›>[³ÈfºÙðͲe>[nº>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ»vIÁ?ʾ>N¶=Æ
-0,  

Äɪb¢=ǯ¶=Ð>¿EÆSÉ·„=η¢c=ÇVJiضÍRU´¶cÀºLd=>³Èfº?À³¶ 
(>Ã[j«¾>[ɾ>ìȶÆ?>[¼Ã¿[º¸[É»£ ¶=(Ä[º>³Uη¢ÆÄ쫾η¢ÌfìÉj¶=Æ 
¼[·ªÊuÆ>«I¸Ua>‹C>ɾ>ìÈfEK¶Æ>Ub®Æ*K 
Èdz¶=fÈf€Í£ÈedE´¶cÆ 
ÌbÉ[iXF[rIÁِ¿[id[¿º>[Lb[¢?>³ÈfºÙðÍqfªK¾>²¸E(¤ìJjI 
ðÍ{ [nº¬¶>[VJ¶=›>[ãºK[·]a>ûɻ[rI>[ɾ>ìÈfEL?e>[™Æ*SÉ·„= 
Hfƒ>[ª(K[Èdz¶=ÀºÄQ=f]C¸E±=f£¶=›¼³ƒ=η¢Ð>v¯¶=½b¢>ÃÉ·¢ 
=d[³ÂÆ*´ 
[¶cÎ[·¢±>«I×=b®Æ*>ð¿·£ºÁ>²>»²KÈdz¶=fÈfVJ¶Ê 
Í[ÉF¿QÙ=¹Æb¶=ÀºðͶÆaMØM±Çª¼ä u>ð«¶>€>³Èfº?La>¯ªHfƒ=L?bE 
½>[[£¶=›K[[Èdz¶=À[[ºÄ[[Q=f]ݱ=f[[£¶=Í[[Ee>Í[[·É»£¶=Í[[ÉEf£¶=¹Æb[[¶=Æ 
×Ç[¶a=b[§E\>[JƐjU½=bq½>Ÿ¾œ¯jIÁ?>²º?La>²Æ(½-55f[[Èf€Ê[[ÂðÍ[ ¿·£ºK[[¾>²[[¶=Í[[Rƒ=Á?ÆÍ[[q>~Æ(>[[ɾ>ìÈfE¤[[º>[[î>«I= 
Ð>[v¯·¶¹>=ĶK²fIÆ(½>Ÿ¿¶=η¢Ð>v¯¶=À¢K«®ÇI=d³ÂÆ*KÈdz¶= 
>ºb[¿¢HÙ=pÇ[EÁD[ª´¶d[¶Æ*Ä [»³Ub [ua=f²Ù=ÆÍ£Én¶=µf€η¢ 
G[·{Ʊ=f£¶=lj½b¯JÈÁ>²Ëd¶=­ 
dzjIe=ÇmÊ ³ÈfºÙ=¹=f¿‚>E¸rI= 
×ËbÉ[i%¹>[®ÆÊ[³ÈfºÙ=¹=f[¿‚=o[Âað=eÇ[ªH>V[j¾×=Ƭ®ÇJ¶=Ä¿º 
Î[·¢>¿É[v®Æa =b[§E>¿·[qÆÁdz¿[iL>¢>i¹Ø]Æ°Ñ>¢Ë?>¿º>º?bQÇÈ 
$=ðeÇ[ª¤[Qe=(>[êf£I×eǺ?µ>¿Â%6Ø
ð Ñ>®ÄÉ·¢aepÇEÀ³¶$½ =bq½>Ÿ¾ 
½ =b[qÐ>[¯EK·§J[i=b[®>[³Èfº?Á@[Eð>»·¢*>ɾ>ìÈfE¤ºͯ«r¶=‘CÌe>mC 
$À [ºÛ=%cØ[™=>[³Èfº?ίFJ¶Ê®=f£¶=½>Ÿ¿¶>ESÉ·„=¹Æa$¬Èǁ%[¶ð>¯U× 
HÇ[¿‚=›ËÇ[QfŸU°{>¿ºa>‹ÝðÍRUð>vÈ?ÅÐ>¯EK·»£Ji=>»²*¼ 
*ľ=QÆÄÉ¿{=Ǻη¢ð=ÇQÐ=bJ¢×=ÀºÄ£¿ºÍ£ÈedE¹>»n¶=Æ 
f»Ji=Æ*Ä ɪ¼³ƒ=>¯iCÀºð×bE±=f£¶=Ìfq>V’K«J²==d³ÂÆ
-0- 

‫ﺍﳊﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺑﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪٢٠٠٣‬ﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻣـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻼﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﺳـﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻣـﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴـﺔ ﲢـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺑﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﳝﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺃﻭﱃ ﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺿﺨﻢ ﲤـﺖ‬
‫ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨـﺴﻴﻖ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳉﻨـﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻴﻤـﻴﲏ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳـﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜــﲑ ﻟﻮﺿــﻊ ﺃﺳــﺲ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴـﻴﺎﺳـﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﲑﻛـﺎ ﻛﺪﻭﻟـﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﻀـﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﻔـﻮﺫ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﻭﺛﲏ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﲢـﺪﻱ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺣـﺰﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻋـﻦ ﻣﺮﻛــﺰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﻀـﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊـﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑـ "ﺍﻟـﺴﻼﻡ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ" "‪ "peace through strength‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟـﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻭﺛﻴﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺘﺎﻏﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٢‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻚ ﺗﺸﻴﲏ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺖ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻪ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٩٧‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﻝ ﻭﻭﻟﻔﻮﻭﻳﺘﺰ ﻭﺩﻭﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﻔﻴﻠﺪ ﻭﺩﻳﻚ ﺗـﺸـﻴﲏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﲰﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸـﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ ﻭﺿـﻌـﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻬـﺎﺋﻲ ﺑـ "ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ"‬
‫)‪(project for the New American Century‬‬

‫‪١٤٢‬‬ 

Á =Ç[¿£E.,,,»JF[i›LebqͯÉMÆ›Ð>Q>»²¥Æfn™==dÂÆ 
ea>[r™=ÆÍV·[j™=L=Ç[¯¶=ÆL 
>ÉRÉI=[i×=6>[²º?L>[¢>ªaÐ>[¿EÌa>¢C 
bÈb‚=Áf¯·¶ 

    
   
     

6ʶ>J¶>EG¶>ìÈ 
HÇ[¿Q›Í[ɲºÙ=L=Ç[¯¶=f[n¾Æ>ÃɪHǦf™=¦Í»Ÿ¾Ù=ɧI 
ea>[[rº›¼³VJ[[¶=Æ*œ 
[iÆÙ=±f[[n¶=Æ>É[[iAœ[[iÆÆHÇ[[¿Q(>[EÆeÆ? 
° [ɯVJ¶Í[ÈÆÇ¿¶=Í V·[iÙ=½ =b^J[i=Í[ɾÆÐ>v«¶=Ìf³j¢Æ ( >£¶=›Í®>ì¶= 
*ÍɲºÙ=­=bÂÙ= 
Á?À[¢b [¶=e>ÂËb¾>[q>[ÿ¢K« [n²[¶=ͯÉMǶ=´·ILe>m?Æ 
Á>[²?Ð=Çiaǯ¢Ìb£¶Æ S É·„=η¢ÍÈf³j£¶=ÌfìÉj·¶Kìì]pÇEÌe=aC 
Á?ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=η¢ľ?ͯÉMǶ=›Ð>QÆ(×½?¼³ƒ=›jU½=bq 
e™=Êì£È±=f£¶=¤º­Ø„=Á?Æ*S É·„=Àº?›²?>É»Ñ=a=eÆaG£·I 
*SÉ·„=›¼^uʲº?Ëf³j¢bQ=ÇJ¶ 
Á>[[²Æ(¸ [F®À[[ºÍð ¢Ç[uǺK[¾>²±=f[[£¶=Æh[¦Í[[ì]ÁD[ª´¶d[¶Æ 
.,,-+5+--P=b[U?LÐ>[QÆ(´[¶cd[É«¿J¶­Æf[Ÿ¶=@ÉÃJIÁ?HÇ·ì™= 
*ÍEÇ·ì™=ÍFi>¿™=Íqf«¶=ÁdzJ¶ 
>[[ØJU=¸[[F®Î[[JU´¶d[[¶Ð=Ç[[QÙ=Ó[[ÉÃI>[[³Èfº?L?b[[E=d[[³ÂÆ 
6Íɶ>J¶=¸U=f™>EÍÒÉÃJ¶=ÅdÂLfºÆ*Á>Jj¾>§ª? 
e>ºb[[¶=ÍV·[[iÙ±=f[[£¶=µØJ[[º=Ç[[ÂÅÇ[[»¢gGF[[i¼[[Â?Á>[[²b[[¯¶ 
Á=f[ÈCƱ=f[£¶=f[²cÆ(f [n¶=edžÀ¢OÈbƒ=ÍÈ=bF¶=K¾>²=d*¸º>n¶=
-0/  

.,,.ʾ>[[N¶=ÁǾ>[[²›pÇ[[E‘a?O[[ÉU(Ä[[ɪeÆ>[[†Íɶ>»[[n¶=>[[ÈeÇ²Æ 
*f [n¶=eÇ[V’Íɶ>»[n¶=>[ÈeDzÆÁ =f[ÈC(±=f£¶=ÀºØ
÷ ²Ä ɪ¬qÆXÈfrJE 
¸º>[n¶=e>ºb[¶=ÍV·[i?Ð=eÆœ¯ªΣjI× P 
ØN¶=¹Æb¶=Á ?pÇE­>u?Æ 
›kÉ[¶Àºh[¶=%6p 
Ç[E¹>[®*ÉE>ÂeÝ=‘C>ÃÑ>ì¢DEÍɾ>ÃÈb¶K¾>²>”CÆ 
*° [ªÙ=›¤»RJIL=bÈbÃJ¶=>»¿ÉEÌbÈbQP=bU?¥Ç®ÆfŸJ¾?À¶(>¿ƒ>q 
*$>£¶=›ÍV·i?fì]@E>¾abÃÈÁ?>£¶=›½>Ÿ¾fì]ÙX?À¶ 
¸]b[J¶>EÍ[ɾ>ÃÈb[¶b[QÇI×Í[ɳÈfºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=Á?½Ç[·£™=À[ºÁ>² 
lfˆÇ[³¶=‘C¹Æ>[EÀ¶Ç²Ìa>ªC›Æ*Íɶ>»n¶=>ÈeDzÆÁ=fÈC›Ëf³j£¶= 
>[ÈeDzÆÁ =f[ÈCÁ@[nE¹>[®f[n¶=eÇ [†À[¢pÇ[EOÈbUÀº¢ÇFi?b£E 
aÇ[¾*¹ Æb[¶=Åd[Âb[uHf[U›Ðb [F·¶Í[ì]µ>[¿Âb[QÇÈ×%6Íɶ>»n¶= 
>[㿙Íɶ>»[n¶=>[ÈedzEÍ{>U×=aǾ* 
J¶Æb¶=I>¤ºe=ÇU›¹Ç]b¶= 
Í[Ee>Í[ì]>¿Èb[¶b[QÇI×Æ*>»ÃÉ·¢œ§v¶>E½Ç¯¿iÆÍV·iÙ=fn¾Àº 
*$Á=fÈC¤º¥=h¾›¹Ç]b¶=Æ?Íɶ>»n¶=>ÈeDz 
>[[ÈeDzÆÁ =f[ÈC¬É[vÈÀ [E×=pÇ[EK[·£Q[[¶=H>F[iÙ=¼[Â?>[º? 
­b[òœ[¯ª±=f[£¶=fÞ?=cCľ?>Æ@ª(f n¶=edž›±=f£¶=‘CÍɶ>»n¶= 
¼ ëàÉ[i´¶d[EľÙ*œÉì^J¶=ÆÍi>Éj¶=ÍÉU>¾Àºð=fvºÁdzÉi´¶cÁDª 
>[º‘Ce>[Ÿ¾Ù=¸²>ÿÉUÄQÇJJiƽ=äbqη¢Ìh²fºÍɳÈfºÙ=Ìe=aÝ=Á? 
Ê[³ÈfºÙ=½>[£¶=Ë?f[¶=½ >[º?pÇ[EÌe=aCXFrJiÆ*±=f£¶=›pÇEÄ·£«Éi 
Á=f[ÈCÀ[¢P 
b[€ǶpÇEÁ?>Ãɾ>MÆ*G£q¤uÆ› 
ʶÆb¶=½>£¶=Ë?f¶=Æ 
Ìb[ÈbQÍÉFÉ·[qH 
f[U>[þ?¼[ëÈÁ@E×ð >»JU=µ>¿ÂÁDª±=f£¶=¤º>ÂbUÆ 
?b[FÈÁ?¸[F®»·[j™=aØ[E›pÇ[F¶G[¢>Jºb[QÇÈb®>º( 
»·j™=η¢ 
[¦>[þÙ(Ìe>[J^™=Í[ɶ>N™=Í[¶Æb¶=ÊÂ>ÈeDzK¾>²´¶d¶*± 
=f£¶=HfU
-00  

La=e?>[³Èfº?Áä ?‘ 
Cðͪ>[uC(>[³ÈfºÙÆb£²eÇç rIà>þ?G¾>Q‘CÍ»·åjºà 
´ 
¶d[EÆ*>É[iÆeƐ[r¶=>[ÃE¸§[nIÁ?Íɶ>»n¶=>ÈeDzÍ ÃFQ 
^jI˼ 
Hf[U¹Ç[F¯¶Ê [³ÈfºÙ=½>£¶=Ë?f¶=>ðÒÉúfn¶=edžÀ¢pÇEXÈfrIÁ>² 
*fn¶=edžη¢Ð>v¯·¶Í·»J† 
×Ä[¾?Ƹº>[n¶=e>ºb[¶=ÍV·[iÙ±=f[£¶=µØJº=À¢OÈbƒ=Á>²¼M 
ÉE>ÂeÝ=¤º°j¿Èľ?Æ(ÄF£mbu>÷»£Ji=b®Çê(>>»£Ji=À¢¥eÇJÈ 
Ìe=aÝ=H>[ì®?À[ºL>Œf[rJ¶=L?b[EÆ*¼ ÃÉ[¶CÍV·[iÙ=Åd[¸[¯¿Èb®Æ 
­=bÃJ[i=›GF[j¶=Á?k[È=eK 
[¿·¢?b[¯ª´ 
[¶c¹Ç[U‘=Ç[JIÍɳÈfºÙ= 
Í[™>žÍ[»Ÿ¾?µ>¿ÂÁä ?XÉVq¼£¾*** >ž½>Ÿ¾±=f£¶=%6´ 
¶d²Ç½=bq 
½>[Ÿ¾(Ä [¶ÌeÆ>[=¹Æb[¶=η¢ËbJ£È½>Ÿ¾±=f£¶=À³¶*** >£¶=›Ïf]? 
Í[¶Æa b[QÇI×( Í[¯ì¿™=›>[³Èfº?Ð>[«·UÆÍ[ɳÈfºÙ=>r™=a bÃȼ[¶>[ž 
œ[iÆÙ=±f[n¶=› 
ÉE>[ÂeÝ=bÉÈ@JE½=bq½>®6¤ Éu=Ǚ=ÅdÃE±=f£¶=ÄFnI 
½>[®Æ(É¿Éì[j·«¶=Èe>[VJ¾Ø¶¹=Ç[ºÙ=Ð >[ì¢DE½>[®ØN[º(>¿Ñ>®b[q?bu 
×*$K[[Èdz·¶Ä[[Ie>Èg›HÙ=pÇ[[E%Ê[[³ÈfºÙ=kÉÑf[[¶=¹>[[ÉJ¦=Í[[¶Æ>V’ 
ÍV·[[i?¤¿[rE½=b[q¬
å [J³È(Í[[¶ÆaË?›½=b[r¶ÄE>[nºkÉ[Ñeb[QÇÈ 
zeÙ=Ä[QÆÎ[·¢Í[¶Æab[QÇI×(>vÈ?>ú=b^Ji>E½>®¸E¸º>n¶=e>ºb¶= 
*$*ÄE>nº¸£«EKº>® 
Ïb[¶¸º>[me>[ºaÍV·[i?À ¢ô¹>¢LÇrE¼·³JIp 
ÇEÌe=aCK¾>² 
K[¾>²*´ 
¶d[EÊ[³ÈfºÙ=½>£¶=Ë?f¶=Æ>ÃÑ>«·U¥>¿®C¹Æ>€K¾>²Æ½=bq 
À[ºÊ[½.,,.e=cAl 
e>[ºÆ.,,-Ê ¾>[N¶=ÀÈf[nI »ªÇ[¾E>ºÌ«¶= 
›ÁÇMb[VJÈÀÈd[¶=Á>²*± 
=f£¶=η¢Hfƒ>Ee=f¯¶=c>×Í >ƒ=¸U=f™= 
K[º>®[¶=LØÉ[·VJ¶=η¢ÁÆb»J£È¸º>n¶=e>ºb¶=ÍV·i?À¢pÇEÌe=aC
-01 

‫‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ )‪ ،(CIA‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺩﻣﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺭﻳﻌ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﻴﺊ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺍﺀ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﺩ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ ﳝـﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺰﻣـﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﳜﺸﻮﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺩﻣﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﳎـﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻳﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻥ )ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ( ﻣﺼﻠﺤ ﹰﺔ ﺣﻴﻮﻳ ﹰﺔ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺻﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻺﺭﻫـﺎﺑﻴﲔ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺍﻋﺘـﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻭﻭﻟﻔﻮﻭﻳﺘﺰ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ ٣‬ﳐﺎﻭﻑ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺻـﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻻ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻨﺤﻪ ﻟﻺﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳉـﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ‪ ...‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ‪.(...‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﺩ ﻳﺮﻛﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺻـﺪﺍﻡ ﻷﺳـﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ )ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﲔ( ﻟﻴﻀﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﺳﻴﻨﺎﺭﻳﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ‪) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ﺻـﺪ‪‬ﺍﻡ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﺒـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﻸﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻣـﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﺭﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﻔﻴﻠﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﳒﺮﺱ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺏ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫‪١٤٦‬‬ 

e>ºb[[¶=ÍV·[[i?¹>»£J[[i×>[[³Èfº?Í[[ÃQ=ǺËa>[[«IÆ(Ïf[[]?»JF[[i-b[ÈbÃJ¶=¸[ÂͶ@[jºo®>[¿¾Á?>[¿ÂËeÆf[v¶= [¦À[ºÆ*>Âb[u¸º>n¶= 
Ð>[v¯¶=ǼÙ=*ÍÉE>ÂeC͢ǻ…½?ÊE>ÂeC½>Ÿ¾¸Få®ÀºÁdzÉiÊE>ÂeÝ= 
Ä [Èb¶±=f[£¶=Á?ÇÂĪf£¾Ëd¶=fºÙ=***ÅebrºÁ>²ð>È?bÈbÃJ¶==dÂη¢ 
Î[·¢¹Ç[rV·¶Ä É£[iG¾>Q‘CÍÈÆ>»É²ÆÍÉQǶÇÉEÍV·i?͟V·¶=Åd› 
*$ÍÈÆǾÍV·i? 
f Ã[mb[£EË?Á >J[j¾>§ª?Î[·¢½Ç[R=Ð>[ÃJ¾=À[ºÍ[·É·®¤ÉE>i?b£E 
*ʳÈfºÙ=¹>»¢Ù=¹ÆbQl?eη¢± 
=f£¶=KVFq?»jÈa¹ ÆÙ=ÁǾ>² 
Í[ÒÉÃJ¶>Âb[ÃQK[·»¢´¶d[²Æ(>[ÃɪÍ[É·]=b¶=Ð=Ç[QÙ=>[³Èfº?L@ÉÂb® 
Ä[[¾?Æ(¸º>[[me>[[ºaÍV·[[i?±=f[[£¶=µØJ[[º=Í[[R}(>ð[ɶÆaÍ[[¿³»™=Ð=Ç[[QÙ= 
*$ÉE>ÂeÝ=%‘C>ÃEfjÉi 
[UÀºÄÉ·¢b²ÖIK¾>²f]Að>ªbÂeǺÙ=Åd>³Èfº?Kª>u?¼M 
Hf[§¶=Ìe>[vUf[n¿¶(Í ɺØiÝ=ͯ쿻·¶Ëe>vƒ=¥=fr¶=ÇÂÆ(U‘C 
´¶d[[E¼[[þ?Á>[[³ÈfºÙ=À[[žÆ*l>[[¿¶=¹Ç[[¯¢›½Ø[[iÝ=¸[[†¸[[VJ¶Ä[[ɪ 
ͦ>É[r¶ÁÆe>[J[¶=¼É[·£J¶=Sº=f[E¤[uÆÆÍ«Ñ=h¶=¼Ã»É®fn¾ÁÇ£ÉìJjÈ 
À[¢OÈb[ƒ=À[ºÁÆf[N³È=Æe>[qÆ*Í [¯ì¿™=›Í[¯UØJ™=¹>[ÉQÙ=¹Ç¯¢ 
´[¶cÐ=eÆÀ[ºÁÆbÈfÈÆ(Á>j¾Ý=±Ç¯UÆÌ?f™=³“ÆÍÉ{=f¯•b¶=ÆÍÈfƒ= 
*Í [¯ì¿»·¶$ Í ÒÉ[v™=%¼É¯¶=Åd¸¯¿¶°Èf{ľ?η¢±=f£·¶¼ØJU=fÈÇrI 
¸[Ñ=Æ?d¿ºÄɪ=Ç·§Jm=Ëd¶=$F³¶=œiÆÙ=±fn¶=%¥ÆfnºÁ>²>¿ÂÀºÆ 
¬[rJ¿º›ʾ>[»N¶=ÍÉ¢>¿[r¶=¹Æb[¶=Í[»¯¶Ä[•b¯IÁÇ[£ºhÈÆ(.,,0½>£¶= 
*½ a>[[¯¶=Á=f[[ÈhUf[[]=Æ?¹ÇF¿ì[[i=›Ê[[j·{Ù=¬[[·Uf“Ö[[™Æ(Á=f[[ÈhU 
a>[‹Ýͯ쿙=›ÍÉEf§¶=¼É¯¶=fn¿¶ð=h²fº±=f£¶=¸£QbÈfI>³Èfº?K¾>²Æ
-03  

(¼ É[Ÿ£¶=>úØ[iCÇ[‰Í[ºÙ=Ä[QÇI½>[º?ð>[¯Ñ>¢¬[¯IÍvÈfºÍÉi>ÉiͯF{ 
KVF[q?[¶=(Ìb[m=f¶=Ï ¬Ú^^†@Í[¶ÆaÍ[º>®DEÍɺØ[iÝ=>[ÃI>ÉU­>¿ÒJ[i=Æ 
½Ø[iÝ=Hf[UÆ>ÃEfƒÁÇììOÉU(>³Èfº?Äi?eη¢ÆHf§¶=kQ> 
*¤®=Ƕ=›ðÍ·M>ºbQÇIÁ?¸F®ÎJUÄÉ·¢½Ç¯IËd¶= 
À[ºs·^J[¶=6± 
=f[£¶=Î[·¢>þ=Æb[£¶Ð=Ç[QÙ=>³Èfº?L@ÉÂ=d³ÂÆ 
Í[[ÉEf§¶=¼É[¯¶=ÆÍ[Èfƒ=ÆÍ[É{=f¯•b¶=Ôa>[[Fºf[n¾Æ(¸º>[n¶=e>ºb[¶=ÍV·[i? 
>[[³Èfº?K[[·JU=Æ.,,/+/+-5›Hf[[ƒ=L?b[[EÆ*Í[[¯ì¿™=›Ìb[[i>«¶= 
½>[[Ÿ¿¶=Á>[[²O[[ÉU.,,/+0+5›Ê [ f¶=½>[[Ÿ¿¶=Î[[·¢Ð>[[v¯¶>E±=f[[£¶= 
*$a >[Â=%>ú>¿[iÌÆecÀ[¢Æ Í[ºÙ=Ìb [ɯ¢À[¢Åa>[£JE×Ä·]=a›ð>ºÆhú 
>[³Èfº?K[¿žÆ*Í É[jÉÑf¶=µ e>[£™=ÍÈ>þÇÂ.,,/+0+/,Á?pÇEÀ·¢?Æ 
Àº>÷Âc?>’KÒQǪ>ÿ³¶Æ(L 
f¯Ji=ÆLg>ªb®½>Ÿ¿¶=η¢>ÃÑ>v¯E>þ? 
Ð=b[¢Ù=>[ÃIǯEbÃ[mðÍ[«É¿¢ðÍ[ºÆ>¯º(¹ØJ[UضÍ[ɶÇìF¶=»·j™=ͺÆ>¯º 
±=f[£¶=°{>[¿ºÊ®>[EƬ[R¿¶=ÆÍ[QÇ·«¶=P=b[U?Æ*¼ ¦¸F®Á>³ÈfºÙ= 
¼É·[jJE¤Èf[jJ¶=¹Æ>[€>[³Èfº?K[·£QÍ[Qeb¶(´ 
¶d[E°[ì¿IÍÉUbÂ=Çm 
œ§[[v¶=¬[[É«^J¶(±=f[[£¶=›Í[[Èh²f™=>[[ÃI=fE>‡ÐØ[[»£¶ðس[[m$Íì·[[j¶=% 
pÇ[ÉQ¹>[]aÝb[ÃQ¸[²>d[E‘Cͪ>[uÝ>E(>ÃÉ·¢ËÇ¿£™=ÆËf³j£¶= 
>[»²Ê[j·{Ù=¬[·U ¹>]aCK¶Æ>UƸE(± 
=f£¶=›>Âb¾>jIÏf]?¹Æa 
Íì·[j¶=¼É·jJ¶ð=b¢ÇºÁ=fÈhUf]A¸£QLef®b®Æ*Á >Jj¾>§ª?›K£¿q 
Ëd[¶=>[îg@ºÀ[º>Âd¯¿É[i=d[ÂÁ?>[ÿºð>[¿ž(± 
=f[£¶=›>ÃÑØ»£¶ðسm 
*ÄɪK®f¦ 
Íì·[j¶=¸¯¿E°·£JÈ>™ʲºÙ=lfˆÇ³¶=½>º?¼ÃI>U>vÈCe>{C›Æ 
Í[ÉQe>„=Ìe=gÆ›e>[F²Á ǶÇÒ[jº¨·E?.,,0gǓÀº¹ÆÙ=›É®=f£·¶
-04  

[¶=Ìb[Èb‚=Í[ɶ>¯J¾×=ÍÉ®=f£¶=ͺdzƒ=Á@Elf§¾Ç³¶=JɲºÙ=¥>ªb¶=Æ 
[[E×C¤[J»JIÀ[¶¸[F¯™=$g Ç[“%Ç[ɶÇÈÀ[º¹ÆÙ=›>[ú>ú‘ÇJIÁ?fŸJ¿È 
L=Ç[[¯¶=Î[[·¢Íì·[[i>ÃÈb[[¶ÁÇ[[³IÀ[[¶Æ(aØF[[¶=Î[[·¢ÌaÆb[[†Ìa>É[[i 
*µ >[[[[¿ÂÌaÇ[[[[QǙ=¬¶>[[[[VJ¶=¹ÆaÆÌb[[[[VJ™=L>[[[[È×Ç·¶ÍÈf³[[[[j£¶= 
f[ÈgÆb¢>[jº¹>[®`ÇÉ[n¶=k[·…›ÍV·j™=L=ǯ¶=Í¿‚½>º?Ìa>Ãm›Æ 
L>[È×Ƕ=ÁC6Á >[Æf¦µe>ºÍÉQe>„=fÈgƸɲÆÆhJÈÆÇ «¶ÆƹÇE¥>ªb¶= 
k[·…Åf[®?Ëd[¶=Í[ɶ>¯J¾×=Ì«·¶ͶÆb¶=Ìe=aCÁǾ>®GQǒ¸»£IÌbVJ™= 
ÀÈf[nI%fEÇJ²?›ʶÆb¶=ÀºÙ=k·…Åebq?Ëd¶=e=f ¯¶=Æ(Ê ®=f£¶=¼³ƒ= 
Ìa>[[¯¶=‘CaØF[[¶=›À[[ºÙ=Ìe=aCX ¿[[•£Èf[[nJ¶=Ø[[²Æ*Ê[[u>™=$¹ÆÙ= 
Í[ºÇ³ƒ=‘=Íì·[j¶=¸[¯¾Í[É·»¢¬[qÇI>[»¿ÉEÆ* 
É[²ºÙ=Èf³j£¶= 
>[þ@E>ë[qÆÁ>[Æf¦Á>[ª(Í [·º>³¶=Ìa>É[j¶=X¿[º>þ@EÍɶ>¯J¾×=ÍÉ®=f£¶= 
¼[[ºÙ=e=f[[¯EÆ***Ê ¶>[[¯J¾×=ÁǾ>[[¯¶>EÌaÆb[[† >[[þÙÌaÆb[[†Ìa>É[[i 
¼[ºÚ¶½>[£¶=[ºÙ=PÇ[£Fº­f[nÉiÍ[ɶ>ƒ=Í[ì„=G[QǒÆ*ÌbVJ™= 
L>[ji֙=fÈb[IÍ[ɶ>¯J¾=Í[ºÇ³U¸É³nIη¢Ê»ÉÂ=fEÝ=fv]Ù=ÌbVJ™= 
Í[É¿{ÆÍ[É£–H>[^J¾×°[Èfì¶=Ó[ÉÃIÆfÃ[m?ÍJ[iÌ«¶ÍÉ®=f£¶=Íɺdzƒ= 
¥Æf[nº©ÇrIÆÍɾ>MͺdzUe>J.,,1$Ê ¾>N¶=ÁǾ>²%f È>¿È›Íɶ>¯J¾= 
Í[J®Öº >[Âe>FJ¢>EÇ[ɶÇÈÀº¹ÆÙ=ͺdzUhJÈÇ«¶ÆƬqÆÆ*¼ Ñ=aeÇJia 
a =b[¢Ý=Ç[ÂÍ[É»Â?f[N²Ù=À[³¶Æ***L 
=e=gǶ=Ìe=aC >ÃJ»ÃºÆ¸º>³¶>E 
Í{f[n¶=ÌÇ[®fÈbJ[i(´¶cÀ¢Øvª(ͺdzƒ=Á?­>u?Æ*L>E>^J¾Ø¶ 
>[É£ÉF{kÉ[¶¤uǶ==dÂÁÙ(ÍɲºÙ=ÍÈh²f™=Ìa>ɯ¶=¤º°Éj¿J¶>EÀ³¶Æ 
‘C¹=Ö[j¶>Ef[¾e=ÆÁÇ[QËeÇ[û‚=eÇI>¿[j¶=Ä[QÇIÆ*Í ÉU>¿¶=ÅdÂÀº 
¸[¯¿¾>[¿¾DªÁcC ØÑ>[®gfÈ>ºae>nJÈe¹=f¿‚=Ͳn™=Á>²eÙ=ÍÒÉÂkÉÑe
-05  

*Ê [²ºÙ=b[Ñ>¯¶=bÉE° ·ìº¸³nEίFIÍÈf³j£¶=L=e=f¯¶=À³¶ÆÌa>Éj¶= 
*XÉVq=dÂ(¸Q? gfÈ>ºH>Q@ª*; ´¶d²kɶ? 
ÌÇ[[®Ð>[[n¾C‘CÍ[[ɺ=f¶=aÇ[[Â=Î[[·¢ÐÇ[[v¶=>[[ɯ·ºhJÈÆÇ[[«¶Æƹ>[[®Æ 
Á?b[Èf¾Æ?À[³•>ÒÉ[mK[jɶÌa>É[j¶= ÁC6µ >[¿ÂÌF²ÌbÈbQÍÈf³j¢ 
K[€L>É[j¿‚=Ìab[£JºÌÇ[®À[º=Ðh[QÁdzÉ[i±=f£¶=Àº?ÁC*ÅbÉ£Jj¾ 
*ÍÉ®=f¢L=Ç®´¶c›>’(Íɲº?Ìa>É® 
[¶=Ìb[Èb‚=Í[É®=f£¶=ͺdzƒ=Á?ÀºÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=LedU>»² 
>[ÃÉ·¢£J[Èb[®gÇ[“Ç[ɶÇÈÀº¹ÆÙ=›±=f£¶=›Íì·j¶=‘ÇJIÁ?fŸJ¿È 
*­ØJÑ×=L=ǯ¶>ÃI>ÉUØqx£EÀ¢Ê·^J¶= 
Á?ËeÆf[v¶=À[ºÄ[¾C¹Æ>[EÀ¶Ç[²Ê [³ÈfºÙ=Í[ÉQe>„=fÈgƹ>®Æ 
*ÍɳÈfºÙ=Ìa>ɯ¶=K€>ú>Ò½>ɯ¶=­ØJÑ×=L=Ç®¸q=ÇI 
Á?G[‹Ä[¾C6Ð >[F¾Ú¶gÈÆeͶ>²Æ¤ºÍ·E>¯º›¹>®b®¹Æ>EÁ>²Æ 
>[ºÏb[£JÈb[®´[¶cÁCÆ(Í[ɳÈfº?Ìa>[É®K[€¸»£I¬¶>VJ¶=L=Ç®¸ŸI 
ͦ>É[q¼J[IÁ?¸[º@ÈÄ[¾?6¹ Æ>[E­>u?Æ*Í º>J¶=Ìa>Éj¶=x£F¶=ÄÉ·¢°·ìÈ 
*ÌbVJ™=¼ºÚ¶e=f®›¸Éq>«J¶=Åd 
É®=f[[£¶=‘C(>þǻ[[jÈ>[[»²(Íì·[[j¶=¼É·[[jIb[[¢ÇºH=[[®=¤[[ºÆ 
Í[QÇ·«¶=e>[rU¸[žÊ[«ª(Í[ºÆ>¯™=Æ ¹ ØJ[U×=[EL>[ÃQ=Ǚ=KºbJU= 
¹ØJ[U×=Á?¼ [¦eÆ(Ë 
b[Ù=oÉ[Qe br¶=e>r¾?¤ºL>ÃQ=Ǚ=K£¶b¾= 
ÍÉ£É[m­=f[{?ÆÍ¿[j¶=Ð>[»·¢ÍÒÉÂÆ Ê ®=f£¶=ʺØiÝ=Hhƒ=¸]bIG·{ 
À ºG·ìEÍ{>iÇ·¶ʾ>JjÉj¶>²ÍÉ£Én¶=L>É£Qf™=x£EÆÌÇ¢b¶=HhV² 
(¹ ØJ[U×=¤ºebr¶=e>r¾?¤ºÆÍQÇ·«¶=ʶ>Â?¤ºÍ ¾bÂb¯£¶Äj«¾f•fE 
f »J[i=Í[QÇ·«¶=›Í[¾bÂaÇ[QƼ[¦eÆ(Ä {Æf[mη¢fq?¹ØJU×=À³¶
-1, 

‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﲝﺸﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﺗﻪ ﳊﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﻣﺼ ‪‬ﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺣﻞ ﻣﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎﺗﻪ "ﺟﻴﺶ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﳎﻲﺀ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻻﺣﺘﻼﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﺬﺍ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﺍﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺸﺊ ﺣﻜﻮﻣـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﻄﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﻷﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻣﱪﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﲤـﺎﻡ ﻣـﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﺴﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﳛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺃﺩﱃ ‪‬ـﺎ ﻭﻭﻟﻔـﻮﻭﻳﺘﺰ ﺃﻣـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﳒﺮﺱ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ »ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﲢﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ«‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻣﲑﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﰲ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﱄ‬
‫ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻗﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﲤﻮﺯ‪/‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻣـﲏ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺍﳉﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﺭﻳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺩ ﻣﺎﻳﺮﺯ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﺵ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ "ﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ ١٣٠‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺟﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺳﺒﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺜﻒ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺸﻴﺔ ﺿـﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣـﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻟﺘﻬﺪﺋﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻄﺶ‬
‫‪١٥١‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻨﻜﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺟﻨﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﻠﻜﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺐ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺩﺑﺎﺑﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﰲ ﺩﺑﺎﺑﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻣﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺟﺔ ﺗﻮﺃﻡ ﺟﻨﲔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳍﺠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻣـﺖ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺿﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺸﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﺸﻔﺘﻪ ﻭﺳـﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻔﻄﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻛﺎﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺿـﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻇﻬـﺮﺕ ﺑـﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺰﻋﻤـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ )ﺳﺘﺤﺮﺭ( ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻋﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻛﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ ﻣﺘﻬﺎﻭﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﻓﻜﺮﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺘﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ﹰﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺍ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻛـﺸﻔﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺭﺟـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻗﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻻ ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟـﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺟﱭ ﺭﺟﺎﳍﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻫﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﻀﺎﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻊ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﺩﻡ‬
‫)ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ( ﻟﻦ ﻳﻨﻘﺬﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻏﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ ﻟـﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻘﺬﻫﻢ ﺩﻫﺎﺀ ﺳﻔﲑﻫﻢ ﳒﺮﻭﺑﻮﻧﱵ ﺍﳌﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ ،٢٠٠٤/٦/٣٠‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻫﺎﻗﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﻥ ﳒﺮﻭﺑﻮﻧﱵ ﺳﻔﲑﺍ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻟﻴﺸﻐﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﳝﺮ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻻﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﻟﻘﻤﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬
‫‪١٥٢‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺆﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺠﺮﻭﺑـﻮﻧﱵ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻔﲑﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻭﺗـﻮﺭﻁ ﻭﺑـﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﰲ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰ »ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،«٣١٦‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﰲ ﻫﻨـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻧﻐﺮﻭﺑﻮﻧﱵ ﰲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﱃ ﻣﺌﱵ ﻣﻨﺸﻖ ﳑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺭﺿﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ ﻛـ »ﺣﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠـﺔ ﻟﻠﻐـﺮﻕ« ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﺎﺿﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎﺕ »ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﺘﺮﺍ« ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻧﺪﻳﻨﻴﲔ ﰲ ﻧﻴﻜـﺎﺭﺍﻏﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻧﻐﺮﻭﺑﻮﻧﱵ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﻐﺮﺱ‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﲝﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚـﺮﻱ ﰲ ﻫﻨـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺗﻮﺭﻃـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻴﺤﺔ »ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﻮﻧﺘﺮﺍ«‪ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻗﺮ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﺘﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻻﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻗﺼﺎﺋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺼﺐ ﻋـﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻤﻪ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣـﻪ ﺍﻟـﺴﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻫﻠﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻔﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺣﺎﻛﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻹﺳﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻧﻐﺮﻭﺑـﻮﻧﱵ ﰲ ﻫﻨـﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺪﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺵ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﳌﻨﺼﺐ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺤـﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺇﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ »ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻴﺒﺔ ‪ «٣١٦‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻧﺴﻮ ﺩﻳﺴﻜﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻔﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻐﻞ ﻣﻨـﺼﺐ ﻧﺎﺋـﺐ ﺳـﻔﲑ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺭﺍﺱ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺷﻨﻄﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺣـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟـﺪﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﻴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺳﻔﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺰﻣـﻊ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨـﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟـﺸﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺨﻠـﻒ ﺑﺮﳝـﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻜـﻢ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻕ ﻓﻴﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫‪١٥٣‬‬ 

*ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ç·¶ð>=ð=«iƱ=f£·¶ðØ£ªð>»²>U 
›>ê¯Éi¶=¼Ñ=f‚=eÇrIÀ³•eDzd™=¸Qf¶=¤®=ÆÐÇuη¢Æ 
*ĶÁÇìì>»²±=f£¶=¸F¯Jjº)=X×) ʯEÁC±=f£¶= 
gÇ[ª¹>UÍɲº×=Íi>Éj¶=›§IË?µ>¿ÂÁdzÈÁ?b£FJj™=ÀºÆ 
° Ñ>[¯V·¶?f[Ÿ¾.,,0ʾ>MÀÈfnI›Í ºa>¯¶=ÍÉi>Ñf¶=L>E>^J¾×=›Ë² 
>[š>[£¶=Î[·¢>Ã[j«¾zf[«IK[¶=g×Æ K 
[ufª[¶=ÍÉi>Éj¶=L>É죙=Æ 
Á>»j¶ÇÂÁÇQ¹>®*Í ɶÆb¶=Íi>Éj¶>E°·£JÈ>»ÉªhÑ>«¶=L=e>É]ÀºbVÉi 
Î[·¢Hf[[ƒ=›¿[[M×=[[E±f[[«¶=Í[[Ÿª>=Tb[[ÉJÈÂÍ[[jiÖº›¸[[·= 
Í[Qea›±f[ªµ>[¿ÂÁÇ[³Èb®*l 
>¿¶=¼Ÿ£ºb¯J£È>š=N²¸®=H>Âe×= 
Î[·¢Ä[¾=G[¾>Q=ÁÇÉi>ºÇ·EaÆÁÇ··†¹Ç¯ÈÆ*½ >£¶=fÂǂ=›×Ìbn¶= 
b¢>rJ™=¬¿£¶=¸NºÍÉi>Éj¶=°Ñ>¯ƒ=Á=×=Sÿ¶=›L>ªØJ]×=Àº¼¦f¶= 
(ÌaÆb[=ae=Ç[™=Æ( >[£¶=Ð>‰=›Ìf»Jj™=ÀÈabnJ™=L>»RÂÆ(± 
=f£¶=› 
L>[i>Éizf«J[i[¶=Ê[Â(¸ ]=b[¶=›½>£¶=Ë?f¶=Æ(l 
f§¾Ç³¶=ÍFɲfIÆ 
*˲Æ?pÇE 
Ìe=aÝ=Î[·¢¹>[ƒ=Í£ÉFìEzf«ÉiÍɶ>ƒ=Ìe=aÝ=ÄE½Ç¯I>ºÁ?>»² 
L>[i>Éj¶=›F[„=kÉ[ÂÀ«ÉJ[iÄ[ɶCe>m?>º=dÂÆ(Ìab†=eǺ ?ͺa>¯¶= 
×*b £[rº¸[]=a>[£¶=ÆÍ[ºÇ³ƒ=¹>[®cC(h [§¿É²ÆfEb[㺛ÍÉi>Ñf¶= 
*>¿ÂTf]@i¾?b¯J¢?¹Ç¯IÆÍ{>jFE¬®ÇJIÁ?´¿³• 
Ë[[²Á=6g ÈÆf[[¶pÇ[[EkÉÑf[[¶=Ìe=a>[[E°E>[[i¹ÆÖ[[jº¹>[[®Æ 
(p 
Ç[[E¸[[£«È>[[šf[[N²?H>[[Âe×=Î[ ·¢ Í[[É·¢>ªf[[N²=>[[EfUÀ[[ [nÈb[[ [® 
L=b[[ÈbÃI‘=fŸ¿¶>[[E=ðb[[ɯ£If[[N²?>ð[[Rþd[[[^JÈÁ?¸[[»J=À[[ºÄ[[¾× 
¸[[Nº(Í [ »¢>¿¶=ÌÇ[[¯¶=ÆÍÈf³[[j£¶=ÌÇ[[¯¶=[[ETh[[ •>[[»¿ÉE(>ð[ ®>쾤[[iÆ?
-10 

.      
  
!" #$% & ' ! ()* + ,-% 
 
/0 12!0 / $% 3 -% 4%5 6789 ' !  "%
.<)  , :; 1) 
<0JI :D > 
0 %E 0F  GC= 2>? @9A B"
:K)-L ,F % ,MG%
:   
 
! 38J %ST >U 3 2 NQR N ,MG% O7P% >"
#]7%0 : 27M ,R G  X[[\/[\/XY 3 /-V7W %? 3
^)M ,_- !-! >% >!?9FW ` !  Oa QbMA /J c 
0 .«7g>E» '7F de  f ' L9 # 
89 +!- ] 
0 TM  .]7% : 27M 2 h7 i » /G NQR
d0e  1 c l%m W /G n  '» : #«jk hS <77E <=%
,07" 0G Q05  $% >@ 2 p QM #$% 3 `o
,M0G% O7P% %)9F #«2!89 qr , s%RW t 27M
<@P <-MA <ER & '- "  <g> <fv '7F  '» :uP
,0 #$% 3 2 2!89 q # %zG :- w7x hyW &
3 %@9M 
89 #Q{9A | > ' <7o @ 7 #<7 ! <7){9 %=A
h!A n ^"%9 : ,MG% O7P%  .«^)M <7x NMW
:NQ0R 0 .O-> 3 ~9 ! 'E + ,@7%W %}* y  

Ê ¶Æb[¶=À[ºÙ=k[·…›e=f®¥Æfnº¼Èb¯I‘=Êv«JiL>U¯™=Åd 
Åd[¸[ 6Ø 
Ñ>[jJºG[¯¢Ä[¾=[¦*ÌbVJ™=L>È×Ƕ=ÄÉ·¢¸»£I>ºÇÂÆ 
k[·…›Åe=f[®=¼J[ÈOÉ}ËÇ®ÆXu=ÆʶÆae=f®‘=Êv«JiL>U¯™= 
; >[É¢>»JQ=Æ>Èa>rJ®=Æ>Éi>Éi±=f£¶=Ð>¿EÌa>¢×Ìb¢>®ÁdzÈOÉ}ÆÀºÙ= 
¼¢b[¶ÊEÆeÆÙ=a>€×=µ=m>¢a(¸E>¯™>EÆ*´ 
¶cÀº=b²@JºKj¶¾= 
‘ 
=fŸ¿¶>Eľ=¦*b U=ÆLÇrE½Ø³¶= ‘=ÆÌǯEÊ»ÉÂ=fE×=L>U¯º 
=d[Â>[EÆeÆ?°[¯€Á=›ij[mÀ¢Hf¢?(Ä Ñ>v¢?EͪÆf£™=L>ªØJ]×= 
Í ¢>[u= À[ºkÈe>E­Æ>‡Êj¾f«¶=kÉÑf¶=L>ŒfrIk³£IÆ*­b= 
Ìa>«J[i×=Àì¿[m=Æx[ªeÀ[ºÆ¸F¯™=ÇɾÇÈ/,±>¯VJi>EÍ·N»J™=Íqf«¶= 
*Ê [j¾fªeb[rºF[£Ib[UÎ[·¢Ï 
f[]?Íi>ÉiµÇ·j¶ ÍFi>¿™=ÅdÂÀº 
=d[›Æ*µ [nºœ[] ÌeÇ[·EÎ[·¢¶f[EÆb[Èebº¤ºkÈe>E¸»£IÆ 
(ÆI>[E>Mh[ɧÈeaÆeÄÉ[iÇ]ʾ>F[i×=Ð=egǶ=kÉÑeµ=m¸F¯Ji=(e>{×= 
¤[uǶ=¹Ç[U×ð Ç[ìºeÆ>[nIOÉU(>ɾ>™?Àº>ºa>®kÈe>E‘=¸qÆËd¶= 
*eaÆfmae>¦e>nJj™=¤ºÊ®=f£¶= 
ÌaÇ[¢\Ç[uÇEb[²ÖÈð=e=f[®À[ºÙ=k·…οFJÈÁ?›>j¾fªG¦fIÆ 
½>[¢L>[E>^J¾=À[ºÍ[¯NF¿™=Í[É®=f£¶=ͺÇ ³ƒ=Ìeb®À»vÈÆ(Í É®=f£¶=Ìa>Éj¶= 
*b·F¶=Ìea>§’¬¶>VJ¶=L=Ç®ÍF¶>ìºη¢.,,1 
b[Èb‚=e=f[¯¶=ÁÇ»vºÀºÅaØE¬®Çº¤·ìºÊj¾fªebrº\fmÆ 
>ðV[uǺ(L 
>[E>^J¾×=‘=ËaÖÈð>RþabŒÁ=z«ÈËd¶=Æ(À ºÙ=k· 
Á=Æ(ÍɯɯUÁdzJiÍ É®=f£¶=Ìa>Éj¶=Á=η¢e=f¯¶=bÈbnIbÈfI>j¾fªÁ= 
*¸F¯™=$ÇɾÇÈ%Á=fÈhUÍÈ>þØ
ð º>²Æð>®a>qÁdzÉiÍì·j¶=¹>¯J¾= 
¹>[£ªÙ>EÌa>É[j¶=Åd[ÂÀ[º°¯VJIÁ=bÈfI>j¾fªÁ=6e br™=¹>®Æ
-12  

*¼ Ã[j«¾@E¼Âae=Ç[ºÉ®=f[£¶=Ìe=a>[E°[·£JÈ>[º›ð>qÇr](z 
eÙ=η¢ 
[¶=Í[É®=f£¶=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=¹äÇ[Á =kÈe>EÅbÈfIËd¶=ʾ>N¶=fºÙ=Á=­>u?Æ 
Ìab[[£J™=ÌÇ[[¯¶=L>{>[[n¾›f[[Ÿ¿¶=°[[U($Ç[[ɶÇÈ%gÇ[[“¹Æ?b[[£E¸³[[nJi 
L=ǯ¶>[[EÍ[[É®=f£¶=ÍÈf³[[j£¶=ÏÇ[[¯¶=±>[[ƒ=½b[[¢Î[[·¢f[[rIÆ(ÍÉ[[j¿‚= 
(À [ºÙ=k·…e=f®s¾›´¶c»vIη¢ÅaØEe=fq=b²?Æ*Íɲº×= 
*=ðbU¸N•=dÂÁ=‘=ð=nº 
Í[ºÇ³U>[ÿº°[NF¿IL>[E>^J¾=Ð=f[Q=b[£E(b [ÈfI>j¾fªÁ=‘=ÄF¾Æ 
Á=›Í[ŸƒË?›°[ƒ=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=Åd[ÁÇ[³ÈÁ=(Í É¢fmÆÌbÉiÍÉ®=f¢ 
e>[Ʉ=>ÃÈb[¶ÁdzÈÁ=¼Ã™=Æ (Ð >¯F¶=Æ?Ìea>§™=ÍÉF¿QÙ=L=ǯ¶=ÀºG·ìI 
e=f[¯¶=À»[vJÈÁ=b[ÈfI×>[j¾fªÁ=¤E>[IÆ*\ 
Ç[uÇE>[ÃJF¦eÀ¢F£J·¶ 
À[ºÙ=k[·kɶc=(a b†_Èe>I›­ÆfŸ¶=Í£Q=fºÀ¢b¿EË?bÈb‚= 
É®=f[£¶=‘=aÇ[£I[¶=H>Vj¾×=Ͷ@jºKF¶Í£Q=f™=ÅdÂ_Èe>Ief¯ÈÁ= 
>[j¾fª¸[r€¹>[U›6a=gÆ*L 
>[E>^J¾×=À[º°NF¿J[i¶=ͺdzƒ=Æ 
À[¶ÆKÈÇ[rJ¶=À[¢¤¿J»J[i(b [Èb‚=e=f[¯¶=e>[{=›L=bɲ@J¶=ÅdÂη¢ 
*$ÇJÉ«¶=%x¯¿¶=°U½b^JjI 
¬[[®Ç™=b[[ÈÖI(>ɾ>F[[i=Æ>[[ɾ>™=¸[[NºÍ[[ÉEÆeÆ?ð×ÆaÁ=eb[[r™=b[[²?Æ 
¹ÆÙ=6À Èe=f[®eÇ[rJIdz[iǺÁÇ[²(Ð Ê[n¶=x£E¬·JËd¶=ÊiÆf¶= 
Åd[ÂG¶>ìºÍE>RJi=ÍÉ»Â?bɲ@J¶ʾ>N¶=Æ(ÌbÈb‚=ͺdzƒ=¸É³nIe=f®× 
ÍɶÆÖ[j™=>ÃÑ>ì¢×(À ºÙ=k·…›G¶>ì™=ÅdÂη¢KÈÇrJ¶=Æ(ͺdzƒ= 
½=h[J¶=¤[º(b [U=Æe=f[®eÆb[q¸[v«I>[j¾fªÁ=f²cÆ*Ìa>Éj¶=x£EÆ 
*Ìa>Éj¶=ÌaÇ£EXu=Æ 
¥>[uÆÙ=¹Ø§J[i=°[Èf{À¢Á>É£jI>ÉiÆeÆ>j¾fªÁ?Xu=Ƕ=Àº
-13  

Í[ɶÆb¶=Í[i>Éj¶=›É[§IP=bUÝ>EÆeÆ?¼¢aη¢¹Çrƒ=‘C±=f£¶=› 
>[²º?Á?Æ(± 
=f[£¶=b[£E>[™>[²º?L>[ìì^’>»Ã »·£¶´¶cÆ(Íɲº×= 
K[€>[EÆeÆ?¹ÆaÊ®>[EÆ>»Ã £[vÉi>[º(Í [ɲº?Í[¢ehº>£¶=¸£QbÈfI 
Á?À[º>[EÆeÆ?Æ>[j¾fªÀ³»J[IÁ?ÁÆa(Á >[ºh¶=À[ºaÇ[¯£¶Æ >[²º?͗e 
>[[þDª=d[[¶(>[[£¶=›>Ã>[[rºÎ[[·¢Í[[Ÿª>=Î[[JU×Æ(>[[ɶÆa=eÆaG[[£·I 
ÍÉ¢f[n¶=Ê«[vÉiÊ[š?e=f¯E±=f£¶=‘C>É·³mÍì·j¶=¸¯¾Í·®f¢¹Æ>VJi 
¹ÆaÀ[ºL=Ç[¯¶=G·Q>ÃÉ·¢¸ÃjÉiÆ(aǯ£¶Æ± 
=f£¶=›>²º?Ð>¯Eη¢ 
©f[[«JJ¶(±=f[[£¶=›¬¶>[[VJ¶=L=Ç[[®›Ͳe>[[n»·¶>[[¦ÆÍ[[ÉEf¢Ïf[[]? 
$>É[iÆeÆ>[EÆeÆ?¹Æa%>[þDª=d¶(>£¶=›ÍÈf³j£¶=>ÃI>»ÃºÊ®>F¶>²º? 
*±=f£¶=›Íɲº?>r™ÌbVJ™=¼ºÙ=^jIÏa>«JIÁ?¹Æ>VJi 
OÈb[ƒ=¤ÉìJ[jIÎJU¸ÈÇ{e=Çnº>ú>º?>EÆeÆ?Á?Àº¼¦f¶=η¢ 
°[¯€Á=›ijmÀ¢Hf¢?>ºb¿¢µ=mÄɶCe>m?>º=dÂÆ(b U=ÆLÇrE 
¹>[[nªC>[[EÆeÆ?°[[Èf{À[[¢¹Æ>VJ[[i>[[j¾fªÁ?×C(­b[[==d[[Â>[[EÆeÆ? 
>[ÃI>ì쇛>ºb[®Ê[v™=À[º>[²º?¤¿™(± 
=f£¶=›Íɲº×=L>ìì^™= 
Î[·¢>[ž>«UÊ[²º×=Áf[¯¶=¥Æfnº½>“ÝÆ(Í ɲº×=ÍÈeÇ{=ºÝ=Ð>¿F¶ 
>[£¶=¹ÆaË?Æ?>É[iÆeÆ?>[j¾fªÁ?=d[ÂÀ[º¼Ã«È׾?×C*>Ã>rº 
±=f[£¶=À[º>[²º?H>V[j¾C‘CËaÖ[È>[º>IØ[nª>[²º?¸n«IÁ?bÈfI 
ÁÆbÉ£J[jÉi±=f[£¶=›»·[j™=Á?ο£’(Ê Ef¦cÇ«¾Ë?Àº=ef†IJfIÆ 
f[vÈ=d[ÂÁDª×7H 
f§·¶ÐØ»£¶=ÀºÍ¿«U¼ÃÉ·¢œ·jJIÁ?ÁÆa¼Ã¾>ì·i 
>[EÆeÆ?Å>[n>[ºÎ[n]?Áä CcC>[ÃI>ìì‡>²º?¹>»²CÀºfN²?>Ã>r’ 
Á?ÁÆa±=f[£¶=>[²º?µ[IÁ?( >[£¶=›f[n¶=ÏÇ[®¸[²>»²(ÍÉFÉ·r¶= 
>[£¶=À[ºÍ[FÈf¯¶=>[EÆeÆ?ÁÙ(Hf[§·¶ÐØ[»£¶=À[ºÍ¿«UͯEeK€ÁdzÈ
-14 

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺫﺍﻗﺖ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠـﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﻌﲎ ﲢ ‪‬ﺮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﲢﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴـﱯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻻﻭﺳﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗـﻒ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄـﺎﱐ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻬﻘﺮﺕ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲟـﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﲣﻄﻄﻬـﺎ ﻭﺗـﺼﻤﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺬﺋ ٍﺬ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻃﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﲑ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻘﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣـﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻣﱪﺍﻃﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﻋﺮﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴـﺔ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺗﻴﺤﺖ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻻ ﺯﺍﻟـﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻧﺎﻇﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺻﻐﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨـﺼﻴﺐ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔﹰ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﳐﻄﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔـﺴﻪ ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﺮﺻﺔﹰ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ )ﺗﺸﺎﻏﺐ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻓﻌﻠﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﳉﺄﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻻﺳﺘـﺼﺪﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﳚﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻷﻣـﻦ ﻟـﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺗﺸﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺒﺄ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﺟﺎﻧـﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻀﺎﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭﺇﻓﺸﺎﻝ ﳐﻄﻄﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧـﺐ ﺁﺧـﺮ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٥٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻳﺮ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺴـﻠﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺑﻞ ﺗﺴـﲑ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺳـﻴﺎﺳـﺔ‪ِ ) :‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺑـﺮﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﻗـﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ )ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ( ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑـﺸﺄﻥ ﻣـﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺻـﺮﻑ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜـﺎ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﳐﻄﻄﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻓﺸﺎﳍﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺑﻮﺵ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗـﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿـﺮ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻭﺿـﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺑـﺪﺃ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻖ ﻧﻴﻜﺴﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪١٩٧٠‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﱐ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻟﺪ ﻭﻟﺴﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺛﺎﱐ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٦٨‬ﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ ‪ -‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ‬
‫ ﻣﻊ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪١٩٧١‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﻜﺴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﺳﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛـﻴﲔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺗﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻭﺿـﻤﻦ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﻩ ﻋﻘﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺟـﺪﺕ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ‪٢٠٠١/٩/١١‬ﻡ ﻇﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﺒﻮﺵ ﺍﻻﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘـﻴـﺎﻡ ﲟﺎ ﻗـﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘـﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟـﺴـﻴﻄﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻄﻪ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴـﻄـﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔـﻂ ﻣﻌـﻈـﻢ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳋــﻠﻴﺞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌـﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺩﻭﻟ ﹰﺔ ﻗﻮﻳ ﹰﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺳﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﻬﻞ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔـﺴﻪ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻔﻲ ﲟﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻛـﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﻫـﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﺭﺿـﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺻــﺪﺍﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﻮﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺮﺩﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٦٠‬‬ 

(a =f[²Ú¶Á>[ɲa>‹ÝÎ £jIÊÂÆ‘ÆÙ=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ=d¿º>²º@ª 
L>ÈÇ[jIf[MCa=f²Ù=ÍÉv®ÐÇn¾b£E(Á Çj·ÈÆʲºÙ=kÉÑf¶=Ïa>¾b¯ª 
X¿[’Ë>[ifªf“Öº›Ïa>¾(Íɾ>»N£¶=ͶÆb¶=¤Éì¯IÆ(‘ 
ÆÙ=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ= 
( µ=d[¾A‘ÆÙ=Í[¶Æb¶=K[¾>²b®Æ(>ɾ>ìÈfEÀ³¶(r™=fÈf¯I°Ua=f²Ù= 
Á=f[[ÈCÆ>[[ɲfI[[Ea=f[²Ù=°{>[[¿ºK»[[j®Æ(Åd[Â>[[²º?Í[[F¦eK[·Â> 
*K®Ç¶=´¶c›¹>»²Ϋìrº>÷ɻ£¶âÐ>ueC(>ÈeÇiƱ=f£¶=Æ 
¹>[›Íɶ>[r«¾×=Í[Èaf³¶=L>[²fƒ=¼¢b[Ið>[»Ñ=a>²º?K¾>²Æ 
Ìb[U=ÆÍ[¶ÆaaÇ[Qƽb¢ÏfI>²º@ª*>ɾ>ìȶ>ÃÑ×ÆÀº¼¦f¶>E±=f£¶= 
À[ºK[Qf]Á?d[¿º>[Íð ÉRÉI=i=fºÙ==dÂLd=b®Æ*± 
=f£¶=›ÍÈÇ® 
ÄÉ·¢Kuf¢>ÿº¼¢bEÍì·j¶=‘C¼i>®¼Èf³¶=bF¢¸qÆ>ºb¿¢Æ(>ÃJ¶h¢ 
SÉ[·„=Hf[Ub[£EÆ*½ >[j®?Í[MØMÀºÍ«¶ÖºÍÈa>€=ͶÆa±=f£¶=ÁdzÈÁ? 
Í [¿ºÛ=°{>[¿™=aÇ[QÆK[içf³ª±=f[£¶=e>rUÍqfª>²º?K»¿J¦=Íɾ>N¶= 
´¶d[¶*Í [Èaf²ͶÆaa>‹ÝÍð Ò{ÇIÆ(± 
=f£¶=´É³«J¶$Ë 
ǂ=fŸƒ=°{>¿º% 
Í[[É¿Ea>[‹ÝK£[[iÆ(ÌfU>[¿J™=Í[[Èaf³¶=L>[¢>»‚=̓>[[r’>[²º?K[º>® 
a>€×=6 
jÉÑf¶=Èaf³¶=ÉEhƒ=E̓>r™=Íq>]Æ(>ÍÈaf²ÍÈÇì·i 
ͺ>¢hEʾ>Jiaf³¶=Ê{=f¯•b¶=Hhƒ=Æʾ>F¶>ì¶=ͺ>¢hEʾ>Jiaf³¶={Ƕ= 
À[[ºð=aÇ[[ªÆK·[[ie?ÆÌf³«¶>[[E>[[ɲfI¤[[¿¯IÁ?>[[²º?K[[¶Æ>UÆ(Ê[[¾=g¶= 
Í[Èaf³¶=°{>[¿™=›L>[E>^J¾×=Í[É·»¢K[¢e¼[M(zf[§¶==dlf§¾Ç³¶= 
*Á>™¶=>Ãi?eη¢Æ>ÃɪͶÆaÌhÃQ?kÉi@J¶ 
Ê[²ºÙ=L=e>F^J[i×=k[·…kÉ[ÑeGÑ>¾ÇÂÆ(f¶Æ>ª½>Â=f¦¹>® 
‘C¼[j¯¿ÈÁ?G[‹±=f[£¶=ÁC6½-552HA›(± 
=f[£¶=ÁÆÖ[n¶°E>j¶= 
>[º?Æ*Í [Èaf²Í[¶ÆaÍ[º>®Ý>[ÃJì]η¢Í»»rº>²º?Æ***½ >j®?ÍMØM
-2-  

‘CÄ[JºÇ³UÄJ·[ie?Ëd[¶=°E>j¶=ÍÉQe>„=fÈgÆb¢>jºµÆ¶ÇÂae>nJÈe 
›Ê[[[²¶=kÉÑf[[¶=¸È•b[[¶¹>[[®Í[[ɲºÙ=Ìf³«¶>[[E>[[â>¿®Ý>[[ɲfI 
6¸ [È•aÄÉ·¢aeÆÊ ¶=eb«¶=¸ƒ=DZ=f£·¶¸vªÙ=¸ƒ=6½-551+5+1 
*>ɲfI¹>ìIÊÂƼÉj¯J¶=£IÍɶ=eb«¶= 
lØ[¦Æa\ 
fqb¯ª*ÌǯE¼Éj¯J¶=Ìf³ªze>£I>þDª>ɾ>ìÈfE>º?Æ 
Å>[ÍV[u=Ƕ=>¿J[i>Éi6ʾ>[ìȶ=Í[ÉQe>„=ÁÆÖ[n·¶Í[¶Æb¶=fÈgÆ©Ç 
Í[Èaf²Í[¶Æa½>É®‘CʺfIͶÆ>†ÍÈ?¤ÉRnIÆ?bÉÈ@I½b¢η¢½Ç¯I±=f£¶= 
±=f[£¶=Ð>[¯EÌeÆfvEÀºÖ¾>¿¾CÆ(ÍɶÆb¶=ÅaÆb}±=f£¶=ͶÆa¸]=aÍ·¯Jjº 
Í·³nº¸UÁ@EÀºÖ¾À‰Æ(Ä»Éj¯I>¿I>ɾ>³ºC¸³Eze>£¾Æ(ÌbUǺͶÆa 
À[[‰Æ(ÊI=d[[¶=¼³ƒ>[[E¤[[J»JI¼[Í[[¯ì¿ºÍ[[º>®DEÀ[[³š±=f[[£¶=›a=f[²Ù= 
Í[ºÇ³U¤[º­Ø[]Î[·¢>[¿²=cCÆ(¥Ç[uǙ==d[›µ=fIÙ=¤ºÁǯ«Jº 
*±=f£¶=¼Éj¯I›G¦f¾>¿¾?£È×´¶cÁDª½=bq 
Í[[i>Éj¶=¤[º¬[¯I>Ã[[·£>Ã>[rºÁD[ªe=Ç[[‚=¹ÆaÆ>[ɲfI>[º?Æ 
Í[ÉQe>„=Ìe=gƐ[º?¹>[®b[¯ª(±=f[£¶=¼Éj¯I¤¿º‘CʺfI¶=Íɾ>ìȶ= 
Ä[É«ª***Í[Èaf²Í[¯ì¿ºľ?η¢±=f£¶=¹>¬Èf£I@ì„=ÀºľC6Íɲ¶= 
*Á>»²¶=Àº¬¶?ÍÑ>ØMÆÁ>¾ÇÉ·º 
±=f[£¶=›>[¤E>[J¶=¼[³ƒ=k[·…Æf[•fE¹Ø[]À[º>²º?¹Æ>€ 
K[€(Í[·ÈhÂL>[¾>ɲ‘CÄ[¯Èh»J¶Í[Ò{ÇIa=f[²Ù=¤[uÆÍÉqÇr]Ì>¢=fº 
›¼[ÂÆ%a=f[²Ù=Lb[¢Æb[®>³Èfº?K¾>²Æ*Í ɶ=eb«¶=Æ?a>€×=λjº 
l>[i?η¢Í£iǺÍɶ=eb«E¼ÃIb¢Æ$½ =bqbâ›±=f£¶=Te>]Íue>£™= 
Ê[v®>[»·ª(Ä[É·¢âÐ>[¿EÆ*Í ·¯J[jºͶÆaÌ=ǾÁdzIƵDzf²¸»nIʺǮ 
¼[uÆb[¢Ç¶==d[Âd[É«¿J¶Í[É·»¢L=Ð=f[QCc>[=a=f²Ù=¹Æ>U½=bqη¢
-2.  

>[³Èfº?Á?×C(½=b[qb[â›K¾>²¶=ÊI=d¶=¼³ƒ=ͯ쿺‘CµÇ²f² 
Á @[nE±=f[£¶=›ÀÈf[]Û=>ÃÑØ»¢ÀºðÍue>£ºLbQƱ=f£¶=¹ØJU=b£E 
L>ÉUØ[rEͯE>[j¶=ÊI=d[¶=¼[³ƒ=Í[¯ì¿ºÍÈǯJEK«J²=´¶d¶*µÇ²f² 
¼ ³ƒ=k·…Ä£uÆËd¶=eÇJib¶=›´¶cη¢sÉr¿J¶=Æ(>Îì£IÌfMÖº 
À[ºÁÇ[j»„=ÆÍ[N¶>N¶=Ìa>™=Kçr¾b¯ª(Á >²=d³ÂÆ*>³Èfº?L>F¦e°ªÆ 
›¸[É»£¶=¼[³ƒ=k[·…Ä[É·¢°[ª=ÆÆf[•fEÄ£[uÆËd[¶=Ê®=f£¶=eÇJib¶= 
Ê[u=eÚ¶Í[Éf¶=Í[ºÇ³ƒ=>ÃJ«[rEÁ>J[iaf²ͺdz}­£àÈ 6$?%Ìf¯«¶= 
(½.,,/e=cA-5›ÌeDzd[[™=Í[[ºÇ³ƒ=¸[[F®À[[ºe=b[[IK[[¾>²[[¶= 
{Ç[¶=k[·=[£ÈÁǾ>[¯¶==d[›ae=Ç[¶=Á >Jiaf²ͺdzUX·ìrºÆ 
¼É[·®C›Í[ɻɷ®Ý=ÍÉÑ>[v¯¶=Íì·[j¶=ÆÁ>Jiaf²Ð=egÆk·…Æ(ʾ>Jiaf³¶= 
Ìf[¯ªÁÇj»„=ÆÍ£E=f¶=Ìa>™=Kçr¾Æ*Í ¶Æa¸]=aͶÆa>þ?Ë?(Á>Jiaf² 
X»[[jÈ(Á>J[[iaf²¼É[[·®C›Í[[Èa>€×=¾=Ç[[¯¶=°[[ÉFìJE°[[·£JÈ>[[»Éª6$H% 
¸[]=a¾=Ç[¯¶=´[·IÀ[ºË?d[É«¿I¸Èb[£JEʾ>J[iaf³¶={Ç[¶=k·R»·¶ 
*; ÁdzÈÁ?Å>j¢=c>»ª¹>r«¾×=ÇÂ=dÂÀ³ÈÁCÆÁ>Jiaf²ͯ쿺 
(¹ØJ[U×=H=f[UK[€G[Jî²Ëd[¶=)Í [•f‚=) e ÇJib¶=ÇÂ=d 
ÅÇì¯jÈÆÁ=ÆÙ=L=Ǫ¸F®Åfº?ÁÇr·^™=±=f£¶=Ð>¿E?µe=bJÈÁCËd¶=Æ 
=ÇU>[JQ=>ºb[¿¢(e>[JJ¶=>Ãç¿[i[¶=$° [i>F¶=%¾=Ç[®¸[F®À[º=Çì¯i?>»² 
gÇ[¿²ÀºL>{Çì^™=Èؒ=ǺeÆ(>ÃɪkE>ɶ=Æfv]Ù==Ç®fU?Æ(a=b§E 
‘C±=f[£¶=±h“>’eÄ{>¯iÝ=Ç¢e>jÈÁC(Í·Qafþ›ÍɺØiÝ=ͪ>¯N¶= 
f[³ª¸[²S[Èƶð>®Ç[iÆ(a>[j«·¶ð>[£IfºXF[q?Æ(ÌfU>¿JºÍ·ÈhÂLØÈÆa 
*ĺ>³U?Æf«³¶=e>³ª?Àºc>mÆf³¿º¼³U¸²Æ(­fV¿º 
Íæ [º?À[ºÐhQ¼Ãª(=Ç»·jJjÈÀ¶Æ(=Çi@ÉÈÀ¶±=f£¶=›»·j™=Áç C
-2/  

Ê[²ºÙ=¹ØJ[U×=ÁCÆ*Ìb [¢ð>[¾Æf®>ɾb[¶=La>[i(ÍɺØ[iCÍ º?(ͯÈf¢ 
±e>[[nº›ÍɺØ[[iÝ=Í[[ºÙ>ª(f[[r®½?Á>[[ºh¶=¹>[[{(¹=Æg‘Cʾ>[[ìȶ=Æ 
(b[[Èb‚=Ê[[²ºÙ=e>»£J[[i×=[[¾À[[º±>[[J£¾Ø¶h[[«VJI(>[[ÃEe>§ºÆzeÙ= 
Á>ì·[j¶==d[ÂƐ¾=ǯ¶=ÅdÃFª(ʺ=fQÝ=ľ>ì·iÆ( Ìfª>³¶=ÌfÑ>‚=Ŀɾ=Ç®Æ 
×Lf[ߪ(>êf[m´[JÂÆ(>ÃJ[vÉEÍU>FJ[i=K“Æ(ͺÙ=Í®fªîkÈf³I 
Í[Eǯ£E›Æ(Ð ØEf[²ÆÍ[QÇ·«¶=›» ·j™=XEc›Ìfª>iÍÉnUÇEÄJɾ>j¾C 
Ä[J·º>£º¹Ø]Àº¼m>§¶=f»£Jj™==dÂÌe>vU¾fÞÆ(¬R¿¶=Æa=b§EÆ 
>[f£[n¯I[¶=Í[·º>£™=´·I(GÈf¦ÇE?ÀRi›É®=f£¶=ÏfiÚ¶Ìed¯¶= 
Åd[[¾f[Þ(>ë[qÆÀ[¢À[j¶Ù=¸RÆ(HÇ·¯¶=>¤·^¿IÆ(Á=bEÙ= 
Ð=Ç[QÙ=Ú[“ÆÍ[ɲºÙ=½Ø¢Ý=¸Ñ>iƤR£ 
U›(Í nUÇJ™=Ìe>vƒ= 
* ÌaǢǙ=ÍÈfƒ=ÆÍÉ{=f¯•b¶=À¢OÈbƒ>E 
½>[[³}Í[[ɾ>»N£¶=ÍɺØ[[iÝ=Í[[¶Æb¶=Ç[[¯[id[[¿º±=f[[£¶=Ê[[·JE=b[[¯¶ 
f»£J[j™=fª>[³¶=¼ÃF[çr¾ÐØ[»¢½>[³U(®ò>£¶=ÄÑ>¿E?ÀºÀÈbj«ºÀÈbi>ª 
z
ß e?Í[[jR¿¶=É¾>[[ìȶ=½=b[[®?K[[Ò{ÆÁ?d[[¿»ª(É[[®=f[£¶=H>[[®eÎ[[·¢ 
K[€ÁÇUgfÈÆÁÇ¿Òȱ=f£¶=›ÁÇ»·j™=Æ‘ÆÙ=Íə>£¶=Hfƒ=½>È?±=f£¶= 
ÐØ[[»¢Æ(h[[É·ˆÞ¶ÐØ[[»¢½>[[³UÀ[[ºÍ[[¾Ç„=e=f[[mÙ=b[[ÉF£¶=Ð×Ö[[ÂÌ@[[{Æ 
(Í[¯ì¿™=›>[³Èfº?>rºÆ>ɾ>ìÈfE>rºÁÇI?›±=f£¶>E=ÇäQg(>³ÈfºÙ 
¼ÃI>[¢Ç»…[E½Ç[»=¥=fr·¶ÍRÉJ¾±=f£¶=Ð>‰?¤É–›G¢f¶==Æfn¾Æ 
¥=fr¶==dÂÍRÉJ¾Á>²Æ(Íì·j¶=η¢ÍÉN£F¶=Æ Í Èfq>¿¶=ÆÍ É¢ÇÉn¶=ÆÍɺǯ¶= 
>[Ãɪ=ÇM>[¢Á?b[£EH=f[]‘C>[ÃJ¶>UCÆÍ[¶Æb¶=ºb[IÍì·[j¶=Î[·¢fÈf™= 
Ì[j™=Åd[Âb[£E±=f[£¶==Æa>¢?¼M(Ð>ºb¶=ÀºN³¶=>Ãɪ=dz«iÆ(ð=a>jª 
À[ºð>[º>¢¾>[Í·É[rVª*b ÈbQÀºfm>F™=e>»£Ji×=‘CÍ·ÈÇì¶=ÍÈǺb¶=
-20  

¼[M[ªÆGÈd[£IƸ[J®Æe>[ºaÆH=f[]6Í {>[jFEÇÂÐØ»£¶=Ð×Ö¼³U 
*fm>F™=e>»£JiضÍɾ>MÌaÇ¢ 
À[ºÌf[Èf™=Ìf™=ÍEfRJ¶=ÅdÂÁC*a >rƒ=ÇÂ=dÂÆÍ·Érƒ=ÊÂÅd 
Ø[ª(>[ÃIeÇì]µ=eaCÆ(Í[ºÙ=¸[F®À[ºð=b[ÉQ>ÃE>£ÉJi=G‹±=f£¶=_Èe>I 
a>[‹C›¸[N»JIÁ?G[‹>ÿºÌa>«Jj™=Ì£¶>ª(½=f³¶=çfº>ÃÉ·¢f”Á?gNj 
Í[ÉEÆf£¶=ÆÍÉ¢ÇÉ[n¶=ÆÍ[ÉN£F¶=ÆÍ[ɺǯ¶=L=e>ÉJ¶=¸n«Eͯ·ì™=Æͺ>J¶=Í¢>¿¯¶= 
H=h[UÙ=ÆL>[²fƒ=Åd[¸[Nº‘CÁÇ[²f¶=½b¢Æ(ð>É£ì®ðØnªÍÈfq>¿¶=Æ 
Åd[Âb[¿¢Í[¶>»£¶=Á@[E¥>[¿J®×=G[‹¸[E(e>[³ªÙ=Åd[¸[NºK[·—¶= 
=cCÆ*>[vÈ?Í[Èf³ªÍ[¶>»¢Ê¸E(G 
jUÆÍÉi>ÉiͶ>»¢KjɶL>²fƒ= 
ÌaÇ£¶>E×CzÇÿ·¶>ú>º?¸ÉFi×>Âb¿£ª(ͺÙ=b¿¢Í¢>¿¯¶=ÅdÂLbQÆ>º 
¸³[n¶>E½Ø[iÝ=‘C¥Ç[Qf·¶¸ÉF[i×Æ(›>[r¶=¤[F¿¶=´[¶c½ØiÝ=‘C 
(ÍɺØ[iÝ=Í[¶Æb¶=Í[º>®C×C¸[»JŒ×Ëd[¶=Ê[i>Éj¶=ο£™>[E×CXÉVr¶= 
›Æ±=f[£¶=›»·[j™=s[·Á?>ÂeÆb¯’œ¯ªͶÆb¶=ÅdÂ(Ï ¬Ú^^†@ͶÆa 
*¯ª>¿™=Ɛ™>Ÿ¶=ÆÐØ»£¶=ÆÀÈf»£Jj™=e>«³¶=ÀºÍɺØiÝ=aØF¶=fÑ>i

-21 

‫ﻣﻠﺤـﻖ‬
‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻊ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ - ١‬ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻤﺮﺩﻭ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ )ﻧﻴﻔﺎﺷـﺎ(‬
‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪٢٠٠٤/٥/٢٧‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺎﺕ ﺇﻃﺎﺭﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺮﺩﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻴـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺇﺑﻴﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﹰﺎ ﻳﻌﻘﺒﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺀ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺗﺒﻌﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ - ٢‬ﺻﺪﺭ ﰲ ‪ ٢٠٠٤/٦/٨‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ‪ ١٥٤٦‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﻮﺫﻫﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ )ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﹰﺎ( ﻭﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻧـﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﺘﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﲝﺠﺔ ﲰﺎﺡ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﳎﻠـﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺳﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻨـﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻘﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ! ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﲰﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ )ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ( ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ - ٣‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤـﺎﱐ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﺭﻭﺳـﻴﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺳﻲ ﺁﻳﻼﻧﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻗﺒﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﺭﺟﻴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺛﻼﺛـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ )‪ .٢٠٠٤/٦/(١٠ -٨‬ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯﻭﻩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ )ﺭﺗﻮﺵ( ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٦٦‬‬

‫‪ - ٤‬ﰎ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ )ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ( ﺭﲰﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪٢٠٠٤/٦/٢٨‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﳝﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﻤ‪‬ﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻏﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺋﻴـﺴﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ )ﻣﻨﺼﺐ ﺭﻣﺰﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺎﺩ ﻋﻼﻭﻱ ‪ -‬ﻋﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﺋﻴﺴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ )ﻣﻨﺼﺐ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻗﺼﲑ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺎﻝ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﺸﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌـﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﺍﳉﻮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ )ﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ( ﺑﺮﳝﺮ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻷﺷﺨﺎﺻﻬﻢ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺳﻴﻮﻓﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﻟﻐﲑﻫﻢ ؟!‬
‫ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪١٦٧‬‬ 

H>[J³¶=L>ÈÇJ† 
/ ****** ******************************** Í[ºb[¯[º 
1 * ******************************** [ì[j·ª$-% 
-4 ********* ÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ÍÉv¯¶=›¸]bJ¶=›pÇEͺdzUaafIO 
K[£uƹÇ[·È?+»JF[i--P=bU?O 
-5 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ÍÉ«·„=­Çªf¶=›ÍÉ¿Éì[j·«¶=ÍÉv¯¶=  
-5 ************ H>ÂeÝ>EÍÉ¿Éìj·«¶=ͺÆ>¯™=¬rI$¸ÉÑ=fiC%O 
0- ** ******************************** »[n²$.% 
14 ******************************** Á>[nÉ[n¶=$/% 
20 ****************************** ʲºÙ=¬[®Ç™=O 
23 ****************************** ÊEÆeÆÙ=¬[®Ç™=O 
3- ******************************* Á>[J[j¾>[§[ª?$0% 
43 **** ******************************** t®$1% 
--, ************************** $HÇ¿‚=%Á=aÇ[j¶=$2% 
-/. *** ******************************** ±=f[£¶=$3% 
-11 ************************ ÊiÆf¶=ÆÊEÆeÆÙ=¬[®Ç™=O 
-15 ***************************** ʾ>[ìȶ=¬[®Ç™=O 
-22 ******* ******************************** °[V·º

-24 

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful