Ill

lu\A:ukl
lA:Dl··l
IllkD lDlIl·:
A GuIDI 1G cGMPGs1ING HuMAN MANuRI
by Joseph Jenkins
ÌSBN-13: 978-0-9644258-3-5
ÌSBN-10: 0-9644258-3-1
Library of Congress Control Number: 2005902104
Copyright 2005 by Joseph C. Jenkins
All Rights Reserved
Portions of this book may be copied and distributed with-
out permission as long as a) the information is not
changed, b) the publishing source is credited and c) the
distribution is not for profit.
Published by Joseph Jenkins, Ìnc.
PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127 USA
Phone: 814-786-9085 · Web site at joseph-jenkins.com
Please address all retail and wholesale book orders to our distributor:
Chelsea Green Publishing,
PO Box 428, White River Junction, VT 05001
Toll free: 800-639-4099 or 802-295-6300
Printed with soy ink on recycled paper processed without chlorine.
HUMANUREHANDBOOK.COM
This is the third edition of a self-published book. No respectable publish-
er would touch it with a ten foot shovel. Nevertheless, the book has now
been sold in at least 57 countries worldwide and has been published in
foreign editions on four continents. Ìt has been talked about on NPR,
BBC, CBC, Howard Stern, in The Wall Street Journal, Playboy Magazine
and many other national and international venues. For more information
about this and the author's other books, visit the publisher's website at:
joseph-jenkins.com.
Cover art and most of the cartoon artwork is by Tom Griffin
(ottercreekstore.com). Photos are by the author unless otherwise indicated.
T/. Haoaaar. HaaJ|··| - T//rJ FJ///·a
1ABI£ O£ CON1£N1S
1 - CRAP HAPP£NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 - WAS1£ NO1 WAN1 NO1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3 - MICROHUSBANDRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4 - D££P SHI1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5 - A DAY IN 1H£ II££ O£ A 1URD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6 - COMPOS1ING 1OII£1S AND SYS1£MS . . . . . . . . . . 1O3
7 - WORMS AND DIS£AS£ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
8 - 1H£ 1AO O£ COMPOS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
9 - GRAYWA1£R SYS1£MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2O3
1O - 1H£ £ND IS N£AR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
1£MP£RA1UR£ CONV£RSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
GIOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
R£££R£NC£S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24O
IND£X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
CRAP HAPP£NS
SomeihIng`s Aboui io HIi ihe Ian
'Haoaa |./aes aaJ //. aa/ara| c·r|J ar. ·a a .·||/s/·a .·ars. . . . N· o·r. //aa
·a. ·r a /.c J..aJ.s r.oa/a |./·r. //. ./aa.. /· ac.r/ //. //r.a/s c. a·c .·a/r·a/
c/|| |. |·s/ aaJ //. /r·s/../s /·r /aoaa//v /oo.asara||v J/o/a/s/.J.¨
1,6OO Scnior Scicniisis, Novcmlcr 18, 1992 World Scicniisis Warning io Humaniiv
1
hcrc is a disiurling ihcorv aloui ihc human sµccics ihai
has lcgun io ialc on an alarming lcvcl oí rcaliiv. Ii sccms
ihai ihc lchavior oí ihc human racc is disµlaving uncannv
µarallcls io ihc lchavior oí µaihogcnic, or discasc-causing,
organisms.
Whcn vicwcd ai ihc ncxi ouanium lcvcl oí µcrsµcciivc, írom
which ihc £arih is sccn as an organism and humans arc sccn as
microorganisms, ihc human sµccics lools lilc a mcnacc io ihc µlan-
ci. In íaci, ihc human racc is looling a loi lilc a discasc comµriscd
oí organisms cxccssivclv muliiµlving, mindlcsslv consuming, and
gcncraiing wasic wiih liiilc rcgard íor ihc hcalih and wcll-lcing oí iis
hosi µlanci £arih.
Paihogcnic organisms arc a nasiv ouirl oí naiurc, alihough
ihcv do havc ihcir consiruciivc µurµoscs, namclv lilling oíí ihc wcal
and iníirm and cnsuring ihc survival onlv oí ihc íiiicsi. 1hcv do ihis
lv ovcrwhclming ihcir hosi, lv sucling ihc viialiiv oui oí ii and lcav-
ing µoison in ihcir walc. Paihogcns don`i givc a damn aloui ihcir
own sourcc oí liíc ihcir hosi and ihcv oíicn lill ii ouirighi.
1his mav sccm lilc a sillv wav íor a sµccics io mainiain iis
own cxisicncc: aíicrall, ií vou lill ihc hosi uµon which vour liíc
dcµcnds, ihcn vou musi also dic. Bui µaihogcns havc dcvcloµcd a sµc-
cial survival iaciic ihai allows ihcm io carrv on ihcir cxisicncc cvcn
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Dn:. Crap Happ:ns 1
aíicr ihcir hosi has dicd. 1hcv simµlv iravcl io a ncw hosi, scnding
oui cnvovs io sccl oui and inícci anoihcr organism cvcn as ihcir own
µoµulaiion dics cn massc along wiih ihc original hosi.
A man dving oí iulcrculosis coughs on his dcaihlcd, an aci
insiigaicd lv ihc inícciing µaihogcn, cnsuring ihai ihc discasc has a
chancc io sµrcad io oihcrs. A child dcíccaics on ihc diri ouisidc hcr
homc, unwiiiinglv saiisíving ihc nccds oí ihc µarasiics inhaliiing hcr
inicsiincs, which rcouirc iimc in ihc soil as µari oí ihcir liíc cvclc. A
µcrson siriclcn wiih cholcra dcíccaics in an ouihousc which lcachcs
iainicd waicr inio ihc ground, coniaminaiing ihc villagc wcll-waicr
and allowing ihc discasc io sµrcad io oihcr unsusµcciing villagcrs.
In ihc casc oí µaihogcnic organisms ihai lill ihcir hosi, ihc
lchavior is µrcdiciallc: muliiµlv wiihoui rcgard íor anv limiis io
growih, consumc scnsclcsslv and cxcrcic lcvcls oí wasic ihai gricvous-
lv harm ihc hosi. Whcn ihis is iranslaicd inio human icrms, ii rings
wiih a disouiciing íamiliariiv, csµcciallv whcn wc couaic human suc-
ccss wiih growih, consumµiion and maicrial wcalih.
Suµµosc wc humans arc, as a sµccics, cxhiliiing discasc
lchavior: wc`rc muliiµlving wiih no rcgard íor limiis, consuming nai-
ural rcsourccs as ií ihcrc will lc no íuiurc gcncraiions, and µroduc-
ing wasic µroducis ihai arc disircssing ihc µlanci uµon which our
vcrv survival dcµcnds. 1hcrc arc iwo íaciors which wc, as a sµccics,
arc noi ialing inio considcraiion. £irsi is ihc survival iaciic oí
µaihogcns, which rcouircs addiiional hosis io inícci. Wc do noi havc
ihc luxurv oí ihai oµiion, ai lcasi noi vci. Ií wc arc succcssíul ai con-
iinuing our dangcrous lchavior, ihcn wc will also succccd in march-
ing siraighi ioward our own dcmisc. In ihc µroccss, wc can also drag
manv oihcr sµccics down wiih us, a drcadíul svndromc ihai is alrcadv
undcrwav. 1his is cvidcni lv ihc ihrcai oí cxiinciion ihai hangs, lilc
ihc sword oí Damoclcs, ovcr an alarming numlcr oí ihc £arih`s
sµccics.
1hcrc is a sccond considcraiion: iníccicd hosi organisms íighi
lacl. As humans lccomc an incrcasing mcnacc, can ihc £arih irv io
dcícnd iisclí? Whcn a discasc organism iníccis a human, ihc human
lodv clcvaics iis own icmµcraiurc in ordcr io dcícnd iisclí. 1his risc
in icmµcraiurc noi onlv inhiliis ihc growih oí ihc inícciing µaihogcn,
lui also grcailv cnhanccs ihc discasc íighiing caµaliliiv wiihin ihc
lodv. Glolal warming mav lc ihc £arih`s wav oí inducing a glolal
¨ícvcr" as a rcaciion io human µolluiion oí ihc aimosµhcrc and
human ovcr-consumµiion oí íossil íucls.
Whcn ihc inicrnal human lodv icmµcraiurc riscs, ihc micro-
2 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Dn:. Crap Happ:ns
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Dn:. Crap Happ:ns 3
climaic oí ihc lodv changcs, allowing íor ihc suddcn and raµid µro-
liícraiion oí aniilodics, 1-cclls, whiic llood cclls and oihcr dcícndcrs
againsi discasc. As ihc Far//´s climaic changcs and as ihc naiural
cnvironmcni cholcs wiih µolluiion, wc humans alrcadv havc an idca
oí whai sori oí organisms naiurc can and will suddcnlv unlcash io
coníroni us. 1hcv`rc lcginning io show ihcmsclvcs as inscci µcsis and
ncw sirains oí dcadlv lacicria, viruscs and algac µariicularlv ioxic io
humans.
As ihc µlanci`s icmµcraiurc riscs, ii gains a momcnium ihai
cannoi lc sioµµcd or cvcn siallcd, no maiicr how dcsµcraic or rcµcn-
iani wc humans mav cvcniuallv lccomc. 1hc £arih`s ¨ícvcr," lilc a
sµinning ílvwhccl, will onlv sulsidc in //s own iimc. Wc mav lc crc-
aiing a £ranlcnsicin`s monsicr oí asironomical µroµoriions, unlcss,
oí coursc, wc ar. µaihogcnic organisms. Ií so, ihcn wc rcallv don`i
carc, do wc?
Paihogcns can oíicn dwcll íor ouiic somc iimc wiihin ihc hosi
organism wiihoui causing discasc svmµioms. 1hcn somcihing haµ-
µcns io sµarl ihcir growih ihcv gain a suddcn íooihold and lcgin
µroliícraiing raµidlv. Ii is ai ihis µoini ihai undcniallc discasc cííccis
lcgin io show ihcmsclvcs.
Humans lcgan io show ihcir µaihogcnic µoicniial ioward ihc
µlanci during ihc 195Os, ravcnouslv dcvouring naiural rcsourccs and
discarding wasic inio ihc cnvironmcni wiih uiicr carclcssncss. £rom
199O io 1997, human glolal consumµiion grcw as much as ii did írom
ihc lcginning oí civilizaiion uniil 195O. In íaci, ihc glolal cconomv
grcw morc in 1997 alonc ihan during ihc cniirc 17ih ccniurv.
1
Bv ihc cnd oí ihc 2Oih ccniurv, our consumµiivc and wasicíul
liícsivlcs had µainicd a llcal glolal µiciurc. Almosi halí oí ihc
world`s íorcsis arc gonc. Bciwccn 198O and 1995, wc losi arcas oí íor-
csi largcr ihan ihc sizc oí Mcxico, and wc`rc siill losing íorcsis ai a
raic oí millions oí acrcs a vcar.
2
Waicr iallcs arc íalling on cvcrv con-
iincni. £ishcrics arc collaµsing, íarmland is croding, rivcrs arc drv-
ing, wcilands arc disaµµcaring and sµccics arc lccoming cxiinci.
3
£urihcrmorc, ihc human µoµulaiion is now incrcasing lv 8O million
cach vcar (roughlv ihc µoµulaiion oí icn Swcdcns). Poµulaiion
growih wiihoui íorcsighi, managcmcni and rcsµcci íor ihc cnviron-
mcni viriuallv guaraniccs incrcascd consumµiion and wasic wiih
cach µassing vcar.
4
1hc naiural laclground raic oí cxiinciions is csiimaicd io lc
aloui onc io icn sµccics µcr vcar. Currcnilv, ii`s csiimaicd ihai wc`rc
insicad losing 1,OOO sµccics µcr vcar. Morc ihan 1O% oí all lird
sµccics, 25% oí all mammals, and 5O% oí all µrimaics arc ihrcaicncd
wiih cxiinciion.
5
Oí 242,OOO µlani sµccics survcvcd lv ihc World
Conscrvaiion Union in 1997, onc oui oí cvcrv cighi (33,OOO sµccics)
was ihrcaicncd wiih cxiinciion.
6
Whai would drivc humaniiv io damagc iis liíc suµµori svsicm
in ihis wav? Whv would wc disrcgard our hosi organism, ihc £arih,
as ií wc wcrc noihing morc ihan a discasc inicni uµon iis dcsiruciion?
Onc answcr, as wc havc sccn, is consumµiion. Wc cmlracc ihc idca
ihai morc is lciicr, mcasuring succcss wiih ihc vardsiicl oí maicrial
wcalih. Somc siariling siaiisiics lcar ihis oui: ihc 225 richcsi µcoµlc
in ihc world (O.OOOOO3% oí ihc world`s µoµulaiion) havc as much
acouircd wcalih as ihc µoorcsi /a|/ oí ihc cniirc human racc. 1hc
wcalih oí ihc world`s ihrcc richcsi µcoµlc is couivalcni io ihc ioial
ouiµui oí ihc µoorcsi 48 counirics. Wc in ihc Uniicd Siaics ccriainlv
can raisc our hands and lc counicd whcn ii comcs io consumµiion
our inialc oí cncrgv, grain and maicrials is ihc highcsi on ihc µlanci.
Amcricans can admii io using ihrcc ions oí maicrials µcr monih, cach
oí us, and ihai`s noi couniing íood and íucl. Dcsµiic ihc íaci ihai wc
arc onlv 1/2Oih oí ihc glolc`s µoµulaiion, wc usc 1/3 oí iis rcsourccs.
Wc would rcouirc no lcss ihan ihrcc µlanci £arihs io susiain ihc
cniirc world ai ihis lcvcl oí consumµiion.
7
1hcrc arc ihosc who scoíí ai ihc idca ihai a iinv organism
such as ihc human sµccics could moriallv aíícci such an ancicni and
immcnsc lcing as Moihcr £arih. 1hc noiion ihai wc can lc µowcríul
4 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Dn:. Crap Happ:ns
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Dn:. Crap Happ:ns 5
lat|o-c: Alc:t:
· Although the natural background rate of extinc-
tions is estimated to be about one to ten species
per year, we are currently losing 1,000 species
per year.
· Since the 1950s, more than 750 million tons of
toxic chemical wastes have been dumped into
the environment.
16
· By the end of the 1980s, production of human-
made synthetic organic chemicals linked to cancer had exceeded 200 bil-
lion pounds per year, a hundred-fold increase in only two generations.
17
· By 1992, in the U.S. alone, over 435 billion pounds of carbon-based syn-
thetic chemicals were being produced.
18
· Ìn 1994, well over a million tons of toxic chemicals were released into the
environment. Of these, 177 million pounds were known or suspected car-
cinogens.
19
· There are now about 75,000 chemicals in commercial use, and 3,750 to
7,500 are estimated to be cancer-causing to humans.
· There are 1,231 "priority¨ Superfund sites, with 40 million people (one in
every six Americans) living within four miles of one.
20
· 40% of Americans can expect to contract cancer in their lifetimes.
· 80% of all cancer is attributed to environmental influences.
· Breast cancer rates are thirty times higher in the United States than in
parts of Africa.
· Childhood cancers have risen by one third since 1950 and now one in
every four hundred Americans can expect to develop cancer before the age
of fifteen.
· The U.S. EPA projects that tens of thousands of additional fatal skin can-
cers will result from the ozone depletion that has already occurred over
North America.
21
· Male fish are being found with female egg sacs, male alligators with shriv-
eled penises, and human male sperm counts are plummeting.
· The average person can now expect to find at least 250 chemical contam-
inants in his or her body fat.
22
· Fifty new diseases have emerged since 1950, including Ebola, Lyme's
Disease, Hantavirus, and HÌV.
23
· Earth's atmospheric concentrations of CO
2
have climbed to the highest
level in 150,000 years.
¨

´
`
+
I
z

x
·

¹
cnough io inílici illncss on a µlanciarv lcing is noihing morc ihan
cgoiism. Whcrc is ihcrc anv cvidcncc ihai a µlanci can gci sicl and
dic? Wcll, how aloui Mars?
Whai did haµµcn io Mars, anvwav? Our ncxi door ncighlor,
ihc Rcd Planci, aµµarcnilv was oncc covcrcd wiih ílowing rivcrs.
Whai haµµcncd io ihcm? Rivcrs suggcsi an aimosµhcrc. Whcrc is ii?
Was Mars oncc a viial, ihriving µlanci? Ií so, whv docs ii now aµµcar
dcad? Could a liícíorm on iis suríacc havc µroliícraicd so alundani-
lv and so rccllcsslv ihai ii alicrcd ihc µlanci`s aimosµhcrc, ihcrclv
lnocling ii oíí-lilicr and dcsiroving ii? Is ihai whai`s haµµcning io
our own µlanci? Will ii lc our lcgacv in ihis solar svsicm io lcavc
lchind anoihcr lonclv, dcad rocl io rcvolvc around ihc sun? Or will
wc simµlv dcsirov oursclvcs whilc ihc £arih, sirongcr ihan hcr
Mariian lroihcr, ovcrcomcs our inílucncc and survivcs io ílourish
anoihcr lillion vcars wiihoui us?
1hc answcr, ií I mav wildlv sµcculaic, is nciihcr wc will
dcsirov nciihcr ihc £arih nor oursclvcs. Insicad, wc will lcarn io livc
in a svmlioiic rclaiionshiµ wiih our µlanci. 1o µui ii simµlv, ihc
human sµccics has rcachcd a íorl in ihc road oí iis cvoluiion. Wc can
coniinuc io íollow ihc wav oí discasc-causing µaihogcns, or wc can
chari a ncw coursc as dcµcndcni and rcsµcciíul inhaliianis on ihis
galaciic sµccl oí dusi wc call £arih. 1hc íormcr rcouircs onlv an cgo-
ccniric lacl oí conccrn íor anvihing lui oursclvcs, living as ií ihcrc
will lc no íuiurc human gcncraiions. 1hc laiicr, on ihc oihcr hand,
rcouircs an awarcncss oí oursclvcs as a dcµcndcni µari oí a Grcaicr
Bcing. 1his mav rcouirc a hcíiv dosc oí humiliiv, which wc can ciihcr
musicr uµ oursclvcs, or waii uniil ii`s mcicd oui io us, howcvcr irag-
icallv, lv ihc grcaicr world around us. £iihcr wav, iimc is running
oui.
Ii is ironic ihai humans havc ignorcd onc wasic issuc ihai all
oí us coniriluic io cach and cvcrv dav an cnvironmcnial µrollcm
ihai has siallcd our sµccics írom our gcncsis, and which will accom-
µanv us io our cxiinciion. Pcrhaµs onc rcason wc havc ialcn such a
hcad-in-ihc-sand aµµroach io ihc rccvcling oí human cxcrcmcni is
lccausc wc can`i cvcn iall aloui ii. Ií ihcrc is onc ihing ihai ihc
human consumcr culiurc rcíuscs io dcal wiih maiurclv and consiruc-
iivclv, ii`s lodilv cxcrciions. 1his is ihc ialoo ioµic, ihc unihinlallc
issuc. Ii`s also ihc onc wc arc aloui io divc hcadlong inio. £or wasic
is noi íound in naiurc cxccµi in human naiurc. Ii`s uµ io us
humans io unlocl ihc sccrci io iis climinaiion. Naiurc hcrsclí µro-
vidcs a lcv and shc has hcld ii oui io us íor cons.
6 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Dn:. Crap Happ:ns
WAS1£ NO1 WAN1 NO1
'\ASTF. . . S/·/| ·r J.s/ra.//·a, J·a. ·r /.ro///.J, /· |aaJs, /·as.s, ear-
J.as, /r..s, ·r ·//.r .·r/·r.a| /.r.J//ao.a/s, |v //. /.aaa/ //.r.·/ . . . Aav
aa|ac/a| a./ ·r ·o/ss/·a ·/ Ja/v ·a //. /ar/ ·/ //. /.aaa/ c//./ r.sa|/s /a
/.roaa.a/ /ajarv /· //. /a/.r//aa.. . . .¨ Blacl`s Iaw Diciionarv
A
mcrica is noi onlv a land oí indusirv and commcrcc, ii`s
also a land oí consumµiion and wasic, µroducing lciwccn
12 and 14 |/||/·a ions oí wasic annuallv. Much oí our wasic
consisis oí ·reaa/. maicrial including íood rcsiducs, munic-
iµal lcavcs, vard maicrials, agriculiural rcsiducs, and human and
livcsiocl manurcs, all oí which should lc rciurncd io ihc soil írom
which ihcv originaicd. 1hcsc organic maicrials arc vcrv valuallc agri-
culiurallv, a íaci wcll lnown among organic gardcncrs and íarmcrs.
£cccs and urinc arc cxamµlcs oí naiural, lcncíicial, organic
maicrials cxcrcicd lv ihc lodics oí animals aíicr comµlciing ihcir
digcsiivc µroccsscs. 1hcv arc onlv ¨wasic" whcn wc discard ihcm.
Whcn rccvclcd, ihcv arc rcsourccs, and arc oíicn rcícrrcd io as
manurcs, lui ncvcr as cas/., lv ihc µcoµlc who do ihc rccvcling.
Wc do noi r..v.|. cas/.. Ii`s a common scmaniic crror io sav
ihai wasic is, can lc, or should lc rccvclcd. Rcsourcc maicrials arc
rccvclcd, lui wasic is ncvcr rccvclcd. 1hai`s whv ii`s callcd ¨wasic."
Wasic is anv maicrial ihai is discardcd and has no íurihcr usc. Wc
humans havc lccn so wasicíul íor so long ihai ihc conccµi oí wasic
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 7
.|/o/aa//·a is íorcign io us. Yci, ii is an imµoriani conccµi.
Whcn a µoiaio is µcclcd, ihc µccls arcn`i liichcn wasic
ihcv`rc siill µoiaio µccls. Whcn ihcv`rc collccicd íor comµosiing, ihcv
arc lcing rccvclcd and no wasic is µroduccd.
Comµosiing µroícssionals somciimcs rcícr io rccvclcd maic-
rials as ¨wasic." Manv oí ihc µcoµlc who arc dcvcloµing municiµal
comµosiing µrograms camc írom ihc wasic managcmcni íicld, a íicld
in which rcíusc has alwavs lccn icrmcd ¨wasic." 1odav, howcvcr, ihc
usc oí ihc icrm ¨wasic" io dcscrilc rccvclcd maicrials is an unµlcas-
ani scmaniic halii ihai musi lc alandoncd. Oihcrwisc, onc could
rcícr io lcavcs in ihc auiumn as ¨ircc wasic," lccausc ihcv arc no
longcr nccdcd lv ihc ircc and arc discardcd. Yci, whcn onc walls inio
ihc íorcsi, whcrc docs onc scc wasic? 1hc answcr is ¨nowhcrc,"
lccausc ihc íorcsi`s organic maicrial is rccvclcd naiurallv, and no
wasic is crcaicd. Ironicallv, lcavcs and grass cliµµings arc rcícrrcd io
as ¨vard wasic" lv somc comµosi µroícssionals, anoihcr cxamµlc oí
ihc µcrsisicni wasic mcnialiiv µlaguing our culiurc.
Onc organism`s cxcrcmcni is anoihcr`s íood. £vcrvihing is
rccvclcd in naiural svsicms, ihcrclv climinaiing wasic. Humans crc-
aic wasic lccausc wc insisi on ignoring ihc naiural svsicms uµon
which wc dcµcnd. Wc arc so adcµi ai doing so ihai wc ialc wasic íor
granicd and havc givcn ihc word a µromincni µlacc in our vocalularv.
Wc havc liichcn ¨wasic," gardcn ¨wasic," agriculiural ¨wasic,"
human ¨wasic," municiµal ¨wasic," ¨liowasic," and on and on. Yci,
our long-icrm survival rcouircs us io lcarn io livc in harmonv wiih
our hosi µlanci. 1his also rcouircs ihai wc undcrsiand naiural cvclcs
and incorµoraic ihcm inio our dav io dav livcs. In csscncc, ihis mcans
ihai wc humans musi aiicmµi io climinaic wasic aliogcihcr. As wc
µrogrcssivclv climinaic wasic írom our living haliis, wc can also µro-
grcssivclv climinaic ihc word ¨wasic" írom our vocalularv.
¨Human wasic" is a icrm ihai has iradiiionallv lccn uscd io
rcícr io human cxcrcmcnis, µariicularlv íccal maicrial and urinc,
which arc lv-µroducis oí ihc human digcsiivc svsicm. Whcn J/s.arJ-
.J, as ihcv usuallv arc, ihcsc maicrials arc colloouiallv lnown as
human cas/., lui whcn r..v.|.J íor agriculiural µurµoscs, ihcv`rc
lnown lv various namcs, including a/e// s·/| whcn aµµlicd raw io
íiclds in Asia.
Haoaaar., unlilc /aoaa cas/., is noi wasic ai all ii is an
organic rcsourcc maicrial rich in soil nuiricnis. Humanurc originai-
cd írom ihc soil and can lc ouiic rcadilv rciurncd io ihc soil, csµccial-
lv ií convcricd io humus ihrough ihc comµosiing µroccss.
8 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 9
Human cas/. (J/s.arJ.J ícccs and urinc), on ihc oihcr hand,
crcaics signiíicani cnvironmcnial µrollcms, µrovidcs a rouic oí irans-
mission íor discasc, and dcµrivcs humaniiv oí valuallc soil ícriiliiv.
Ii`s also onc oí ihc µrimarv ingrcdicnis in scwagc, and is largclv
rcsµonsillc íor much oí ihc world`s waicr µolluiion.
A clcar disiinciion musi lc drawn lciwccn humanurc and
scwagc lccausc ihcv arc iwo vcrv diíícrcni ihings. Scwagc can includc
wasic írom manv sourccs indusirics, hosµiials and garagcs, íor
cxamµlc. Scwagc can also coniain a hosi oí coniaminanis such as
indusirial chcmicals, hcavv mcials, oil and grcasc, among oihcrs.
Humanurc, on ihc oihcr hand, is siricilv human íccal maicrial and
urinc.
Whai, in iruih, /s human wasic? Human wasic is garlagc, cig-
arciic luiis, µlasiic six-µacl rings, sivroíoam clamshcll lurgcr loxcs,
dcodorani cans, disµosallc diaµcrs, worn oui aµµlianccs, unrccvclcd
µoµ loiilcs, wasicd ncwsµaµcrs, iunl car iircs, sµcni laiicrics, iunl
mail, nuclcar coniaminaiion, íood µaclaging, shrinl wraµ, ioxic
chcmical dumµs, cxhausi cmissions, discardcd µlasiic CD disls, ihc
íivc lillion gallons oí drinling waicr wc ílush down our ioilcis cvcrv
dav, and ihc millions oí ions oí organic maicrial discardcd inio ihc
cnvironmcni vcar aíicr vcar aíicr vcar.
1H£ HUMAN NU1RI£N1 CYCI£
Whcn croµs arc µroduccd írom soil, ii is advisallc ihai ihc
organic rcsiducs rcsuliing írom ihosc croµs, including animal cxcrc-
mcnis, lc rciurncd io ihc soil írom which ihc croµs originaicd. 1his
rccvcling oí organic rcsiducs íor agriculiural µurµoscs is íundamcn-
ial io susiainallc agriculiurc. Yci, sµolcsµcrsons íor susiainallc agri-
culiurc movcmcnis rcmain silcni aloui using humanurc íor agricul-
iural µurµoscs. Whv?
Pcrhaµs ihc silcncc is lccausc ihcrc is currcnilv a µroíound
lacl oí lnowlcdgc and undcrsianding aloui whai is rcícrrcd io as ihc
¨human nuiricni cvclc" and ihc nccd io lccµ ihc cvclc iniaci. 1hc
human nuiricni cvclc gocs lilc ihis: a) wc grow íood, l) wc cai ii, c)
wc collcci and µroccss ihc organic rcsiducs (ícccs, urinc, íood scraµs
and agriculiural maicrials) and d) wc ihcn rciurn ihc µroccsscd
organic maicrial lacl io ihc soil, ihcrclv cnriching ihc soil and
cnalling morc íood io lc grown. 1his cvclc can lc rcµcaicd, cndlcss-
lv. 1his is a µroccss ihai mimics ihc cvclcs oí naiurc and cnhanccs our
aliliiv io survivc on ihis µlanci. Whcn our íood rcíusc maicrials arc
10 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
The Human Nutrient Cycle is an endless natural cycle. Ìn order to
keep the cycle intact, food for humans must be grown on soil that
is enriched by the continuous addition of organic materials recy-
cled by humans, such as humanure, food scraps and agricultural
residues. By respecting this cycle of nature, humans can maintain
the fertility of their agricultural soils indefinitely, instead of depleting
them of nutrients, as is common today.
Áhe ¡\^¬`
`\ÁII¡`Á I1I¡¡
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 11
Food-producing soils must be left more fertile after each harvest
due to the ever-increasing human population and the need to pro-
duce more food with each passing year.
insicad discardcd as wasic, ihc naiural human nuiricni cvclc is lro-
lcn, crcaiing µrollcms such as µolluiion, loss oí soil ícriiliiv and
alusc oí our waicr rcsourccs.
Wc in ihc Uniicd Siaics cach wasic aloui a ihousand µounds
oí humanurc cvcrv vcar, which is discardcd inio scwcrs and scµiic
svsicms ihroughoui ihc land. Much oí ihc discardcd humanurc íinds
iis íinal rcsiing µlacc in a landíill, along wiih ihc oihcr solid wasic wc
Amcricans discard, which, coincidcniallv, also amounis io aloui a
ihousand µounds µcr µcrson µcr vcar. £or a µoµulaiion oí 29O mil-
lion µcoµlc, ihai adds uµ io ncarlv 29O million ions oí solid wasic µcr-
sonallv discardcd lv us cvcrv vcar, ai lcasi halí oí which would lc
valuallc as an agriculiural rcsourcc.
1hc µraciicc wc humans havc írcoucnilv cmµlovcd íor wasic
disµosal has lccn ouiic µrimiiivc wc dumµ our garlagc inio holcs
in ihc ground, ihcn lurv ii. 1hai`s now callcd a landíill, and íor manv
vcars ihcv wcrc ihai simµlc. 1odav`s ncw ¨saniiarv" landíills arc
lincd wiih waicrµrooí, svnihciic maicrials io µrcvcni ihc lcaching oí
garlagc iuicc inio groundwaicr suµµlics. Yci, onlv aloui a ihird oí ihc
aciivc dumµs in ihc U.S. havc ihcsc lincrs.
1
Inicrcsiinglv, ihc lincd
landíills lcar an uncannv rcscmllancc io giganiic disµosallc diaµcrs.
1hcv`rc garganiuan µlasiic-lincd rcccµiaclcs whcrc wc lav our craµ io
rcsi, ihc lavcrs lcing carcíullv íoldcd ovcr and ihc cnd µroducis oí
our wasicíul liícsivlcs luricd as ií ihcv wcrc in garlagc mausolcums
inicndcd io µrcscrvc our sludgc and liichcn irash íor µosicriiv. Wc
convcnicnilv ílush our ioilcis, and ihc rcsuliani scwagc sludgc is
iransµoricd io ihcsc landíills, iuclcd inio ihcsc hugc disµosallc dia-
µcrs and luricd.
1his is noi io suggcsi ihai s.cae. should lc uscd io µroducc
íood croµs. Scwagc consisis oí humanurc collccicd wiih hazardous
maicrials such as indusirial, mcdical and chcmical wasics, all carricd
in a common waicrlornc wasic sircam. Or in ihc words oí Garv
Gardncr (Siaic oí ihc World 1998), 'T.as ·/ //·asaaJs ·/ /·x/. sa|s/aa..s
aaJ ./.o/.a| .·o/·aaJs as.J /a /aJas/r/a| ..·a·o/.s, /a.|aJ/ae P(Bs, /.s-
//./J.s, J/·x/as, /.acv o./a|s, as|.s/·s, /./r·|.ao /r·Ja./s, aaJ /aJas/r/a|
s·|c.a/s, ar. /·/.a//a||v /ar/ ·/ s.cae. /|·cs.¨ Noi io mcniion µaihogcn-
ic organisms. Whcn raw scwagc was uscd agriculiurallv in Bcrlin in
1949, íor cxamµlc, ii was llamcd íor ihc sµrcad oí worm-rclaicd dis-
cascs. In ihc 198Os, ii was said io lc ihc causc oí ivµhoid ícvcr in
Saniiago, and in 197O and 1991 ii was llamcd íor cholcra ouilrcals
in Icrusalcm and Souih Amcrica, rcsµcciivclv.
2
Humanurc, on ihc oihcr hand, whcn lcµi oui oí ihc scwcrs,
12 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
collccicd as a rcsourcc maicrial, and µroµcrlv comµosicd, malcs a
suiiallc agriculiural rcsourcc íor íood croµs. Whcn wc comlinc our
manurc wiih oihcr organic maicrials such as íood and íarming
lvµroducis, wc can achicvc a llcnd ihai is irrcsisiillc io ccriain lcn-
cíicial microorganisms.
1hc U.S. £PA csiimaics ihai ncarlv 22 million ions oí íood
wasic arc µroduccd in Amcrican ciiics cvcrv vcar. 1hroughoui ihc
Uniicd Siaics, íood losscs ai ihc rciail, consumcr and íood scrviccs
lcvcls arc csiimaicd io havc lccn 48 million ions in 1995.
3
1hai would
malc grcai organic maicrial íor comµosiing wiih humanurc. Insicad,
onlv a small µcrccniagc oí our discardcd íood is lcing comµosicd in
ihc U.S.: ihc rcmaining is incincraicd or luricd in landíills.
4
1hc Organizaiion íor £conomic Cooµcraiion and
Dcvcloµmcni, a grouµ madc uµ µrimarilv oí wcsicrn indusirial coun-
irics, csiimaics ihai 36% oí ihc wasic in ihcir mcmlcr siaics is organ-
ic íood and gardcn maicrials. Ií µaµcr is also considcrcd, ihc organic
sharc oí ihc wasic sircam is loosicd io ncarlv an incrcdillc iwo
ihirds! In dcvcloµing counirics, organic maicrial ivµicallv malcs uµ
onc halí io iwo ihirds oí ihc wasic sircam.
5
According io ihc £PA,
almosi 8O% oí ihc nci discardcd solid wasic in ihc U.S. is comµoscd
oí organic maicrial.
Ii is lccoming morc and morc olvious ihai ii is unwisc io rclv
on landíills io disµosc oí rccvclallc maicrials. Iandíills ovcrílow and
ncw oncs nccd io lc luili io rcµlacc ihcm. In íaci, wc mav lc luclv
ihai landíills arc closing so raµidlv ihcv arc noiorious µolluicrs oí
waicr, soil, and air. Oí ihc icn ihousand landíills ihai havc closcd
sincc 1982, 2O% arc now lisicd as hazardouslv coniaminaicd
Suµcríund siics. A 1996 rcµori írom ihc siaic oí £lorida rcvcalcd ihai
groundwaicr coniaminaiion µlumcs írom oldcr, unlincd landíills can
lc longcr ihan 3.4 milcs, and ihai 523 µullic waicr suµµlics in
£lorida arc locaicd wiihin onc milc oí ihcsc closcd landíills, whilc
2,7OO lic wiihin ihrcc milcs.
6
No douli similar siiuaiions cxisi
ihroughoui ihc Uniicd Siaics.
Organic maicrial disµoscd oí in landíills also crcaics largc
ouaniiiics oí mcihanc, a maior glolal-warming gas. U.S. landíills arc
'ao·ae //. s/ae|. er.a/.s/ .·a/r/|a/·rs ·/ e|·|a| o.//aa. .o/ss/·as,¨
according io ihc Naiural Rcsourccs Dcícnsc Council. According io
ihc £PA, mcihanc is 2O io 3O iimcs morc µoicni ihan CO2 as a grccn-
housc (glolal warming) gas on a molcculc io molcculc lasis.
7
1iµµing íccs (ihc ícc onc µavs io dumµ wasic) ai landíills in
cvcrv rcgion oí ihc U.S. havc lccn incrcasing ai morc ihan iwicc ihc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 13
14 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
Source: Fahm, Lattee A., (1980), The Waste of Nations; pp. 33 and 38;
Allanheld, Osmun and Co. Publishers, Ìnc., Montclair, NJ USA.
raic oí inílaiion sincc 1986. In íaci, sincc ihcn, ihcv havc incrcascd
3OO% and arc cxµccicd io coniinuc rising ai ihis raic.
8
In dcvcloµing counirics, ihc landíill µiciurc is also llcal. In
Brazil, íor cxamµlc, 99% oí ihc solid wasic is dumµcd inio landíills
and ihrcc íourihs oí ihc 9O,OOO ions µcr dav cnds uµ in oµcn dumµs.
9
Slowlv wc`rc caiching on io ihc íaci ihai ihis ihrow-awav ircnd has io
lc iurncd around. Wc can`i coniinuc io ihrow ¨awav" usallc
rcsourccs in a wasicíul íashion lv lurving ihcm in disaµµcaring, µol-
luiing, incrcasinglv cxµcnsivc landíills.
Ií wc had scraµcd uµ all ihc human cxcrcmcni in ihc world
and µilcd ii on ihc world`s iillallc land in 195O, wc`d havc aµµlicd
ncarlv 2OO mciric ions µcr souarc milc ai ihai iimc (roughlv 69O
µounds µcr acrc). In ihc vcar 2OOO, wc would havc lccn collcciing
morc ihan J·a||. ihai amouni lccausc ihc glolal µoµulaiion is
incrcasing, lui ihc glolal land mass isn`i. In íaci, ihc glolal arca oí
agriculiural land is sicadilv J..r.as/ae as ihc world loscs, íor íarming
and grazing, an arca ihc sizc oí Kansas cach vcar.
1O
1hc world`s lur-
gconing human µoµulaiion is µroducing a lallooning amouni oí
organic rcíusc which will cvcniuallv havc io lc dcali wiih rcsµonsillv
and consiruciivclv. Ii`s noi ioo soon io lcgin io undcrsiand human
organic rcíusc as valuallc rcsourccs lcgging io lc rccvclcd.
In 195O, ihc dollar valuc oí ihc agriculiural nuiricnis in ihc
world`s garganiuan µilc oí humanurc was 6.93 lillion dollars. In
2OOO, ii would havc lccn worih 18.67 lillion dollars calculaicd in
!9¯5 µriccs.
11
1his is moncv currcnilv lcing ílushcd oui somcwhcrc
inio ihc cnvironmcni whcrc ii shows uµ as µolluiion and landíill
maicrial. £vcrv µiµclinc has an ouilci somcwhcrc: cvcrvihing ihrown
¨awav" iusi movcs írom onc µlacc io anoihcr. Humanurc and oihcr
organic rcíusc maicrials arc no cxccµiion. Noi onlv arc wc ílushing
¨moncv" awav, wc`rc µaving io do so. 1hc cosi is noi onlv cconomic,
ii`s cnvironmcnial.
SOII£D WA1£R
1hc world is dividcd inio iwo caicgorics oí µcoµlc: ihosc who
shii in ihcir drinling waicr suµµlics and ihosc who don`i. Wc in ihc
wcsicrn world arc in ihc íormcr class. Wc dcíccaic inio waicr, usual-
lv µuriíicd drinling waicr. Aíicr µolluiing ihc waicr wiih our cxcrc-
mcnis, wc ílush ihc µolluicd waicr ¨awav," mcaning wc µrolallv
don`i lnow whcrc ii gocs, nor do wc carc.
£vcrv iimc wc ílush a ioilci, wc launch íivc or six gallons oí
µolluicd waicr oui inio ihc world.
12
1hai would lc lilc dcíccaiing inio
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 15
16 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
FUN FACTS
about water
· Ìf all the world's drinking water were put in one cubical tank, the tank
would measure only 95 miles on each side.
· People currently lacking access to clean drinking water: 1.2 billion.
· % of world's households that must fetch water outside their homes: 67
· % increase in the world's population by mid 21st century: 100
· % increase in the world's drinking water supplies by mid 21st century: 0
· Amount of water Americans use every day: 340 billion gallons.
· Number of gallons of water needed to produce a car: 100,000
· Number of cars produced every year: 50 million.
· Amount of water annually required by a nuclear reactor: 1.9 cubic miles.
· Amount of water used by nuclear reactors every year: the equivalent of
one and a third Lake Eries.
Sources: Der Spiegel, May 25, 1992; and Annals of Earth, Vol. 8, Number 2, 1990; Ocean Arks Ìnternational,
One Locust Street, Falmouth, MA 02540.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 17
· Ìn the mid 1980s, the 2,207 publicly owned coastal sewage treatment works
were discharging 3.619 trillion gallons per year of treated wastewater into
the coastal environment.
14
· Ìn 1997, pollution caused at least 4,153 beach closings and advisories, 69%
of which were caused by elevated bacterial pollution in the water.
15
· Ìn 2001, of the 2,445 beaches surveyed by the EPA, 672 were affected by
advisories or closings, most often due to elevated bacteria levels.
· Ìn 2003, there were more than 18,000 days of pollution-related closings and
advisories at U.S. beaches according to NRDC's annual report on beachwa-
ter quality. 88% of the closings and advisories stemmed from the presence
of bacteria associated with fecal contamination.
· According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the primary cause
reported for beach closings is the overflow of combined storm-water and
sewage systems with insufficient capacity to retain heavy rains for process-
ing through sewage treatment plants.
· Ìn 2002, New York State sued Yonkers over sewage discharges, alleging that
thousands of gallons per day of untreated sewage were discharged into the
Bronx River from at least four pipes owned and operated by the city.
Laboratory results showed that the pollution contained the bacteria fecal col-
iform, an indicator of raw sewage, in concentrations as high as 250 times
more than allowed by New York State water quality standards.
· Ìn 2002, a federal judge found Los Angeles liable for 297 sewage spills. From
1993 to January, 2002, the city reported 3,000 sewage spills. Los Angeles
has about 6,500 miles of sewers. The spills end up in waterways, are car-
ried into the ocean and pollute beaches.
16
· United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) studies show that over 800
million people in coastal South Asia have no basic sanitation services, put-
ting them at high risk from sewage-related diseases and death.
· Ìn 2000, 55% of U.S. lakes, rivers and estuaries were not clean enough for
fishing or swimming according to EPA testimony before Congress in 2002.
Ìn 1995, 40% were too polluted to allow fishing, swimming or other aquatic
uses at any time of the year, according to the United States Environmental
Protection Agency.
· Ìn January of 2005 it was reported that twenty-two percent of U.S. coastal
waters were unsuitable for fishing, based on EPA guidelines for moderate
consumption of recreationally-caught fish.
VATFR. VATFR FVFRYVHFRF
AND IT'S ALL GOING DOVNHILL
a íivc gallon oííicc waicr iug and ihcn dumµing ii oui lcíorc anvonc
could drinl anv oí ii. 1hcn doing ihc samc ihing whcn urinaiing.
1hcn doing ii cvcrv dav, numcrous iimcs. 1hcn muliiµlving ihai lv
aloui 29O million µcoµlc in ihc Uniicd Siaics alonc.
£vcn aíicr ihc coniaminaicd waicr is ircaicd in wasicwaicr
ircaimcni µlanis, ii mav siill lc µolluicd wiih cxccssivc lcvcls oí
niiraics, chlorinc, µharmaccuiical drugs, indusirial chcmicals, dcicr-
gcnis and oihcr µolluianis. 1his ¨ircaicd" waicr is dischargcd dircci-
lv inio ihc cnvironmcni.
Ii is csiimaicd ihai lv 2O1O, ai lcasi halí oí ihc µcoµlc in ihc
U.S. will livc in coasial ciiics and iowns, íurihcr cxaccrlaiing waicr
µolluiion µrollcms causcd lv scwagc. 1hc dcgrcc oí lcach µolluiion
lccomcs a lii morc µcrsonal whcn onc rcalizcs ihai currcni £PA
rccrcaiional waicr clcanlincss siandards siill allow 19 illncsscs µcr
1,OOO saliwaicr swimmcrs, and 8 µcr 1,OOO írcshwaicr swimmcrs.
13
Somc oí ihc discascs associaicd wiih swimming in wasicwaicr-con-
iaminaicd rccrcaiional waicrs includc ivµhoid ícvcr, salmoncllosis,
shigcllosis, hcµaiiiis, gasirocnicriiis, µncumonia, and slin inícc-
iions.
17
Ií vou don`i wani io gci sicl írom ihc waicr vou swim in, don`i
sulmcrgc vour hcad. Oihcrwisc, vou mav cnd uµ lilc ihc swimmcrs
in Sania Monica Bav. Pcoµlc who swam in ihc occan ihcrc wiihin 4OO
vards (íour íooilall íiclds) oí a siorm scwcr drain had a 66% grcaicr
chancc oí dcvcloµing a ¨signiíicani rcsµiraiorv discasc" wiihin ihc
íollowing 9 io 14 davs aíicr swimming.
18
1his should comc as no surµrisc whcn onc ialcs inio consid-
craiion ihc cmcrgcncc oí aniilioiic-rcsisiani lacicria. 1hc usc oí
aniilioiics is so widcsµrcad ihai manv µcoµlc arc now lrccding
aniilioiic rcsisiani lacicria in ihcir inicsiinal svsicms. 1hcsc lacic-
ria arc cxcrcicd inio ioilcis and malc ihcir wav io wasicwaicr ircai-
mcni µlanis whcrc //. aa//|/·//. r.s/s/aa.. .aa |. /raas/.rr.J /· ·//.r |a.-
/.r/a. Wasicwaicr µlanis can ihcn lccomc lrccding grounds íor rcsisi-
ani lacicria, which arc dischargcd inio ihc cnvironmcni ihrough
cíílucni drains. Whv noi iusi chlorinaic ihc waicr lcíorc discharging
ii? Ii usuallv /s chlorinaicd lcíorchand, lui rcscarch has shown ihai
chlorinc sccms io /a.r.as. lacicrial rcsisiancc io somc aniilioiics.
19
Noi worricd aloui aniilioiic-rcsisiani lacicria in vour swim-
ming arca? Hcrc`s somcihing clsc io chcw on: 5O io 9O% oí ihc µhar-
maccuiical drugs µcoµlc ingcsi can lc cxcrcicd down ihc ioilci and
oui inio ihc waicrwavs /a //./r ·r/e/aa| ·r |/·|·e/.a||v a.//c. /·ros.
£urihcrmorc, drugs ihai havc lccn µariiallv dcgradcd lcíorc cxcrc-
18 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
iion can lc convcricd io ihcir original aciivc íorm lv cnvironmcnial
chcmical rcaciions. Pharmaccuiical drugs such as chcmoihcraµv
drugs, aniilioiics, aniiscµiics, lcia-lloclcr hcari drugs, hormoncs,
analgcsics, cholcsicrol-lowcring drugs and drugs íor rcgulaiing llood
liµids havc iurncd uµ in such µlaccs as iaµ waicr, groundwaicr
lcncaih scwagc ircaimcni µlanis, lalc waicr, rivcrs and in drinling
waicr aouiícrs. 1hinl aloui //a/ ihc ncxi iimc vou íill vour glass wiih
waicr.
2O
Iong Island Sound rcccivcs ovcr a lillion gallons oí ircaicd
scwagc cvcrv dav ihc wasic oí cighi million µcoµlc. So much niiro-
gcn was lcing dischargcd inio ihc Sound írom ihc /r.a/.J wasicwaicr
ihai ii causcd ihc aouaiic oxvgcn io disaµµcar, rcndcring ihc marinc
cnvironmcni unsuiiallc íor ihc íish ihai normallv livc ihcrc. 1hc
iwclvc ircaimcni µlanis ihai wcrc io lc comµlcicd along ihc Sound lv
1996 wcrc cxµccicd io rcmovc 5,OOO µounds oí niirogcn dailv.
Niirogcn is normallv a soil nuiricni and agriculiural rcsourcc, lui
insicad, whcn ílushcd, ii lccomcs a dangcrous waicr µolluiani.
21
On
Dcccmlcr 31, 1991, ihc disµosal oí U.S. scwagc sludgc inio ihc occan
was lanncd. Bcíorc ihai, much oí ihc scwagc sludgc along coasial
ciiics in ihc Uniicd Siaics had simµlv lccn dumµcd oui io sca.
1hc discharging oí sludgc, scwagc, or wasicwaicr inio
naiurc`s waicrwavs invariallv crcaics µolluiion. 1hc imµacis oí µol-
luicd waicr arc íar-ranging, causing ihc dcaihs oí 25 million µcoµlc
cach vcar, ihrcc-íiíihs oí ihcm childrcn.
22
Halí oí all µcoµlc in dcvcl-
oµing counirics suíícr írom discascs associaicd wiih µoor waicr suµ-
µlv and saniiaiion.
23
Diarrhca, a discasc associaicd wiih µolluicd
waicr, lills six million childrcn cach vcar in dcvcloµing counirics,
and ii coniriluics io ihc dcaihs oí uµ io 18 million µcoµlc.
24
Ai ihc
lcginning oí ihc 21si ccniurv, onc oui oí íour µcoµlc in dcvcloµing
counirics siill laclcd clcan waicr, and iwo oui oí ihrcc laclcd adc-
ouaic saniiaiion.
25
Proµcr saniiaiion is dcíincd lv ihc World Hcalih
Organizaiion as anv cxcrcia J/s/·sa| íaciliiv ihai inicrruµis ihc irans-
mission oí íccal coniaminanis io humans.
26
1his dcíiniiion should lc
cxµandcd io includc cxcrcia r..v.|/ae íaciliiics. Comµosi ioilci svs-
icms arc now lccoming inicrnaiionallv rccognizcd as consiiiuiing
¨µroµcr saniiaiion," and arc lccoming morc and morc aiiraciivc
ihroughoui ihc world duc io ihcir rclaiivclv low cosi whcn comµarcd
io waicrlornc wasic svsicms and ccniralizcd scwcrs. In íaci, comµosi
ioilci svsicms vicld a dividcnd /aoas, which allows such a saniia-
iion svsicm io vicld a nci µroíii, raihcr ihan lcing a consiani íinan-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 19
cial drain (no µun inicndcd). 1hc olscssion wiih ílush ioilcis
ihroughoui ihc world is causing ihc µrollcms oí inicrnaiional saniia-
iion io rcmain unrcsolvcd. Manv µaris oí ihc world cannoi aííord
cxµcnsivc and waicr consumµiivc wasic disµosal svsicms.
Wc'rc also dcµlciing our waicr suµµlics, and ílushing ioilcis is
onc wav ii's lcing wasicd. Oí 143 counirics ranlcd íor µcr caµiia
waicr usagc lv ihc World Rcsourccs Insiiiuic, Amcrica camc in ai =2
using !88 ea||·as /.r /.rs·a /.r Jav (Bahrain was =1).
27
Waicr usc in
ihc U.S. incrcascd lv a íacior oí 1O lciwccn 19OO and 199O, incrcas-
ing írom 4O lillion gallons µcr dav io 4O9 lillion gallons µcr dav.
28
1hc amouni oí waicr wc Amcricans rcouirc ovcrall, uscd in ihc íin-
ishcd µroducis cach oí us consumcs, µlus washing and drinling
waicr, amounis io a siaggcring 1,565 gallons µcr µcrson µcr dav,
which is ihrcc iimcs ihc raic oí Gcrmanv or £rancc.
29
1his amouni oí
waicr is couivalcni io ílushing our ioilcis 313 iimcs cvcrv dav, aloui
oncc cvcrv minuic and a halí íor cighi hours siraighi. Bv somc csii-
maics, ii ialcs onc io iwo ihousand ions oí waicr io ílush onc ion oí
human wasic.
3O
Noi surµrisinglv, ihc usc oí groundwaicr in ihc Uniicd
Siaics cxcccds rcµlaccmcni raics lv 21 lillion gallons a dav.
31
WAS1£ VS. MANUR£
Bv dumµing soil nuiricnis down ihc ioilci, wc incrcasc our
nccd íor svnihciic chcmical ícriilizcrs. 1odav, µolluiion írom agricul-
iurc, causcd írom siliaiion (crosion) and nuiricni runoíí duc io cxccs-
sivc or incorrcci usc oí ícriilizcrs,
32
is now ihc '|are.s/ J///as. s·ar.. ·/
ca/.r /·||a//·a¨ in our rivcrs, lalcs, and sircams.
33
Chcmical ícriiliz-
crs µrovidc a ouicl íix oí niirogcn, µhosµhorous and µoiassium íor
imµovcrishcd soils. Howcvcr, ii`s csiimaicd ihai 25-85% oí chcmical
niirogcn aµµlicd io soil and 15-2O% oí ihc µhosµhorous and µoiassi-
um arc losi io lcaching, which µolluics groundwaicr.
34
1his µolluiion shows uµ in small µonds which lccomc cholcd
wiih algac as a rcsuli oí ihc unnaiural inílux oí nuiricnis. £rom 195O
io 199O, ihc glolal consumµiion oí ariiíicial ícriilizcrs rosc lv 1OOO%,
írom 14 million ions io 14O million ions.
35
In 1997, U.S. íarmcrs uscd
2O million ions oí svnihciic ícriilizcrs,
36
and halí oí all manuíaciurcd
ícriilizcr cvcr madc has lccn uscd iusi sincc 1982.
37
Niiraic µolluiion
írom cxccssivc ariiíicial ícriilizcr usc is now onc oí ihc mosi scrious
waicr µolluiion µrollcms in £uroµc and Norih Amcrica. Niiraic µol-
luiion can causc canccr and cvcn lrain damagc or dcaih in iníanis.
38
All ihc whilc, hundrcds oí millions oí ions oí comµosiallc organic
20 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
maicrials arc gcncraicd in ihc U.S. cach vcar, and ciihcr luricd in
landíills, incincraicd, or dischargcd inio ihc cnvironmcni as wasic.
1hc souandcring oí our waicr rcsourccs, and µolluiion írom
scwagc and svnihciic ícriilizcrs, rcsulis in µari írom ihc lclicí ihai
humanurc and íood scraµs arc wasic maicrials raihcr ihan rccvclallc
naiural rcsourccs. 1hcrc is, howcvcr, an alicrnaiivc. Humanurc can
undcrgo a µroccss oí lacicrial digcsiion and ihcn lc rciurncd io ihc
soil. 1his µroccss is usuallv lnown as .·o/·s//ae. 1his is ihc missing
linl in ihc human nuiricni rccvcling µroccss.
Rac humanurc carrics wiih ii a signiíicani µoicniial íor dan-
gcr in ihc íorm oí discasc µaihogcns. 1hcsc discascs, such as inicsiin-
al µarasiics, hcµaiiiis, cholcra and ivµhoid arc dcsirovcd lv comµosi-
ing, ciihcr whcn ihc rcicniion iimc is adcouaic in a low icmµcraiurc
comµosi µilc, or whcn ihc comµosiing µroccss gcncraics inicrnal, lio-
logical hcai, which can lill µaihogcns in a maiicr oí minuics.
Rac aµµlicaiions oí humanurc io íiclds arc noi hvgicnicallv
saíc and can assisi in ihc sµrcad oí various discascs. Amcricans who
havc iravclcd io Asia icll oí ihc ¨horrillc sicnch" oí nighi soil ihai
waíis ihrough ihc air whcn ii is aµµlicd io íiclds. £or ihcsc rcasons, ii
is imµcraiivc ihai humanurc alwavs lc comµosicd lcíorc agriculiur-
al aµµlicaiion. Proµcr comµosiing dcsirovs µossillc µaihogcns and
rcsulis in a µlcasani-smclling maicrial.
On ihc oihcr hand, raw nighi soil aµµlicaiions io íiclds in
Asia do rciurn humanurc io ihc land, ihcrclv rccovcring a valuallc
rcsourcc which is ihcn uscd io µroducc íood íor humans. Ciiics in
China, Souih Korca and Iaµan rccvclc nighi soil around ihcir µcrimc-
icrs in grccnlclis whcrc vcgciallcs arc grown. Shanghai, China, a ciiv
wiih a µoµulaiion oí 14.2 million µcoµlc in 2OOO,
39
µroduccs an
cxµoriallc surµlus oí vcgciallcs in ihis manncr.
Humanurc can also lc uscd io íccd algac which can, in iurn,
íccd íish íor aouaculiural cnicrµriscs. In Calcuiia, such an aouacul-
iurc svsicm µroduccs 2O,OOO lilograms oí írcsh íish dailv.
4O
1hc ciiv
oí 1ainan, 1aiwan, is wcll lnown íor iis íish, which arc íarmcd in ovcr
6,OOO hcciarcs oí íish íarms ícriilizcd lv humanurc. 1hcrc, humanurc
is so valuallc ihai ii`s sold on ihc llacl marlci.
41
R£CYCIING HUMANUR£
Humanurc can lc naiurallv rccvclcd lv íccding ii io ihc
organisms ihai cravc ii as íood. 1hcsc voracious crcaiurcs havc lccn
around íor millions, and ihcorciicallv, |/||/·as oí vcars. 1hcv`vc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 21
µaiicnilv waiicd íor us humans io discovcr ihcm. Moihcr Naiurc has
sccdcd our cxcrcmcnis, as wcll as our garlagc, wiih ihcsc ¨íricnds in
small µlaccs," who will convcri our organic discards inio a soil-luild-
ing maicrial righi lcíorc our cvcs. Invisillc hclµcrs, ihcsc crcaiurcs
arc ioo small io lc sccn lv ihc human cvc and arc ihcrcíorc callcd
o/.r·organisms. 1hc µroccss oí íccding organic maicrial io ihcsc
microorganisms in ihc µrcscncc oí oxvgcn is callcd .·o/·s//ae. Proµcr
comµosiing cnsurcs ihc dcsiruciion oí µoicniial human µaihogcns
(discasc-causing microorganisms) in humanurc. Comµosiing also
convcris ihc humanurc inio a ncw, lcnign, µlcasani-smclling and
lcncíicial sulsiancc callcd /aoas, which is ihcn rciurncd io ihc soil
io cnrich ii and cnhancc µlani growih.
Incidcniallv, a|| animal manurcs lcncíii írom comµosiing, as
iodav`s íarmcrs arc now discovcring. Comµosicd manurcs don`i lcach
lilc raw manurcs do. Insicad, comµosi hclµs hold nuiricnis in soil
svsicms. Comµosicd manurcs also rcducc µlani discasc and inscci
damagc and allow íor lciicr nuiricni managcmcni on íarms. In íaci,
iwo ions oí comµosi will vicld íar morc lcncíiis ihan íivc ions oí
manurc.
42
Haoaa manurc can lc mixcd wiih oihcr organic maicrials
írom human aciiviiv such as liichcn and íood scraµs, grass cliµµings,
lcavcs, gardcn rcíusc, µaµcr µroducis and sawdusi. 1his mix oí maic-
rials is ncccssarv íor µroµcr comµosiing io ialc µlacc, and ii will vicld
a soil addiiivc suiiallc íor íood gardcns as wcll as íor agriculiurc.
Onc rcason wc humans havc noi ¨ícd" our cxcrcmcni io ihc
aµµroµriaic organisms is lccausc wc didn`i lnow ihcv cxisicd. Wc`vc
onlv lcarncd io scc and undcrsiand microscoµic crcaiurcs in our
rcccni µasi. Wc also havcn`i had such a raµidlv growing human µoµ-
ulaiion in ihc µasi, nor havc wc lccn íaccd wiih ihc dirc cnvironmcn-
ial µrollcms ihai ihrcaicn our sµccics iodav lilc luzzards circling a
dving animal.
Ii all adds uµ io ihc íaci ihai ihc human sµccics musi
incviiallv cvolvc. £voluiion mcans changc, and changc is oíicn rcsis-
icd as old haliis dic hard. £lush ioilcis and lulging garlagc cans rcµ-
rcscni wcll cnircnchcd haliis ihai musi lc rcihoughi and rcinvcnicd.
Ií wc humans arc halí as iniclligcni as wc ihinl wc arc, wc`ll cvcniu-
allv gci our aci iogcihcr. In ihc mcaniimc, wc`rc rcalizing ihai naiurc
holds manv oí ihc lcvs wc nccd io unlocl ihc door io a susiainallc,
harmonious cxisicncc on ihis µlanci. Comµosiing is onc oí ihosc
lcvs, lui ii has onlv lccn rclaiivclv rcccnilv discovcrcd lv ihc human
racc. Iis uiilizaiion is now lcginning io mushroom worldwidc.
22 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc| 23
24 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Tæc. Was|: Nc| Wan| Nc|
MICROHUSBANÐRY
HarnessIng ihe Power oI MIcroscopIc OrganIsms
1
hcrc arc íour gcncral wavs io dcal wiih human
cxcrcmcni. 1hc íirsi is io J/s/·s. ·/ // as a wasic
maicrial. Pcoµlc do ihis lv dcíccaiing in drinling
waicr suµµlics, or in ouihouscs or lairincs. Mosi oí
ihis wasic cnds uµ dumµcd, incincraicd, luricd in ihc ground, or dis-
chargcd inio waicrwavs.
1hc sccond wav io dcal wiih human cxcrcmcni is io a//|v //
rac /· aer/.a|/ara| |aaJ. 1his is µoµular in Asia whcrc ¨nighi soil," or
raw human cxcrcmcni, is aµµlicd io íiclds. Alihough ihis lccµs ihc
soil cnrichcd, ii also acis as a c../·r, or rouic oí iransmission, íor dis-
casc organisms. In ihc words oí Dr. I. W. Scharíí, íormcr chicí hcalih
oííiccr in Singaµorc, 'T/·ae/ //. c.e./a||.s //r/c., //. /ra.//.. ·/ /a///ae
/aoaa /oaaar.j J/r../|v ·a //. s·/| /s Jaae.r·as /· /.a|//. T/. /.acv /·||
·/ s/.|a.ss aaJ J.a// /r·o car/·as .a/.r/. J/s.as.s /a (//aa /s c.||-|a·ca.¨
Ii is inicrcsiing io noic Dr. Scharíí `s suggcsicd alicrnaiivc io ihc usc
oí raw nighi soil: '\. /ac. |..a /a.|/a.J /· r.earJ //. /as/a||a//·a ·/ a
ca/.r-.arr/.J svs/.o as ·a. ·/ //. //aa| a/os ·/ ./c/|/.a//·a.¨
!
1hc World
Hcalih Organizaiion also discouragcs ihc usc oí nighi soil: 'N/e// s·/|
/s s·o.//o.s as.J as a /.r//|/..r, /a c//./ .as. // /r.s.a/s er.a/ /a.arJs |v
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 25
/r·o·//ae //. /raaso/ss/·a ·/ /··J-|·ra. .a/.r/. //a/.s//aa|j J/s.as., aaJ
/··|c·ro.¨
2
1his lool, ihcrcíorc, is a·/ aloui rccvcling nighi soil lv raw
aµµlicaiions io land, which is a µraciicc ihai should lc discouragcd
whcn saniiarv alicrnaiivcs, such as comµosiing, arc availallc.
1hc ihird wav io dcal wiih human cxcrcmcni is io s|·c|v .·o-
/·s/ // ·c.r aa .x/.aJ.J /.r/·J ·/ //o.. 1his is ihc wav oí mosi commcr-
cial comµosiing ioilcis. Slow comµosiing gcncrallv ialcs µlacc ai icm-
µcraiurcs lclow ihai oí ihc human lodv, which is 37
O
C or 98.6
O
£. 1his
ivµc oí comµosiing climinaics mosi discasc organisms in a maiicr oí
monihs, and should climinaic all human µaihogcns cvcniuallv. Iow
icmµcraiurc comµosiing crcaics a uscíul soil addiiivc ihai is ai lcasi
saíc íor ornamcnial gardcns, horiiculiural, or orchard usc.
T/.ro·///|/. comµosiing is ihc íourih wav io dcal wiih
human cxcrcmcni. 1his ivµc oí comµosiing involvcs ihc culiivaiion
oí hcai-loving, or //.ro·///|/., microorganisms in ihc comµosiing
µroccss. 1hcrmoµhilic microorganisms, such as lacicria and íungi,
can crcaic an cnvironmcni in ihc comµosi which dcsirovs discasc
organisms ihai can cxisi in humanurc, convcriing humanurc inio a
íricndlv, µlcasani-smclling humus saíc íor íood gardcns.
1hcrmoµhilicallv comµosicd humanurc is .a//r.|v J///.r.a/ írom nighi
soil.
Pcrhaµs ii is lciicr siaicd lv ihc cxµcris in ihc íicld: 'Ir·o a
sarc.v ·/ //. |//.ra/ar. ·/ a/e// s·/| /r.a/o.a/, // .aa |. .|.ar|v .·a.|aJ.J
//a/ //. ·a|v /a/|-sa/. a/e// s·/| o.//·J c//./ c/|| assar. .//..//c. aaJ
.ss.a//a||v /·/a| /a//·e.a /aa.//ca//·a, /a.|aJ/ae //. o·s/ r.s/s/aa/
/.|o/a//s //a/.s//aa| c·rosj sa./ as As.ar/s /r·aaJc·roj .ees aaJ a||
·//.r |a./.r/a| aaJ c/ra| /a//·e.as, /s /.a/ /r.a/o.a/ /· a /.o/.ra/ar. ·/
55
0
/· 60
0
( /·r s.c.ra| /·ars.¨
3
1hcsc cxµcris arc sµcciíicallv rcícrring
io ihc hcai oí ihc .·o/·s/ //|..
COMPOS1 D££IN£D
According io ihc diciionarv, comµosi is 'a o/x/ar. ·/ J..·o/·s-
/ae c.e./a||. r./as., oaaar., ./.. /·r /.r//|/./ae aaJ .·aJ///·a/ae //. s·/|.¨
1hc Praciical Handlool oí Comµosi £nginccring dcíincs comµosi-
ing wiih a mouihíul: 'T/. |/·|·e/.a| J..·o/·s///·a aaJ s/a|/|/.a//·a ·/
·reaa/. sa|s/ra/.s, aaJ.r .·aJ///·as //a/ a||·c J.c.|·/o.a/ ·/ //.ro·///|/.
/.o/.ra/ar.s as a r.sa|/ ·/ |/·|·e/.a||v /r·Ja..J /.a/, /· /r·Ja.. a //aa|
/r·Ja./ //a/ /s s/a||., /r.. ·/ /a//·e.as aaJ /|aa/ s..Js, aaJ .aa |. |.a.//-
./a||v a//|/.J /· |aaJ.¨
26 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 27
1hc On-£arm Comµosiing Handlool savs ihai comµosi is 'a
er·a/ ·/ ·reaa/. r.s/Ja.s ·r a o/x/ar. ·/ ·reaa/. r.s/Ja.s aaJ s·/| //a/ /ac.
|..a //|.J, o·/s/.a.J, aaJ a||·c.J /· aaJ.re· a.r·|/. |/·|·e/.a| J..·o/·s/-
//·a.¨
1hc Comµosi Council adds ihcir iwo-ccnis worih in dcíining
comµosi: '(·o/·s/ /s //. s/a|/|/..J aaJ saa///..J /r·Ja./ ·/ .·o/·s//ae,
.·o/·s/ /s |are.|v J..·o/·s.J oa/.r/a| aaJ /s /a //. /r·..ss ·/ /ao///.a//·a
(.ar/ae). (·o/·s/ /as |///|. r.s.o||aa.. /a //vs/.a| /·ro /· //. ·r/e/aa|
oa/.r/a| /r·o c//./ // /s oaJ..¨ 1hai lasi scnicncc should lc µariicu-
larlv rcassuring io ihc humanurc comµosicr.
I. I. Rodalc siaics ii a lii morc clooucnilv: '(·o/·s/ /s o·r.
//aa a /.r//|/..r ·r a /.a|/ae ae.a/ /·r //. s·/|´s c·aaJs. l/ /s a svo|·| ·/
.·a//aa/ae |//. . . . T/. .·o/·s/ /.a/ /s /· //. ·reaa/. earJ.a.r c/a/ //.
/v/.cr//.r /s /· //. cr//.r, c/a/ //. s/·c.| /s /· //. |a|·r.r, aaJ c/a/ //.
/ra.| /s /· //. /ra.|Jr/c.r.¨
4
In gcncral, comµosiing is a µroccss managcd lv humans
involving ihc culiivaiion oí microorganisms ihai dcgradc and irans-
íorm organic maicrials whilc in ihc µrcscncc oí oxvgcn. Whcn µroµ-
crlv managcd, ihc comµosi lccomcs so hcavilv µoµulaicd wiih ihcr-
moµhilic microorganisms ihai ii gcncraics ouiic a lii oí hcai.
Comµosi microorganisms can lc so cííicicni ai convcriing organic
maicrial inio humus ihai ihc µhcnomcnon is noihing shori oí mirac-
ulous.
NA1URAICH£MY
In a scnsc, wc havc a univcrsc alovc us and onc lclow us. 1hc
onc alovc us can lc sccn in ihc hcavcns ai nighi, lui ihc onc lclow
us is invisillc wiihoui magniíving lcnscs. Our anccsiors had liiilc
undcrsianding oí ihc vasi, invisillc world which surroundcd ihcm, a
world oí counilcss crcaiurcs so small as io lc ouiic lcvond ihc rangc
oí human sighi. And vci, somc oí ihosc microscoµic crcaiurcs wcrc
alrcadv doing worl íor humaniiv in ihc µroduciion oí íoods such as
lccr, winc, chccsc, or lrcad. Alihough v.as/s havc lccn uscd lv µco-
µlc íor ccniurics, |a./.r/a havc onlv lccomc harncsscd lv wcsicrn
humaniiv in rcccni iimcs. Comµosiing is onc mcans lv which ihc
µowcr oí microorganisms can lc uiilizcd íor ihc lciicrmcni oí
humanlind. Prior io ihc advanccmcni oí magniíicaiion, our anccs-
iors didn`i undcrsiand ihc rolc oí microorganisms in ihc dccomµosi-
iion oí organic maiicr, nor ihc cííicacv oí microscoµic liíc in convcri-
ing humanurc, íood scraµs and µlani rcsiducs inio soil.
1hc comµosiing oí organic maicrials rcouircs armics oí lac-
icria. 1his microscoµic íorcc worls so vigorouslv ihai ii hcais ihc
maicrial io icmµcraiurcs hoiicr ihan arc normallv íound in naiurc.
Oihcr micro (invisillc) and macro (visillc) organisms such as íungi
and insccis hclµ in ihc comµosiing µroccss, ioo. Whcn ihc comµosi
cools down, carihworms oíicn movc in and cai ihcir íill oí dclicacics,
ihcir cxcrcia lccoming a íurihcr rcíincmcni oí ihc comµosi.
SOIAR POW£R IN A BANANA P££I
Organic rcíusc coniains siorcd solar cncrgv. £vcrv aµµlc corc
or µoiaio µccl holds a iinv amouni oí hcai and lighi, iusi lilc a µiccc
oí íircwood. Pcrhaµs S. Sidcs oí ihc M·//.r Far// N.cs siaics ii morc
succincilv: 'P|aa/s .·ac.r/ s·|ar .a.rev /a/· /··J /·r aa/oa|s (·ars.|c.s
/a.|aJ.J). T/.a //. /r./as.j /r·o //.s. aa/oa|s a|·ae c/// J.aJ /|aa/ aaJ
aa/oa| |·J/.s, '|/. J·ca /a //. Jaae /.a/,´ ar. .·o/·s/.J, aaJ 'r/s. aea/a
/a //. .·ra.´ T//s .v.|. ·/ |/e// /s //. ..a/ra| r.as·a c/v .·o/·s//ae /s sa./
aa /o/·r/aa/ |/a| /a ·reaa/. /··J /r·Ja.//·a. l/ r./aras s·|ar .a.rev /· //.
s·/|. la ///s .·a/.x/ sa./ .·oo·a .·o/·s/ /aer.J/.a/s as ·a/·a s|/as, /a/r
/r/oo/aes, .ees/.||s, c.e./a||. /ar/aes, aaJ .c.a |ara/ /·as/ ar. a· |·ae.r
s..a as ear|ae., |a/ as saa|/e// ·a //. o·c. /r·o ·a. /·ro /· aa·//.r.¨
5
1hc organic maicrial uscd io malc comµosi could lc consid-
crcd anvihing on ihc £arih`s suríacc ihai had lccn alivc, or írom a
living ihing, such as manurc, µlanis, lcavcs, sawdusi, µcai, siraw,
grass cliµµings, íood scraµs and urinc. A rulc oí ihuml is ihai anv-
ihing ihai will roi will comµosi, including such ihings as coiion cloih-
ing, wool rugs, rags, µaµcr, animal carcasscs, iunl mail and card-
loard.
1o comµosi mcans io convcri organic maicrial uliimaiclv inio
soil or, morc accuraiclv, /aoas. Humus is a lrown or llacl sulsiancc
rcsuliing írom ihc dccav oí organic animal or vcgciallc rcíusc. Ii is a
siallc maicrial ihai docs noi aiiraci insccis or nuisancc animals. Ii
can lc handlcd and siorcd wiih no µrollcm, and ii is lcncíicial io ihc
growih oí µlanis. Humus holds moisiurc, and ihcrcíorc incrcascs ihc
soil`s caµaciiv io alsorl and hold waicr. Comµosi is said io hold ninc
iimcs iis wcighi in waicr (9OO%), as comµarcd io sand which onlv
holds 2%, and clav 2O%.
6
Comµosi also adds slow-rclcasc nuiricnis csscniial íor µlani
growih, crcaics air sµaccs in soil, hclµs lalancc ihc soil µH, darlcns
ihc soil (ihcrclv hclµing ii alsorl hcai), and suµµoris microlial µoµ-
ulaiions ihai add liíc io ihc soil. Nuiricnis such as niirogcn in com-
28 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
µosi arc slowlv rclcascd ihroughoui ihc growing scason, maling ihcm
lcss susccµiillc io loss lv lcaching ihan ihc morc solullc chcmical
ícriilizcrs.
7
Organic maiicr írom comµosi cnallcs ihc soil io immoli-
lizc and dcgradc µcsiicidcs, niiraics, µhosµhorous and oihcr chcmi-
cals ihai can lccomc µolluianis. Comµosi linds µolluianis in soil svs-
icms, rcducing ihcir lcachaliliiv and alsorµiion lv µlanis.
8
1hc luilding oí ioµsoil lv Moihcr Naiurc is a ccniurics long
µroccss. Adding comµosi io soil will hclµ io ouicllv rcsiorc ícriiliiv
ihai mighi oihcrwisc ialc naiurc hundrcds oí vcars io rcµlacc. Wc
humans dcµlcic our soils in rclaiivclv shori µcriods oí iimc. Bv com-
µosiing our organic rcíusc and rciurning ii io ihc land, wc can rcsiorc
ihai ícriiliiv also in rclaiivclv shori µcriods oí iimc.
£criilc soil viclds lciicr íood, ihcrclv µromoiing good hcalih.
1hc Hunzas oí norihcrn India havc lccn siudicd io a grcai cxicni. Sir
Allcri Howard rcµoricd, '\/.a //. /.a|// aaJ //vs/aa. ·/ //. car/·as
a·r//.ra laJ/aa ra..s c.r. s/aJ/.J /a J./a/|, //. |.s/ c.r. //·s. ·/ //.
Haa.as, a /arJv, ae/|., aaJ c/e·r·as /.·/|. |/c/ae /a ·a. ·/ //. //e/ o·aa-
/a/a ca||.vs ·/ //. G/|e// Ae.a.v . . . T/.r. /s |///|. ·r a· J///.r.a.. |./c..a
//. |/aJs ·/ /··J .a/.a |v //.s. //||o.a aaJ |v //. r.s/ ·/ a·r//.ra laJ/a.
T/.r. /s, /·c.c.r, a er.a/ J///.r.a.. /a //. cav //.s. /··Js ar. er·ca . . .
/Tj/. c.rv er.a/.s/ .ar. /s /a|.a /· r./ara /· //. s·/| a|| /aoaa, aa/oa| aaJ
c.e./a||. /r./as.j a//.r |./ae //rs/ .·o/·s/.J /·e.//.r. LaaJ /s |/o//.J. a/·a
//. cav // /s |··|.J a//.r, |//. J./.aJs.¨
9
GOM£R 1H£ PII£
1hcrc arc scvcral rcasons íor µiling comµosiing maicrial. A
µilc lccµs ihc maicrial írom drving oui or cooling down µrcmaiurc-
lv. A high lcvcl oí moisiurc (5O-6O%) is ncccssarv íor ihc microorgan-
isms io worl haµµilv.
1O
A µilc µrcvcnis lcaching and waicrlogging,
and holds hcai. Vcriical walls around a µilc, csµcciallv ií ihcv`rc madc
oí wood or lalcs oí siraw, lccµ ihc wind oíí and will µrcvcni onc sidc
oí ihc µilc (ihc windward sidc) írom cooling down µrcmaiurclv.
A ncai, coniaincd µilc lools lciicr. Ii lools lilc vou lnow
whai vou`rc doing whcn maling comµosi, insicad oí looling lilc a
garlagc dumµ. A consirucicd comµosi lin also hclµs io lccµ oui nui-
sancc animals such as dogs.
A µilc malcs ii casicr io lavcr or covcr ihc comµosi. Whcn a
smcllv dcµosii is addcd io ihc ioµ oí ihc µilc, ii`s csscniial io covcr ii
wiih clcan organic maicrial io climinaic unµlcasani odors and io hclµ
iraµ ncccssarv oxvgcn in ihc µilc. 1hcrcíorc, ií vou`rc going io malc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 29
comµosi, don`i iusi íling ii oui in vour vard in a hcaµ. Consiruci a
nicc lin and do ii righi. 1hai lin docsn`i havc io cosi moncv: ii can
lc madc írom rccvclcd wood or ccmcni llocls. Wood mav lc µrcícr-
allc as ii will insulaic ihc µilc and µrcvcni hcai loss and írosi µcnc-
iraiion. Avoid woods ihai havc lccn soalcd in ioxic chcmicals.
A laclvard comµosiing svsicm docsn`i havc io lc comµlicai-
cd in anv wav. Ii docsn`i rcouirc clcciriciiv, icchnologv, gimmicls or
doodads. You don`i nccd shrcddcrs, choµµcrs, grindcrs or anv
machincs whaisocvcr.
£OUR N£C£SSI1I£S £OR GOOD COMPOS1
1) MOIS1UR£
Comµosi musi lc lcµi moisi. A drv µilc will noi worl ii
will iusi sii ihcrc and lool lorcd. Ii`s amazing how much moisiurc an
aciivc comµosi µilc can alsorl. Whcn µcoµlc who don`i havc anv
cxµcricncc wiih comµosi irv io µiciurc a humanurc comµosi µilc in
somconc`s laclvard, ihcv imaginc a giani, ílv-inícsicd, smcllv hcaµ oí
cxcrcmcni, draining all manncr oí noxious, siinlv liouids oui oí ihc
loiiom oí ihc comµosi µilc. Howcvcr, a comµosi µilc is noi a µilc oí
garlagc or wasic. 1hanls io ihc miraclc oí comµosiing, ihc µilc
lccomcs a living, lrcaihing, liological mass, an organic sµongc ihai
alsorls ouiic a lii oí moisiurc. 1hc µilc is noi lilclv io crcaic a lcach-
ing µrollcm unlcss suliccicd io susiaincd hcavv rains ihcn ii can
simµlv lc covcrcd.
Whv do comµosi µilcs rcouirc moisiurc? £or onc ihing, com-
µosi loscs a loi oí moisiurc inio ihc air during ihc comµosiing
µroccss, which commonlv causcs a comµosi µilc io shrinl 4O-8O%
11
.
£vcn whcn wci maicrials arc comµosicd, a µilc can undcrgo consid-
crallc drving.
12
An iniiial moisiurc conicni oí 65% can dwindlc down
io 2O io 3O% in onlv a wccl, according io somc rcscarchcrs.
13
Ii is
morc lilclv ihai onc will havc io aJJ moisiurc io onc`s comµosi ihan
havc io dcal wiih cxccss moisiurc lcaching írom ii.
1hc amouni oí moisiurc a comµosi µilc rcccivcs or nccds
dcµcnds on ihc maicrials µui inio ihc µilc as wcll as ihc locaiion oí
ihc µilc. In Pcnnsvlvania, ihcrc arc aloui 36 inchcs (onc mcicr) oí
rainíall cach vcar. Comµosi µilcs rarclv nccd waicring undcr ihcsc
condiiions. According io Sir Allcri Howard, waicring a comµosi µilc
in an arca oí £ngland whcrc ihc annual rainíall is 24 inchcs is also
unncccssarv. Ncvcrihclcss, ihc waicr rcouircd íor comµosi-maling
30 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
mav lc around 2OO io 3OO gallons íor cach culic vard oí íinishcd com-
µosi.
14
1his moisiurc rcouircmcni will lc mci whcn human urinc is
uscd in humanurc comµosi and ihc ioµ oí ihc µilc is uncovcrcd and
rccciving adcouaic rainíall. Addiiional waicr can comc írom moisi
organic maicrials such as íood scraµs. Ií adcouaic rainíall is noi avail-
allc and ihc conicnis oí ihc µilc arc noi moisi, waicring will lc ncc-
cssarv io µroducc a moisiurc conicni couivalcni io a soucczcd-oui
sµongc. Gravwaicr írom houschold drains or collccicd rainwaicr
would suííicc íor ihis µurµosc.
2) OXYG£N
Comµosi rcouircs ihc culiivaiion oí a.r·|/., or oxvgcn loving,
lacicria in ordcr io cnsurc ihcrmoµhilic dccomµosiiion. 1his is donc
lv adding lullv maicrials io ihc comµosi µilc in ordcr io crcaic iinv
inicrsiiiial air sµaccs. Acrolic lacicria will suíícr írom a lacl oí oxv-
gcn ií drowncd in liouid.
Bacicrial dccomµosiiion can also ialc µlacc anacrolicallv, lui
ihis is a slowcr, coolcr µroccss which can, ouiic íranllv, siinl.
Anacrolic odors can smcll lilc roiicn cggs (causcd lv hvdrogcn sul-
íidc), sour mill (causcd lv luivric acids), vincgar (acciic acids),
vomii (valcic acids), and µuiriíicaiion (alcohols and µhcnolic com-
µounds).
15
Olviouslv, wc wani io avoid such odors lv mainiaining an
acrolic comµosi µilc.
Good, hcalihv, acrolic comµosi nccd noi oíícnd onc`s scnsc oí
smcll. Howcvcr, in ordcr íor ihis io lc iruc, a simµlc rulc musi lc íol-
lowcd: aav///ae aJJ.J /· a .·o/·s/ //|. //a/ so.||s |aJ oas/ |. .·c.r.J
c/// a .|.aa, ·reaa/., a·a-so.||v oa/.r/a|. Ií vou`rc using a comµosi ioi-
lci, ihcn vou musi covcr ihc dcµosiis in vour ioilci aíicr cach usc. You
musi lilcwisc covcr vour comµosi µilc cach iimc vou add maicrial io
ii. Good comµosi ioilci covcr maicrials includc sawdusi, µcai moss,
lcavcs, ricc hulls, coco coir and lois oí oihcr ihings. Good covcr maic-
rials íor a comµosi µilc includc wccds, siraw, hav, lcavcs and oihcr
lullv maicrial which will hclµ iraµ oxvgcn in ihc comµosi.
Adcouaiclv covcring comµosi wiih a clcan organic maicrial is ihc
simµlc sccrci io odor µrcvcniion. Ii also lccµs ílics oíí ihc comµosi.
3) 1£MP£RA1UR£
Dchvdraiion will causc ihc comµosi microorganisms io sioµ
worling. So will írcczing. Comµosi µilcs will noi worl ií írozcn.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 31
Howcvcr, ihc microorganisms
can simµlv waii uniil ihc icm-
µcraiurc riscs cnough íor ihcm
io ihaw oui and ihcn ihcv`ll
worl ícvcrishlv. Ií vou havc
room, vou can coniinuc io add
maicrial io a írozcn comµosi
µilc. Aíicr a ihaw, ihc µilc
should worl uµ a sicam as ií
noihing haµµcncd.
4) BAIANC£D DI£1
A good llcnd oí maicri-
als (a good .ar|·a/a//r·e.a |a|-
aa.. in comµosi lingo) is
rcouircd íor a nicc, hoi comµosi
µilc. Sincc mosi oí ihc maicrials
commonlv addcd io a laclvard
comµosi µilc arc high in carlon,
a sourcc oí niirogcn musi lc
incorµoraicd inio ihc llcnd oí
ingrcdicnis. 1his isn`i as diííi-
culi as ii mav sccm. You can
carrv lundlcs oí wccds io vour
comµosi µilc, add hav, siraw,
lcavcs and íood scraµs, lui vou
mav siill lc shori on niirogcn.
Oí coursc ihc soluiion is simµlc
add manurc. Whcrc can vou
gci manurc? £rom an animal.
Whcrc can vou íind an animal?
L··| /a a o/rr·r.
Rodalc siaics in T/.
(·o/|./. B··| ·/ (·o/·s//ae ihai
ihc avcragc gardcncr mav havc
diííiculiv in oliaining manurc
íor ihc comµosi hcaµ, lui wiih
'a |///|. /ae.aa//v aaJ a //·r·ae/
s.ar./,¨ ii can lc íound. A gar-
dcncr in ihc lool icsiiíics ihai
32 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
BENEFITS OF COMPOST
ENRÌCHES SOÌL
· Adds organic material
· Ìmproves fertility and productivity
· Suppresses plant diseases
· Discourages insects
· Ìncreases water retention
· Ìnoculates soil with
beneficial microorganisms
· Reduces or eliminates fertilizer needs
· Moderates soil temperature
PREVENTS POLLUTÌON
· Reduces methane production in landfills
· Reduces or eliminates organic garbage
· Reduces or eliminates sewage
FÌGHTS EXÌSTÌNG POLLUTÌON
· Degrades toxic chemicals
· Binds heavy metals
· Cleans contaminated air
· Cleans stormwater runoff
RESTORES LAND
· Aids in reforestation
· Helps restore wildlife habitats
· Helps reclaim mined lands
· Helps restore damaged wetlands
· Helps prevent erosion on flood plains
DESTROYS PATHOGENS
· Can destroy human disease organisms
· Can destroy plant pathogens
· Can destroy livestock pathogens
SAVES MONEY
· Can be used to produce food
· Can eliminate waste disposal costs
· Reduces the need for water, fertilizers,
and pesticides
· Can be sold at a profit
· Extends landfill life by diverting materials
· Ìs a less costly bioremediation technique
Source: U.S. EPA (October 1997). Compost-New
Applications for an Age-Old Technology. EPA530-F-97-
047. And author's experience.
whcn hc gcis 'a|| s/.ao.J a/ /· |a/|J ovs.|/ a e··J .·o/·s/ //|., //.r. /as
a|cavs |..a ·a. |/e aa.s//·a //a/ s//s aaJ //ao|s //s a·s. a/ o.. \/.r. ao
l e·/ae /· //aJ //. oaaar.· l ao c/||/ae /· |./, /··, //a/ //. |a.| ·/ oaaar.
/s ·a. ·/ //. r.as·as c/v v·ar .·o/·s/ //|. /s a·/ //. //r/c/ae /aoas /a./·-
rv //a/ // o/e// |..¨
Hmmm. \/.r. can a largc animal lilc a human lcing íind
manurc? Gcc, ihai`s a iough onc. Ici`s ihinl rcal hard aloui ihai.
Pcrhaµs wiih a liiilc ¨ingcnuiiv and a ihorough scarch" wc can comc
uµ wiih a sourcc. Whcrc /s ihai mirror, anvwav? Mighi lc a cluc ihcrc.
1H£ CARBON/NI1ROG£N RA1IO
Onc wav io undcrsiand ihc llcnd oí ingrcdicnis in vour com-
µosi µilc is lv using ihc C/N raiio (carlon/niirogcn raiio). Quiic
íranllv, ihc chancc oí ihc avcragc µcrson mcasuring and moniioring
ihc carlon and niirogcn ouaniiiics oí hcr organic maicrial is almosi
nil. Ií comµosiing rcouircd ihis sori oí drudgcrv, no onc would do ii.
Howcvcr, lv using all oí ihc organic rcíusc a íamilv µroduccs,
including humanurc, urinc, íood rcíusc, wccds írom ihc gardcn, and
grass cliµµings, wiih somc maicrials írom ihc largcr agriculiural
communiiv such as a liiilc siraw or hav, and mavlc somc roiiing saw-
dusi or somc collccicd lcavcs írom ihc municiµaliiv, onc can gci a
good mix oí carlon and niirogcn íor succcssíul ihcrmoµhilic com-
µosiing.
A good C/N raiio íor a comµosi µilc is lciwccn 2O/1 and
35/1.
16
1hai`s 2O µaris oí carlon io onc µari oí niirogcn, uµ io 35 µaris
oí carlon io onc µari oí niirogcn. Or, íor simµliciiv, vou can íigurc on
shooiing íor an oµiimum 3O/1 raiio.
£or microorganisms, carlon is ihc lasic luilding llocl oí liíc
and is a sourcc oí cncrgv, lui niirogcn is also ncccssarv íor such
ihings as µroicins, gcnciic maicrial and ccll siruciurc. £or a lalanccd
dici, microorganisms ihai digcsi comµosi nccd aloui 3O µaris oí car-
lon íor cvcrv µari oí niirogcn ihcv consumc. Ií ihcrc`s ioo much
niirogcn, ihc microorganisms can`i usc ii all and ihc cxccss is losi in
ihc íorm oí smcllv ammonia gas. Niirogcn loss duc io cxccss niirogcn
in a comµosi µilc (a low C/N raiio) can lc ovcr 6O%. Ai a C/N raiio
oí 3O or 35 io 1, onlv onc halí oí onc µcrccni oí ihc niirogcn will lc
losi (scc 1allc 3.1). 1hai`s whv vou don`i wani ioo much niirogcn in
vour comµosi ihc niirogcn will lc losi io ihc air in ihc íorm oí
ammonia gas, and niirogcn is ioo valuallc íor µlanis io allow ii io
cscaµc inio ihc aimosµhcrc.
17
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 33
34 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
Material %N C/N Ratio
Activated Sldg. 5-6 . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Amaranth 3.6 . . . . . . . . . . 11
Apple Pomace 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . 13
Blood 10-14 . . . . . . . . . 3
Bread 2.10 . . . . . . . . . ---
Cabbage 3.6 . . . . . . . . . . 12
Cardboard 0.10 . . . . 400-563
Coffee Grnds. --- . . . . . . . . . . 20
Cow Manure 2.4 . . . . . . . . . . 19
Corn Cobs 0.6 . . . . . . 56-123
Corn Stalks 0.6-0.8 . . . . 60-73
Cottonseed Ml. 7.7 . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Cranberry Plant 0.9 . . . . . . . . . . 61
Farm Manure 2.25 . . . . . . . . . 14
Fern 1.15 . . . . . . . . . 43
Fish Scrap 10.6 . . . . . . . . 3.6
Fruit 1.4 . . . . . . . . . . 40
Garbage (Raw) 2.15 . . . . . . 15-25
Grass Clippings 2.4 . . . . . . . 12-19
Hardwood Bark 0.241 . . . . . . . 223
Hardwoods (Avg) 0.09 . . . . . . . . 560
Hay (General) 2.10 . . . . . . . . . ---
Hay (legume) 2.5 . . . . . . . . . . 16
Hen Manure 8 . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Horse Manure 1.6 . . . . . . . 25-30
Humanure 5-7 . . . . . . . . 5-10
Leaves 0.9 . . . . . . . . . . 54
Lettuce 3.7 . . . . . . . . . . ---
Meat Scraps 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . ---
Mussel Resid. 3.6 . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Mustard 1.5 . . . . . . . . . . 26
Newsprint .06-.14 . . 398-852
Oat Straw 1.05 . . . . . . . . . 48
Olive Husks 1.2-1.5 . . . . 30-35
Onion 2.65 . . . . . . . . . 15
Paper --- . . . . . . 100-800
Pepper 2.6 . . . . . . . . . . 15
Pig Manure 3.1 . . . . . . . . . . 14
Potato Tops 1.5 . . . . . . . . . . 25
Poultry Carcasses 2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Purslane 4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Raw Sawdust 0.11 . . . . . . . . 511
Red Clover . . . . . . 1.8 . . . . . . . . . 27
Rice Hulls . . . . . . . 0.3 . . . . . . . . 121
Rotted Sawdust . . . 0.25 . . . 200-500
Seaweed . . . . . . . . 1.9 . . . . . . . . . 19
Sewage Sludge . . . 2-6.9 . . . . . 5-16
Sheep Manure . . . . 2.7 . . . . . . . . . 16
Shrimp Residues . . 9.5 . . . . . . . . 3.4
Slaughter Waste . . 7-10 . . . . . . . 2-4
Softwood Bark . . . . 0.14 . . . . . . . 496
Softwoods (Avg.) . . 0.09 . . . . . . . 641
Soybean Meal . . . . 7.2-7.6 . . . . . 4-6
Straw (General) . . . 0.7 . . . . . . . . . 80
Straw (Oat) . . . . . . 0.9 . . . . . . . . . 60
Straw (Wheat) . . . . 0.4 . . . . . 80-127
Telephone Books . . 0.7 . . . . . . . . 772
Timothy Hay . . . . . 0.85 . . . . . . . . 58
Tomato . . . . . . . . . 3.3 . . . . . . . . . 12
Turkey Litter . . . . . 2.6 . . . . . . . . . 16
Turnip Tops . . . . . . 2.3 . . . . . . . . . 19
Urine . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 . . . . . . 0.8
Vegetable Prod. . . . 2.7 . . . . . . . . . 19
Water Hyacinth . . --- . . . . . . . . 20-30
Wheat Straw . . . . . 0.3 . . . . 128-150
Whole Carrot . . . . . 1.6 . . . . . . . . . 27
Whole Turnip . . . . . 1.0 . . . . . . . . . 44
Table 3.2
CARBON/NITROGEN RATIOS
Sources: Gotaas, Harold B. (1956). Composting - Sanitary
Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes (p.44). World
Health Organization, Monograph Series Number 31.
Geneva. and Rynk, Robert, ed. (1992). On-Farm
Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural
Engineering Service. Ph: (607) 255-7654. pp. 106-113.
Some data from Biocycle, Journal of Composting and
Recycling, July 1998, p.18, 61, 62; and January 1998, p.20.
Table 3.1
NÌTROGEN LOSS AND
CARBON/NÌTROGEN RATÌO
20.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.8
20.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.1
22.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.8
30.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
35.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
76.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -8.0
Source: Gotaas, Composting, 1956, p. 92
Ìnitial C/N Ratio
Nitrogen
Loss (%)
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 35
Table 3.3
COMPOSITION OF HUMANURE
FECAL MATERÌAL
0.3-0.6 pounds/person/day
(135-270 grams), wet weight
Organic Matter (dry wt.) . . .88-97%
Moisture Content . . . . . . . . . 66-80%
Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7%
Phosphorous . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5.4%
Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2.5%
Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-55%
Calcium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5%
C/N Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
URÌNE
1.75-2.25 pints per person per day
(1.0-1.3 liters)
Moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93-96%
Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19%
Phosphorous . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5-5%
Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 -4.5%
Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17%
Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5-6%
Source: Gotaas, Composting, (1956), p. 35.
Table 3.4
DECOMPOSITION RATES OF
SELECTED SAWDUSTS
SAWDUST
Red Cedar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9
Douglas Fir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4
White Pine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Western White Pine . . . . . . . 22.2
Average of all softwoods . . . . 12.0
Chestnut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.5
Yellow Poplar . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.3
Black Walnut . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.7
White Oak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49.1
Average of all hardwoods . . . 45.1
Wheat straw . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.6
The lower the number, the slower the
decomposition rate. Hardwood saw-
dust decomposes faster than soft-
wood sawdust.
Source: Haug, Roger T. (1993). The Practical Handbook
of Compost Engineering. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 U.S.A. as
reported in Biocycle - Journal of Composting and
Recycling. December, 1998. p. 19.
RELATÌVE
DECOMPOSÌTÌON
RATE
Manure % Moisture % N % Phos % K
Human . . . . .66-80 . . . . . . .5-7 . . . . . . . .3-5.4 . . . . . .1.0-2.5
Cattle . . . . . .80 . . . . . . . . . .1.67 . . . . . . .1.11 . . . . . . .0.56
Horse . . . . . .75 . . . . . . . . . .2.29 . . . . . . .1.25 . . . . . .1.38
Sheep . . . . . .68 . . . . . . . . . .3.75 . . . . . . .1.87 . . . . . .1.25
Pig . . . . . . . .82 . . . . . . . . . .3.75 . . . . . . .1.87 . . . . . .1.25
Hen . . . . . . . .56 . . . . . . . . . .6.27 . . . . . . .5.92 . . . . . .3.27
Pigeon . . . . .52 . . . . . . . . . .5.68 . . . . . . .5.74 . . . . . .3.23
Sewage . . . .--- . . . . . . . . . .5-10 . . . . . . .2.5-4.5 . . . .3.0-4.5
Table 3.5
COMPARISONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MANURES
Source: Gotaas, Harold B. (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . pp. 35,
37, 40. World Health Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
1hai`s also whv humanurc and urinc alonc c/|| a·/ comµosi.
1hcv coniain ioo much niirogcn and noi cnough carlon, and
microorganisms, lilc humans, gag ai ihc ihoughi oí caiing ii. Sincc
ihcrc`s noihing worsc ihan ihc ihoughi oí scvcral lillion gagging
microorganisms, a carlon-lascd maicrial musi lc addcd io ihc
humanurc in ordcr io malc ii inio an aµµcaling dinncr. Plani ccllu-
losc is a carlon-lascd maicrial, and ihcrcíorc µlani lv-µroducis such
as hav, siraw, wccds or cvcn µaµcr µroducis ií ground io ihc µroµcr
consisicncv, will µrovidc ihc nccdcd carlon. Kiichcn íood scraµs arc
gcncrallv C/N lalanccd, and ihcv can lc rcadilv addcd io humanurc
comµosi. Sawdusi (µrcícrallv noi liln-dricd) is a good carlon maic-
rial íor lalancing ihc niirogcn oí humanurc.
Sawmill sawdusi has a moisiurc conicni oí 4O-65%, which is
good íor comµosi.
18
Iumlcr vard sawdusi, on ihc oihcr hand, is liln-
dricd and is liologicallv incri duc io dchvdraiion. 1hcrcíorc, ii is noi
as dcsirallc in comµosi unlcss rchvdraicd wiih waicr (or urinc)
lcíorc lcing addcd io ihc comµosi µilc. Also, lumlcr vard sawdusi
nowadavs can oíicn lc coniaminaicd wiih wood µrcscrvaiivcs such as
chromaicd coµµcr arscnaic (írom ¨µrcssurc ircaicd lumlcr"). Boih
chromium and arscnic arc human carcinogcns, so ii would lc wisc io
avoid such lumlcr now lanncd lv ihc £PA.
Somc laclvard comµosicrs rcícr io organic maicrials as
¨lrowns" and ¨grccns." 1hc lrowns (such as dricd lcavcs) suµµlv car-
lon, and ihc grccns (such as írcsh grass cliµµings) suµµlv niirogcn.
Ii`s rccommcndcd ihai iwo io ihrcc volumcs oí lrowns lc mixcd wiih
onc volumc oí grccns in ordcr io µroducc a mix wiih ihc corrcci C/N
raiio íor comµosiing.
19
Howcvcr, sincc mosi laclvard comµosicrs arc
noi humanurc comµosicrs, manv havc a µilc oí maicrial siiiing in
ihcir comµosi lin showing vcrv liiilc aciiviiv. Whai is usuallv miss-
ing is niirogcn as wcll as moisiurc, iwo criiical ingrcdicnis io anv
comµosi µilc. Boih oí ihcsc arc µrovidcd lv humanurc whcn collcci-
cd wiih urinc and a carlon covcr maicrial. 1hc humanurc mix can lc
ouiic lrown, lui is also ouiic high in niirogcn. So ihc ¨lrown/grccn"
aµµroach docsn`i rcallv worl, nor is ii ncccssarv, whcn comµosiing
humanurc along wiih oihcr houschold organic maicrial. Ici`s íacc ii,
humanurc comµosicrs arc in a class lv ihcmsclvcs.
36 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
1H£RMOPHIIIC MICROORGANISMS
A widc arrav oí microorganisms livc in a comµosi µilc.
Bacicria arc csµcciallv alundani and arc usuallv dividcd inio scvcral
classcs lascd uµon ihc icmµcraiurcs ai which ihcv lcsi ihrivc. 1hc
low icmµcraiurc lacicria arc ihc /sv./r·///|.s, which can grow ai icm-
µcraiurcs down io -1O
O
C, lui whosc oµiimum icmµcraiurc is 15
O
C
(59
O
£) or lowcr. 1hc o.s·///|.s livc ai mcdium icmµcraiurcs, 2O-45
O
C
(68-113
O
£), and includc human µaihogcns. T/.ro·///|.s ihrivc alovc
45
O
C (113
O
£), and somc livc ai, or cvcn alovc, ihc loiling µoini oí
waicr.
Sirains oí ihcrmoµhilic lacicria havc lccn idcniiíicd wiih
oµiimum icmµcraiurcs ranging írom 55
O
C io an incrcdillc 1O5
O
C
(alovc ihc loiling µoini oí waicr), and manv icmµcraiurcs in
lciwccn.
2O
1hc sirains ihai survivc ai cxircmclv high icmµcraiurcs
arc callcd, aµµroµriaiclv cnough, cxircmc ihcrmoµhilcs, or hvµcr-
ihcrmoµhilcs, and havc a icmµcraiurc oµiimum oí 8O
O
C (176
O
£) or
highcr. 1hcrmoµhilic lacicria occur naiurallv in hoi sµrings, iroµical
soils, comµosi hcaµs, in vour cxcrcmcni, in hoi waicr hcaicrs (loih
domcsiic and indusirial), and in vour garlagc, io namc a ícw µlaccs.
21
1hcrmoµhilic lacicria wcrc íirsi isolaicd in 1879 lv Mioucl,
who íound lacicria caµallc oí dcvcloµing ai 72
O
C (162
O
£). Hc íound
ihcsc lacicria in soil, dusi, .x.r.o.a/, scwagc, and rivcr mud. Ii was-
n`i long aíicrward ihai a variciv oí ihcrmoµhilic lacicria wcrc discov-
crcd in soil lacicria ihai rcadilv ihrivcd ai high icmµcraiurcs, lui
noi ai room icmµcraiurc. 1hcsc lacicria arc said io lc íound in ihc
sands oí ihc Sahara Dcscri, lui noi in ihc soil oí cool íorcsis.
Comµosicd or manurcd gardcn soils mav coniain 1-1O µcrccni ihcr-
moµhilic ivµcs oí lacicria, whilc íicld soils mav havc onlv O.25% or
lcss. Unculiivaicd soils mav lc cniirclv írcc oí ihcrmoµhilic lacic-
ria.
22
1hcrmoµhilcs arc rcsµonsillc íor ihc sµoniancous hcaiing oí
hav siacls which can causc ihcm io lursi inio ílamc. Comµosi iisclí
can somciimcs sµoniancouslv comlusi. 1his occurs in largcr µilcs
(usuallv ovcr 12 ícci high) ihai lccomc ioo drv (lciwccn 25% and
45% moisiurc) and ihcn ovcrhcai.
23
Sµoniancous íircs havc siaricd ai
iwo Amcrican comµosiing µlanis Schcncciadv and Caµc Mav
duc io cxccssivclv drv comµosi. According io ihc £PA, íircs can siari
ai surµrisinglv low icmµcraiurcs (194
O
£) in ioo-drv comµosi,
alihough ihis is noi a µrollcm íor ihc laclvard comµosicr. Whcn
growing on lrcad, ihcrmoµhilcs can raisc ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 37
38 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
pH MEANS HYDROGEN POWER
Ìt is a measure of the degree of alkalinity or
acidity of a solution, and is often expressed
as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the
hydrogen ion concentration in gram equiva-
lents per liter of solution. pH7=.0000001
gram atom of hydrogen per liter. Pure dis-
tilled water is regarded as neutral with a pH
of 7. pH values range from 0 to 14. From 0
to 7 indicate acidity, and from 7 to 14 indi-
cate alkalinity.
ESSENTIAL READING
FOR INSOMNIACS
0 7 14
ACÌDÌC ALKALÌNE NEUTRAL
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 39
Actinomycetes
100 thousand - 100 million
per gram of compost
Fungi
10 thousand - 1 million
per gram of compost
Bacteria
100 million - 1 billion
per gram of compost
Figure 3.3
COMPOST MÌCROORGANÌSMS MAGNÌFÌED 1,000 TÌMES
Reproduced with permission from On-Farm Composting Handbook. NRAES-54, published by NRAES, Cooperative
Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ìthaca, New York 14853-5701. (607) 255-7654. Quantities of microorganisms from:
Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. p. 200. E. & F. N. Spon Ltd.,
New York, NY 10001 USA.
Actinomycetes
Actinobifida chromogena
Microbispora bispora
Micropolyspora faeni
Nocardia sp.
Pseudocardia thermophilia
Streptomyces rectus
S. thermofuscus
S. thermoviolaceus
S. thermovulgaris
S. violaceus-ruber
Thermoactinomyces sac
chari
T. vulgaris
Thermomonospora curvata
T. viridis
Fungi
Aspergillus fumigatus
Humicola grisea
H. insolens
H. lanuginosa
Malbranchea pulchella
Myriococcum themophilum
Paecilomyces variotti
Papulaspora thermophila
Scytalidium thermophilim
Sporotrichum thermophile
Bacteria
Alcaligenes faecalis
Bacillus brevis
B. circulans complex
B. coagulans type A
B. coagulans type B
B. licheniformis
B. megaterium
B. pumilus
B. sphaericus
B. stearothermophilus
B. subtilis
Clostridium thermocellum
Escherichia coli
Flavobacterium sp.
Pseudomonas sp.
Serratia sp.
Thermus sp.
Table 3.6
MICROORGANISMS IN COMPOST
Source: Palmisano, Anna C. and
Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996).
Microbiology of Solid Waste. Pp.
125-127. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca
Raton, FL 33431 USA.
lrcad io 74
O
C (165
O
£). Hcai írom lacicria also warms gcrminaiing
sccds, as sccds in a sicrilc cnvironmcni arc íound io rcmain cool
whilc gcrminaiing.
24
Boih mcsoµhilic and ihcrmoµhilic microorganisms arc íound
widclv disiriluicd in naiurc and arc commonlv rcsidcni on íood
maicrial, garlagc and manurcs. 1his is noi surµrising íor mcsoµhilcs
lccausc ihc icmµcraiurcs ihcv íind io lc oµiimum íor ihcir rcµroduc-
iion arc commonlv íound in naiurc. 1hcsc icmµcraiurcs includc
ihosc oí warm-lloodcd animals, which cxcrcic mcsoµhilcs in ihcir
siools in hugc numlcrs.
A mvsicrv µrcscnis iisclí, on ihc oihcr hand, whcn wc consid-
cr //.ro·///|/. microorganisms, sincc ihcv µrcícr living ai icmµcra-
iurcs noi commonlv íound in naiurc, such as hoi sµrings, waicr
hcaicrs and comµosi µilcs. 1hcir µrcícrcncc íor hoi icmµcraiurcs has
givcn risc io somc sµcculaiion aloui ihcir cvoluiion. Onc ihcorv sug-
gcsis ihai ihc ihcrmoµhilcs wcrc among ihc íirsi living ihings on ihis
µlanci, dcvcloµing and cvolving during ihc µrimordial lirihing oí ihc
£arih whcn suríacc icmµcraiurcs wcrc ouiic hoi. 1hcv havc ihus
lccn callcd ihc ¨Univcrsal Anccsior." £siimaicd ai 3.6 lillion vcars
old, ihcv arc said io lc so alundani as io '.·o/r/s. as oa./ as /a|/ ·/
a|| |/c/ae ///aes ·a //. /|aa./.¨
25
1his is a raihcr µroíound conccµi, as
ii would mcan ihai ihcrmoµhilic organisms arc µcrhaµs morc ancicni
ihan anv oihcr living ihing. 1hcir agc would malc dinosaurs lool lilc
ncw-lorn lalcs siill wci lchind ihc cars, howcvcr cxiinci. Oí coursc,
wc humans, in comµarison, havc iusi shown uµ on £arih.
1hcrmoµhilcs could ihcrcíorc lc ihc common anccsiral organism oí
all liíc íorms on our µlanci.
Iusi as cxiraordinarv is ihc conccµi ihai ihcrmoµhilcs,
dcsµiic ihcir nccd íor a hoi cnvironmcni, arc íound cvcrvwhcrc.
1hcv`rc lingcring in vour garlagc and in vour siool and havc lccn
sincc wc humans íirsi lcgan io crawl on ihis µlanci. 1hcv havc ouici-
lv waiicd sincc ihc lcginning oí iimc, and wc havcn`i lccn awarc oí
ihcm uniil rcccnilv. Rcscarchcrs insisi ihai ihcrmoµhilcs do noi grow
ai amlicni or room icmµcraiurcs.
26
Yci, lilc a miraclc, whcn wc col-
lcci our organic rcíusc in a iidv µilc, ihc ihcrmoµhilcs sccm io lc
sµarlcd oui oí ihcir dormani slumlcr io worl íuriouslv ioward crcai-
ing ihc µrimordial hcai ihcv so dcsirc. And ihcv succccd ií wc hclµ
ihcm lv crcaiing comµosi µilcs. 1hcv rcward us íor our hclµ lv con-
vcriing our garlagc and oihcr organic discards inio liíc-susiaining
carih.
1hc lnowlcdgc oí living crcaiurcs incomµrchcnsillv ancicni,
40 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
so small as io lc cniirclv invisillc, ihriving ai icmµcraiurcs hoiicr
ihan ihosc normallv íound in naiurc, and vci íound alivc cvcrvwhcrc,
is rcmarlallc cnough. 1hc íaci ihai ihcv arc so willing io worl íor our
lcncíii, howcvcr, is raihcr humlling.
Bv somc csiimaics, humanurc coniains uµ io a irillion
(1,OOO,OOO,OOO,OOO) lacicria µcr gram.
27
1hcsc arc, oí coursc, mixcd
sµccics, and noi lv anv mcans all ihcrmoµhilcs. A irillion lacicria is
couivalcni io ihc cniirc human µoµulaiion oí ihc £arih muliiµlicd lv
166, and all soucczcd inio a gram oí organic maicrial. 1hcsc microli-
ological conccµis oí sizc and numlcr arc diííiculi íor us humans io
grasµ. 1cn µcoµlc crammcd inio an clcvaior wc can undcrsiand. A
irillion living organisms in a icasµooníul oí craµ is a lii mind-log-
gling.
Has anvonc idcniiíicd ihc sµccics oí microorganism ihai
hcais uµ comµosi? Aciuallv, a largc variciv oí sµccics, a |/·J/c.rs//v, is
criiical io ihc succcss oí comµosi. Howcvcr, ihc ihcrmoµhilic siagc oí
ihc µroccss is dominaicd lv ihcrmoµhilic lacicria. Onc cxaminaiion
oí comµosi microorganisms ai iwo comµosi µlanis showcd ihai mosi
oí ihc lacicria (87%) wcrc oí ihc gcnus Ba./||as, which arc lacicria
ihai íorm sµorcs,
28
whilc anoihcr rcscarchcr íound ihai alovc 65
O
C,
ihc organisms in ihc comµosi wcrc almosi µurclv Ba./||as s/.ar·//.r-
o·///|as.
29
£OUR S1AG£S O£ COMPOS1
1hcrc is a hugc diíícrcncc lciwccn a laclvard humanurc
comµosicr and a municiµal comµosicr. Municiµal comµosicrs handlc
largc laichcs oí organic maicrials all ai oncc, whilc laclvard com-
µosicrs coniinuouslv µroducc a small amouni oí organic maicrial
cvcrv dav. Municiµal comµosicrs, ihcrcíorc, arc ¨laich" comµosicrs,
whilc laclvard comµosicrs icnd io lc ¨coniinuous" comµosicrs.
Whcn organic maicrial is comµosicd in a laich, íour disiinci siagcs
oí ihc comµosiing µroccss arc aµµarcni. Alihough ihc samc µhascs
occur during coniinuous comµosiing, ihcv arc noi as aµµarcni as ihcv
arc in a laich, and in íaci ihcv mav lc occurring concurrcnilv raihcr
ihan scoucniiallv.
1hc íour µhascs includc: 1) ihc mcsoµhilic µhasc: 2) ihc ihcr-
moµhilic µhasc: 3) ihc cooling µhasc: and 4) ihc curing µhasc.
Comµosi lacicria comlinc carlon wiih oxvgcn io µroducc
carlon dioxidc and cncrgv. Somc oí ihc cncrgv is uscd lv ihc
microorganisms íor rcµroduciion and growih: ihc rcsi is givcn oíí as
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 41
hcai. Whcn a µilc oí organic rcíusc lcgins io undcrgo ihc comµosiing
µroccss, mcsoµhilic lacicria µroliícraic, raising ihc icmµcraiurc oí
ihc comµosiing mass uµ io 44
O
C (111
O
£). 1his is ihc íirsi siagc oí ihc
comµosiing µroccss. 1hcsc mcsoµhilic lacicria can includc F. .·|/
and oihcr lacicria írom ihc human inicsiinal iraci, lui ihcsc soon
lccomc incrcasinglv inhiliicd lv ihc icmµcraiurc, as ihc ihcr-
moµhilic lacicria ialc ovcr in ihc iransiiion rangc oí 44
O
C-52
O
C
(111
O
£-125.6
O
£).
1his lcgins ihc sccond siagc oí ihc µroccss, whcn ihcr-
moµhilic microorganisms arc vcrv aciivc and µroducc a loi oí hcai.
1his siagc can ihcn coniinuc io aloui 7O
O
C (158
O
£),
3O
alihough such
high icmµcraiurcs arc nciihcr common nor dcsirallc in laclvard
comµosi. 1his hcaiing siagc ialcs µlacc raihcr ouicllv and mav lasi
onlv a ícw davs, wccls or monihs. Ii icnds io rcmain localizcd in ihc
uµµcr µoriion oí a laclvard comµosi lin whcrc ihc írcsh maicrial is
lcing addcd: whcrcas in laich comµosi, ihc cniirc comµosiing mass
mav lc ihcrmoµhilic all ai oncc.
Aíicr ihc ihcrmoµhilic hcaiing µcriod, ihc humanurc will
aµµcar io havc lccn digcsicd, lui ihc coarscr organic maicrial will
noi. 1his is whcn ihc ihird siagc oí comµosiing, ihc cooling µhasc,
ialcs µlacc. During ihis µhasc, ihc microorganisms ihai wcrc chascd
awav lv ihc ihcrmoµhilcs migraic lacl inio ihc comµosi and gci io
worl digcsiing ihc morc rcsisiani organic maicrials. £ungi and
macroorganisms such as carihworms and sowlugs also lrcal ihc
coarscr clcmcnis down inio humus.
Aíicr ihc ihcrmoµhilic siagc has lccn comµlcicd, onlv ihc
rcadilv availallc nuiricnis in ihc organic maicrial havc lccn digcsi-
cd. 1hcrc`s siill a loi oí íood in ihc µilc, and a loi oí worl io lc donc
lv ihc crcaiurcs in ihc comµosi. Ii ialcs manv monihs io lrcal down
somc oí ihc morc rcsisiani organic maicrials in comµosi such as
¨lignin," which comcs írom wood maicrials. Iilc humans, irccs havc
cvolvcd wiih a slin ihai is rcsisiani io lacicrial aiiacl, and in a com-
µosi µilc ihcsc lignins rcsisi lrcaldown lv ihcrmoµhilcs. Howcvcr,
oihcr organisms, such as íungi, can lrcal down lignin, givcn cnough
iimc: sincc manv íungi don`i lilc ihc hcai oí ihcrmoµhilic comµosi,
ihcv simµlv waii íor ihings io cool down lcíorc lcginning ihcir iol.
1hc íinal siagc oí ihc comµosiing µroccss is callcd ihc curing,
aging or maiuring siagc, and ii is a long and imµoriani onc.
Commcrcial comµosiing µroícssionals oíicn wani io malc ihcir com-
µosi as ouicllv as µossillc, usuallv sacriíicing ihc comµosi`s curing
iimc. Onc municiµal comµosi oµcraior rcmarlcd ihai ií hc could
42 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
shoricn his comµosi iimc io íour monihs, hc could malc ihrcc laich-
cs oí comµosi a vcar insicad oí onlv ihc iwo hc was ihcn maling,
ihcrclv incrcasing his ouiµui lv 5O%. Municiµal comµosicrs scc
iruclloads oí comµosi coming in io ihcir íaciliiics dailv, and ihcv
wani io malc surc ihcv don`i gci inundaicd wiih organic maicrial
waiiing io lc comµosicd. 1hcrcíorc, ihcv íccl a nccd io movc ihcir
maicrial ihrough ihc comµosiing µroccss as ouicllv as µossillc io
malc room íor ihc ncw siuíí. Houschold comµosicrs don`i havc ihai
µrollcm, alihough ihcrc sccm io lc µlcniv oí laclvard comµosicrs
who arc olscsscd wiih maling comµosi as ouicllv as µossillc.
Howcvcr, ihc curing oí ihc comµosi is a criiicallv imµoriani siagc oí
ihc comµosi-maling µroccss.
A long curing µcriod, such as a vcar aíicr ihc ihcrmoµhilic
siagc, adds a saíciv nci íor µaihogcn dcsiruciion. Manv human
µaihogcns havc onlv a limiicd µcriod oí vialiliiv in ihc soil, and ihc
longcr ihcv arc suliccicd io ihc microliological comµciiiion oí ihc
comµosi µilc, ihc morc lilclv ihcv will dic a swiíi dcaih.
Immaiurc or uncurcd comµosi can µroducc sulsianccs callcd
//v/·/·x/as ihai arc ioxic io µlanis. Ii can also rol ihc soil oí oxvgcn
and niirogcn and can coniain high lcvcls oí organic acids. So rclax, sii
lacl, µui vour ícci uµ, and lci vour comµosi rcach íull maiuriiv |./·r.
vou cvcn ihinl aloui using ii.
COMPOS1 BIODIV£RSI1Y
Comµosi is normallv µoµulaicd lv ihrcc gcncral caicgorics oí
microorganisms: lacicria, aciinomvccics and íungi (scc £igurc 3.3
and 1allc 3.6). Ii is µrimarilv ihc lacicria, and sµcciíicallv ihc ihcr-
moµhilic lacicria, ihai crcaic ihc hcai oí ihc comµosi µilc.
Alihough considcrcd lacicria, aciinomvccics arc cíícciivclv
inicrmcdiaics lciwccn lacicria and íungi lccausc ihcv lool similar
io íungi and havc similar nuiriiional µrcícrcnccs and growih haliis.
1hcv icnd io lc morc commonlv íound in ihc laicr siagcs oí comµosi,
and arc gcncrallv ihoughi io íollow ihc ihcrmoµhilic lacicria in suc-
ccssion. 1hcv, in iurn, arc íollowcd µrcdominanilv lv íungi during
ihc lasi siagcs oí ihc comµosiing µroccss.
1hcrc arc ai lcasi 1OO,OOO lnown sµccics oí íungi, ihc ovcr-
whclming maioriiv oí ihcm lcing microscoµic.
31
Mosi íungi cannoi
grow ai 5O
O
C lccausc ii`s ioo hoi, alihough //.ro·///|/. /aae/ arc hcai
iolcrani. £ungi icnd io lc alscni in comµosi alovc 6O
O
C and aciino-
mvccics icnd io lc alscni alovc 7O
O
C. Alovc 82
O
C liological aciiviiv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 43
cíícciivclv sioµs (cxircmc ihcrmoµhilcs arc noi íound in comµosi).
32
1o gci an idca oí ihc microlial divcrsiiv normallv íound in
naiurc, considcr ihis: a icasµoon oí naiivc grassland soil coniains 6OO-
8OO million lacicria comµrising 1O,OOO sµccics, µlus µcrhaµs 5,OOO
sµccics oí íungi, ihc mvcclia oí which could lc sircichcd oui íor scv-
cral milcs. In ihc samc icasµoon, ihcrc mav lc 1O,OOO individual µro-
iozoa oí µcrhaµs 1,OOO sµccics, µlus 2O-3O diíícrcni ncmaiodcs írom
as manv as 1OO sµccics. Sounds crowdcd io mc. Olviouslv, good com-
µosi will rcinoculaic dcµlcicd, saniiizcd, chcmicalizcd soils wiih a
widc variciv oí lcncíicial microorganisms (scc £igurcs 3.4 and 3.5).
33
COMPOS1 MICROORGANISMS ¨SANI1IZ£" COMPOS1
A írcoucni oucsiion is, ¨How do vou lnow ihai a|| µaris oí
vour comµosi µilc havc lccn suliccicd io high cnough icmµcraiurcs
io lill a|| µoicniial µaihogcns?" 1hc answcr should lc olvious: vou
don`i. You ncvcr will. Unlcss, oí coursc, vou cxaminc cvcrv culic ccn-
iimcicr oí vour comµosi íor µaihogcns in a laloraiorv. 1his would
µrolallv cosi manv ihousands oí dollars, which would malc vour
comµosi ihc mosi cxµcnsivc in hisiorv.
Ii`s noi onlv ihc /.a/ oí ihc comµosi ihai causcs ihc dcsiruc-
iion oí human, animal and µlani µaihogcns, ii`s a comlinaiion oí íac-
iors, including:
º comµciiiion íor íood írom comµosi microorganisms:
º inhiliiion and aniagonism lv comµosi microorganisms:
º consumµiion lv comµosi organisms:
º liological hcai gcncraicd lv comµosi microorganisms: and
º aniilioiics µroduccd lv comµosi microorganisms.
£or cxamµlc, whcn lacicria wcrc grown in an inculaior wiih-
oui comµosi ai 5O
O
C and scµaraiclv in comµosi ai 5O
O
C, ihcv dicd in
ihc comµosi aíicr onlv scvcn davs, lui livcd in ihc inculaior íor scv-
cniccn davs. 1his indicaicd ihai ii is morc ihan iusi icmµcraiurc ihai
dcicrmincs ihc íaic oí µaihogcnic lacicria. 1hc oihcr íaciors lisicd
alovc undoulicdlv aíícci ihc vialiliiv oí non-indigcnous microorgan-
isms, such as human µaihogcns, in a comµosi µilc. 1hosc íaciors
rcouirc as largc and divcrsc a microlial µoµulaiion as µossillc, which
is lcsi achicvcd lv icmµcraiurcs lclow 6O
O
C (14O
O
£). Onc rcscarchcr
siaics ihai, 'S/ea///.aa/ r.Ja.//·as /a /a//·e.a aao|.rs /ac. |..a
·|s.rc.J /a .·o/·s/ //|.s c//./ /ac. a·/ .x...J.J 10
0
( /!01
0
Ij.¨
34
44 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
1hcrc is no douli ihai ihc hcai µroduccd lv ihcrmoµhilic
lacicria lills µaihogcnic microorganisms, viruscs, lacicria, µroiozoa,
worms and cggs ihai mav inhalii humanurc. A icmµcraiurc oí 5O
O
C
(122
O
£), ií mainiaincd íor iwcniv-íour hours, is suííicicni io lill all
oí ihc µaihogcns, according io somc sourccs (ihis issuc is covcrcd in
Chaµicr Scvcn). A lowcr icmµcraiurc will ialc longcr io lill
µaihogcns. A icmµcraiurc oí 46
O
C (115
O
£) mav ialc ncarlv a wccl io
lill µaihogcns comµlciclv: a highcr icmµcraiurc mav ialc onlv min-
uics. Whai wc havc vci io dcicrminc is how low ihosc icmµcraiurcs
can lc and siill achicvc saiisíaciorv µaihogcn climinaiion. Somc
rcscarchcrs insisi ihai all µaihogcns will dic ai amlicni icmµcraiurcs
(normal air icmµcraiurc) givcn cnough iimc.
Whcn Wcsicrlcrg and Wilcv comµosicd scwagc sludgc which
had lccn inoculaicd wiih µolio virus, Sa|o·a.||a, roundworm cggs,
and (aaJ/Ja a||/.aas, ihcv íound ihai a comµosi icmµcraiurc oí 47-
55
O
C (116-13O
O
£) mainiaincd íor ihrcc davs lillcd all oí ihcsc
µaihogcns.
35
1his µhcnomcnon has lccn coníirmcd lv manv oihcr
rcscarchcrs, including Goiaas, who indicaics ihai µaihogcnic organ-
isms arc unallc io survivc comµosi icmµcraiurcs oí 55-6O
O
C (131-
14O
O
£) íor morc ihan ihiriv minuics io onc hour.
36
1hc íirsi goal in
comµosiing humanurc, ihcrcíorc, should lc io crcaic a comµosi µilc
ihai will hcai suííicicnilv io lill µoicniial human µaihogcns ihai mav
lc íound in ihc manurc.
Ncvcrihclcss, ihc hcai oí ihc comµosi µilc is a highlv laudcd
characicrisiic oí comµosi ihai can lc a lii ovcrllown ai iimcs. Pcoµlc
mav lclicvc ihai ii`s ·a|v ihc hcai oí ihc comµosi µilc ihai dcsirovs
µaihogcns, so ihcv wani ihcir comµosi io lccomc as hoi as µossillc.
1his is a misialc. In íaci, comµosi can lccomc ioo hoi, and whcn ii
docs, ii dcsirovs ihc liodivcrsiiv oí ihc microlial communiiv. As onc
scicniisi siaics, 'R.s.ar./ /as /aJ/.a/.J //a/ /.o/.ra/ar. /s a·/ //. ·a|v
o../aa/so /ac·|c.J /a /a//·e.a sa//r.ss/·a, aaJ //a/ //. .o/|·vo.a/ ·/
//e/.r //aa a...ssarv /.o/.ra/ar.s oav a./aa||v .·as///a/. a |arr/.r /·
.//..//c. saa///.a//·a aaJ.r ..r/a/a ./r.aos/aa..s.¨
37
Pcrhaµs onlv onc
sµccics (c.g., Ba./||as s/.ar·//.ro·///|as) mav dominaic ihc comµosi
µilc during µcriods oí cxccssivc hcai, ihcrclv driving oui or ouirighi
lilling ihc oihcr inhaliianis oí ihc comµosi, which includc íungi and
aciinomvccics as wcll as ihc liggcr organisms ihai vou can aciuallv
scc.
A comµosi µilc ihai is ioo hoi can dcsirov iis own liological
communiiv and lcavc a mass oí organic maicrial ihai musi lc rc-µoµ-
ulaicd in ordcr io coniinuc ihc ncccssarv convcrsion oí organic mai-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 45
icr io humus. Such sicrilizcd comµosi is morc lilclv io lc colonizcd
lv unwanicd microorganisms, such as Sa|o·a.||a. Rcscarchcrs havc
shown ihai ihc liodivcrsiiv oí comµosi acis as a larricr io coloniza-
iion lv such unwanicd microorganisms as Sa|o·a.||a. In ihc alscncc
oí a liodivcrsc ¨indigcnous ílora," such as causcd lv sicrilizaiion duc
io cxccss hcai, Sa|o·a.||a wcrc allc io rcgrow.
38
1hc microlial liodivcrsiiv oí comµosi is also imµoriani
lccausc ii aids in ihc lrcaldown oí ihc organic maicrial. £or cxam-
µlc, in high-icmµcraiurc comµosi (8O
O
C), onlv aloui 1O% oí scwagc
sludgc solids could lc dccomµoscd in ihrcc wccls, whcrcas ai 5O-
6O
O
C, 4O% oí ihc sludgc solids wcrc dccomµoscd in onlv scvcn davs.
1hc lowcr icmµcraiurcs aµµarcnilv allowcd íor a richcr divcrsiiv oí
living ihings which in iurn had a grcaicr cíícci on ihc dcgradaiion oí
ihc organic maiicr. Onc rcscarchcr indicaics ihai oµiimal dccomµosi-
iion raics occur in ihc 55-59
O
C (131-139
O
£) icmµcraiurc rangc, and
oµiimal ihcrmoµhilic aciiviiv occurs ai 55
O
C (131
O
£), which arc loih
adcouaic icmµcraiurcs íor µaihogcn dcsiruciion.
39
A siudv conducicd
in 1955 ai Michigan Siaic Univcrsiiv, howcvcr, indicaicd ihai oµiimal
dccomµosiiion occurs ai an cvcn lowcr icmµcraiurc oí 45
O
C (113
O
£).
4O
Anoihcr rcscarchcr asscris ihai maximum liodcgradaiion occurs ai
45-55
O
C (113-131
O
£), whilc maximum microlial divcrsiiv rcouircs a
icmµcraiurc rangc oí 35-45
O
C (95-113
O
£).
41
Aµµarcnilv, ihcrc is siill
somc dcgrcc oí ílcxililiiv in ihcsc csiimaics, as ihc scicncc oí ¨com-
µosi microhuslandrv" is noi an uiicrlv µrccisc onc ai ihis iimc.
Conirol oí cxccssivc hcai, howcvcr, is µrolallv noi a conccrn íor ihc
laclvard comµosicr.
Somc ihcrmoµhilic aciinomvccics, as wcll as mcsoµhilic lac-
icria, µroducc aniilioiics ihai disµlav considcrallc µoicncv ioward
oihcr lacicria and vci cxhilii low ioxiciiv whcn icsicd on micc. Uµ io
onc halí oí ihcrmoµhilic sirains can µroducc aniimicrolial com-
µounds, somc oí which havc lccn shown io lc cíícciivc againsi F. .·|/
and Sa|o·a.||a. Onc ihcrmoµhilic sirain wiih an oµiimum growih
icmµcraiurc oí 5O
O
C µroduccs a sulsiancc ihai 's/ea///.aa/|v a/J.J //.
/.a|/ae ·/ /a/../.J sar/a.. c·aaJs /a .|/a/.a| /.s/s ·a /aoaa sa|j../s. T/.
/r·Ja./(s) a|s· s//oa|a/.J er·c// ·/ a car/./v ·/ ..|| /v/.s, /a.|aJ/ae car/-
·as aa/oa| aaJ /|aa/ //ssa. .a|/ar.s aaJ aa/..||a|ar a|ea..¨
42
1hc µroduc-
iion oí aniilioiics lv comµosi microorganisms ihcorciicallv assisis in
ihc dcsiruciion oí human µaihogcns ihai mav havc cxisicd in ihc
organic maicrial lcíorc comµosiing.
£vcn ií cvcrv sµccl oí ihc comµosiing maicrial is noi sulicci-
cd io ihc high inicrnal icmµcraiurcs oí ihc comµosi µilc, ihc µroccss
46 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
oí ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing ncvcrihclcss coniriluics immcnsclv
ioward ihc crcaiion oí a saniiarv organic maicrial. Or, in ihc words oí
onc grouµ oí comµosiing µroícssionals, 'T/. //e/ /.o/.ra/ar.s
a.//.c.J Jar/ae .·o/·s//ae, ass/s/.J |v //. .·o/.////·a aaJ aa/ae·a/so
ao·ae //. o/.r··reaa/sos //..., |/·J/c.rs//vj, .·as/J.ra||v r.Ja.. //. aao-
|.r ·/ /|aa/ aaJ aa/oa| /a//·e.as. \//|. s·o. r.s/s/aa/ /a//·e.a/. ·reaa-
/sos oav sarc/c. aaJ ·//.rs oav /.rs/s/ /a .··|.r s..//·as ·/ //. //|., //. J/s-
.as. r/s| /s, a.c.r//.|.ss, er.a/|v r.Ja..J.¨
43
Ií a laclvard comµosicr has anv douli or conccrn aloui ihc
cxisicncc oí µaihogcnic organisms in his or hcr humanurc comµosi,
s/hc can usc ihc comµosi íor horiiculiural µurµoscs raihcr ihan íor
íood µurµoscs. Humanurc comµosi can grow an amazing laich oí
lcrrics, ílowcrs, lushcs, or irccs. £urihcrmorc, lingcring µaihogcns
coniinuc io dic aíicr ihc comµosi has lccn aµµlicd io ihc soil, which
is noi surµrising sincc human µaihogcns µrcícr ihc warm and moisi
cnvironmcni oí ihc human lodv. As ihc World Banl rcscarchcrs µui
ii, '.c.a /a//·e.as r.oa/a/ae /a .·o/·s/ s..o /· J/sa//.ar ra//J|v /a //.
s·/|.¨ |N/e// S·/| (·o/·s//ae, 1981] £inallv, comµosi can lc icsicd íor
µaihogcns lv comµosi icsiing lals. Such lals arc lisicd in Chaµicr
Six.
Somc sav ihai a ícw µaihogcns in soil or comµosi arc OK.
'Aa·//.r /·/a/ o·s/ /·||s J·a´/ r.a|/.. /s //a/ a· .·o/·s/ aaJ a· s·/| ar.
.·o/|./.|v /a//·e.a /r... Y·a r.a||v J·a´/ caa/ // /· |. .·o/|./.|v /a//·e.a
/r.., |..aas. v·a a|cavs caa/ //. J./.as. o../aa/so /· /ac. s·o.///ae /·
/ra.//.. ·a. S· a soa|| aao|.r ·/ J/s.as.-.aas/ae ·reaa/sos /s J.s/ra||.. Ba/
//a/´s //.¨
11
Paihogcns arc said io havc ¨minimum inícciivc doscs,"
which varv widclv írom onc ivµc oí µaihogcn io anoihcr, mcaning
ihai a numlcr oí µaihogcns arc ncccssarv in ordcr io iniiiaic an inícc-
iion. 1hc idca, ihcrcíorc, ihai comµosi musi lc sicrilc is incorrcci. Ii
musi lc saa//arv, which mcans ii musi havc a grcailv wcalcncd,
rcduccd or dcsirovcd µaihogcn µoµulaiion.
In rcaliiv, ihc avcragc laclvard comµosicr lnows whcihcr his
or hcr íamilv is hcalihv or noi. Hcalihv íamilics havc liiilc io lc con-
ccrncd aloui and can íccl coníidcni ihai ihcir ihcrmoµhilic comµosi
can lc saíclv rciurncd io ihc soil, µrovidcd ihc simµlc insiruciions in
ihis lool arc íollowcd rcgarding comµosi icmµcraiurcs and rcicniion
iimcs, as discusscd in Chaµicr Scvcn. On ihc oihcr hand, ihcrc will
alwavs lc ihosc µcoµlc who arc íccoµholic, and who will ncvcr lc
convinccd ihai humanurc comµosi is saíc. 1hcsc µcoµlc arc noi lilc-
lv io comµosi ihcir humanurc anvwav, so who carcs?
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 47
COMPOS1 MY1HS
1O 1URN OR NO1 1O 1URN: 1HA1 IS 1H£ QU£S1ION
Whai is onc oí ihc íirsi ihings io comc io mind whcn onc
ihinls oí comµosi? 1urning ihc µilc. Tara, /ara, /ara, has lccomc ihc
manira oí comµosicrs worldwidc. £arlv rcscarchcrs who wroic scmi-
nal worls in ihc comµosiing íicld, such as Goiaas, Rodalc, and manv
oihcrs, cmµhasizc iurning comµosi µilcs, almosi olscssivclv so.
Much oí comµosi's currcni µoµulariiv in ihc Wcsi can lc
aiiriluicd io ihc worl oí Sir Allcri Howard, who wroic Aa
Aer/.a|/ara| T.s/ao.a/ in 1943 and scvcral oihcr worls on asµccis oí
whai has now lccomc lnown as organic agriculiurc. Howard's discus-
sions oí comµosiing icchnioucs íocus on ihc Indorc µroccss oí com-
µosiing, a µroccss dcvcloµcd in Indorc, India, lciwccn ihc vcars oí
1924 and 1931. 1hc Indorc µroccss was íirsi dcscrilcd in dciail in
Howard's 1931 worl, co-auihorcd wiih Y. D. Wad, T/. \as/. Pr·Ja./s
·/ Aer/.a|/ar.. 1hc iwo main µrinciµlcs undcrlving ihc Indorc com-
µosiing µroccss includc: 1) mixing animal and vcgciallc rcíusc wiih
a ncuiralizing lasc, such as agriculiural limc: and 2) managing ihc
comµosi µilc lv µhvsicallv iurning ii. 1hc Indorc µroccss sulsc-
oucnilv lccamc adoµicd and csµouscd lv comµosiing cnihusiasis in
ihc Wcsi, and iodav onc siill commonlv sccs µcoµlc iurning and lim-
ing comµosi µilcs. £or cxamµlc, Rolcri Rodalc wroic in ihc £clruarv,
1972, issuc oí (reaa/. GarJ.a/ae conccrning comµosiing humanurc,
"\. r..·oo.aJ /ara/ae //. //|. a/ |.as/ //r.. //o.s /a //. //rs/ /.c o·a//s,
aaJ //.a ·a.. .c.rv //r.. o·a//s //.r.a//.r /·r a v.ar."
A largc indusirv has cmcrgcd írom ihis µhilosoµhv, onc which
manuíaciurcs cxµcnsivc comµosi iurning couiµmcni, and a loi oí
moncv, cncrgv and cxµcnsc go inio maling surc comµosi is iurncd
rcgularlv. £or somc comµosi µroícssionals, ihc suggcsiion ihai com-
µosi docsn`i nccd io lc iurncd ai all is uiicr llasµhcmv. Oí coursc vou
havc io iurn ii ii`s a comµosi µilc, íor hcavcn`s salc.
Or do vou? Wcll, in íaci, a·, vou don`i, csµcciallv ií vou`rc a
laclvard comµosicr, and noi cvcn ií vou`rc a largc scalc comµosicr.
1hc µcrccivcd nccd io iurn comµosi is onc oí ihc mvihs oí comµosi-
ing.
1urning comµosi µoicniiallv scrvcs íour lasic µurµoscs. £irsi,
iurning is suµµoscd io add oxvgcn io ihc comµosi µilc, which is suµ-
µoscd io lc good íor ihc acrolic microorganisms. Wc arc warncd ihai
ií wc do noi iurn our comµosi, ii will lccomc anacrolic and smcll
48 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 49
lad, aiiraci rais and ílics, and malc us inio social µariahs in our
ncighlorhoods. Sccond, iurning ihc comµosi cnsurcs ihai all µaris oí
ihc µilc arc suliccicd io ihc high inicrnal hcai, ihcrclv cnsuring ioial
µaihogcn dcaih and viclding a hvgicnicallv saíc, íinishcd comµosi.
1hird, ihc morc wc iurn ihc comµosi, ihc morc ii lccomcs choµµcd
and mixcd, and ihc lciicr ii lools whcn íinishcd, rcndcring ii morc
marlciallc. £ourih, írcoucni iurning can sµccd uµ ihc comµosiing
µroccss.
Sincc laclvard comµosicrs don`i aciuallv marlci ihcir com-
µosi, usuallv don`i carc ií ii`s íinclv granulaicd or somcwhai coarsc,
and usuallv havc no good rcason io lc in a hurrv, wc can climinaic ihc
lasi iwo rcasons íor iurning comµosi righi oíí ihc lai. Ici`s lool ai ihc
íirsi iwo.
Acraiion is ncccssarv íor acrolic comµosi, and ihcrc arc
numcrous wavs io acraic a comµosi µilc. Onc is io íorcc air inio or
ihrough ihc µilc using íans, which is common ai largc-scalc comµosi-
ing oµcraiions whcrc air is suclcd írom undcr ihc comµosi µilcs and
oui ihrough a lioíilicr. 1hc suciion causcs air io sccµ inio ihc organ-
ic mass ihrough ihc ioµ, ihcrclv lccµing ii acraicd. An accclcraicd
ílow oí air ihrough a comµosi mass can causc ii io hcai uµ ouiic dras-
iicallv: ihcn ihc air ílow also lccomcs a mcihod íor irving io rcducc
ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc comµosi lccausc ihc cxhausi air draws ouiic a
lii oí hcai awav írom ihc comµosi µilc. Such mcchanical acraiion is
ncvcr a nccd oí ihc laclvard comµosicr and is limiicd io largc scalc
comµosiing oµcraiions whcrc ihc µilcs arc so lig ihcv can smoihcr
ihcmsclvcs ií noi suliccicd io íorccd acraiion.
Acraiion can also lc achicvcd lv µoling holcs in ihc comµosi,
driving µiµcs inio ii and gcncrallv imµaling ii. 1his sccms io lc µoµ-
ular among somc laclvard comµosicrs. A ihird wav is io µhvsicallv
iurn ihc µilc. A íourih, largclv ignorcd wav, howcvcr, is io luild ihc
µilc so ihai iinv inicrsiiiial air sµaccs arc iraµµcd in ihc comµosi.
1his is donc lv using coarsc maicrials in ihc comµosi, such as hav,
siraw, wccds, and ihc lilc. Whcn a comµosi µilc is µroµcrlv consiruci-
cd, no addiiional acraiion will lc nccdcd. £vcn ihc organic gardcning
µros admii ihai, 'e··J .·o/·s/ .aa |. oaJ. c///·a/ /ara/ae |v /aaJ //
//. oa/.r/a|s ar. .ar./a||v |av.r.J /a //. /.a/ c//./ /s c.||-c.a//|a/.J aaJ
/as //. r/e// o·/s/ar. .·a/.a/.¨
45
1his is csµcciallv iruc íor ¨coniinuous comµosi," which is dií-
ícrcni írom ¨laich comµosi." Baich comµosi is madc írom a laich oí
maicrial ihai is comµosicd all ai oncc. 1his is whai commcrcial com-
µosicrs do ihcv gci a dumµ irucl load oí garlagc or scwagc sludgc
50 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
írom ihc municiµaliiv and comµosi ii in onc lig µilc. Baclvard com-
µosicrs, csµcciallv humanurc comµosicrs, µroducc organic rcsiducs
dailv, a liiilc ai a iimc and rarclv, ií cvcr, in lig laichcs. 1hcrcíorc,
coniinuous comµosicrs add maicrial coniinuouslv io a comµosi µilc
usuallv lv µuiiing ihc írcsh maicrial on ihc ioµ. 1his causcs ihc ihcr-
moµhilic aciiviiv io lc in ihc uµµcr µari oí ihc µilc whilc ihc ihcr-
moµhilicallv ¨sµcni" µari oí ihc comµosi sinls lowcr and lowcr, io lc
worlcd on lv íungi, aciinomvccics, carihworms and lois oí oihcr
ihings. 1urning coniinuous comµosi diluics ihc ihcrmoµhilic lavcr
wiih ihc sµcni lavcrs and can ouiic alruµilv sioµ all ihcrmoµhilic
aciiviiv.
Rcscarchcrs havc mcasurcd oxvgcn lcvcls in largc-scalc
windrow comµosiing oµcraiions (a windrow is a long, narrow µilc oí
comµosi). Onc rcµoricd, '(xve.a .·a..a/ra//·a o.asar.o.a/s /a|.a
c////a //. c/aJr·cs Jar/ae //. o·s/ a.//c. s/ae. ·/ //. .·o/·s//ae /r·..ss,
s/·c.J //a/ c////a ////..a o/aa/.s a//.r /ara/ae //. c/aJr·c sa//·s.J-
|v a.ra//ae // //. ·xve.a .·a/.a/ cas a|r.aJv J./|./.J.¨
46
Oihcr
rcscarchcrs comµarcd ihc oxvgcn lcvcls oí largc, iurncd and uniurncd
laich comµosi µilcs, and havc comc io ihc conclusion ihai comµosi
µilcs arc largclv sclí-acraicd. 'T/. .//../ ·/ //|. /ara/ae cas /· r./r.s/
·xve.a .·a/.a/, ·a ac.rae. /·r /·a|vj !.5 /·ars (a|·c. //. !0% |.c.|), a//.r-
c//./ // Jr·//.J /· |.ss //aa 5% aaJ /a o·s/ .as.s /· 2% Jar/ae //. a.//c.
//as. ·/ .·o/·s//ae . . . Fc.a c/// a· /ara/ae, a|| //|.s .c.a/aa||v r.s·|c.
//./r ·xve.a /.as/·a as oa/ar//v a//r·a./.s, /aJ/.a//ae //a/ s.|/-a.ra//·a
a|·a. .aa aJ.aaa/.|v /ara/s/ //. .·o/·s//ae /r·..ss . . . la ·//.r c·rJs,
/ara/ae //. //|.s /as a /.o/·ra| |a/ |///|. sas/a/a.J /a/|a.a.. ·a ·xve.a |.c-
.|s.¨ 1hcsc irials comµarcd comµosi ihai was noi iurncd, luclci
iurncd, iurncd oncc cvcrv iwo wccls and iurncd iwicc a wccl.
47
Inicrcsiinglv cnough, ihc samc irials indicaicd ihai lacicrial
µaihogcns wcrc dcsirovcd whcihcr ihc µilcs wcrc iurncd or uniurncd,
siaiing ihai ihcrc was no cvidcncc ihai lacicrial µoµulaiions wcrc
inílucnccd lv iurning schcmcs. 1hcrc wcrc no surviving F. .·|/ or
Sa|o·a.||a sirains, indicaiing ihai ihcrc wcrc 'a· s/a//s//.a||v s/ea///-
.aa/ .//../s a//r/|a/a||. /· /ara/ae.¨ Uniurncd µilcs can lcncíii lv ihc
addiiion oí cxira coarsc maicrials such as hav or siraw, which iraµ
cxira air in ihc organic maicrial and malc addiiional acraiion unncc-
cssarv. £urihcrmorc, uniurncd comµosi µilcs can lc covcrcd wiih a
ihicl insulaiing lavcr oí organic maicrial, such as hav, siraw or cvcn
íinishcd comµosi, which can allow ihc icmµcraiurcs on ihc ouicr
cdgcs oí ihc µilc io grow warm cnough íor µaihogcn dcsiruciion.
Noi onlv can iurning comµosi µilcs lc an unncccssarv cxµcn-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 51
diiurc oí cncrgv, lui ihc alovc irials also showcd ihai whcn laich
comµosi µilcs arc iurncd írcoucnilv, somc oihcr disadvaniagcous
cííccis can rcsuli (scc £igurc 3.6 on µagc 49). £or cxamµlc, ihc morc
írcoucnilv comµosi µilcs arc iurncd, ihc morc agriculiural nuiricnis
ihcv losc. Whcn ihc íinishcd comµosi was analvzcd íor organic mai-
icr and niirogcn loss, ihc uniurncd comµosi showcd ihc lcasi loss.
1hc morc írcoucnilv ihc comµosi was iurncd, ihc grcaicr was ihc loss
oí loih niirogcn aaJ organic maiicr. Also, ihc morc ihc comµosi was
iurncd, ihc morc ii cosi. 1hc uniurncd comµosi cosi $3.O5 µcr wci
ion, whilc ihc comµosi iurncd iwicc a wccl cosi $41.23 µcr wci ion, a
1,351% incrcasc. 1hc rcscarchcrs concludcd ihai '(·o/·s//ae o.//·Js
//a/ r.aa/r. /a/.as///.a//·a //r.aa.a/ /ara/aej ar. a .ar/·as r.sa|/ ·/ o·J-
.ra /·/a|ar//v aaJ /../a·|·e/.a| J.c.|·/o.a/ ·/ .·o/·s//ae as /ar//.a|ar|v
.c/J.a..J /a /·/a|ar /raJ. j·araa|s. T/.v J· a·/ a//.ar /· |. s./.a////.a||v
sa//·r/a||. |as.J ·a //.s. s/aJ/.s . . . Bv .ar./a||v oaaae/ae .·o/·s//ae /·
a.//.c. /r·/.r o/x.s aaJ |/o//.J /ara/ae, //. /J.a| ·/ a aaa|//v /r·Ja./ a/
|·c ..·a·o/. |arJ.a .aa |. a.//.c.J.¨
48
Whcn largc µilcs oí municiµal comµosi arc iurncd, ihcv givc
oíí cmissions oí such ihings as As/.re/||as /ao/ea/as íungi which can
causc hcalih µrollcms in µcoµlc. Acrosol conccniraiions írom siaiic
(uniurncd) µilcs arc rclaiivclv small whcn comµarcd io mcchanicallv
iurncd comµosi. Mcasurcmcnis ihiriv mcicrs downwind írom siaiic
µilcs showcd ihai acrosol conccniraiions oí A. /ao/ea/as wcrc noi sig-
niíicanilv alovc laclground lcvcls, and wcrc ¨33 io 18OO iimcs lcss"
ihan ihosc írom µilcs ihai wcrc lcing movcd.
49
£inallv, iurning comµosi µilcs in cold climaics can causc
ihcm io losc ioo much hcai. Ii is rccommcndcd ihai cold climaic com-
µosicrs iurn lcss írcoucnilv, ií ai all.
5O
DO YOU N££D 1O INOCUIA1£ YOUR COMPOS1 PII£?
No. 1his is µcrhaµs onc oí ihc mosi asionishing asµccis oí
comµosiing.
In Ociolcr oí 1998, I iool a iriµ io Nova Scoiia, Canada, io
olscrvc ihc municiµal comµosiing oµcraiions ihcrc. 1hc Provincc
had lcgislaicd ihai as oí Novcmlcr 3O, 1998, no organic maicrials
could lc disµoscd oí in landíills. Bv ihc cnd oí Ociolcr, wiih ihc ¨lan
daic" aµµroaching, viriuallv all municiµal organic garlagc was lcing
collccicd and iransµoricd insicad io comµosiing íaciliiics, whcrc ii
was cíícciivclv lcing rccvclcd and convcricd inio humus. 1hc munic-
iµal garlagc irucls would simµlv lacl inio ihc comµosi íaciliiv
52 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
luilding (ihc comµosiing was donc indoors), and ihcn dumµ ihc
garlagc on ihc íloor. 1hc maicrial consisicd oí ihc normal houschold
and rcsiaurani íood maicrials such as lanana µccls, coíícc grounds,
loncs, mcai, sµoilcd mill and µaµcr µroducis such as ccrcal loxcs.
1hc occasional cluclcss µcrson would coniriluic a ioasicr ovcn, lui
ihcsc wcrc soricd oui. 1hc organic maicrial was ihcn chcclcd íor
oihcr coniaminanis such as loiilcs and cans, run ihrough a grindcr,
and íinallv shovcd inio a concrcic comµosi lin. Wiihin 24-48 hours,
ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc maicrial would climl io 7O
O
C (158
O
£). No inoc-
ulanis wcrc rcouircd. Incrcdillv, ihc ihcrmoµhilic lacicria wcrc
alrcadv ihcrc, waiiing in ihc garlagc íor ihis momcni io arrivc.
Rcscarchcrs havc comµosicd maicrials wiih and wiihoui inoc-
ula and íound ihai, 'a|//·ae/ r/./ /a |a./.r/a, a·a. ·/ //. /a·.a|a a...|-
.ra/.J //. .·o/·s//ae /r·..ss ·r /o/r·c.J //. //aa| /r·Ja./ . . . T/. /a/|ar.
·/ //. /a·.a|a /· a|/.r //. .·o/·s//ae .v.|. /s Ja. /· //. aJ.aaa.v ·/ //.
/aJ/e.a·as o/.r·|/a| /·/a|a//·a a|r.aJv /r.s.a/ aaJ /· //. aa/ar. ·/ //.
/r·..ss //s.|/ . . . T/. sa...ss ·/ .·o/·s//ae ·/.ra//·as c///·a/ //. as. ·/ s/.-
./a| /a·.a|a /a //. N.//.r|aaJs, N.c Z.a|aaJ, S·a// A/r/.a, laJ/a, (//aa,
//. U.S.A, aaJ a er.a/ oaav ·//.r /|a..s, /s .·ac/a./ae .c/J.a.. //a/ /a·.-
a|a aaJ ·//.r aJJ///c.s ar. a·/ .ss.a//a| /a //. .·o/·s//ae ·/ /·reaa/.j
oa/.r/a|s.¨
5!
Oihcrs siaic, 'N· Ja/a /a //. |//.ra/ar. /aJ/.a/. //a/ //.
aJJ///·a ·/ /a·.a|aa/s, o/.r·|.s, ·r .a.vo.s a...|.ra/. //. .·o/·s/
/r·..ss.¨
52
IIM£
Ii is noi ncccssarv io µui limc (ground agriculiural limcsionc)
on vour comµosi µilc. 1hc lclicí ihai comµosi µilcs should lc limcd
is a common misconccµiion. Nor arc oihcr mincral addiiivcs nccdcd
on vour comµosi. Ií vour soil nccds limc, µui ihc limc on vour soil,
noi vour comµosi. Bacicria don`i digcsi limcsionc: in íaci limc is uscd
io |/|| microorganisms in scwagc sludgc ii`s callcd |/o.-s/a|/|/..J
sludgc.
Agcd comµosi is noi acidic, cvcn wiih ihc usc oí sawdusi. 1hc
µH oí íinishcd comµosi should slighilv cxcccd 7 (ncuiral). Whai is
µH? Ii`s a mcasurc oí acidiiv and allaliniiv which rangcs írom 1-14.
Ncuiral is 7. Bclow scvcn is acidic: alovc scvcn is lasic or allalinc. Ií
ihc µH is ioo acidic or ioo allalinc, lacicrial aciiviiv will lc hindcrcd
or sioµµcd comµlciclv. Iimc and wood ashcs raisc ihc µH, lui wood
ashcs should also go siraighi on ihc soil. 1hc comµosi µilc docsn`i
nccd ihcm. Ii mav sccm logical ihai onc should µui inio onc's com-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 53
µosi µilc whaicvcr onc also wanis io µui inio onc's gardcn soil, as ihc
comµosi will cnd uµ in ihc gardcn cvcniuallv, lui ihai's noi ihc rcal-
iiv oí ihc siiuaiion. \/a/ ·a. s/·a|J /a/ /a/· ·a.'s .·o/·s/ /s c/a/ //.
o/.r··reaa/sos /a //. .·o/·s/ caa/ ·r a..J, a·/ c/a/ //. earJ.a s·/|
caa/s ·r a..Js.
Sir Allcri Howard, onc oí ihc mosi wcll-lnown µroµoncnis oí
comµosiing, as wcll as I. I. Rodalc, anoihcr µromincni organic agri-
culiurisi, havc rccommcndcd adding limc io comµosi µilcs.
53
1hcv
sccmcd io lasc ihcir rcasoning on ihc lclicí ihai ihc comµosi will
lccomc acidic during ihc comµosiing µroccss, and ihcrcíorc ihc acid-
iiv musi lc ncuiralizcd lv adding limc io ihc µilc whilc ii`s comµosi-
ing. Ii mav wcll lc ihai somc comµosi lccomcs acidic during ihc
µroccss oí dccomµosiiion, howcvcr, ii sccms io ncuiralizc iisclí ií lcíi
alonc, viclding a ncuiral, or slighilv allalinc cnd µroduci. 1hcrcíorc,
ii is rccommcndcd ihai vou icsi vour //a/s/.J comµosi íor µH lcíorc
dcciding ihai vou nccd io ncuiralizc anv acids.
I íind ii µcrµlcxing ihai ihc auihor who rccommcndcd liming
comµosi µilcs in onc lool, siaics in anoihcr, 'T/. .·a/r·| ·/ /H /a .·o-
/·s//ae /s s.|J·o a /r·||.o r.aa/r/ae a//.a//·a // //. oa/.r/a| /s |.// a.r·-
|/.. . . //. aJJ///·a ·/ a||a|/a. oa/.r/a| /s rar.|v a...ssarv /a a.r·|/. J..·o-
/·s///·a aaJ, /a /a./, oav J· o·r. /aro //aa e··J |..aas. //. |·ss ·/ a//r·-
e.a |v //. .c·|a//·a ·/ aoo·a/a as a eas c/|| |. er.a/.r a/ //. //e/.r /H.¨
54
In oihcr words, don`i assumc ihai vou should limc vour comµosi.
Onlv do so ií vour íinishcd comµosi is consisicnilv acidic, which
would lc highlv unlilclv. Gci a soil µH icsi lii and chccl ii oui.
Rcscarchcrs havc indicaicd ihai maximum ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing
occurs ai a µH rangc lciwccn 7.5 io 8.5, which is slighilv allalinc.
55
Bui don`i lc surµriscd ií vour comµosi is slighilv acidic ai ihc siari oí
ihc µroccss. Ii should iurn ncuiral or slighilv allalinc and rcmain so
whcn comµlciclv curcd.
Scicniisis who wcrc siudving various commcrcial ícriilizcrs
íound ihai agriculiural µlois io which comµosicd scwagc sludgc had
lccn addcd madc lciicr usc oí limc ihan µlois wiihoui comµosicd
sludgc. 1hc limc in ihc comµosicd µlois changcd ihc µH dccµcr in
ihc soil indicaiing ihai organic maiicr assisis calcium movcmcni
ihrough ihc soil '|.//.r //aa aav///ae .|s.,¨ according io Cccil 1csicr,
Ph.D., rcscarch chcmisi ai USDA`s Microlial Svsicms Ial in
Bclisvillc, MD.
56
1hc imµlicaiions arc ihai comµosi should lc addcd
io ihc soil whcn limc is addcd /· //. s·/|.
Pcrhaµs Goiaas sums ii uµ lcsi, 'S·o. .·o/·s/ ·/.ra/·rs /ac.
saee.s/.J //. aJJ///·a ·/ |/o. /· /o/r·c. .·o/·s//ae. T//s s/·a|J |. J·a.
54 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
·a|v aaJ.r rar. ./r.aos/aa..s sa./ as c/.a //. rac oa/.r/a| /· |. .·o/·s/-
.J /as a //e/ a./J//v Ja. /· a./J /aJas/r/a| cas/.s ·r .·a/a/as oa/.r/a|s //a/
e/c. r/s. /· //e/|v a./J .·aJ///·as Jar/ae .·o/·s//ae.¨
57
WHA1 NO1 1O COMPOS1? YOU CAN COMPOS1 AIMOS1 ANY1HING.
I gci a lii µcriurlcd whcn I scc comµosi cducaiors iclling
ihcir siudcnis ihai ihcrc is a long lisi oí ihings ¨a·/ io lc comµosicd!"
1his µrohiliiion is alwavs µrcscnicd in such an auihoriiaiivc and
scrious manncr ihai novicc comµosicrs lcgin ircmlling in ihcir loois
ai ihc ihoughi oí comµosiing anv oí ihc lanncd maicrials. I can imag-
inc naivc comµosicrs armcd wiih ihis misiníormaiion carcíullv scgrc-
gaiing ihcir íood scraµs so ihai, God íorlid, ihc wrong maicrials don`i
cnd uµ in ihc comµosi µilc. 1hosc ¨lanncd" maicrials includc mcai,
íish, mill, luiicr, chccsc and oihcr dairv µroducis, loncs, lard, mav-
onnaisc, oils, µcanui luiicr, salad drcssing, sour crcam, wccds wiih
sccds, discascd µlanis, ciirus µccls, rhularl lcavcs, cral grass, µci
manurcs, and µcrhaµs worsi oí all human manurc. Prcsumallv,
onc musi scgrcgaic halí-caicn µcanui luiicr sandwichcs írom ihc
comµosi luclci, or anv sandwich wiih mavonaissc or chccsc, or anv
lcíi-ovcr salad wiih salad drcssing, or sµoilcd mill, or orangc µccls,
all oí which musi go io a landíill and lc luricd undcr ions oí diri
insicad oí lcing comµosicd. Iuclilv, I was ncvcr cxµoscd io such
insiruciions, and mv íamilv has comµosicd .c.rv |// oí íood scraµ ii
has µroduccd, including mcai, loncs, luiicr, oils, íai, lard, ciirus
µccls, mavonnaisc and cvcrvihing clsc on ihc lisi. Wc`vc donc ihis in
our laclvard íor 26 vcars wiih a.c.r a µrollcm. Whv would ii worl
íor us and noi íor anvonc clsc? 1hc answcr, in a word, ií I mav hazard
a gucss, is /aoaaar., anoihcr íorliddcn comµosi maicrial.
Whcn comµosi hcais uµ, much oí ihc organic maicrial is
ouicllv dcgradcd. 1his holds iruc íor oils and íais, or in ihc words oí
scicniisis, 'Bas.J ·a .c/J.a.. ·a //. .·o/·s//ae ·/ er.as. /ra/ cas/.s,
|///Js //a/sj .aa |. a//|/..J ra//J|v |v |a./.r/a, /a.|aJ/ae a.//a·ov../.s,
aaJ.r //.ro·///|/. .·aJ///·as.¨
58
1hc µrollcm wiih ihc maicrials on
ihc ¨lanncd" lisi is ihai ihcv mav rcouirc ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing
condiiions íor lcsi rcsulis. Oihcrwisc, ihcv can iusi sii in ihc comµosi
µilc and onlv vcrv slowlv dccomµosc. In ihc mcaniimc, ihcv can lool
vcrv aiiraciivc io ihc wandcring dog, cai, raccoon, or rai. Ironicallv,
whcn ihc íorliddcn maicrials, including humanurc, arc comlincd
wiih oihcr comµosi ingrcdicnis, ihcrmoµhilic condiiions will µrcvail.
Whcn humanurc and ihc oihcr conirovcrsial organic maicrials arc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 55
scgrcgaicd írom comµosi, ihcrmoµhilic condiiions mav noi occur ai
all. 1his is a siiuaiion ihai is µrolallv ouiic common in mosi lacl-
vard comµosi µilcs. 1hc soluiion is noi io scgrcgaic maicrials írom
ihc µilc, lui io add niirogcn and moisiurc, as arc commonlv íound in
manurc.
As such, comµosi cducaiors would µrovidc a lciicr scrvicc io
ihcir siudcnis ií ihcv iold ihcm ihc iruih: almosi anv organic maicri-
al will comµosi raihcr ihan givc ihcm ihc íalsc imµrcssion ihai
somc common íood maicrials will noi. Granicd, somc ihings do noi
comµosi vcrv wcll. Boncs arc onc oí ihcm, lui ihcv do no harm in a
comµosi µilc.
Ncvcrihclcss, ioxic chcmicals s/·a|J lc lcµi oui oí ihc lacl-
vard comµosi µilc. Such chcmicals arc íound, íor cxamµlc, in somc
¨µrcssurc ircaicd" lumlcr ihai is saiuraicd wiih canccr-causing
chcmicals such as chromaicd coµµcr arscnaic. Whai noi io comµosi:
sawdusi írom CCA µrcssurc ircaicd lumlcr, which is, uníoriunaiclv,
a ioxic maicrial ihai has lccn rcadilv availallc io ihc avcragc gardcn-
cr íor ioo manv vcars (lui now largclv lanncd lv ihc £PA).
COMPOS1 MIRACI£S
COMPOS1 CAN D£GRAD£ 1OXIC CH£MICAIS
Comµosi microorganisms noi onlv convcri organic maicrial
inio humus, lui ihcv also dcgradc ioxic chcmicals inio simµlcr,
lcnign, organic molcculcs. 1hcsc chcmicals includc gasolinc, dicscl
íucl, ici íucl, oil, grcasc, wood µrcscrvaiivcs, PCBs, coal gasiíicaiion
wasics, rcíincrv wasics, inscciicidcs, hcrlicidcs, 1N1, and oihcr
cxµlosivcs.
59
In onc cxµcrimcni in which comµosi µilcs wcrc laccd wiih
inscciicidcs and hcrlicidcs, ihc inscciicidc (carloíuran) was com-
µlciclv dcgradcd, and ihc hcrlicidc (iriazinc) was 98.6% dcgradcd
aíicr 5O davs oí comµosiing. Soil coniaminaicd wiih dicscl íucl and
gasolinc was comµosicd, and aíicr 7O davs in ihc comµosi µilc, ihc
ioial µcirolcum hvdrocarlons wcrc rcduccd aµµroximaiclv 93%.
6O
Soil coniaminaicd wiih Dicamla hcrlicidc ai a lcvcl oí 3,OOO µaris
µcr million showcd no dcicciallc lcvcls oí ihc ioxic coniaminani aíicr
onlv 5O davs oí comµosiing. In ihc alscncc oí comµosiing, ihis
liodcgradaiion µroccss normallv ialcs vcars.
Comµosi sccms io sironglv lind mcials and µrcvcni ihcir
uµialc lv loih µlanis and animals, ihcrclv µrcvcniing iransícr oí
56 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
mcials írom coniaminaicd soil inio ihc íood chain.
62
Onc rcscarchcr
ícd lcad-coniaminaicd soil io rais, somc wiih comµosi addcd, and
somc wiihoui. 1hc soil io which comµosi had lccn addcd µroduccd
no ioxic cííccis, whcrcas ihc soil wiihoui comµosi did µroducc somc
ioxic cííccis.
61
Planis grown in lcad coniaminaicd soil wiih icn µcr-
ccni comµosi showcd a rcduciion in lcad uµialc oí 82.6%, comµarcd
io µlanis grown in soil wiih no comµosi.
63
£ungi in comµosi µroducc a sulsiancc ihai lrcals down
µcirolcum, ihcrclv maling ii availallc as íood íor lacicria.
64
Onc
man who comµosicd a laich oí sawdusi coniaminaicd wiih dicscl oil
said, '\. J/J /.s/s ·a //. .·o/·s/, aaJ c. .·a|Ja´/ .c.a //aJ //. ·/|/¨ 1hc
comµosi had aµµarcnilv ¨caicn" ii all.
65
£ungi also µroducc cnzvmcs
ihai can lc uscd io rcµlacc chlorinc in ihc µaµcr-maling µroccss.
Rcscarchcrs in Ircland havc discovcrcd ihai íungi gaihcrcd írom
comµosi hcaµs can µrovidc a chcaµ and organic alicrnaiivc io ioxic
chcmicals.
66
Comµosi has lccn uscd in rcccni vcars io dcgradc oihcr ioxic
chcmicals as wcll. £or cxamµlc, chloroµhcnol coniaminaicd soil was
comµosicd wiih µcai, sawdusi and oihcr organic maiicr and aíicr 25
monihs, ihc chloroµhcnol was rcduccd in conccniraiion lv 98.73%.
£rcon coniaminaiion was rcduccd lv 94%, PCPs lv uµ io 98%, and
1C£ lv 89-99% in oihcr comµosi irials.
67
Somc oí ihis dcgradaiion is
duc io ihc cííoris oí íungi ai lowcr (mcsoµhilic) icmµcraiurcs.
68
Somc lacicria cvcn havc an aµµciiic íor uranium. Dcrcl
Iovlcv, a microliologisi, has lccn worling wiih a sirain oí lacicria
ihai normallv livcs 65O ícci undcr ihc £arih`s suríacc. 1hcsc microor-
ganisms will cai, ihcn cxcrcic, uranium. 1hc chcmicallv alicrcd ura-
nium cxcrcia lccomcs waicr insolullc as a rcsuli oí ihc microlial
digcsiion µroccss, and can conscoucnilv lc rcmovcd írom ihc waicr ii
was coniaminaiing.
69
An Ausirian íarmcr claims ihai ihc microorganisms hc iniro-
duccs inio his íiclds havc µrcvcnicd his croµs írom lcing coniaminai-
cd lv ihc radiaiion írom Chcrnolvl, ihc ill-íaicd Russian nuclcar
µowcr µlani, which coniaminaicd his ncighlor`s íiclds. Sigíricd
Iullc sµravs his grccn manurc croµs wiih comµosi-ivµc microorgan-
isms iusi lcíorc µlowing ihcm undcr. 1his µraciicc has µroduccd a
soil rich in humus and iccming wiih microscoµic liíc. Aíicr ihc
Chcrnolvl disasicr, croµs írom íiclds in Iullc`s íarming arca wcrc
lanncd írom salc duc io high amounis oí radioaciivc ccsium coniam-
inaiion. Howcvcr, whcn oííicials icsicd Iullc`s croµs, no iracc oí
ccsium could lc íound. 1hc oííicials madc rcµcaicd icsis lccausc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 57
ihcv couldn`i lclicvc ihai onc íarm showcd no radioaciivc coniamina-
iion whilc ihc surrounding íarms did. Iullc surmiscs ihai ihc
humus iusi ¨aic uµ" ihc ccsium.
7O
Comµosi is also allc io dcconiaminaic soil µolluicd wiih
1N1 írom muniiions µlanis. 1hc microorganisms in ihc comµosi
digcsi ihc hvdrocarlons in 1N1 and convcri ihcm inio carlon diox-
idc, waicr and simµlc organic molcculcs. 1hc mcihod oí choicc íor
climinaiing coniaminaicd soil has ihus íar lccn incincraiion.
Howcvcr, comµosiing cosis íar lcss, and viclds a maicrial ihai is valu-
allc (comµosi), as oµµoscd io incincraiion, which viclds an ash ihai
musi iisclí lc disµoscd oí as ioxic wasic. Whcn ihc Umaiilla Armv
Dcµoi in Hcrmision, Orcgon, a Suµcríund siic, comµosicd 15,OOO
ions oí coniaminaicd soil insicad oí incincraiing ii, ii savcd aµµroxi-
maiclv $2.6 million. Alihough ihc Umaiilla soil was hcavilv coniam-
inaicd wiih 1N1 and RDX (Roval Dcmoliiion £xµlosivcs), no cxµlo-
sivcs could lc dciccicd aíicr comµosiing and ihc soil was rcsiorcd io
'a |.//.r .·aJ///·a //aa |./·r. // cas .·a/ao/aa/.J.¨
71
Similar rcsulis
havc lccn oliaincd ai Scvmour Iohnson Air £orcc Basc in Norih
Carolina, ihc Iouisiana Armv Ammuniiion Plani, ihc U.S. Naval
Sulmarinc Basc in Bangor, Washingion, £ori Rilcv in Kansas, and
ihc Hawihornc Armv Dcµoi in Ncvada.
72
1hc U.S. Armv Corµs oí £nginccrs csiimaics ihai wc would
savc hundrcds oí millions oí dollars ií comµosiing, insicad oí incin-
craiion, wcrc uscd io clcan uµ ihc rcmaining U.S. muniiions siics.
1hc aliliiv oí comµosi io liorcmcdiaic ioxic chcmicals is µariicular-
lv mcaningíul whcn onc considcrs ihai in ihc U.S. ihcrc arc currcni-
lv 1.5 million undcrground sioragc ianls lcaling a widc variciv oí
maicrials inio soil, as wcll as 25,OOO Dcµarimcni oí Dcícnsc siics in
nccd oí rcmcdiaiion. In íaci, ii is csiimaicd ihai ihc rcmcdiaiion cosis
íor Amcrica`s mosi µolluicd siics using siandard icchnologv mav
rcach $75O lillion, whilc in £uroµc ihc cosis could rcach $3OO io $4OO
lillion.
As µromising as comµosi liorcmcdiaiion aµµcars, howcvcr, ii
cannoi hcal all wounds. Hcavilv chlorinaicd chcmicals show consid-
crallc rcsisiancc io microliological liodcgradaliliiv. Aµµarcnilv,
ihcrc arc cvcn somc ihings a íungus will sµii oui.
73
On ihc oihcr hand,
somc succcss has lccn shown in ihc liorcmcdiaiion oí PCBs (µolv-
chlorinaicd liµhcnvls) in comµosiing irials conducicd lv Michigan
Siaic Univcrsiiv rcscarchcrs in 1996. In ihc lcsi casc, PCB loss was in
ihc 4O% rangc. Dcsµiic ihc chlorinaicd naiurc oí ihc PCBs,
rcscarchcrs siill managcd io gci ouiic a ícw microorganisms io cholc
58 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
ihc siuíí down.
74
1hcn ihcrc`s ihc villain (|·/vra|/J (3,6-dichloroµicolinic
acid), an hcrlicidc manuíaciurcd lv Dow AgroScicnccs ihai has con-
iaminaicd vasi amounis oí commcrcial comµosi in ihc carlv 21si ccn-
iurv. Ii is commonlv sold undcr ihc lrand namcs 1ranslinc',
Siingcr', and Coníroni'. 1his chcmical has ihc unusual cíícci oí
µassing ihrough ihc comµosiing µroccss and lcaving rcsiducs ihai arc
siill chcmicallv aciivc. 1hc rcsuli is coniaminaicd comµosi ihai can
lill somc oí ihc µlanis grown in ii. £vcn a comµosi µilc can havc a
lad dav.
XX
COMPOS1 CAN £II1£R POIIU1£D AIR AND WA1£R
Comµosi can conirol odors. Biological íiliraiion svsicms,
callcd ¨lioíilicrs," arc uscd ai largc-scalc comµosiing íaciliiics whcrc
cxhausi gascs arc íilicrcd íor odor conirol. 1hc lioíilicrs arc com-
µoscd oí lavcrs oí organic maicrial such as wood chiµs, µcai, soil, and
comµosi ihrough which ihc air is drawn in ordcr io rcmovc anv con-
iaminanis. 1hc microorganisms in ihc organic maicrial cai ihc con-
iaminanis and convcri ihcm inio carlon dioxidc and waicr (scc
£igurc 3.8).
In Roclland Couniv, Ncw Yorl, onc such lioíiliraiion svsicm
can µroccss 82,OOO culic ícci oí air a minuic and guaranicc no
dcicciallc odor ai or lcvond ihc siic µroµcriv linc. Anoihcr íaciliiv in
Poriland, Orcgon, uscs lioíilicrs io rcmcdiaic acrosol cans µrior io
disµosal. Aíicr such rcmcdiaiion, ihc cans arc no longcr considcrcd
hazardous and can lc disµoscd oí morc rcadilv. In ihis casc, a $47,OOO
savings in hazardous wasic disµosal cosis was rcalizcd ovcr a µcriod
oí 18 monihs. Vaµor Phasc Bioíilicrs can mainiain a consisicni
Volaiilc Organic Comµound rcmoval cííicicncv oí 99.6%, which isn`i
lad íor a lunch oí microorganisms.
75
Aíicr a vcar or iwo, ihc lioíilicr
is rcchargcd wiih ncw organic maicrial and ihc old siuíí is simµlv
comµosicd or aµµlicd io land.
Comµosi is also now uscd io íilicr siormwaicr runoíí (scc
£igurc 3.8). Comµosi Siormwaicr £ilicrs usc comµosi io íilicr oui
hcavv mcials, oil, grcasc, µcsiicidcs, scdimcni, and ícriilizcrs írom
siormwaicr runoíí. Such íilicrs can rcmovc ovcr 9O% oí all solids,
82% io 98% oí hcavv mcials and 85% oí oil and grcasc, whilc íilicr-
ing uµ io cighi culic ícci µcr sccond. 1hcsc Comµosi Siormwaicr
£ilicrs µrcvcni siormwaicr coniaminaiion írom µolluiing our naiural
waicrwavs.
76
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 59
COMPOS1 D£££NDS PIAN1S £ROM DIS£AS£S
1hc comµosiing µroccss can dcsirov manv µlani µaihogcns.
Bccausc oí ihis, discascd µlani maicrial should lc ihcrmoµhilicallv
comµosicd raihcr ihan rciurncd io ihc land whcrc rcinoculaiion oí
ihc discasc could occur. 1hc lcncíicial microorganisms in ihcr-
moµhilic comµosi dirccilv comµcic wiih, inhilii, or lill organisms
ihai causc discascs in µlanis. Plani µaihogcns arc also caicn lv micro-
arihroµods, such as miics and sµringiails, which arc íound in com-
µosi.
77
Comµosi microorganisms can µroducc aniilioiics which suµ-
µrcss µlani discascs. Comµosi addcd io soil can also aciivaic discasc
rcsisiancc gcncs in µlanis, µrcµaring ihcm íor a lciicr dcícnsc againsi
µlani µaihogcns. Svsicmic Acouircd Rcsisiancc causcd lv comµosi in
soils allows µlanis io rcsisi ihc cííccis oí discascs such as Aa//ra.a·s.
and Pv///ao rooi roi in cucumlcrs. £xµcrimcnis havc shown ihai
whcn onlv somc oí ihc roois oí a µlani arc in comµosi-amcndcd soil,
whilc ihc oihcr roois arc in discascd soil, ihc cniirc µlani can siill
acouirc rcsisiancc io ihc discasc.
78
Rcscarchcrs havc shown ihai com-
µosi comlais chili wili (P/v/·////·ra) in icsi µlois oí chili µcµµcrs,
and suµµrcsscs ashv sicm llighi in lcans, R//.·./·a/a rooi roi in
llacl-cvcd µcas,
79
Iasar/ao ·xvs/·rao in µoiicd µlanis, and gummv
sicm llighi and damµing-oíí discascs in souash.
8O
Ii is now rccog-
nizcd ihai ihc conirol oí rooi rois wiih comµosis can lc as cíícciivc as
svnihciic íungicidcs such as mcihvl lromidc. Onlv a small µcrccni-
agc oí comµosi microorganisms can, howcvcr, inducc discasc rcsisi-
ancc in µlanis, which again cmµhasizcs ihc imµoriancc oí liodivcrsi-
iv in comµosi.
Siudics lv rcscarchcr Harrv Hoiiinl indicaicd ihai comµosi
inhiliicd ihc growih oí discasc-causing microorganisms in grccn-
houscs lv adding lcncíicial microorganisms io ihc soil. In 1987, hc
and a icam oí scicniisis iool oui a µaicni íor comµosi ihai could
rcducc or suµµrcss µlani discascs causcd lv ihrcc dcadlv microorgan-
isms: P/v/·///·ra, Pv///ao and Iasar/ao. Growcrs who uscd ihis com-
µosi in ihcir µlaniing soil rcduccd ihcir croµ losscs írom 25-75% io
1% wiihoui aµµlving íungicidcs. 1hc siudics suggcsicd ihai sicrilc
soils could µrovidc oµiimum lrccding condiiions íor µlani discasc
microorganisms, whilc a rich divcrsiiv oí microorganisms in soil,
such as ihai íound in comµosi, would rcndcr ihc soil uníii íor ihc µro-
liícraiion oí discasc organisms.
81
In íaci, comµosi /.a has also lccn dcmonsiraicd io havc dis-
60 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 61
casc-rcducing µroµcriics in µlanis. Comµosi ica is madc lv soaling
maiurc, lui noi ovcrlv maiurc comµosi in waicr íor ihrcc io iwclvc
davs. 1hc ica is ihcn íilicrcd and sµravcd on µlanis undiluicd, ihcrc-
lv coaiing ihc lcavcs wiih livc lacicria colonics. Whcn sµravcd on rcd
µinc sccdlings, íor cxamµlc, llighi was signiíicanilv rcduccd in scvcr-
iiv.
82
Powdcrv mildcw (Ua./aa|a a..a/·r) on graµcs was vcrv succcss-
íullv suµµrcsscd lv comµosi ica madc írom caiilc manurc comµosi.
83
'(·o/·s/ /.as .aa |. s/rav.J ·a .r·/s /· .·a/ |.a/ sar/a..s aaJ a./aa||v
·..a/v //. /a/..//·a s//.s //a/ .·a|J |. .·|·a/..J |v J/s.as. /a//·e.as,¨
siaics onc rcscarchcr, who adds, 'T/.r. ar. a |/o//.J aao|.r ·/ /|a..s ·a
a /|aa/ //a/ a J/s.as. /a//·e.a .aa /a/../, aaJ // //·s. s/a..s ar. ·..a//.J
|v |.a.//./a| |a./.r/a aaJ /aae/, //. .r·/ c/|| |. r.s/s/aa/ /· /a/..//·a.¨
84
Bcsidcs hclµing io conirol soil discascs, comµosi aiiracis
carihworms, aids µlanis in µroducing growih siimulaiors, and hclµs
conirol µarasiiic ncmaiodcs.
85
Comµosi ¨lioµcsiicidcs" arc now
lccoming incrcasinglv cíícciivc alicrnaiivcs io chcmical lug lillcrs.
1hcsc ¨dcsigncr comµosis" arc madc lv adding ccriain µcsi-íighiing
microorganisms io comµosi, viclding a comµosi wiih a sµcciíic µcsi-
lilling caµaciiv. Bioµcsiicidcs musi lc rcgisicrcd wiih ihc U.S. £PA
and undcrgo ihc samc icsiing as chcmical µcsiicidcs io dcicrminc
ihcir cíícciivcncss and dcgrcc oí µullic saíciv.
86
£inallv, comµosiing dcsirovs wccd sccds. Rcscarchcrs
olscrvcd ihai aíicr ihrcc davs in comµosi ai 55
O
C (131
O
£), all oí ihc
sccds oí ihc cighi wccd sµccics siudicd wcrc dcad.
87
COMPOS1 CAN R£CYCI£ 1H£ D£AD
Dcad animals oí all sµccics and sizcs can lc rccvclcd lv com-
µosiing. Oí ihc 7.3 lillion chiclcns, ducls and iurlcvs raiscd in ihc
U.S. cach vcar, aloui 37 million dic írom discasc and oihcr naiural
causcs lcíorc ihcv`rc marlcicd.
88
1hc dcad lirds can simµlv lc com-
µosicd. 1hc comµosiing µroccss noi onlv convcris ihc carcasscs io
humus which can lc rciurncd dirccilv io ihc íarmcr`s íiclds, lui ii
also dcsirovs ihc µaihogcns and µarasiics ihai mav havc lillcd ihc
lirds in ihc íirsi µlacc. Ii is µrcícrallc io comµosi discascd animals
on ihc íarm whcrc ihcv originaicd raihcr ihan iransµori ihcm clsc-
whcrc and risl sµrcading ihc discasc. A icmµcraiurc oí 55
O
C main-
iaincd íor ai lcasi ihrcc consccuiivc davs maximizcs µaihogcn
dcsiruciion.
Comµosiing is considcrcd a simµlc, cconomic, cnvironmcn-
iallv sound and cíícciivc mcihod oí managing animal morialiiics.
62 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
Carcasscs arc luricd in a comµosi µilc. 1hc comµosiing µroccss
rangcs írom scvcral davs íor small lirds io six or morc monihs íor
maiurc caiilc. Gcncrallv, ihc ioial iimc rcouircd rangcs írom iwo io
iwclvc monihs dcµcnding on ihc sizc oí ihc animal and oihcr íaciors
such as amlicni air icmµcraiurc. 1hc roiiing carcasscs arc ncvcr
luricd in ihc ground whcrc ihcv mav µolluic groundwaicr, as is ivµ-
ical whcn comµosiing is noi uscd. Animal morialiiv rccvcling can lc
accomµlishcd wiihoui odors, ílics or scavcnging lirds or animals.
Such µraciiccs wcrc originallv dcvcloµcd io rccvclc dcad
chiclcns, lui ihc animal carcasscs ihai arc now comµosicd includc
íull-grown µigs, caiilc and horscs, as wcll as íish, shccµ, calvcs, and
oihcr animals. 1hc liological µroccss oí comµosiing dcad animals is
idcniical io ihc µroccss oí comµosiing anv organic maicrial. 1hc car-
casscs µrovidc niirogcn and moisiurc, whilc maicrials such as saw-
dusi, siraw, corn sialls and µaµcr µrovidc carlon and lull íor air
imµrcgnaiion. 1hc comµosiing can lc donc in icmµorarv ihrcc-sidcd
lins madc oí siraw or hav lalcs. A lavcr oí alsorlcni organic maicri-
al is uscd io covcr ihc loiiom oí ihc lin, aciing as a sµongc íor cxccss
liouids. Iargc animals arc µlaccd lacl down in ihc comµosi, wiih
ihcir aldominal and ihoracic caviiics oµcncd, and covcrcd wiih
organic maicrial. Sawmill sawdusi has lccn shown io lc onc oí ihc
mosi cíícciivc organic maicrials wiih which io comµosi dcad animals.
Aíicr íilling ihc lin wiih µroµcrlv µrcµarcd animal morialiiics, ihc
ioµ is covcrcd wiih clcan organic maicrial ihai acis as a lioíilicr íor
odor conirol. Alihough largc loncs mav rcmain aíicr ihc comµosiing
µroccss, ihcv arc casilv lrolcn down whcn aµµlicd io ihc soil.
89
Baclvard comµosicrs can also malc usc oí ihis icchniouc.
Whcn a small animal has dicd and ihc carcass nccds io lc rccvclcd,
simµlv dig a holc in ihc ioµ ccnicr oí ihc comµosi µilc, dcµosii ihc
carcass, covcr ii wiih ihc comµosi, ihcn covcr ii all wiih a clcan lavcr
oí organic maicrial such as siraw, wccds or hav. You will ncvcr scc ihc
carcass again. 1his is also a good wav io dcal wiih íish, mcai scraµs,
mill µroducis and oihcr organic maicrials ihai mav oihcrwisc lc
aiiraciivc io nuisancc animals.
Wc lccµ somc ducls and chiclcns on our homcsicad, and
occasionallv onc oí ihcm dics. A liiilc µoling around in ihc comµosi
µilc io crcaic a dcµrcssion in ihc ioµ, and a µloµ oí ihc carcass inio
ihc holc, and anoihcr crcaiurc is on ihc road io rcincarnaiion. Wc`vc
also uscd ihis icchniouc rcgularlv íor rccvcling oihcr smallcr animal
carcasscs such as micc, lalv chicls and lalv ralliis. Aíicr wc collcci
carihworms írom our comµosi µilc io go íishing ai ihc local µond, wc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 63
íilci ihc caich and µui ihc íilcis in ihc írcczcr íor winicr consumµ-
iion. 1hc íish rcmains go siraighi inio ihc comµosi, luricd in ihc
samc manncr as anv oihcr animal morialiiv. Wc havc scvcral ouidoor
cais, and ihcv wouldn`i lc caughi dcad digging around in humanurc
comµosi looling íor a liic io cai. Nor would our dog and dogs will
cai anvihing, lui noi whcn luricd in ihcrmoµhilic comµosi.
On ihc oihcr hand, somc dogs oav irv io gci inio vour com-
µosi µilc. Malc surc vour comµosi lin has dog µrooí sidc walls and
ihcn simµlv ihrow a µiccc oí siiíí wirc ícncing ovcr ihc ioµ oí ihc com-
µosi. 1hai`s all ii ialcs. Uniil dogs lcarn how io usc wirc cuiicrs, vour
comµosi will lc saíc.
COMPOS1 R£CYCI£S P£1 MANUR£S
Can vou usc dog manurc in vour comµosi? Good oucsiion. I
can honcsilv sav ihai I`vc ncvcr iricd ii, as I do noi havc a sourcc oí
dog manurc íor cxµcrimcniaiion (mv dog is a írcc-roaming ouidoor
dog). Numcrous µcoµlc havc wriiicn io asl whcihcr µci manurcs can
go inio ihcir houschold comµosi µilcs and I havc rcsµondcd ihai I
don`i lnow írom cxµcricncc. So I`vc rccommcndcd ihai µci manurcs
lc collccicd in ihcir own scµaraic liiilc comµosi lins wiih covcr maic-
rials such as hav, grass cliµµings, lcavcs, wccds or siraw, and µcrhaµs
occasionallv waicrcd a lii io µrovidc moisiurc. A doullc lin svsicm
will allow ihc manurcs io lc collccicd íor ouiic somc iimc in onc lin,
ihcn agcd íor ouiic somc iimc whilc ihc sccond lin is lcing íillcd.
Whai sizc lin? Aloui ihc sizc oí a largc garlagc can, alihough a larg-
cr mass mav lc ncccssarv in ordcr io sµarl a ihcrmoµhilic rcaciion.
On ihc oihcr hand, ihis mav lc cniirclv ioo much loihcr íor
mosi µci owncrs who arc also comµosicrs, and vou mav iusi wani io
µui µci and human manurcs inio onc comµosi lin. 1his would ccr-
iainlv lc ihc simµlcr mcihod. 1hc idca oí comµosiing dog manurc
has lccn cndorscd lv I. I. Rodalc in ihc £ncvcloµcdia oí Organic
Gardcning. Hc siaics, 'D·e oaaar. .aa |. as.J /a //. .·o/·s/ /.a/, /a
/a./ // /s //. r/./.s/ /a //·s//·r·as // //. J·es ar. /.J c/// /r·/.r .ar. aaJ
e/c.a //./r s/ar. ·/ |·a.s.¨ Hc adviscs ihc usc oí covcr maicrials simi-
lar io ihc oncs I mcniioncd alovc, and rccommcnds ihai ihc comµosi
lin lc madc dog-µrooí, which can lc donc wiih siraw lalcs, chiclcn
wirc, loards or ícncing.
64 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
ON£ WAY 1O R£CYCI£ IUNK MAII
Comµosiing is a soluiion íor iunl mail, ioo. A µiloi comµosi-
ing µroicci was siaricd in Dallas-£i. Worih, 1cxas, whcrc 8OO ions oí
undclivcrallc lull mail arc gcncraicd annuallv. 1hc mail was ground
in a iul grindcr, covcrcd wiih wood chiµs so ii wouldn`i llow awav,
ihcn mixcd wiih zoo manurc, shccµ cnirails and discardcd íruiis and
vcgciallcs. 1hc cniirc worls was lcµi moisi and ihoroughlv mixcd.
1hc rcsuli a íinishcd comµosi 'as e··J as aav ·//.r .·o/·s/ .·oo.r-
./a||v aca/|a||..¨ Ii grcw a nicc lunch oí iomaiocs, ioo.
9O
Whai aloui ncwsµaµcrs in laclvard comµosi? Ycs, ncwsµa-
µcr will comµosi, lui ihcrc arc somc conccrns aloui ncwsµrini. £or
onc, ihc glossv µagcs arc covcrcd wiih a clav ihai rciards comµosiing.
£or anoihcr, ihc inls can lc µcirolcum-lascd solvcnis or oils wiih
µigmcnis coniaining ioxic sulsianccs such as chromium, lcad and
cadmium in loih llacl and colorcd inls. Pigmcni íor ncwsµaµcr inl
siill comcs írom lcnzcnc, iolucnc, naµhihalcnc and oihcr lcnzcnc
ring hvdrocarlons which mav lc ouiic harmíul io human hcalih ií
accumulaicd in ihc íood chain. £oriunaiclv, ouiic a ícw ncwsµaµcrs
iodav arc using sov-lascd inls insicad oí µcirolcum-lascd inls. Ií
vou rcallv wani io lnow aloui ihc ivµc oí inl in vour ncwsµaµcr, call
vour ncwsµaµcr oííicc and asl ihcm. Oihcrwisc, lccµ ihc glossv
µaµcr or colorcd µagcs in vour comµosi io a minimum. Rcmcmlcr,
idcallv, comµosi is lcing madc io µroducc human íood. Onc should
irv io lccµ ihc coniaminanis oui oí ii, ií µossillc.
91
Wood`s £nd Ialoraiorv in Mainc did somc rcscarch on com-
µosiing ground-uµ iclcµhonc lools and ncwsµrini which had lccn
uscd as lcdding íor dairv caiilc. 1hc inl in ihc µaµcr coniaincd com-
mon canccr-causing chcmicals, lui aíicr comµosiing ii wiih dairv
cow manurc, ihc dangcrous chcmicals wcrc rcduccd lv 98%.
92
So ii
aµµcars ihai ií vou`rc using shrcddcd ncwsµaµcr íor lcdding undcr
livcsiocl, vou s/·a|J comµosi ii, ií íor no oihcr rcason ihan io climi-
naic somc oí ihc ioxic clcmcnis írom ihc ncwsµrini. Ii`ll µrolallv
malc acccµiallc comµosi ioo, csµcciallv ií lavcrcd wiih garlagc,
manurc and oihcr organic maicrials.
Whai aloui ihings lilc saniiarv naµlins and disµosallc dia-
µcrs? Surc, ihcv`ll comµosi, lui ihcv`ll lcavc siriµs oí µlasiic ihrough-
oui vour íinishcd comµosi which arc ouiic unsighilv. Oí coursc, ihai's
OK ií vou don'i mind µicling ihc siriµs oí µlasiic oui oí vour com-
µosi. Oihcrwisc, usc cloih diaµcrs and washallc cloih mcnsirual µads
insicad.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 65
1oilci µaµcr comµosis, ioo. So do ihc cardloard iulcs in ihc
ccnicr oí ihc rolls. Unllcachcd, rccvclcd ioilci µaµcr is idcal. Or vou
can usc ihc old-íashioncd ioilci µaµcr, oihcrwisc lnown as corncols.
Poµcorn cols worl lcsi, ihcv`rc soíicr. Corncols don`i comµosi vcrv
rcadilv ihough, so vou havc a good cxcusc noi io usc ihcm. 1hcrc arc
oihcr ihings ihai don`i comµosi wcll: cggshclls, loncs, hair and woodv
sicms, io namc a ícw.
Comµosi µroícssionals havc almosi íanaiicallv scizcd uµon
ihc idca ihai wood chiµs arc good íor maling comµosi. Nowadavs,
whcn novicc comµosicrs wani io lcgin maling comµosi, ihc íirsi
ihing ihcv wani io lnow is whcrc ihcv can gci wood chiµs. In íaci,
wood chiµs do a·/ comµosi vcrv wcll ai all, unlcss ground inio íinc
µariiclcs, as in sawdusi. £vcn comµosi µroícssionals admii ihai ihcv
havc io scrccn oui ihcir wood chiµs a//.r ihc comµosi is íinishcd
lccausc ihcv didn`i dccomµosc. 1hcv insisi on using ihcm anvwav,
lccausc ihcv lrcal uµ ihc comµosi consisicncv and mainiain air
sµaccs in ihcir largc masscs oí organic maicrial. Howcvcr, a homc
comµosicr should avoid wood chiµs and usc oihcr lulling maicrials
ihai dcgradc morc ouicllv, such as hav, siraw, sawdusi and wccds.
£inallv, ncvcr µui woodv-sicmmcd µlanis, such as ircc
saµlings, on vour comµosi µilc. I hircd a voung lad io clcar somc
lrush íor mc onc summcr and hc innoccnilv µui ihc small saµlings
on mv comµosi µilc wiihoui mc lnowing ii. Iaicr, I íound ihcm nci-
worlcd ihrough ihc µilc lilc iron rciníorcing rods. I`ll lci ihc lad`s
cars wcrc iiching ihai dav I surc had somc nasiv ihings io sav
aloui him. £oriunaiclv, onlv Gomcr, ihc comµosi µilc, hcard mc.
V£RMICOMPOS1ING
Vcrmicomµosiing, or worm comµosiing, involvcs ihc usc oí
rcdworms such as F/s.a/s /.//Ja or Lao|r/.as ra|.||as io consumc
organic maicrial ciihcr in sµcciallv dcsigncd worm loxcs, or in largc-
scalc, ouidoor comµosi µilcs. Rcdworms µrcícr a darl, cool, wcll-acr-
aicd sµacc, and ihrivc on moisi lcdding such as shrcddcd ncwsµaµcr.
Kiichcn íood scraµs µlaccd in worm loxcs arc consumcd lv ihc
worms and convcricd inio worm casiings, which can ihcn lc uscd lilc
íinishcd comµosi io grow µlanis. Vcrmicomµosiing is µoµular among
childrcn who lilc io waich ihc worms, and among adulis who µrcícr
ihc convcnicncc oí lcing allc io malc comµosi undcr ihcir liichcn
counicr or in a houschold closci.
Alihough vcrmicomµosiing involvcs microorganisms as wcll
66 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
as carihworms, ii is noi ihc samc as ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing. 1hc
hoi siagc oí ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing will drivc awav all carihworms
írom ihc hoi arca oí ihc comµosi µilc. Howcvcr, ihcv will migraic
lacl in aíicr ihc comµosi cools down. £arihworms arc rcµoricd io
aciuallv cai rooi-íccding ncmaiodcs, µaihogcnic lacicria and íungi,
as wcll as small wccd sccds.
93
Whcn ihcrmoµhilic comµosi is µilcd on ihc larc carih, a largc
suríacc arca is availallc íor naiural carihworms io migraic in and oui
oí ihc comµosi µilc. Proµcrlv µrcµarcd ihcrmoµhilic comµosi siiuai-
cd on larc carih should rcouirc no addiiion oí carihworms as ihcv
will naiurallv migraic inio ihc comµosi whcn ii lcsi suiis ihcm. Mv
comµosi is so íull oí naiural carihworms ai ccriain siagcs in iis dcvcl-
oµmcni ihai, whcn dug inio, ii lools lilc sµaghciii. 1hcsc worms arc
occasionallv harvcsicd and iransíormcd inio íish. 1his is a µroccss
which convcris comµosi dirccilv inio µroicin, lui which rcouircs a
íishing rod, a hool, and lois oí µaiicncc.
PRAC1IC£ MAK£S COMPOS1
Aíicr rcading ihis chaµicr onc mav lccomc ovcrwhclmcd wiih
all ihai is involvcd in comµosiing: lacicria, aciinomvccics, íungi,
ihcrmoµhilcs, mcsoµhilcs, C/N raiios, oxvgcn, moisiurc, icmµcra-
iurcs, lins, µaihogcns, curing and liodivcrsiiv. How do vou iranslaic
ihis inio vour own µcrsonal siiuaiion and locaic ii all in vour own
laclvard? How docs onc lccomc an accomµlishcd comµosicr, a mas-
icr comµosicr? 1hai`s casv iusi do ii. 1hcn lccµ doing ii. 1hrow
ihc lools awav (noi ihis onc, oí coursc) and gci somc good, old-íash-
ioncd cxµcricncc. 1hcrc`s no lciicr wav io lcarn. Bool lcarning will
onlv gci vou so íar, lui noi íar cnough. A lool such as ihis onc is íor
insµiring vou, íor sµarling vour inicrcsi, and íor rcícrcncc. Bui vou
havc io gci oui ihcrc and J· // ií vou rcallv wani io lcarn.
Worl wiih ihc comµosi, gci ihc íccl oí ihc µroccss, lool ai
vour comµosi, smcll ihc íinishcd µroduci, luv or lorrow a comµosi
ihcrmomcicr and gci an idca oí how wcll vour comµosi is hcaiing uµ,
ihcn usc vour comµosi íor íood µroduciion. Rclv on vour comµosi.
Malc ii a µari oí vour liíc. Nccd ii and valuc ii. In no iimc, wiihoui
ihc nccd íor charis or graµhs, PhD.s, or worrv, vour comµosi will lc
as good as ihc lcsi oí ihcm. Pcrhaµs somcdav wc`ll lc lilc ihc
Chincsc who givc µrizcs íor ihc lcsi comµosi in a couniv, ihcn havc
inicr-couniv comµciiiions. Now //a/´s gciiing vour shii iogcihcr.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv 67
68 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r T/r::. Mi:rc/as|anJrv
D££P SHI1
S
horilv aíicr I µullishcd ihc íirsi cdiiion oí ihis lool, I
was inviicd io sµcal io a grouµ oí nuns ai a convcni. I
had onlv µrinicd 6OO coµics oí ihc lool and had
assumcd ihcv would sii in mv garagc íor ihc rcsi oí mv liíc lccausc
no onc would lc inicrcsicd in ihc ioµic oí comµosiing ¨humanurc."
Noi long aíicr, ihc Associaicd Prcss µui ihc word oui ihai I had wrii-
icn a lool aloui craµ. 1hcn I goi a µhonc call.
¨Mr. Icnlins, wc rcccnilv loughi a coµv oí vour lool,
Haoaaar., and wc would lilc io havc vou sµcal ai our convcni."
¨Whai do vou wani mc io iall aloui?"
¨Aloui ihc ioµic oí vour lool."
¨Comµosiing?"
¨Ycs, lui sµcciíicallv, /aoaaar. comµosiing." Ai ihis µoini I
was ai a loss íor words. I couldn`i undcrsiand cxacilv whv a grouµ oí
nuns would lc inicrcsicd in comµosiing human craµ. Somchow, I
couldn`i imaginc sianding in a room íull oí holv nuns, sµcaling aloui
iurds. Bui I lcµi ihc siammcring io a minimum and acccµicd ihc
inviiaiion.
Ii was £arih Dav, 1995. 1hc µrcscniaiion wcni wcll. Aíicr I
sµolc, ihc grouµ showcd slidcs oí ihcir gardcns and comµosi µilcs,
ihcn wc iourcd ihcir comµosi arca and µolcd around in ihc worm
loxcs. A dclighiíul lunch íollowcd, during which I aslcd ihcm whv
ihcv wcrc inicrcsicd in /aoaaar., oí all ihings.
'\. ar. //. S/s/.rs ·/ Hao/|//v,¨ ihcv rcsµondcd. 'T/. c·rJs
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 69
'/ao||.´ aaJ '/aoas´ .·o. /r·o //. sao. s.oaa//. r··/, c//./ o.aas
'.ar//.´ \. a|s· ///a| //.s. c·rJs ar. r.|a/.J /· //. c·rJ '/aoaa.´
T/.r./·r., as /ar/ ·/ ·ar c·c ·/ /ao/|//v, c. c·r| c/// //. .ar//. \. oa|.
.·o/·s/, as v·a´c. s..a. AaJ a·c c. caa/ /· |.ara /·c /· oa|. .·o/·s/
/r·o ·ar /·/|./ oa/.r/a|. \.´r. ///a|/ae a|·a/ |av/ae a .·oo.r./a| .·o-
/·s//ae /·/|./, |a/ c. caa/ /· |.ara o·r. a|·a/ //. ·c.ra|| .·a..//s //rs/.
T/a/´s c/v c. as|.J v·a /· .·o. /.r..¨ 1his was dccµ shii. Proíound.
A lighi lull wcni oíí in mv hcad. Oí coursc, comµosiing /s an
aci oí humiliiv. 1hc µcoµlc who carc cnough aloui ihc carih io rccv-
clc ihcir µcrsonal lv-µroducis do so as an cxcrcisc in humiliiv, noi
lccausc ihcv`rc going io gci rich and íamous íor ii. 1hai malcs ihcm
lciicr µcoµlc. Somc µcoµlc go io church on Sundav, oihcrs malc
comµosi. Siill oihcrs do loih. Oihcrs go io church on Sundav, ihcn
ihrow all ihcir garlagc oui inio ihc cnvironmcni. 1hc cxcrcising oí
ihc human sµirii can ialc manv íorms, and ihc simµlc aci oí clcaning
uµ aíicr oncsclí is onc oí ihcm. 1hc carclcss dumµing oí wasic oui
inio ihc world is a sclí-ccnicrcd aci oí arrogancc or ignorancc.
Humanurc comµosicrs can siand undcr ihc siars ai nighi gaz-
ing ai ihc hcavcns, and lnow ihai, whcn naiurc calls, ihcir cxcrciions
will noi íoul ihc µlanci. Insicad, ihosc cxcrciions arc humllv collcci-
cd, ícd io microorganisms and rciurncd io ihc £arih as hcaling mcd-
icinc íor ihc soil.
1H£ £GO VS. 1H£ £CO
1hcrc arc numcrous ihcorciical rcasons whv wc humans havc
siravcd so íar írom a lcnign svmlioiic rclaiionshiµ wiih ihc µlanci,
and havc insicad ialcn on ihc visagc, ií noi ihc lchavior, oí µlanciarv
µaihogcns. Human lcings, lilc all living ihings on ihis µlanci, arc
incxiricallv inicriwincd wiih ihc clcmcnis oí naiurc. Wc arc ihrcads
in ihc iaµcsirv oí liíc. Wc consianilv lrcaihc ihc aimosµhcrc ihai
cnvcloµcs ihc µlanci: wc drinl ihc íluids ihai ílow ovcr ihc µlanci`s
suríacc: wc cai ihc organisms ihai grow írom ihc µlanci`s slin. £rom
ihc momcni an cgg and a sµcrm uniic io sµarl our cxisicncc, cach oí
us grows and dcvcloµs írom ihc clcmcnis µrovidcd lv ihc £arih and
sun. In csscncc, ihc soil, air, sun and waicr comlinc wiihin our moih-
cr`s woml io mold anoihcr living crcaiurc. Ninc monihs laicr, anoih-
cr human lcing is lorn. 1hai µcrson is a scµaraic cniiiv, wiih an
awarcncss oí an individual sclí, an .e·. 1hai µcrson is also ioiallv a
µari oí, and comµlciclv dcµcndcni uµon, ihc surrounding naiural
world, ihc ..·.
70 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 71
Whcn ihc cgo and ihc cco arc lalanccd, ihc µcrson livcs in
harmonv wiih ihc µlanci. Such a lalancc can lc considcrcd io lc ihc
iruc mcaning oí s//r//aa|//v, lccausc ihc individual is a conscious µari
oí, aiiuncd io, and in harmonv wiih a grcaicr lcvcl oí aciual Bcing.
Whcn ioo much cmµhasis is µlaccd on ihc sclí, ihc cgo, an imlalancc
occurs and µrollcms rcsuli, csµcciallv whcn ihai imlalancc is collcc-
iivclv dcmonsiraicd lv cniirc culiurcs. 1o suggcsi ihai ihcsc µrol-
lcms arc onlv cnvironmcnial and ihcrcíorc noi oí grcai conccrn, is
incorrcci. £nvironmcnial µrollcms (damagc io ihc cco) uliimaiclv
aíícci all living ihings, as all living ihings dcrivc ihcir cxisicncc,
livclihood and wcll-lcing írom ihc µlanci. Wc cannoi damagc a
ihrcad in ihc wcl oí liíc wiihoui ihc risl oí íraving ihc cniirc iaµcs-
irv.
Whcn ihc cgo gcis llown oui oí µroµoriion, wc gci ihrown oíí
lalancc in a variciv oí wavs. Our cducaiional insiiiuiions icach us io
idolizc ihc inicllcci, oíicn ai ihc cxµcnsc oí our moral, cihical, and
sµiriiual dcvcloµmcni. Our cconomic insiiiuiions urgc us io lc con-
sumcrs, and ihosc who havc gaincd ihc mosi maicrial wcalih arc glo-
riíicd. Our rcligious insiiiuiions oíicn amouni io liiilc morc ihan svs-
icms oí human-worshiµ whcrc diviniiv is µcrsoniíicd in human íorm
and onlv human consirucis (c.g., lools and luildings) arc considcrcd
sacrcd.
No discussion oí a sulicci should lc considcrcd comµlcic
wiihoui an cxaminaiion oí iis moral, µhilosoµhical and cihical con-
sidcraiions, as c.|| as a rcvicw oí ihc inicllcciual and scicniiíic daia.
Whcn wc ignorc ihc cihics lchind a µariicular issuc, and insicad
íocus on inicllcciual achicvcmcnis, ii`s grcai íor our cgos. Wc can µai
oursclvcs on ihc lacl and icll oursclvcs how smari wc arc. Ii dcílaics
our cgos, on ihc oihcr hand, io rcalizc ihai wc arc aciuallv insigniíi-
cani crcaiurcs on a sµccl oí dusi in a corncr oí ihc univcrsc, and ihai
wc arc onlv onc oí ihc millions oí liíc íorms on ihis sµccl, all oí whom
musi livc iogcihcr.
In rcccni dccadcs, an cniirc gcncraiion oí wcsicrn scicniisis,
a íormidallc íorcc oí iniclligcncc, íocuscd much oí iis cííoris on
dcvcloµing ncw wavs io lill hugc numlcrs oí human lcings all ai
oncc. 1his was ihc nuclcar arms racc oí ihc 195Os which coniinucs
ihrough ihc µrcscni dav a racc ihai lcíi us wiih cnvironmcnial dis-
asicrs vci io lc clcancd uµ, a hugc amouni oí naiural maicrials gonc
io ioial wasic (5.5 /r/||/·a dollars worih),
1
a miliiarv dcaih ioll consisi-
ing oí hundrcds oí ihousands oí innoccni µcoµlc, and ihc ihrcai oí
nuclcar annihilaiion hanging ovcr all oí ihc µcacc-loving µcoµlcs oí
ihc world, cvcn iodav. Surclv ihis is an cxamµlc oí ihc collcciivc cgo
run amol.
Rcligious movcmcnis ihai worshiµ humans arc cgo-ccnicrcd.
Ii is ironic ihai a iinv, insigniíicani liícíorm on a sµccl oí dusi ai ihc
cdgc oí a galaxv losi somcwhcrc in a corncr oí ihc univcrsc would
dcclarc ihai ihc univcrsc was crcaicd lv onc oí ihcir own lind. 1his
would lc a laughing maiicr ií ii wcrc noi ialcn so scriouslv lv so
manv mcmlcrs oí our culiurc who insisi ihai ihc sourcc oí all liíc is
a human-lilc crcaior dciiv namcd ¨God."
Manv humans havc maiurcd cnough io lnow ihai ihis is sim-
µlv mvih. Wc can`i lcgin io comµrchcnd ihc íull naiurc oí our cxis-
icncc, so wc oa|. a/ a siorv ihai worls uniil wc íigurc oui somcihing
lciicr. Uníoriunaiclv, human-worshiµ lrccds an imlalanccd collcc-
iivc cgo. Whcn wc aciuallv |.|/.c. ihc mvih, ihai humans arc ihc µin-
naclc oí liíc and ihc cniirc univcrsc was crcaicd lv onc oí our own
sµccics, wc sirav ioo íar írom iruih and wandcr losi, wiih no µoini oí
rcícrcncc io ialc us lacl io a lalanccd sµiriiual µcrsµcciivc wc nccd
íor our own long-icrm survival on ihis µlanci. Wc lccomc lilc a µcr-
son lncc dccµ in his own cxcrcmcni, noi lnowing how io írcc himsclí
írom his uníoriunaic µosiiion, siaring llanllv ai a road maµ wiih a
lool oí uiicr incomµrchcnsion.
1odav, ncw µcrsµcciivcs arc cmcrging rcgarding ihc naiurc oí
human cxisicncc. 1hc £arih iisclí is lccoming rccognizcd as a living
cniiiv, a lcvcl oí Bcing immcnsclv grcaicr ihan ihc human lcvcl. 1hc
galaxv and univcrsc arc sccn as cvcn highcr lcvcls oí Bcing, wiih mul-
iivcrscs (muliiµlc univcrscs) ihcorizcd as cxisiing ai a highcr lcvcl
vci. All oí ihcsc lcvcls oí Bcing arc ihoughi io lc imlucd wiih ihc
cncrgv oí liíc, as wcll as wiih a íorm oí consciousncss which wc can-
noi cvcn lcgin io comµrchcnd. As wc humans cxµand our lnowlcdgc
oí oursclvcs and rccognizc our iruc µlacc in ihc vasi schcmc oí ihings,
our cgos musi dcícr io rcaliiv. Wc musi admii our alsoluic dcµcnd-
cncc uµon ihc ccosvsicm wc call £arih, and irv io lalancc our cgoiis-
iical ícclings oí sclí-imµoriancc wiih our nccd io livc in harmonv
wiih ihc grcaicr world around us.
ASIAN R£CYCIING
1hc Asian µcoµlc havc rccvclcd humanurc íor ihousands oí
vcars. 1hc Chincsc havc uscd humanurc agriculiurallv sincc ihc
Shang Dvnasiv, 3,OOO-4,OOO vcars ago. Whv havcn`i wc wcsicrncrs?
1hc Asian culiurcs, namclv Chincsc, Korcan, Iaµancsc and oihcrs,
72 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
cvolvcd io undcrsiand human cxcrcmcni as a naiural rcsourcc raihcr
ihan a wasic maicrial. Whcrc wc had human wasic, ihcv had nighi
soil. Wc µroduccd wasic and µolluiion: ihcv µroduccd soil nuiricnis
and íood. Ii`s clcar ihai Asians havc lccn morc advanccd ihan ihc
wcsicrn world in ihis rcgard. And ihcv should lc, sincc ihcv`vc lccn
worling on dcvcloµing susiainallc agriculiurc íor íour ihousand
vcars on ihc samc land. £or /·ar //·asaaJ v.ars ihcsc µcoµlc havc
worlcd ihc samc land wiih liiilc or no chcmical ícriilizcrs and, in
manv cascs, havc µroduccd grcaicr croµ viclds ihan wcsicrn íarmcrs,
who arc ouicllv dcsiroving ihc soils oí ihcir own counirics ihrough
dcµlciion and crosion.
A íaci largclv ignorcd lv µcoµlc in wcsicrn agriculiurc is ihai
aer/.a|/ara| |aaJ oas/ /r·Ja.. a er.a/.r ·a//a/ ·c.r //o.. 1hc human
µoµulaiion is consianilv incrcasing: availallc agriculiural land is noi.
1hcrcíorc, our íarming µraciiccs should lcavc us wiih land o·r. ícr-
iilc wiih cach µassing vcar. Howcvcr, wc arc doing iusi ihc oµµosiic.
Bacl in 1938, ihc U.S. Dcµarimcni oí Agriculiurc camc io ihc
alarming conclusion ihai a /a|| 6!% ·/ //. /·/a| ar.a aaJ.r .r·/s /a //.
U.S. a/ //a/ //o. /aJ a|r.aJv |..a .·o/|./.|v ·r /ar/|v J.s/r·v.J, ·r /aJ
|·s/ o·s/ ·/ //s /.r//|//v.
2
Noihing io worrv aloui? Wc havc ariiíicial ícr-
iilizcrs, iraciors and oil io lccµ ii all going. 1ruc, U.S. agriculiurc is
now hcavilv dcµcndcni uµon íossil íucl rcsourccs. Howcvcr, in 1993,
wc wcrc imµoriing aloui halí our oil írom íorcign sourccs, and ii`s
csiimaicd ihai ihc U.S. will lc oui oí domcsiic oil rcscrvcs lv 2O2O.
3
A hcavv dcµcndcncc on íorcign oil íor our íood µroduciion sccms
unwisc a/ |.s/, and µrolallv iusi µlain íoolish, csµcciallv whcn wc`rc
µroducing soil nuiricnis cvcrv dav in ihc íorm oí organic rcíusc and
ihrowing ihosc nuiricnis ¨awav" lv lurving ihcm in landíills or
incincraiing ihcm.
Whv arcn`i wc íollowing ihc Asian cxamµlc oí agronuiricni
rccvcling? Ii`s ccriainlv noi íor a lacl oí iníormaiion. Dr. £. H. King
wroic an inicrcsiing lool, µullishcd in 191O iiilcd £armcrs oí £oriv
Ccniurics.
4
Dr. King (D.Sc.) was a íormcr chicí oí ihc Division oí Soil
Managcmcni oí ihc U.S. Dcµarimcni oí Agriculiurc who iravclcd
ihrough Iaµan, Korca and China in ihc carlv 19OOs as an agriculiur-
al visiior. Hc was inicrcsicd in íinding oui how µcoµlc could íarm ihc
samc íiclds íor millcnnia wiihoui dcsiroving ihcir ícriiliiv. Hc siaics:
'(a. ·/ //. o·s/ r.oar|a||. aer/.a|/ara| /ra.//..s aJ·//.J |v aav
./c/|/..J /.·/|. /s //. ..a/ar/.s |·ae aaJ c.|| a/e/ aa/c.rsa| .·as.r-
ca//·a aaJ a//|/.a//·a ·/ a|| //aoaaar.j /a (//aa, K·r.a aaJ ]a/aa,
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 73
/ara/ae // /· oarc.|·as a..·aa/ /a //. oa/a/.aaa.. ·/ s·/| /.r//|//v
aaJ /a //. /r·Ja.//·a ·/ /··J. T· aaJ.rs/aaJ ///s .c·|a//·a // oas/ |.
r..·ea/..J //a/ o/a.ra| /.r//|/..rs s· .x/.as/c.|v .o/|·v.J /a o·J.ra
\.s/.ra aer/.a|/ar. /ac. |..a a //vs/.a| /o/·ss/|/|//v /· a|| /.·/|.
a|/|. aa//| c////a c.rv r...a/ v.ars. \/// ///s /a./ oas/ |. ass·./a/-
.J //. c.rv |·ae aa|r·|.a |//. ·/ //.s. aa//·as aaJ //. cas/ aao|.rs
//./r /aro.rs /ac. |..a .·o/.||.J /· /..J.
\/.a c. r./|../ a/·a //. J./|./.J /.r//|//v ·/ ·ar ·ca ·|J.r
/aro |aaJs, .·o/ara//c.|v /.c ·/ c//./ /ac. s..a a ..a/arv´s s.rc-
/.., aaJ a/·a //. .a·ro·as aaaa///v ·/ o/a.ra| /.r//|/..rs c//./ ar.
|./ae a//|/.J aaaaa||v /· //.o /a ·rJ.r /· s..ar. /av/ae v/.|Js, //
|..·o.s .c/J.a/ //a/ //. //o. /s /.r. c/.a /r·/·aaJ .·as/J.ra//·a
s/·a|J |. e/c.a /· //. /ra.//..s //. M·ae·|/aa ra.. /as oa/a/a/a.J
//r·ae/ oaav ..a/ar/.s, c//./ /.ro// // /· |. sa/J ·/ (//aa //a/ ·a.-
s/x// ·/ aa a.r. ·/ e··J |aaJ /s ao/|. /·r //. oa/a/.aaa.. ·/ ·a. /.r-
s·a, aaJ c//./ ar. /..J/ae aa ac.rae. ·/ //r.. /.·/|. /.r a.r. ·/
/aro |aaJ /a //. //r.. s·a//.rao·s/ /s|aaJs ·/ ]a/aa.
/\.s/.ra /aoaa//vj /s //. o·s/ .x/racaeaa/ a...|.ra/·r ·/ cas/.
//. c·r|J /as .c.r .aJar.J. H/s c///.r/ae ||/e// /as /a||.a a/·a
.c.rv |/c/ae ///ae c////a //s r.a./, //os.|/ a·/ .x..//.J, aaJ //s
|.s·o ·/ J.s/ra.//·a /a //. aa.·a/r·||.J /aaJs ·/ a e.a.ra//·a /as
sc.// /a/· //. s.a s·/| /.r//|//v c//./ ·a|v ..a/ar/.s ·/ |//. .·a|J a..a-
oa|a/., aaJ v./ ///s /.r//|//v /s //. sa|s/ra/ao ·/ a|| //a/ /s |/c/ae.¨
5
According io King`s rcscarch, ihc avcragc dailv cxcrcia oí ihc
aduli human wcighs in ai 4O ounccs. Muliiµlicd lv 25O million, a
rough csiimaic oí ihc U.S. µoµulaiion in ihc laic 2Oih ccniurv,
Amcricans cach vcar µroduccd 1,448,575,OOO µounds oí niirogcn,
456,25O,OOO µounds oí µoiassium, and 193,9OO,OOO µounds oí µhos-
µhorous. Almosi all oí ii was discardcd inio ihc cnvironmcni as a
wasic maicrial or a µolluiani, or as Dr. King µuis ii, '/·ar.J /a/· //.
s.as, |a|.s ·r r/c.rs aaJ /a/· //. aaJ.rer·aaJ ca/.rs.¨
According io King, 'T/. la/.raa//·aa| (·a..ss/·a ·/ //. .//v ·/
S/aae/a/, /a !908, s·|J /· a (//a.s. .·a/ra./·r //. /r/c/|.e. ·/ .a/.r/ae r.s-
/J.a..s aaJ /a||/. /|a..s .ar|v /a //. o·ra/ae ·/ .a./ Jav aaJ r.o·c/ae //.
a/e// s·/|, r.../c/ae //.r./·r o·r. //aa $3!,000 e·|J, /·r ¯8,000 /·as ·/
//aoaaar.j. A|| ·/ ///s c. a·/ ·a|v //r·c acav |a/ .x/.aJ oa./ |are.r
saos /a J·/ae s·.¨
In casc vou didn`i caich ihai, ihc coniracior /a/J $31,OOO gold
/·r ihc humanurc, rcícrrcd io as ¨nighi soil" and incorrccilv as
¨wasic" lv Dr. King. Pcoµlc don`i µav io luv wasic, ihcv µav moncv
74 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
íor ihings oí valuc.
£urihcrmorc, using Dr. King`s íigurcs, ihc U.S. µoµulaiion
µroduccd aµµroximaiclv 228,125,OOO,OOO µounds oí íccal maicrial
annuallv in ihc laic 2Oih ccniurv, or 228 lillion µounds oí Gr·ss
Naiional Produci.
Admiiicdlv, ihc sµrcading oí raw human cxcrcmcni on íiclds,
as is donc in Asia, will ncvcr lccomc culiurallv acccµiallc in ihc
Uniicd Siaics, and righilv so. 1hc agriculiural usc oí raw nighi soil
µroduccs an assauli on ihc scnsc oí smcll, and µrovidcs a rouic oí
iransmission íor various human discasc organisms. Amcricans who
havc iravclcd alroad and wiincsscd ihc usc oí raw human cxcrcmcni
in agriculiural aµµlicaiions havc largclv lccn rcµulscd lv ihc cxµcri-
cncc. 1hai rcµulsion has insiillcd in manv Amcricans an iniransigcni
lias againsi, and cvcn a ícar oí ihc usc oí humanurc íor soil cnrich-
mcni. Howcvcr, ícw Amcricans havc wiincsscd ihc .·o/·s//ae oí
humanurc as a µrcliminarv sicµ in iis rccvcling. Proµcr ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing convcris humanurc inio a µlcasani smclling maicrial
dcvoid oí human µaihogcns.
Alihough ihc agriculiural usc oí rac human cxcrcmcni will
ncvcr lccomc a common µraciicc in ihc U.S., ihc usc oí comµosicd
human rcíusc, including humanurc, íood rcíusc and oihcr organic
municiµal rcíusc such as lcavcs, can and should lccomc a widcsµrcad
and culiurallv cncouragcd µraciicc. 1hc aci oí comµosiing humanurc
insicad oí using ii raw will sci Amcricans aµari írom Asians in rcgard
io ihc rccvcling oí human cxcrcmcnis, /·r c. /·· c/|| /ac. /· .·as/ra.-
//c.|v J.a| c/// a|| ·/ ·ar ·reaa/. |v/r·Ja./s .c.a/aa||v. Wc can µui ii oíí,
lui noi íorcvcr. As ii siands now ai lcasi, manv oí ihc Asians arc rccv-
cling much oí ihcir organic discards. Wc`rc noi.
1H£ ADVANC£S O£ SCI£NC£
How is ii ihai Asian µcoµlcs dcvcloµcd an undcrsianding oí
human nuiricni rccvcling and wc didn`i? Aíicr all, wc`rc ihc
advanccd, dcvcloµcd, scicniiíic naiion, arcn`i wc? Dr. King malcs an
inicrcsiing olscrvaiion conccrning wcsicrn scicniisis. Hc siaics:
'l/ cas a·/ aa//| !888, aaJ //.a a//.r a /r·|·ae.J car ·/ o·r. //aa
///r/v v.ars, e.a.ra/.J |v //. |.s/ s./.a//s/s ·/ a|| Far·/., //a/ // cas
//aa||v .·a..J.J as J.o·as/ra/.J //a/ |.eao/a·as /|aa/s a.//ae as
/·s/s /·r |·c.r ·reaa/sos |/c/ae ·a //./r r··/s ar. |are.|v r.s/·as/||.
/·r //. oa/a/.aaa.. ·/ s·/| a//r·e.a, Jrac/ae // J/r../|v /r·o //. a/r
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 75
/· c//./ // /s r./ara.J //r·ae/ //. /r·..ss.s ·/ J..av. Ba/ ..a/ar/.s
·/ /ra.//.. /aJ /aae// //. Iar Fas/ /aro.rs //a/ //. .a|/ar. aaJ as.
·/ //.s. .r·/s ar. .ss.a//a| /· .aJar/ae /.r//|//v, aaJ s· /a .a./ ·/ //.
//r.. .·aa/r/.s //. er·c/ae ·/ |.eao.s /a r·/a//·a c/// ·//.r .r·/s
c.rv .x/.as/c.|v, /·r //. .x/r.ss /ar/·s. ·/ /.r//|/./ae //. s·/|, /s ·a.
·/ //./r ·|J //x.J /ra.//..s.¨
6
Ii ccriainlv sccms odd ihai µcoµlc who gain ihcir lnowlcdgc
in rcal liíc ihrough µraciicc and cxµcricncc arc largclv ignorcd or
irivializcd lv ihc acadcmic world and associaicd govcrnmcni agcn-
cics. Such agcncics onlv crcdii lcarning ihai has ialcn µlacc wiihin
an insiiiuiional íramcworl. As such, ii`s no wondcr ihai Wcsicrn
humaniiv`s crawl ioward a susiainallc cxisicncc on ihc µlanci £arih
is so µiiiíullv slow.
'S/raae. as // oav s..o,¨ savs King, '//.r. ar. a·/ /·Jav aaJ
a//ar.a/|v a.c.r /ac. |..a, .c.a /a //. |are.s/ aaJ ·|J.s/ .///.s ·/
]a/aa, (//aa ·r K·r.a, aav///ae .·rr.s/·aJ/ae /· //. /vJraa|/. svs-
/.os ·/ s.cae. J/s/·sa| as.J a·c |v \.s/.ra aa//·as. \/.a l as|.J
ov /a/.r/r./.r // // cas a·/ //. .as/·o ·/ //. .//v Jar/ae //. c/a/.r
o·a//s /· J/s./are. //s a/e// s·/| /a/· //. s.a, as a aa/.|.r aaJ ./.a/-
.r o·J. ·/ J/s/·sa| ///aa r..v.|/aej, //s r./|v .ao. aa/.| aaJ s/ar/,
'N·, //a/ c·a|J |. cas/.. \. //r·c a·///ae acav. l/ /s c·r// /··
oa./ o·a.v.´ "
7
¨T/. (//aaoaa,¨ savs King, ¨cas/.s a·///ae
c//|. //. sa.r.J Ja/v ·/ aer/.a|/ar. /s a//.ro·s/ /a //s o/aJ.¨
8
Pcrhaµs, somcdav, wc also will undcrsiand.
WH£N 1H£ CRAP HI1 1H£ £AN
Whilc ihc Asians wcrc µraciicing susiainallc agriculiurc and
rccvcling ihcir organic rcsourccs and doing so ovcr millcnnia, whai
wcrc ihc µcoµlc oí ihc Wcsi doing? Whai wcrc ihc £uroµcans and
ihosc oí £uroµcan dcsccni doing? Whv wcrcn`i our £uroµcan anccs-
iors rciurning ihcir manurcs io ihc soil, ioo? Aíicr all, ii docs malc
scnsc. 1hc Asians who rccvclcd ihcir manurcs noi onlv rccovcrcd a
rcsourcc and rcduccd µolluiion, lui lv rciurning ihcir cxcrcmcni io
ihc soil, ihcv succccdcd in rcducing ihrcais io ihcir hcalih. 1hcrc was
no µuirid scwagc collcciing and lrccding discasc gcrms. Insicad, ihc
humanurc was, íor ihc mosi µari, undcrgoing a naiural, non-chcmi-
cal µuriíicaiion µroccss in ihc soil which rcouircd no icchnologv.
76 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
Granicd, a loi oí ¨nighi soil" in ihc £ar £asi iodav is noi com-
µosicd and is ihc sourcc oí hcalih µrollcms. Howcvcr, cvcn ihc
rciurning oí humanurc raw io ihc land succccds in dcsiroving manv
human µaihogcns in ihc manurc and rciurns nuiricnis io ihc soil.
Ici`s ialc a lool ai whai was haµµcning in £uroµc rcgarding
µullic hvgicnc írom ihc 13OOs on. Grcai µcsiilcnccs swcµi £uroµc
ihroughoui rccordcd hisiorv. 1hc Blacl Dcaih lillcd morc ihan halí
ihc µoµulaiion oí £ngland in ihc íouriccnih ccniurv. In 1552, 67,OOO
µaiicnis dicd oí ihc Plaguc in Paris alonc. £lcas írom iníccicd rais
wcrc ihc carricrs oí ihis discasc. Did ihc rais dinc on human wasic?
Oihcr µcsiilcnccs includcd ihc swcaiing siclncss (aiiriluicd io
unclcanlincss), cholcra (sµrcad lv íood and waicr coniaminaicd lv
ihc cxcrcmcni oí iníccicd µcrsons), ¨iail ícvcr" (causcd lv a lacl oí
saniiaiion in µrisons), ivµhoid ícvcr (sµrcad lv waicr coniaminaicd
wiih iníccicd ícccs), and numcrous oihcrs.
Andrcw D. Whiic, coíoundcr oí Corncll Univcrsiiv, wriics,
'N.ar|v /c.a/v ..a/ar/.s s/a.. //. r/s. ·/ (/r/s//aa//v, aaJ J·ca /· a /.r/-
·J c////a |/c/ae o.o·rv, a/ //. a//.araa.. ·/ aav /.s//|.a.. //. (/ar./
aa//·r///.s, /as/.aJ ·/ J.c/s/ae saa//arv o.asar.s, /ac. c.rv e.a.ra||v
/r.a./.J //. a...ss//v ·/ /oo.J/a/. a/·a.o.a/ /·r ·//.as.s aea/as/ //.
A|o/e//v. la //. /r/a.//a| /·cas ·/ Far·/., as c.|| as /a //. .·aa/rv a/
|are., J·ca /· a r...a/ /.r/·J, //. o·s/ ·rJ/aarv saa//arv /r..aa//·as c.r.
a.e|../.J, aaJ /.s//|.a..s .·a//aa.J /· |. a//r/|a/.J /· //. cra// ·/ G·J ·r
//. oa|/.. ·/ Sa/aa.¨
9
Ii`s now lnown ihai ihc main causc oí such immcnsc sacriíicc
oí liíc was a lacl oí µroµcr hvgicnic µraciiccs. Ii`s argucd ihai ccriain
ihcological rcasoning ai ihai iimc rcsisicd ihc cvoluiion oí µroµcr
hvgicnc. According io Whiic, 'I·r ..a/arv a//.r ..a/arv //. /J.a /r.-
ca/|.J //a/ //|///a.ss cas a|/a /· /·|/a.ss.¨ Iiving in íilih was rcgardcd
lv holv mcn as cvidcncc oí sanciiiv, according io Whiic, who lisis
numcrous sainis who ncvcr laihcd µaris or all oí ihcir lodics, such as
Si. Alraham, who washcd nciihcr his hands nor his ícci íor íiíiv
vcars, or Si. Svlvia, who ncvcr washcd anv µari oí hcr lodv cxccµi hcr
íingcrs.
1O
Inicrcsiinglv, aíicr ihc Blacl Dcaih lcíi iis grim walc across
£uroµc, 'aa /oo.as.|v /a.r.as.J /r·/·r//·a ·/ //. |aaJ.J aaJ /.rs·aa|
/r·/.r/v ·/ .c.rv Far·/.aa .·aa/rv cas /a //. /aaJs ·/ //. ./ar./.¨
11
Aµµarcnilv, ihc church was rcaµing somc lcncíii írom ihc dcaihs oí
hugc numlcrs oí µcoµlc. Pcrhaµs ihc church had a vcsicd inicrcsi in
mainiaining µullic ignorancc aloui ihc sourccs oí discasc. 1his
insinuaiion is almosi ioo dialolical íor scrious considcraiion. Or is ii?
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 77
Somchow, ihc idca dcvcloµcd around ihc 14OOs ihai Icws and
wiichcs wcrc causing ihc µcsiilcnccs. Icws wcrc susµccicd lccausc
ihcv didn`i succuml io ihc µcsiilcnccs as rcadilv as ihc Chrisiian
µoµulaiion did, µrcsumallv lccausc ihcv cmµlovcd a uniouc saniia-
iion svsicm morc conducivc io clcanlincss, including ihc caiing oí
loshcr íoods. Noi undcrsianding ihis, ihc Chrisiian µoµulaiion
arrivcd ai ihc conclusion ihai ihc Icws` immuniiv rcsulicd írom µro-
icciion lv Saian. As a rcsuli, aiicmµis wcrc madc in all µaris oí
£uroµc io sioµ ihc µlagucs lv ioriuring and murdcring ihc Icws.
1wclvc ihousand Icws wcrc rcµoricdlv lurncd io dcaih in Bavaria
alonc during ihc iimc oí ihc µlaguc, and addiiionallv ihousands morc
wcrc lilcwisc lillcd ihroughoui £uroµc.
12
In 1484, ihc ¨iníallillc" Poµc Innoccni VIII issucd a µrocla-
maiion suµµoriing ihc church`s oµinion ihai wiichcs wcrc causcs oí
discasc, siorms, and a variciv oí ills aíícciing humaniiv. 1hc íccling
oí ihc church was summcd uµ in onc scnicncc: 'T/·a s/a|/ a·/ sa//.r a
c//./ /· |/c..¨ £rom ihc middlc oí ihc sixiccnih io ihc middlc oí ihc
scvcniccnih ccniurics, womcn aaJ mcn wcrc scni io ioriurc and dcaih
lv ihc ihousands lv loih Proicsiani and Caiholic auihoriiics. Ii`s
csiimaicd ihai ihc numlcr oí viciims sacriíiccd during ihai ccniurv
in Gcrmanv alonc was ovcr a hundrcd ihousand.
1hc íollowing casc in Milan, Iialv, summarizcs ihc idcas oí
saniiaiion in £uroµc during ihc scvcniccnih ccniurv:
1hc ciiv was undcr ihc conirol oí Sµain, and ii had rcccivcd
noiicc írom ihc Sµanish govcrnmcni ihai wiichcs wcrc susµccicd io
lc cn rouic io Milan io ¨anoini ihc walls" (smcar ihc walls wiih dis-
casc-causing oinimcnis). 1hc church rang ihc alarm írom ihc µulµii,
µuiiing ihc µoµulaiion on ihc alcri. Onc morning in 163O, an old
woman looling oui hcr window saw a man who was walling along ihc
sircci wiµc his íingcrs on a wall. Hc was µromµilv rcµoricd io ihc
auihoriiics. Hc claimcd hc was simµlv wiµing inl írom his íingcrs
which had rullcd oíí ihc inl-horn hc carricd wiih him. Noi saiisíicd
wiih ihis cxµlanaiion, ihc auihoriiics ihrcw ihc man inio µrison and
ioriurcd him uniil hc ¨conícsscd." 1hc ioriurc coniinucd uniil ihc
man gavc ihc namcs oí his ¨accomµliccs," who wcrc sulscoucnilv
roundcd uµ and ioriurcd. 1hcv in iurn namcd //./r ¨accomµliccs"
and ihc µroccss coniinucd uniil mcmlcrs oí ihc íorcmosi íamilics
wcrc includcd in ihc chargcs. £inallv, a largc numlcr oí innoccni µco-
µlc wcrc scnicnccd io ihcir dcaihs, all oí ihis rcµoricdlv lcing a mai-
icr oí rccord.
13
Onc loaihsomc discasc oí ihc 15OOs ihrough ihc 17OOs was ihc
78 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
¨iail ícvcr." 1hc µrisons oí ihai µcriod wcrc íilihv. Pcoµlc wcrc con-
íincd in dungcons connccicd io scwcrs wiih liiilc vcniilaiion or
drainagc. Prisoncrs inculaicd ihc discasc and sµrcad ii io ihc µullic,
csµcciallv io ihc µolicc, lawvcrs and iudgcs. In 175O, íor cxamµlc, ihc
discasc lillcd iwo iudgcs, ihc lord mavor, various aldcrmcn and manv
oihcrs in Iondon, including oí coursc, µrisoncrs.
14
1hc µcsiilcnccs ai ihai iimc in ihc Proicsiani colonics /a
Ao.r/.a wcrc also aiiriluicd io divinc wraih or saianic malicc, lui
whcn ihc discascs aíílicicd ihc Naiivc Amcricans, ihcv wcrc consid-
crcd lcncíicial. 'T/. /.s//|.a.. ao·ae //. laJ/aas, |./·r. //. arr/ca| ·/
//. P|vo·a// (·|·av, cas a//r/|a/.J /a a a·/a||. c·r| ·/ //a/ /.r/·J /· //.
D/c/a. /ar/·s. ·/ .|.ar/ae N.c Fae|aaJ /·r //. /.ra|Js ·/ //. e·s/.|.¨
15
Pcrhaµs ihc rcason ihc Asian counirics havc such largc µoµu-
laiions in comµarison io Wcsicrn counirics is lccausc ihcv cscaµcd
somc oí ihc µcsiilcnccs common io £uroµc, csµcciallv µcsiilcnccs
sµrcad lv ihc íailurc io rcsµonsillv rccvclc human cxcrcmcni. 1hcv
µrcsumallv µlowcd ihcir manurc lacl inio ihc land lccausc ihcir
sµiriiual µcrsµcciivcs suµµoricd such lchavior. Wcsicrncrs wcrc ioo
lusv lurning wiichcs and Icws wiih ihc church`s wholchcaricd assis-
iancc io loihcr ihinling aloui rccvcling humanurc.
Our anccsiors did, cvcniuallv, comc io undcrsiand ihai µoor
hvgicnc was a causal íacior in cµidcmic discascs. Ncvcrihclcss, ii was
noi uniil ihc laic 18OOs in £ngland ihai imµroµcr saniiaiion and
scwagc wcrc susµccicd as causcs oí cµidcmics. Ai ihai iimc, largc
numlcrs oí µcoµlc wcrc siill dving írom µcsiilcnccs, csµcciallv
cholcra, which lillcd ai lcasi 13O,OOO µcoµlc in £ngland in 1848-9
alonc. In 1849, an £nglish mcdical µraciiiioncr µullishcd ihc ihcorv
ihai cholcra was sµrcad lv waicr coniaminaicd wiih scwagc.
Ironicallv, cvcn whcrc scwagc was lcing µiµcd awav írom ihc µoµula-
iion, ihc scwcrs wcrc siill lcaling inio drinling waicr suµµlics.
1hc £nglish govcrnmcni couldn`i lc loihcrcd wiih ihc íaci
ihai hundrcds oí ihousands oí mosilv µoor ciiizcns wcrc µcrishing
lilc ílics vcar aíicr vcar. So ii rciccicd a Pullic Hcalih Bill in 1847. A
Pullic Hcalih Bill íinallv lccamc an Aci in 1848 in ihc íacc oí ihc lai-
csi ouilrcal, lui wasn`i icrrillv cíícciivc. Howcvcr, ii did lring µoor
saniiaiion io ihc aiicniion oí ihc µullic, as ihc íollowing siaicmcni
írom ihc Gcncral Board oí Hcalih (1849) imµlics: 'H·as./·|J.rs ·/ a||
.|ass.s s/·a|J |. cara.J //a/ //./r //rs/ o.aas ·/ sa/./v |/.s /a //. r.o·ca|
·/ Jaae /.a/s aaJ s·|/J aaJ |/aa/J //|// ·/ .c.rv J.s.r////·a /r·o |.a.a// ·r
a|·a/ //./r /·as.s aaJ /r.o/s.s.¨ 1his mav malc onc wondcr ií a com-
µosi µilc would havc lccn considcrcd a ¨dung hcaµ" in ihosc davs,
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 79
and ihcrcíorc lanncd.
Saniiaiion in £ngland was so lad in ihc mid-io-laic cighiccn
hundrcds ihai, 'la !858, c/.a //. Qa..a aaJ Pr/a.. A||.r/ /aJ a//.o//-
.J a s/·r/ /|.asar. .ra/s. ·a //. T/ao.s, //s oa|·J·r·as ca/.rs Jr·c. //.o
|a.| /· |aaJ c////a a /.c o/aa/.s. T/a/ saoo.r a /r·|·ae.J cac. ·/ /.a/
aaJ Jr·ae// .x/·s.J //s |aa|s, r·//.a c/// //. s.cae. ·/ aa ·c.rer·ca,
aaJra/a.J .//v. B..aas. ·/ //. s/.a./, Par|/ao.a/ /aJ /· r/s. .ar|v.¨
Anoihcr siorv dcscrilcs Quccn Vicioria gazing oui ovcr ihc rivcr and
asling aloud whai ihc µicccs oí µaµcr wcrc ihai so alundanilv íloai-
cd lv. Hcr comµanion, noi waniing io admii ihai ihc Quccn was lool-
ing ai µicccs oí uscd ioilci µaµcr, rcµlicd, 'T/·s., Ma´ao, ar. a·//..s
//a/ |a///ae /s /·r|/JJ.a.¨
16
1hc 1orics or ¨conscrvaiivcs" oí ihc £nglish govcrnmcni siill
ihoughi ihai sµcnding on social scrviccs was a wasic oí moncv and an
unacccµiallc iníringcmcni lv ihc govcrnmcni on ihc µrivaic sccior
(sound íamiliar?). A lcading ncwsµaµcr, ¨1hc 1imcs," mainiaincd
ihai ihc risl oí cholcra was µrcícrallc io lcing lullicd lv ihc govcrn-
mcni inio µroviding scwagc scrviccs. Howcvcr, a maior Aci was íinal-
lv µasscd in 1866, ihc Pullic Hcalih Aci, wiih onlv grudging suµµori
írom ihc 1orics. Oncc again, cholcra was raging ihrough ihc µoµula-
iion, and ii`s µrolallv íor ihai rcason ihai anv aci was µasscd ai all.
£inallv, lv ihc cnd oí ihc 186Os, a íramcworl oí µullic hcalih µolicv
was csiallishcd in £ngland. 1hanlíullv, ihc cholcra cµidcmic oí 1866
was ihc lasi and ihc lcasi disasirous.
17
1hc µowcrs oí ihc church cvcniuallv diminishcd cnough íor
µhvsicians io havc ihcir much-dclavcd sav aloui ihc origins oí dis-
casc. Our modcrn saniiaiion svsicms havc íinallv vicldcd a liíc saíc
íor mosi oí us, alihough noi wiihoui shoricomings. 1hc cvcniual solu-
iion dcvcloµcd lv ihc wcsi was io collcci humanurc in waicr and dis-
card ii, µcrhaµs chcmicallv ircaicd, incincraicd or dchvdraicd inio
ihc scas, inio ihc aimosµhcrc, onio ihc suríacc oí ihc land, and inio
landíills.
ASIAN UPDA1£
Ii would lc naivc io suggcsi ihai ihc Asian sociciics arc µcr-
ícci lv anv sircich oí ihc imaginaiion. Asian hisiorv is riíc wiih ihc
µrollcms ihai havc µlagucd humaniiv sincc ihc íirsi µcrson slid oui
oí ihc íirsi woml. 1hosc µrollcms includc such ihings as oµµrcssivc
rulc lv ihc rich, war, íaminc, naiural caiasiroµhcs, oµµrcssivc rulc lv
hcaihcns, morc war, and now ovcrµoµulaiion.
80 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
1odav, Asians arc alandoning ihc harmonious agriculiural
icchnioucs ihai Dr. King olscrvcd ncarlv a ccniurv ago. In Kvoio,
Iaµan, íor cxamµlc, 'a/e// s·/| /s .·||../.J /ve/.a/.a||v /· //. sa//s/a.//·a
·/ as.rs ·/ //. svs/.o, ·a|v /· |. J/|a/.J a/ a ..a/ra| .·||..//·a /·/a/ /·r J/s-
./are. /· //. s.c.r svs/.o aaJ /r.a/o.a/ a/ a .·ac.a//·aa| s.cae. /r.a/-
o.a/ /|aa/.¨
18
A Humanurc Handlool rcadcr wroic an inicrcsiing accouni
oí Iaµancsc ioilcis in a lciicr io ihc auihor, which is µaraµhrascd hcrc:
'Mv ·a|v r.a| //aoaaar.j .x/.r/.a.......·o.s /r·o |/c/ae /a ]a/aa /r·o !9¯3-
!983. As ov .x/.r/.a.. /s Ja/.J, ///aes oav /ac. ./aae.J (/r·|a||v /·r //. c·rs. as /·/-
|./s aaJ |//. c.r. |..·o/ae 'c.s/.ra/..J´ .c.a /·carJ //. .aJ ·/ ov s/av /a ]a/aa).
Mv .x/.r/.a.. .·o.s /r·o |/c/ae /a soa||, rara| /·cas as c.|| as /a o./r·/·|//aa
ar.as (/r·c/a./a| .a///a|s). H·o.s/|as/a.ss.s /aJ aa '/aJ··r ·a//·as..´ T/. Iaa|/.
N·///ae |a/ ar/a.//...s c.r. J./·s//.J /a/· //. |are. o./a| caa|/ aaJ.r //. /·/|./ (saaa/
s/v|., s|/e//|v r...ss.J /a //. /|··r aaJ oaJ. ·/ /·r..|a/a). N· .·c.r oa/.r/a| ·r .ar|·aa-
..·as s/a// cas as.J. l/ s/aa| // N·/ jas/ //. |a//r··o, |a/ //. c/·|. /·as./ T/.r. c.r.
oaav /|/.s, .c.a //·ae/ //. c/aJ·cs c.r. s.r..a.J. Maee·/s c.r. //. oa/a /r·||.o.
T/.v .rac|.J a/ //. s/J.s ·/ //. caa|/ ·a/· //. /·/|./ aaJ /|··r aaJ s·o.//o.s .c.a oaJ.
// ·a/s/J. //. |a//r··o /a/· //. /a||. P.·/|. .·as/aa/|v /·ar.J s·o. |/aJ ·/ /·x/. ./.o/-
.a| /a/· //. caa|/s /· .·a/r·| //. so.|| aaJ oaee·/s. (l/ J/Ja´/ /.|/ /a /a./, //. oaee·/s
r.a||v /·ar.J ·a/ ·/ //. caa|/ /· .s.a/. //. ./.o/.a|s.) (..as/·aa||v a s|///.r (·a. /a/ ·a
s/../a| '|a//r··o s|///.rs´ as ·//·s.J /· '/·as. s|///.rs´ c/.a .a/.r/ae //. |a//r··o) /.||
/a/· //. J/seas//ae |/aa/J/oaee·/-//||.J caa|/. Y·a .·a|Ja´/ .c.a |.e/a /· ///a| a|·a/ e./-
//ae // ·a// Y·a .·a|Ja´/ |./ |///|. .//|Jr.a as. //. /·/|./ c///·a/ aa aJa|/ sas/.aJ/ae //.o
·c.r //. T/.v o/e// /a|| /a/ D/s/·sa|. \/.a //. caa|/ cas /a|| (a|·a/ .c.rv //r.. o·a//s),
v·a .a||.J a /r/ca/. ca.aao /ra.| c//./ as.J a |are. /·s. /|a..J /a aa ·a/s/J. ·/.a/ae
/· sa.| ·a/ //. |/aa/J oass. Y·a /a/J //.o /·r //./r s.rc/..s. l´o a·/ sar. .xa./|v c/a/
/a//.a.J /· //. /aoaaar. a.x/ |a/, /a //. aer/.a|/ara| ar.as a.ar //. //.|Js c.r. |are.
(!0 /../ /a J/ao./.r) r·aaJ, .·a.r./., ra/s.J .·a/a/a.rs, s/o/|ar /a |··|s /· aa a|·c.
er·aaJ sc/oo/ae /··|. la //. .·a/a/a.rs, l cas /·|J, cas //. /aoaaar. /r·o //. 'ca.a-
ao /ra.|s.´ l/ cas a er..a/s/-|r·ca |/aa/J c/// a|ea. er·c/ae ·a //. sar/a... l cas /·|J
///s cas s/r.aJ ·a/· aer/.a|/ara| //.|Js.¨
In 1952, aloui 7O% oí Chincsc humanurc was rccvclcd. 1his
had incrcascd io 9O% lv 1956, and consiiiuicd a ihird oí all ícriilizcr
uscd in ihc counirv.
19
Iaiclv, howcvcr, humanurc rccvcling in China
sccms io lc going downhill. 1hc usc oí svnihciic ícriilizcrs has riscn
ovcr 6OO% lciwccn ihc mid 196Os io ihc mid 198Os, and now China`s
avcragc annual ícriilizcr usagc µcr hcciarc is csiimaicd io lc doullc
ihai oí ihc world`s avcragc. Bciwccn 1949 and 1983, agriculiural
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i| 81
niirogcn and µhosµhorous inµuis incrcascd lv a íacior oí icn, whilc
agriculiural viclds onlv iriµlcd.
2O
Waicr µolluiion in China lcgan io incrcasc in ihc 195Os duc
io ihc discarding oí scwagc inio waicr. Now, aloui 7O% oí China`s
wasicwaicr is said io lc dumµcd inio China`s main rivcrs. Bv 1992, 45
lillion ionncs oí wasicwaicr wcrc ílowing inio China`s rivcrs and
lalcs annuallv, 7O% unircaicd. In urlan arcas, 8O% oí ihc suríacc
waicr is µolluicd wiih niirogcn and ammonia, and mosi lalcs around
ciiics havc lccomc dumµing grounds íor largc ouaniiiics oí scwagc.
Ii is csiimaicd ihai 45O,OOO ionncs oí humanurc arc dumµcd inio ihc
Huangµu Rivcr alonc in a vcar. Halí a million cascs oí hcµaiiiis A,
sµrcad lv µolluicd waicr, occurrcd in Shanghai in 1988. Soil-lornc
discascs, µraciicallv non-cxisicni in China iwcniv vcars ago, arc now
also causing µrollcms. 'la.r.as/ae|v, (//a.s. ar|aa aa//·r///.s ar. /ara-
/ae /· /a./a.ra//·a ·r |aaJ//|| as //. cavs ·/ J/s/·s/ae ·/ //./r s·|/J cas/.s
ra//.r //aa r..v.|/ae aaJ .·o/·s//ae, c//./ o.aas //a/ (//aa, |/|. //.
c.s/, /s /a///ae //. /r·||.o ·a/· //. s/·a|J.rs ·/ /a/ar. e.a.ra//·as.¨
21
£or a scnsc oí hisiorical µcrsµcciivc, I`ll lcavc vou wiih a
ouoic írom Dr. Arihur Sianlcv, hcalih oííiccr oí ihc ciiv oí Shanghai,
China, in his annual rcµori íor 1899, whcn ihc µoµulaiion oí China
amounicd io aloui 5OO million µcoµlc. Ai ihai iimc, no ariiíicial ícr-
iilizcrs wcrc cmµlovcd íor agriculiural µurµoscs onlv organic, nai-
ural maicrials such as agriculiural rcsiducs and humanurc wcrc
lcing uscd:
'R.earJ/ae //. |.ar/ae ·a //. saa//a//·a ·/ S/aae/a/ ·/ //. r.|a-
//·as/// |./c..a Fas/.ra aaJ \.s/.ra /ve/.a., // oav |. sa/J, //a/ // /r·-
|·ae.J aa//·aa| |//. /s /aJ/.a//c. ·/ s·aaJ saa//a//·a, //. (//a.s. ar. a ra..
c·r//v ·/ s/aJv |v a|| c/· .·a..ra //.os.|c.s c/// /a||/. /.a|//. l/ /s .c/-
J.a/ //a/ /a (//aa //. |/r// ra/. oas/ c.rv .·as/J.ra||v .x...J //. J.a//
ra/., aaJ /ac. J·a. s· /a aa ac.rae. cav Jar/ae //. //r.. ·r /·ar //·asaaJ
v.ars //a/ //. (//a.s. aa//·a /as .x/s/.J. (//a.s. /ve/.a., c/.a .·o/ar.J
/· o.J/.ca| Fae|/s/, a//.ars /· aJcaa/ae..¨
22
Sounds lilc an undcrsiaicmcni io mc.
82 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r Fcar. D::p S/i|
A DAY IN 1H£ II££ O£ A 1URD
W
hcn I was a lid, I lisicncd io armv vcicrans iall-
ing aloui ihcir siinis in ihc Korcan War.
Usuallv aíicr a lccr or iwo, ihcv`d iurn ihcir
convcrsaiion io ihc ¨ouihouscs" uscd lv ihc
Korcans. 1hcv wcrc amazcd, cvcn mvsiiíicd, aloui ihc íaci ihai ihc
Korcans iricd io lurc µasscrslv inio ihcir ouihouscs lv maling ihc
ioilcis csµcciallv aiiraciivc. 1hc idca oí somconc waniing somconc
clsc`s craµ alwavs lroughi oui a loud laugh írom ihc vcis.
Pcrhaµs ihis aiiiiudc sums uµ ihc aiiiiudcs oí Amcricans.
Humanurc is a wasic µroduci ihai wc havc io gci rid oí, and ihai`s all
ihcrc is io ii. Onlv íools would ihinl oihcrwisc. Onc oí ihc cííccis oí
ihis sori oí aiiiiudc is ihai Amcricans don`i lnow and µrolallv don`i
carc whcrc ihcir humanurc gocs aíicr ii cmcrgcs írom ihcir rcar cnds
as long as ihcv don`i havc io dcal wiih ii.
M£XICAN BIOIOGICAI DIG£S1£R
Wcll, whcrc ii gocs dcµcnds on ihc ivµc oí ¨wasic disµosal svs-
icm" uscd. Ici`s siari wiih ihc simµlcsi: ihc Mcxican liological
digcsicr, also lnown as ihc sirav dog. In India, ihis mav lc lnown as
ihc íamilv µig. I sµcni a ícw monihs in souihcrn Mcxico in ihc laic
197Os in Quiniana Roo on ihc Yucaian µcninsula. 1hcrc, ioilcis wcrc
noi availallc: µcoµlc simµlv uscd ihc sand duncs along ihc coasi. No
µrollcm, ihough. Onc oí ihc small, unlcmµi and uliouiious Mcxican
dogs would waii ncarlv wiih waicring mouih uniil vou did vour
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 83
84 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
PRÌMÌTÌVE BÌOLOGÌCAL DÌGESTER
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 85
ihing. Burving vour cxcrcmcni in ihai siiuaiion would havc lccn an
aci oí disrcsµcci io ihc dog. No onc wanis sand in ihcir íood. A good,
hcalihv, sicaming iurd ai ihc cracl oí dawn on ihc Carillcan coasi
ncvcr lasicd morc ihan 6O scconds lcíorc ii lccamc a hoi mcal íor a
human`s lcsi íricnd. Yum.
1H£ OID-£ASHION£D OU1HOUS£
Ncxi uµ ihc laddcr oí soµhisiicaiion is ihc old-íashioncd oui-
housc, also lnown as ihc µii lairinc. Simµlv siaicd, onc digs a holc
and dcíccaics in ii, and ihcn docs so again and again uniil ihc holc
íills uµ: ihcn ii`s covcrcd wiih diri. Ii`s nicc io havc a small luilding
or ¨µrivv" ovcr ihc holc io µrovidc somc µrivacv and shclicr.
Howcvcr, ihc conccµi is simµlc: dig a holc and lurv vour cxcrcmcni.
Inicrcsiinglv, ihis lcvcl oí soµhisiicaiion has noi vci lccn surµasscd
in Amcrica. Wc siill lurv our cxcrcmcni, in ihc íorm oí scwagc
sludgc, in landíill holcs.
Ouihouscs crcaic vcrv rcal hcalih, cnvironmcnial and acsihci-
ic µrollcms. 1hc holc in ihc ground is acccssillc io ílics and mosoui-
iocs which can iransmii discascs ovcr a widc arca. 1hc µiis lcal µol-
luianis inio ihc ground cvcn in drv soil. And ihc smcll /·|J v·ar
SPREAD OF POLLUTÌON THROUGH WET SOÌL BY OUTHOUSES
Source: Franceys, R. et al. (1992). A Guide to the Development
of On-Site Sanitation. p. 40. World Health Organization, Geneva.
15 m (50 feet)
POLLUTION
Direction of groundwater fIow
86 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
SPREAD OF POLLUTÌON THROUGH DRY SOÌL BY OUTHOUSES
Source: Rybczynski, et al.
(1982). Appropriate
Technology for Water
Supply and Sanitation -
Low-Cost Technology
Options for Sanitation, A
State of the Art Review and
Annotated Bibliography.
World Bank. p. 52.
Outhouses will
transmit pollution
three meters (10
feet) vertically and
one meter (3 feet)
laterally, in dry soil.
poIIution
a·s..
Ouihouscs will iransmii µolluiion ihrcc mcicrs (1O ícci)
lclow ihc ouihousc holc and onc mcicr (3 ícci) sidcwavs in drv soil.
1hcv can lc cxµccicd io lcal µolluiion 5O ícci sidcwavs in wci soils,
íollowing ihc dircciion oí groundwaicr ílow.
S£P1IC SYS1£MS
Anoihcr sicµ uµ ihc laddcr, onc íinds ihc scµiic ianl, a com-
mon mcihod oí human wasic disµosal in rural and sulurlan arcas oí
ihc Uniicd Siaics. In ihis svsicm ihc iurd is dcµosiicd inio a coniain-
cr oí waicr, usuallv µuriíicd drinling waicr, and ílushcd awav.
Aíicr ihc íloaiing iurd iravcls ihrough a scwagc µiµc, ii µloµs
inio a íairlv largc undcrground sioragc ianl, or scµiic ianl, usuallv
madc oí concrcic and somciimcs oí íilcrglass. In Pcnnsvlvania (U.S.),
a 9OO gallon ianl is ihc minimum sizc allowcd íor a homc wiih ihrcc
or ícwcr lcdrooms.
1
1hc hcavicr solids sciilc io ihc loiiom oí ihc ianl
and ihc liouids drain oíí inio a lcach íicld, which consisis oí an arrav
oí drain µiµcs siiuaicd lclow ihc ground suríacc allowing ihc liouid
io sccµ oui inio ihc soil. 1hc wasicwaicr is cxµccicd io lc undcrgoing
anacrolic dccomµosiiion whilc in ihc ianl. Whcn scµiic ianls íill uµ,
ihcv arc µumµcd oui and ihc wasic maicrial is iruclcd io a scwagc
ircaimcni µlani, alihough somciimcs ii`s illcgallv dumµcd.
SAND MOUNDS
In ihc cvcni oí µoorlv draincd soil, ciihcr low-lving or wiih a
high clav conicni, a siandard lcach íicld will noi worl vcrv wcll, csµc-
ciallv whcn ihc ground is alrcadv saiuraicd wiih rainwaicr or snow
mcli. Onc can`i drain wasicwaicr inio soil ihai is alrcadv saiuraicd
wiih waicr. 1hai`s whcn ihc saaJ o·aaJ scwagc disµosal svsicm is
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 87
SAND MOUND SYSTEM
Source: US EPA (1996). Wastewater Treatment:
Alternatives to Septic Systems (Guidance
Document) p. 8. EPA/909-K-96-001, June 1996.
88 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
STANDARD SEPTÌC TANK GRAVÌTY DÌSTRÌBUTÌON SYSTEM
Source: US EPA (1987). It's Your Choice ÷ A Guidebook for Local Officials on Small Community Wastewater
Management Options, p. 40. EPA 430/9-87-006.
SEPTIC TANK
LEACH FIELD
CROSS-SECTÌON OF A SEPTÌC TANK
Source: Penn State College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet SW-165.
cmµlovcd. Whcn ihc scµiic ianl isn`i draining µroµcrlv, a µumµ will
licl in and µumµ ihc cíílucni inio a µilc oí sand and gravcl alovc
ground (alihough somciimcs a µumµ isn`i ncccssarv and graviiv docs
ihc iol). A µcríoraicd µiµclinc in ihc µilc oí sand allows ihc cíílucni
io drain down ihrough ihc mound. Sand mounds arc usuallv covcrcd
wiih soil and grass. In Pcnnsvlvania, sand mounds musi lc ai lcasi
onc hundrcd ícci downsloµc írom a wcll or sµring, íiíiv ícci írom a
sircam, and íivc ícci írom a µroµcriv linc.
2
According io local cxcavai-
ing coniraciors, sand mounds cosi $5,OOO io $12,OOO io consiruci in
ihc carlv 21si ccniurv. 1hcv musi lc luili io cxaci govcrnmcni sµcc-
iíicaiions, and arcn`i usallc uniil ihcv µass an oííicial insµcciion.
GROUND WA1£R POIIU1ION £ROM S£P1IC SYS1£MS
Humans siaricd disµosing oí ¨human wasic"
lv dcíccaiing inio a holc in ihc ground or an oui-
housc, ihcn discovcrcd wc could íloai our iurds
oui io ihc holc using waicr and ncvcr havc io
lcavc our shclicr. Howcvcr, onc oí ihc
uníoriunaic µrollcms wiih scµiic
svsicms is, lilc ouihouscs, ihcv
µolluic our groundwaicr.
Ai ihc cnd oí ihc 2Oih ccniurv,
ihcrc wcrc 22 million scµiic svs-
icm siics in ihc Uniicd Siaics,
scrving onc íourih io onc ihird oí
ihc U.S. µoµulaiion. 1hcv wcrc
noiorious íor lcaching coniami-
nanis such as lacicria, viruscs,
niiraics, µhosµhaics, chloridcs and organic comµounds such as
irichlorocihvlcnc inio ihc cnvironmcni. An £PA siudv oí chcmicals
in scµiic ianls íound iolucnc, mcihvlcnc chloridc, lcnzcnc, chloro-
íorm and oihcr volaiilc svnihciic organic comµounds rclaicd io homc
chcmical usc, manv oí ihcm canccr-causing.
3
Bciwccn 82O and 1,46O
|/||/·a gallons oí ihis coniaminaicd waicr wcrc dischargcd µcr vcar
inio our shallowcsi aouiícrs.
4
In ihc U.S., scµiic ianls arc rcµoricd as
a sourcc oí ground waicr coniaminaiion morc ihan anv oihcr sourcc.
£oriv-six siaics ciic scµiic svsicms as sourccs oí groundwaicr µollu-
iion: ninc oí ihcsc rcµoricd ihcm io lc ihc µrimarv sourcc oí ground-
waicr coniaminaiion in ihcir siaic.
5
1hc word ¨scµiic" comcs írom ihc Grccl ¨scµiilos" which
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 89
mcans ¨io malc µuirid." 1odav ii siill mcans ¨causing µuircíaciion,"
µuircíaciion lcing ¨ihc dccomµosiiion oí organic maiicr rcsuliing in
ihc íormaiion oí íoul-smclling µroducis." Scµiic svsicms arc noi
dcsigncd io dcsirov human µaihogcns ihai mav lc in ihc human
wasic ihai cnicrs ihc scµiic ianl. Insicad, scµiic svsicms arc dcsigncd
io collcci human wasicwaicr, sciilc oui ihc solids, and anacrolicallv
digcsi ihcm io somc cxicni, lcaching ihc cíílucni inio ihc ground.
1hcrcíorc, scµiic svsicms can lc highlv µaihogcnic, allowing ihc
iransmission oí discasc-causing lacicria, viruscs, µroiozoa and inics-
iinal µarasiics ihrough ihc svsicm.
Onc oí ihc main conccrns associaicd wiih scµiic svsicms is
ihc µrollcm oí human µoµulaiion dcnsiiv. 1oo manv scµiic svsicms
in anv givcn arca will ovcrload ihc soil`s naiural µuriíicaiion svsicms
and allow largc amounis oí wasicwaicr io coniaminaic ihc undcrlving
waicriallc. A dcnsiiv oí morc ihan íoriv houschold scµiic svsicms µcr
souarc milc will causc an arca io lccomc a lilclv iargci íor sulsuríacc
coniaminaiion, according io ihc £PA.
6
1oxic chcmicals arc commonlv rclcascd inio ihc cnvironmcni
írom scµiic svsicms lccausc µcoµlc dumµ ihcm down ihcir drains.
1hc chcmicals arc íound in µcsiicidcs, µaini, ioilci clcancrs, drain
clcancrs, disiníccianis, laundrv solvcnis, aniiírcczc, rusi µrooícrs,
scµiic ianl and ccssµool clcancrs and manv oihcr clcaning soluiions.
In íaci, ovcr 4OO,OOO gallons oí scµiic ianl clcancr liouids coniaining
svnihciic organic chcmicals wcrc uscd in onc vcar lv ihc rcsidcnis oí
Iong Island alonc. £urihcrmorc, somc ioxic chcmicals can corrodc
µiµcs, ihcrclv causing hcavv mcials io cnicr scµiic svsicms.
7
In manv cascs, µcoµlc who havc scµiic ianls arc íorccd io con-
ncci io scwagc lincs whcn ihc lincs lccomc availallc. A U.S. Suµrcmc
Couri casc in 1992 rcvicwcd a siiuaiion whcrclv iown mcmlcrs in
Ncw Hamµshirc had lccn íorccd io conncci io a scwagc linc ihai sim-
µlv dischargcd unircaicd, raw scwagc inio ihc Conncciicui Rivcr, and
had donc so íor 57 vcars. Dcsµiic ihc crudc mcihod oí scwagc disµos-
al, siaic law rcouircd µroµcriics wiihin 1OO ícci oí ihc iown scwcr svs-
icm io conncci io ii írom ihc iimc ii was luili in 1932. 1his larlaric
scwagc disµosal svsicm aµµarcnilv coniinucd io oµcraic uniil 1989,
whcn siaic and ícdcral scwagc ircaimcni laws íorccd a sioµ io ihc
dumµing oí raw scwagc inio ihc rivcr.
8
90 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
WAS1£WA1£R 1R£A1M£N1 PIAN1S
1hcrc`s siill anoihcr sicµ uµ ihc laddcr oí wasicwaicr ircai-
mcni soµhisiicaiion: ihc wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlani, or scwagc µlani.
1hc wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlani is lilc a hugc, vcrv soµhisiicaicd scµ-
iic ianl lccausc ii collccis ihc waicrlornc cxcrcmcni oí largc num-
lcrs oí humans. Incviiallv, whcn onc dcíccaics or urinaics inio waicr,
onc µolluics ihc waicr. In ordcr io avoid cnvironmcnial µolluiion,
ihai ¨wasicwaicr" musi somchow lc rcndcrcd íii io rciurn io ihc
cnvironmcni. 1hc wasicwaicr cnicring ihc ircaimcni µlani is 99%
liouid lccausc all sinl waicr, laih waicr and cvcrvihing clsc ihai gocs
down onc`s drain cnds uµ ai ihc µlani ioo, which is whv ii`s callcd a
ca/.r ircaimcni µlani. In somc cascs, siorm waicr runoíí also cnicrs
wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlanis via .·o|/a.J s.c.rs. Indusirics, hosµiials,
gas siaiions and anv µlacc wiih a drain add io ihc coniaminani llcnd
in ihc wasicwaicr sircam.
Manv modcrn wasicwaicr µlanis usc a µroccss oí aciivaicd
sludgc ircaimcni whcrclv oxvgcn is vigorouslv lulllcd ihrough ihc
wasicwaicr in ordcr io aciivaic microlial digcsiion oí ihc solids. 1his
acraiion siagc is comlincd wiih a sciiling siagc ihai allows ihc solids
io lc rcmovcd. 1hc rcmovcd solids, lnown as s|aJe., arc ciihcr uscd
io rcinoculaic ihc incoming wasicwaicr, or ihcv`rc dcwaicrcd io ihc
consisicncv oí a drv mud and luricd in landíills. Somciimcs ihc
sludgc is aµµlicd io agriculiural land, and now, somciimcs, ii`s com-
µosicd.
1hc microlcs ihai digcsi ihc sludgc consisi oí lacicria, íungi,
µroiozoa, roiiícrs and ncmaiodcs.
9
U.S. scwagc ircaimcni µlanis gcn-
craicd aloui 7.6 million drv ions oí sludgc in 1989.
1O
Ncw Yorl Ciiv
alonc µroduccs 143,81O drv ions oí sludgc cvcrv vcar.
11
In 1993, ihc
amouni oí scwagc sludgc µroduccd annuallv in ihc U.S. was 11O-15O
million wci mciric ions. 1hc waicr lcíi lchind is ircaicd, usuallv wiih
chlorinc, and dischargcd inio a sircam, rivcr or oihcr lodv oí waicr.
Scwagc ircaimcni waicr rclcascs io suríacc waicr in ihc Uniicd Siaics
in 1985 amounicd io ncarlv 3! |/||/·a ea||·as /.r Jav.
12
Incidcniallv, ihc
amouni oí ioilci µaµcr uscd in 1991 io scnd all ihis wasic io ihc scw-
crs was 2.3 million ions.
13
Wiih cach µassing vcar, as ihc human µoµ-
ulaiion incrcascs, ihcsc íigurcs go uµ.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 91
WAS1£ S1ABIIIZA1ION PONDS
Pcrhaµs onc oí ihc mosi ancicni wasicwaicr ircaimcni mcih-
ods lnown io humans arc wasic sialilizaiion µonds, also lnown as
oxidaiion µonds or lagoons. 1hcv`rc oíicn íound in small rural arcas
whcrc land is availallc and chcaµ. Such µonds icnd io lc onlv a mcicr
io a mcicr and a halí dccµ, lui varv in sizc and dcµih and can lc ihrcc
or morc mcicrs dccµ.
14
1hcv uiilizc naiural µroccsscs io ¨ircai" wasic
maicrials, rclving on algac, lacicria and zooµlanlion io rcducc ihc
organic conicni oí ihc wasicwaicr. A ¨hcalihv" lagoon will aµµcar
grccn in color lccausc oí ihc dcnsc algac µoµulaiion. 1hcsc lagoons
rcouirc aloui onc acrc íor cvcrv 2OO µcoµlc scrvcd. Mcchanicallv acr-
aicd lagoons onlv nccd 1/3 io 1/1O ihc land ihai unacraicd sialiliza-
iion µonds rcouirc. Ii`s a good idca io havc scvcral smallcr lagoons in
scrics raihcr ihan onc lig onc: normallv, a minimum oí ihrcc ¨cclls"
arc uscd. Sludgc collccis in ihc loiiom oí ihc lagoons, and mav havc
io lc rcmovcd cvcrv íivc or icn vcars and disµoscd oí in an aµµrovcd
manncr.
15
CHIORIN£
Wasicwaicr lcaving ircaimcni µlanis is oíicn ircaicd wiih
chlorinc lcíorc lcing rclcascd inio ihc cnvironmcni. 1hcrcíorc,
lcsidcs coniaminaiing waicr rcsourccs wiih ícccs, ihc aci oí dcíccai-
ing inio waicr oíicn uliimaiclv coniriluics io ihc coniaminaiion oí
waicr rcsourccs wiih ./|·r/a..
Uscd sincc ihc carlv 19OOs, chlorinc is onc oí ihc mosi widclv
µroduccd indusirial chcmicals. Morc ihan 1O million mciric ions arc
manuíaciurcd in ihc U.S. cach vcar $72 lillion worih.
16
Annuallv,
aµµroximaiclv 5%, or 1.2 lillion µounds oí ihc chlorinc manuíac-
iurcd is uscd íor wasicwaicr ircaimcni and drinling waicr ¨µuriíica-
iion." 1hc lcihal liouid or grccn gas is mixcd wiih ihc wasicwaicr
írom scwagc ircaimcni µlanis in ordcr io lill discasc-causing
microorganisms lcíorc ihc waicr is dischargcd inio sircams, lalcs,
rivcrs and scas. Ii is also addcd io houschold drinling waicr via
houschold and municiµal waicr ircaimcni svsicms. Chlorinc lills
microorganisms lv damaging ihcir ccll mcmlrancs, which lcads io a
lcalagc oí ihcir µroicins, RNA, and DNA.
17
Chlorinc (Cl2) docsn`i cxisi in naiurc. Ii`s a µoicni µoison
which rcacis wiih waicr io µroducc a sironglv oxidizing soluiion ihai
can damagc ihc moisi iissuc lining oí ihc human rcsµiraiorv iraci.
92 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 93
1cn io iwcniv µaris µcr million (µµm) oí chlorinc gas in air raµidlv
irriiaics ihc rcsµiraiorv iraci: cvcn lricí cxµosurc ai lcvcls oí 1,OOO
µµm (onc µari in a ihousand) can lc íaial.
18
Chlorinc also lills íish,
and rcµoris oí íish lills causcd chlorinc io comc undcr ihc scruiinv oí
scicniisis in ihc 197Os.
1hc íaci ihai harmíul comµounds arc íormcd as |v-/r·Ja./s oí
chlorinc usc also raiscs conccrn. In 1976, ihc U.S. £nvironmcnial
Proicciion Agcncv rcµoricd ihai chlorinc usc noi onlv µoisoncd íish,
lui could also causc ihc íormaiion oí canccr-causing comµounds
such as chloroíorm. Somc lnown cííccis oí chlorinc-lascd µolluianis
on animal liíc includc mcmorv µrollcms, siunicd growih and canccr
in humans: rcµroduciivc µrollcms in minls and oiicrs: rcµroduciivc
µrollcms, haiching µrollcms and dcaih in lalc iroui: and cmlrvo
alnormaliiics and dcaih in snaµµing iurilcs.
19
In a naiional siudv oí 6,4OO municiµal wasicwaicr ircaimcni
µlanis, ihc £PA csiimaicd ihai iwo ihirds oí ihcm uscd ioo much
chlorinc, cxcriing lcihal cííccis ai all lcvcls oí ihc aouaiic íood chain.
Chlorinc damagcs ihc gills oí íish, inhiliiing ihcir aliliiv io alsorl
oxvgcn. Ii also can causc lchavioral changcs in íish, ihcrclv aíícciing
migraiion and rcµroduciion. Chlorinc in sircams can crcaic chcmical
¨dams" which µrcvcni ihc írcc movcmcni oí somc migraiorv íish.
£oriunaiclv, sincc 1984, ihcrc has lccn a 98% rcduciion in ihc usc oí
chlorinc lv scwagc ircaimcni µlanis, alihough chlorinc usc coniinucs
io lc a widcsµrcad µrollcm lccausc a loi oí wasicwaicr µlanis arc siill
discharging ii inio small rccciving waicrs.
2O
Anoihcr conirovcrsv associaicd wiih chlorinc usc involvcs
¨dioxin," which is a common icrm íor a largc numlcr oí chlorinaicd
chcmicals ihai arc classiíicd as µossillc human carcinogcns lv ihc
£PA. Ii`s lnown ihai dioxins causc canccr in laloraiorv animals, lui
ihcir cííccis on humans arc siill lcing dclaicd. Dioxins, lv-µroducis
oí ihc chcmical manuíaciuring indusirv, arc conccniraicd uµ ihrough
ihc íood chain whcrc ihcv`rc dcµosiicd in human íai iissucs. A lcv
ingrcdicni in ihc íormaiion oí dioxin is chlorinc, and indicaiions arc
ihai an incrcasc in ihc usc oí chlorinc rcsulis in a corrcsµonding
incrcasc in ihc dioxin conicni oí ihc cnvironmcni, cvcn in arcas
whcrc ihc onlv dioxin sourcc is ihc aimosµhcrc.
21
In ihc uµµcr aimosµhcrc, chlorinc molcculcs írom air µollu-
iion golllc uµ ozonc: in ihc lowcr aimosµhcrc, ihcv lond wiih carlon
io íorm organochlorincs. Somc oí ihc 11,OOO commcrciallv uscd
organochlorincs includc hazardous comµounds such as DD1, PCBs,
chloroíorm and carlon icirachloridc. Organochlorincs rarclv occur in
94 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
naiurc, and living ihings havc liiilc dcícnsc againsi ihcm. 1hcv`vc
lccn linlcd noi onlv io canccr, lui also io ncurological damagc,
immunc suµµrcssion and rcµroduciivc and dcvcloµmcnial cííccis.
Whcn chlorinc µroducis arc washcd down ihc drain inio a scµiic
ianl, ihcv`rc µroducing organochlorincs. Alihough comµosi microor-
ganisms can dcgradc and malc harmlcss manv ioxic chcmicals, high-
lv chlorinaicd comµounds arc disiurlinglv rcsisiani io such liodcgra-
daiion.
22
'Aav as. ·/ ./|·r/a. r.sa|/s /a .·o/·aaJs //a/ .aas. a c/J. raae.
·/ a/|o.a/s,¨ savs Ioc 1horion, a Grccnµcacc rcscarchcr, who adds,
'(/|·r/a. /s s/o/|v a·/ .·o/a//||. c/// |//.. (a.. v·a .r.a/. //, v·a .aa´/
.·a/r·| //.¨
23
1hcrc`s no douli ihai our naiion`s scwagc ircaimcni svsicms
arc µolluiing our drinling waicr sourccs wiih µaihogcns. As a rcsuli,
chlorinc is also lcing uscd io disinícci //. ca/.r c. Jr/a| as wcll as io
disinícci dischargcs írom wasicwaicr ircaimcni íaciliiics. Ii is csii-
maicd ihai 79% oí ihc U.S. µoµulaiion is cxµoscd io chlorinc.
24
According io a 1992 siudv, ./|·r/a. /s aJJ.J /· ¯5% ·/ //. aa//·a´s Jr/a|-
/ae ca/.r and is linlcd io canccr. 1hc rcsulis oí ihc siudv suggcsicd
ihai ai lcasi 4,2OO cascs oí lladdcr canccr and 6,5OO cascs oí rccial
canccr cach vcar in ihc U.S. arc associaicd wiih consumµiion oí chlo-
rinaicd drinling waicr.
25
1his associaiion is sirongcsi in µcoµlc who
havc lccn drinling chlorinaicd waicr íor morc ihan íiíiccn vcars.
26
1hc U.S. Pullic Hcalih Scrvicc rcµoricd ihai µrcgnani
womcn who rouiinclv drinl or laihc in chlorinaicd iaµ waicr arc ai a
grcaicr risl oí lcaring µrcmaiurc or small lalics, or lalics wiih con-
gcniial dcíccis.
27
According io a sµolcsµcrson íor ihc chlorinc indusirv, 87% oí
waicr svsicms in ihc U.S. usc írcc chlorincs: 11% usc chloramincs.
Chloramincs arc a comlinaiion oí chlorinc and ammonia. 1hc chlo-
raminc ircaimcni is lccoming morc widcsµrcad duc io ihc hcalih
conccrns ovcr chlorinc.
28
Howcvcr, £PA scicniisis admii ihai wc`rc
µrciiv ignorani aloui ihc µoicniial lv-µroducis oí ihc chloraminc
µroccss, which involvcs ozonaiion oí ihc waicr µrior io ihc addiiion
oí chloraminc.
29
According io a U.S. Gcncral Accouniing Oííicc rcµori in 1992,
consumcrs arc µoorlv iníormcd aloui µoicniiallv scrious violaiions oí
drinling waicr siandards. In a rcvicw oí iwcniv waicr svsicms in six
siaics, oui oí 157 drinling waicr oualiiv violaiions, ihc µullic
rcccivcd a iimclv noiicc in onlv 17 oí ihc cascs.
3O
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Jav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 95
AI1£RNA1IV£ WAS1£WA1£R 1R£A1M£N1 SYS1£MS
Ncw svsicms arc lcing dcvcloµcd io µuriív wasicwaicr. Onc
µoµular cxµcrimcnial svsicm iodav is ihc .·as/ra./.J, or ar////./a| c./-
|aaJs svs/.o, which divcris wasicwaicr ihrough an aouaiic cnviron-
mcni consisiing oí aouaiic µlanis such as waicr hvacinihs, lullrush-
cs, duclwccd, lilics and caiiails. 1hc µlanis aci as marsh íilicrs, and
ihc microlcs which ihrivc on ihcir roois lrcal down niirogcn and
µhosµhorous comµounds, as wcll as ioxic chcmicals. Alihough ihcv
don`i lrcal down hcavv mcials, ihc µlanis alsorl ihcm and ihcv can
ihcn lc harvcsicd íor incincraiion or landíillcd.
31
According io £PA oííicials, ihc cmcrgcncc oí consirucicd wci-
lands icchnologv shows grcai µoicniial as a cosi-cíícciivc alicrnaiivc
io wasicwaicr ircaimcni. 1hc wcilands mcihod is said io lc rclaiivc-
lv aííordallc, cncrgv-cííicicni, µraciical and cíícciivc. 1hc ircaimcni
cííicicncv oí µroµcrlv consirucicd wcilands is said io comµarc wcll
wiih convcniional ircaimcni svsicms.
32
Uníoriunaiclv, wcilands svs-
icms don`i rccovcr ihc agriculiural rcsourccs availallc in humanurc.
Anoihcr svsicm uscs solar-µowcrcd, grccnhousc-lilc icchnol-
ogv io ircai wasicwaicr. 1his svsicm uscs hundrcds oí sµccics oí lac-
icria, íungi, µroiozoa, snails, µlanis and íish, among oihcr ihings, io
µroducc advanccd lcvcls oí wasicwaicr ircaimcni. 1hcsc Solar
Aouaiics svsicms arc also cxµcrimcnial, lui aµµcar hoµcíul.
33
Again,
ihc agriculiural rcsourccs oí humanurc arc losi whcn using anv dis-
µosal mcihod or wasicwaicr ircaimcni icchniouc insicad oí a huma-
nurc rccvcling mcihod.
Whcn a houschold humanurc rccvcling mcihod /s uscd, how-
cvcr, and scwagc is a·/ lcing µroduccd, mosi houscholds will siill lc
µroducing gravwaicr. Gravwaicr is ihc waicr ihai is uscd íor washing,
laihing, and laundrv, and ii musi lc dcali wiih in a rcsµonsillc man-
ncr lcíorc draining inio ihc cnvironmcni. Mosi houscholds µroducc
96 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
scwagc (llaclwaicr). Houscholds which comµosi ihcir humanurc
mav µroducc no scwagc ai all ihcsc houscholds arc µrimc candi-
daics íor a|/.raa//c. gravwaicr svsicms. Such svsicms arc discusscd in
Chaµicr 9.
AGRICUI1URAI US£ O£ S£WAG£ SIUDG£
Now hcrc`s whcrc a ihoughiíul µcrson mav asl, ¨Whv noi µui
scwagc s|aJe. lacl inio ihc soil íor agriculiural µurµoscs?"
Onc rcason: govcrnmcni rcgulaiion. Whcn I aslcd ihc suµcr-
visor oí mv local wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlani ií ihc onc million gal-
lons oí sludgc ihc µlani µroduccs cach vcar, írom a µoµulaiion oí
8,OOO µcoµlc, was lcing aµµlicd io agriculiural land, hc said, 'l/ /a|.s
s/x o·a//s aaJ //c. //·asaaJ J·||ars /· e./ a /.ro// /·r a |aaJ a//|/.a//·a.
Aa·//.r /r·||.o /s //a/ Ja. /· r.ea|a//·as, //. s|aJe. .aa´/ |/. ·a //. sar-
/a.. a//.r //´s a//|/.J, s· // /as /· |. /|·c.J aaJ.r s/·r/|v a//.r a//|/.a//·a.
\/.a /aro.rs e./ //. r/e// .·aJ///·as /· /|·c //./r //.|Js, //.v /|·c //.o.
T/.v .aa´/ ca// ar·aaJ /·r as, aaJ c. .aa´/ /ac. s|aJe. r.aJv /· e· a/
/|·c/ae //o..¨ Ii mav lc iusi as wcll.
Prollcms associaicd wiih ihc agriculiural usc oí scwagc
sludgc includc groundwaicr, soil and croµ coniaminaiion wiih
µaihogcns, hcavv mcials, niiraics, and ioxic and carcinogcnic organ-
ic comµounds.
34
Scwagc sludgc is a loi morc ihan organic agriculiur-
al maicrial. Ii can coniain DD1, PCBs, mcrcurv and oihcr hcavv mci-
als.
35
Onc scicniisi allcgcs ihai morc ihan 2O million gallons oí uscd
moior oil arc dumµcd inio scwcrs cvcrv vcar in ihc Uniicd Siaics.
36
Amcrica`s largcsi indusirial íaciliiics rclcascd ovcr 55O mil-
lion µounds oí ioxic µolluianis inio U.S. scwcrs in 1989 alonc, accord-
ing io ihc U.S. Pullic Inicrcsi Rcscarch Grouµ. Bciwccn 199O and
1994, an addiiional 45O million µounds oí ioxic chcmicals wcrc
dumµcd inio scwagc ircaimcni svsicms, alihough ihc aciual lcvcls oí
ioxic dischargcs arc said io lc much highcr ihan ihcsc.
37
Oí ihc ioµ icn siaics rcsµonsillc íor ioxic dischargcs io µul-
lic scwcrs in 1991, Michigan iool íirsi µrizc wiih ncarlv 8O million
µounds, íollowcd in ordcr lv Ncw Icrscv, Illinois, Caliíornia, 1cxas,
Virginia, Ohio, 1cnncsscc, Wisconsin and Pcnnsvlvania (around 2O
million µounds írom PA).
38
An inicrcsiing siudv on ihc agriculiural usc oí sludgc was
donc lv a Mr. Purvcs in Scoiland. Hc lcgan aµµlving scwagc sludgc
ai ihc raic oí 6O ions µcr acrc io a µloi oí land in 1971. Aíicr íiíiccn
vcars oí ircaiing ihc soil wiih ihc sludgc, hc icsicd ihc vcgciaiion
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 97
grown on ihc µloi íor hcavv
mcials. On íinding ihai ihc
hcavv mcials (lcad, coµµcr,
niclcl, zinc and cadmium)
had lccn ialcn uµ lv ihc
µlanis, hc concludcd,
'(·a/ao/aa//·a ·/ s·/|s c/// a
c/J. raae. ·/ /·/.a//a||v /·x/.
o./a|s /·||·c/ae a//|/.a//·a ·/
s.cae. s|aJe. /s //.r./·r. c/r/a-
a||v /rr.c.rs/||..¨
39
In oihcr
words, ihc hcavv mcials don`i
wash oui oí ihc soil, ihcv cnicr
ihc íood chain, and mav con-
iaminaic noi onlv croµs, lui
also grazing animals.
4O
Oihcr siudics havc
shown ihai hcavv mcials accu-
mulaic in ihc vcgciallc iissuc
oí ihc µlani io a much grcaicr
cxicni ihan in ihc íruiis, roois,
or iulcrs. 1hcrcíorc, ií onc
musi grow íood croµs on soil
ícriilizcd wiih scwagc sludgc
coniaminaicd wiih hcavv mci-
als, onc mighi lc wisc io µro-
ducc carrois or µoiaiocs
insicad oí lciiucc.
41
Guinca µigs cxµcrimcniallv ícd wiih swiss chard
grown on soil ícriilizcd wiih scwagc sludgc showcd no olscrvallc iox-
icological cííccis. Howcvcr, ihcir adrcnals showcd clcvaicd lcvcls oí
aniimonv, ihcir lidncvs had clcvaicd lcvcls oí cadmium, ihcrc was
clcvaicd mangancsc in ihc livcr and clcvaicd iin in scvcral oihcr iis-
sucs.
42
£siimaicd io coniain 1O lillion microorganisms µcr gram,
sludgc mav coniain manv human µaihogcns.
43
¨T/. /a./ //a/ s.cae.
s|aJe. .·a/a/as a |are. /·/a|a//·a ·/ /..a| .·|//·ros r.aJ.rs // sas/../ as a
/·/.a//a| c../·r ·/ |a./.r/a| /a//·e.as aaJ a /·ss/||. .·a/ao/aaa/ ·/ s·/|,
ca/.r aaJ a/r, a·/ /· o.a//·a .r·/s. Nao.r·as /ac.s//ea//·as /a J///.r.a/
/ar/s ·/ //. c·r|J /ac. .·a//ro.J //. /r.s.a.. ·/ /a/.s//aa| /a//·e.a/. |a.-
/.r/a aaJ aa/oa| /aras//.s /a s.cae., s|aJe., aaJ /..a| oa/.r/a|s.¨
44
Bccausc oí ihcir sizc and dcnsiiv, µarasiiic worm cggs sciilc
98 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
BRAND NAMES OF SEWAGE SLUDGE
FERTILIZERS ONCE MARKETED
SOURCE CÌTY NAME*
Akron, OH . . . . . . . . .Akra-Soilite
Battle Creek, MÌ . . . .Battle Creek Plant Food
Boise, ÌD . . . . . . . . . .B.Ì. Organic
Charlotte, NC . . . . . .Humite & Turfood
Chicago, ÌL . . . . . . . .Chicagro & Nitroganic
Clearwater, FL . . . . . .Clear-O-Sludge
Fond du Lac, WÌ . . . .Fond du Green
Grand Rapids, MÌ . . .Rapidgro
Houston, TX . . . . . . .Hu-Actinite
Ìndianapolis, ÌN . . . . .Ìndas
Madison, WÌ . . . . . . .Nitrohumus
Massillon, OH . . . . . .Greengro
Milwaukee, WÌ . . . . . .Milorganite
Oshkosh, WÌ . . . . . . .Oshkonite
Pasadena, CA . . . . . .Nitroganic
Racine, WÌ . . . . . . . . .Ramos
Rockford, ÌL . . . . . . . .Nu-Vim
San Diego, CA . . . . .Nitro Gano
San Diego, CA . . . . .San-Diegonite
S. California . . . . . . . .Sludgeon
Schenectady, NY . . . .Orgro & Gro-hume
Toledo, OH . . . . . . . .Tol-e-gro
*Names are registered brand names.
Sources: Rodale, J. Ì. et al. (Eds.). (1960). The Complete Book
of Composting. Rodale Books Ìnc.: Emmaus, PA. pp. 789, 790.
and Collins, Gilbeart H., (1955). Commercial Fertilizers - Their
Sources and Use, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York
Table 5.1
inio and conccniraic in scwagc sludgc ai wasicwaicr ircaimcni íacili-
iics. Onc siudv indicaicd ihai roundworm cggs could lc rccovcrcd
írom sludgc ai all siagcs oí ihc wasicwaicr ircaimcni µroccss, and ihai
iwo-ihirds oí ihc samµlcs cxamincd had viallc cggs.
45
Agriculiural
usc oí ihc sludgc can ihcrcíorc inícci soil wiih 6,OOO-12,OOO viallc
µarasiiic worm cggs µcr souarc mcicr, µcr vcar. 1hcsc cggs can µcr-
sisi in somc soils íor íivc vcars or morc.
46
£urihcrmorc, Sa|o·a.||a.
lacicria in scwagc sludgc can rcmain viallc on grassland íor scvcral
wccls, ihcrclv maling ii ncccssarv io rcsirici grazing on µasiurcland
aíicr a sludgc aµµlicaiion. Bccí iaµcworm (Ta.a/a sae/aa/a), which
uscs caiilc as iis inicrmcdiaic hosi and humans as iis íinal hosi, can
also inícci caiilc ihai grazc on µasiurcland ícriilizcd wiih sludgc. 1hc
iaµcworm cggs can survivc on sludgcd µasiurc íor a íull vcar.
47
Anoihcr inicrcsiing siudv µullishcd in 1989 indicaicd ihai
lacicria surviving in scwagc sludgc show a high lcvcl oí rcsisiancc io
aniilioiics, csµcciallv µcnicillin. Bccausc hcavv mcials arc conccn-
iraicd in sludgc during ihc ircaimcni µroccss, ihc lacicria ihai sur-
vivc in ihc sludgc can olviouslv rcsisi hcavv mcial µoisoning. 1hcsc
samc lacicria also show an incxµlicallc rcsisiancc io aniilioiics, sug-
gcsiing ihai somchow ihc rcsisiancc oí ihc iwo cnvironmcnial íaciors
arc rclaicd in ihc lacicrial sirains ihai survivc. 1hc imµlicaiion is
ihai scwagc sludgc sclcciivclv lrccds aniilioiic-rcsisiani lacicria,
which mav cnicr ihc íood chain ií ihc agriculiural usc oí ihc sludgc
lccomcs widcsµrcad. 1hc rcsulis oí ihc siudv indicaicd ihai morc
lnowlcdgc oí aniilioiic-rcsisiani lacicria in scwagc sludgc should lc
acouircd lcíorc sludgc is disµoscd oí on land.
48
1his µoscs somcwhai oí a µrollcm. Collcciing human cxcrc-
mcni wiih wasicwaicr and indusirial µolluianis sccms io rcndcr ihc
organic rcíusc incaµallc oí lcing adcouaiclv saniiizcd. Ii lccomcs
coniaminaicd cnough io lc uníii íor agriculiural µurµoscs. As a con-
scoucncc, scwagc sludgc is noi highlv soughi aíicr as a soil addiiivc.
£or cxamµlc, ihc siaic oí 1cxas sucd ihc U.S. £PA in Iulv oí 1992 íor
íailing io siudv cnvironmcnial risls lcíorc aµµroving ihc sµrcading
oí scwagc sludgc in wcsi 1cxas. Sludgc was lcing sµrcad on 128,OOO
acrcs ihcrc lv an Ollahoma íirm, lui ihc iudgc ncvcrihclcss rcíuscd
io issuc an iniunciion io sioµ ihc sµrcading.
49
Now ihai occan dumµing oí sludgc has lccn sioµµcd, whcrc`s
ii going io go? Rcscarchcrs ai Corncll Univcrsiiv havc suggcsicd ihai
scwagc sludgc can lc disµoscd oí lv suríacc aµµlicaiions in íorcsis.
1hcir siudics suggcsi ihai lricí and inicrmiiicni aµµlicaiions oí
sludgc io íorcsilands won`i advcrsclv aíícci wildliíc, dcsµiic ihc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 99
niiraics and hcavv mcials ihai arc µrcscni in ihc sludgc. 1hcv µoini
oui ihai ihc nccd io íind wavs io gci rid oí sludgc is comµoundcd lv
ihc íaci ihai manv landíills arc cxµccicd io closc and occan dumµing
is now lanncd.
Undcr ihc Corncll modcl, onc drv ion oí sludgc could lc
aµµlicd io an acrc oí íorcsi cach vcar.
5O
Ncw Yorl siaic alonc µroduccs
37O,OOO ions oí drv sludgc µcr vcar, which would rcouirc 37O,OOO
acrcs oí íorcsi cach vcar íor sludgc disµosal. Considcr ihc íaci ihai
íoriv-ninc oihcr siaics µroducc 7.6 million drv ions oí sludgc. 1hcn
ihcrc`s íiguring oui how io gci ihc sludgc inio ihc íorcsis and how io
sµrcad ii around. Wiih all ihis in mind, a guv has io sioµ and wondcr
ihc woods uscd io lc ihc onlv µlacc lcíi io gci awav írom ii all!
1hc µrollcm oí ircaiing and dumµing sludgc isn`i ihc onlv
onc. 1hc cosis oí mainicnancc and uµlccµ oí wasicwaicr ircaimcni
µlanis is anoihcr. According io a rcµori issucd lv ihc £PA in 1992,
U.S. ciiics and iowns nccd as much as $11O.6 lillion ovcr ihc ncxi
iwcniv vcars íor cnlarging, uµgrading, and consiruciing wasicwaicr
ircaimcni íaciliiics.
51
Ironicallv, whcn sludgc is .·o/·s/.J, ii mav hclµ io lccµ hcavv
mcials ·a/ oí ihc íood chain. According io a 1992 rcµori, comµosicd
sludgc lowcrcd ihc uµialc oí lcad in lciiucc ihai had lccn dclilcraic-
lv µlanicd in lcad-coniaminaicd soil. 1hc lciiucc grown in ihc con-
iaminaicd soil which was amcndcd wiih comµosicd sludgc had a 64%
lowcr uµialc oí lcad ihan lciiucc µlanicd in ihc samc soil lui wiihoui
ihc comµosi. 1hc comµosicd soil also lowcrcd lcad uµialc in sµinach,
lccis and carrois lv morc ihan 5O%.
52
Somc scicniisis claim ihai ihc comµosiing µroccss iransíorms
hcavv mcials inio lcnign maicrials. Onc such scicniisi who dcsigns
íaciliiics ihai comµosi scwagc sludgc siaics, 'A/ //. //aa| /r·Ja./ s/ae.,
//.s. //.acvj o./a|s a./aa||v |..·o. |.a.//./a| o/.r·-aa/r/.a/s aaJ /ra..
o/a.ra|s //a/ aJJ /· //. /r·Ja.//c//v ·/ s·/|. T//s /r/a.//|. /s a·c //aJ/ae
a...//aa.. /a //. s./.a////. .·ooaa//v ·/ //. U.S.A. aaJ /s |a·ca as |/·-
|·e/.a| /raasoa/a//·a, ·r a|s· |a·ca as //. K.rcraa-F//../.¨ Oihcr scicn-
iisis scoíí ai such a noiion.
Comµosicd scwagc sludgc ihai is microliologicallv aciivc can
also lc uscd io dcioxiív arcas coniaminaicd wiih nuclcar radiaiion or
oil sµills, according io rcscarchcrs. Clcarlv, ihc comµosiing oí scwagc
sludgc is a grosslv undcruiilizcd alicrnaiivc io landíill aµµlicaiion,
and ii should lc sironglv µromoicd.
53
Oihcr scicniisis havc shown ihai hcavv mcials in coniaminai-
cd comµosi arc a·/ liologicallv iransmuicd, lui arc aciuallv .·a..a-
100 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
/ra/.J in ihc íinishcd comµosi. 1his is mosi lilclv duc io ihc íaci ihai
ihc comµosi mass shrinls considcrallv during ihc comµosiing
µroccss, showing rcduciions oí 7O%, whilc ihc amouni oí mcials
rcmains ihc samc. Somc rcscarchcrs havc shown a dccrcasc in ihc
conccniraiions oí s·o. hcavv mcials and an incrcasc in ihc conccnira-
iions oí oihcrs, íor rcasons ihai arc unclcar. Oihcrs show a considcr-
allc dccrcasc in ihc conccniraiions oí hcavv mcials lciwccn ihc
sludgc and ihc íinishcd comµosi. Rcsulis írom various rcscarchcrs
'ar. e/c/ae a .·a/as/ae /J.a a|·a/ //. |./ac/·r ·/ /.acv o./a|s Jar/ae .·o-
/·s//ae. N· .·oo·a /a//.ra ·/ |./ac/·r .aa |. Jraca |./c..a s/o/|ar
oa/.r/a|s aaJ //. sao. o./a|s . . .¨
54
Howcvcr, mcials conccniraiions in
íinishcd comµosi sccm io lc low cnough ihai ihcv arc noi considcrcd
io lc a µrollcm largclv lccausc mcial-coniaminaicd sludgc is grcailv
diluicd lv oihcr clcan organic maicrials whcn comµosicd.
55
GIOBAI S£W£RS AND P£1 1URDS
Ici`s assumc ihai ihc wholc world adoµicd ihc scwagc µhilos-
oµhv wc havc in ihc Uniicd Siaics: dcíccaic inio waicr and ihcn ircai
ihc µolluicd waicr. Whai would ihai sccnario lc lilc? Wcll, íor onc
ihing ii wouldn`i worl. Ii ialcs lciwccn 1,OOO and 2,OOO ions oí waicr
ai various siagcs in ihc µroccss io ílush onc ion oí humanurc. In a
world oí iusi six lillion µcoµlc µroducing a conscrvaiivc csiimaic oí
1.2 million mciric ions oí human cxcrcmcni dailv, ihc amouni oí
waicr rcouircd io ílush ii all would noi lc oliainallc.
56
Considcring
ihc incrcasing landíill sµacc ihai would lc nccdcd io disµosc oí ihc
incrcasing amounis oí scwagc sludgc, and ihc ions oí ioxic chcmicals
rcouircd io ¨sicrilizc" ihc wasicwaicr, onc can rcalizc ihai ihis svsicm
oí human wasic disµosal is íar írom susiainallc and cannoi scrvc ihc
nccds oí humaniiv in ihc long icrm.
According io Barlara Ward, Prcsidcni oí ihc Inicrnaiional
Insiiiuic íor £nvironmcni and Dcvcloµmcni, '(·ac.a//·aa| '\.s/.ra´
o.//·Js ·/ ca/.r|·ra. s.c.rae. ar. s/o/|v |.v·aJ //. r.a./ ·/ o·s/ /·/ //.
c·r|J´sj .·ooaa///.s.T/.v ar. /ar /·· .x/.as/c.. AaJ //.v ·//.a J.oaaJ a
|.c.| ·/ ca/.r as. //a/ |·.a| ca/.r r.s·ar..s .aaa·/ sa//|v. l/ \.s/.ra s/aa-
JarJs c.r. oaJ. //. a·ro, s·o. $200 |/||/·a a|·a. /.ar|v !980sj c·a|J
/ac. /· |. /ac.s/.J /a s.c.rae. /· a.//.c. //. /are./ ·/ |as/. saa//a//·a /·r
a||. R.s·ar..s ·a ///s s.a|. ar. s/o/|v a·/ /a s/e//.¨
1o ouoic Iaiicc £ahm, 'la /·Jav´s c·r|J /!980j, s·o. 1.5 |/||/·a
/.·/|. /r·Ja.. .x.r./a| oa//.rs a/ a|·a/ 5.5 o/||/·a o./r/. /·as .c.rv /c.a-
/v-/·ar /·ars, .|·s. /· /c· |/||/·a o./r/. /·as /.r v.ar. /Haoaa//vj a·c
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ 101
·..a//.s a //o./er·c// J/o.as/·a /a c//./ //. c·r|J /·/a|a//·a J·a||.s /a
///r/v //c. v.ars ·r |.ss. la ///s a.c aa/c.rs., //.r. /s ·a|v ·a. c/a||. aaJ
..·|·e/.a||v .·as/s/.a/ s·|a//·a /· //. |·Jv cas/. /r·||.os //. /r·..ss/ae
aaJ a//|/.a//·a ·/ //aoaaar.j /·r //s aer·aa/r/.a/ .·a/.a/.¨
57
1his scnii-
mcni is cchocd lv World Banl rcscarchcrs, who siaic, '/lj/ .aa |. .s//-
oa/.J //a/ //. |a.||·e ·/ ·c.r ·a. |/||/·a /.·/|. a·/ a·c /r·c/J.J c///
ca/.r ·r saa//a//·a s.rc/.. c/|| er·c, a·/ J..r.as.. l/ /as a|s· |..a .s//oa/-
.J //a/ o·s/ J.c.|·//ae ..·a·o/.s c/|| |. aaa||. /· //aaa.. ca/.r .arr/ae.
cas/. J/s/·sa| svs/.os .c.a // |·aa /aaJs c.r. aca/|a||..¨
58
In oihcr words, wc havc io undcrsiand ihai humanurc is a
naiural sulsiancc, µroduccd lv a µroccss viial io liíc (human digcs-
iion), originaiing írom ihc carih in ihc íorm oí íood, and valuallc as
an organic rcíusc maicrial ihai can lc rciurncd io ihc carih in ordcr
io µroducc morc íood íor humans. 1hai`s whcrc comµosiing comcs in.
Bui hcv, waii, lci`s noi rush io iudgcmcni. Wc íorgoi aloui
incincraiing our cxcrcmcnis. Wc can drv our iurds oui, ihcn irucl
ihcm io lig incincraiors and lurn ihc hcll oui oí ihcm. 1hai wav,
insicad oí having íccal µolluiion in our drinling waicr or íorcsis, wc
can lrcaihc ii in our air. Uníoriunaiclv, lurning sludgc wiih oihcr
municiµal wasic µroduccs cmissions oí µariiculaic maiicr, sulíur
dioxidc, niirogcn oxidcs, carlon monoxidc, lcad, volaiilc hvdrocar-
lons, acid gascs, iracc organic comµounds and iracc mcials. 1hc lcíi-
ovcr as/ has a high conccniraiion oí hcavv mcials, such as cadmium
and lcad.
59
Docsn`i sound so good ií vou livc downwind, docs ii?
How aloui microwaving ii? Don`i laugh, somconc`s alrcadv
invcnicd ihc microwavc ioilci.
6O
1his iusi mighi lc a good curc íor
hcmorrhoids, ioo. Bui hccl, lci`s gci scrious and shooi ii inio ouicr
sµacc. Whv noi? Ii µrolallv wouldn`i cosi ioo much µcr iurd aíicr
wc`vc dricd ihc siuíí oui. 1his could add a ncw mcaning io ihc µhrasc
¨ihc Caµiain`s log." Bcam uµ anoihcr onc, Scoiiv!
Bciicr vci, wc can drv our iurds oui, chlorinaic ihcm, gci
somconc in 1aiwan io malc liiilc µlasiic sunglasscs íor ihcm, ihcn
wc`ll scll ihcm as Pci 1urds! Now ihai`s an cnircµrcncurial soluiion,
isn`i ii? Anv voluniccr invcsiors oui ihcrc?
102 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 5. A Dav in |/: Li/: c/ a TarJ
COMPOS1ING 1OII£1S AND SYS1£MS
1
cchnicallv, a ¨comµosiing ioilci" is a ioilci in which
comµosiing ialcs µlacc. Usuallv, ihc comµosiing
chamlcr is locaicd undcr ihc ioilci. Oihcr ioilcis
arc simµlv collcciion dcviccs in which humanurc is
dcµosiicd, ihcn rcmovcd io a scµaraic comµosiing locaiion awav írom
ihc ioilci arca. 1hcsc ioilcis arc comµoncnis oí ¨comµosiing ioilci
svsicms," raihcr ihan comµosiing ioilcis, /.r s.. 1hcv can also lc
callcd ¨comµosi ioilcis."
Humanurc comµosiing ioilcis and svsicms can gcncrallv lc
dividcd inio iwo caicgorics lascd on ihc comµosiing icmµcraiurcs
ihcv gcncraic. Somc ioilci svsicms µroducc ihcrmoµhilic (hoi) com-
µosi: oihcrs µroducc low-icmµcraiurc comµosi. Mosi commcrcial and
homcmadc comµosiing ioilcis arc low-icmµcraiurc comµosiing ioi-
lcis, somciimcs callcd ¨mouldcring ioilcis."
1hc mosi lasic wav io comµosi humanurc is simµlv io collcci
ii in a ioilci rcccµiaclc and add ii io a comµosi µilc. 1hc ioilci acis
onlv as a collcciion dcvicc, whilc ihc comµosiing ialcs µlacc ai a scµ-
araic locaiion. Such a ioilci rcouircs liiilc, ií anv, cxµcnsc and can lc
consirucicd and oµcraicd lv µcoµlc oí simµlc mcans in a widc rangc
oí culiurcs around ihc world. Ii is casv io crcaic ihcrmoµhilic (hoi)
comµosi wiih such a collcciion ioilci. 1his ivµc oí ioilci is discusscd
in dciail in Chaµicr 8, ¨1hc 1ao oí Comµosi."
1hc ioilcis oí ihc íuiurc will also lc collcciion dcviccs raihcr
ihan wasic disµosal dcviccs. 1hc collccicd organic maicrial will lc
haulcd awav írom homcs, lilc municiµal garlagc is iodav, and com-
µosicd undcr ihc rcsµonsililiiv oí municiµal auihoriiics, µcrhaµs
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 103
undcr coniraci wiih µrivaic sccior comµosiing íaciliiics. Currcnilv,
oihcr rccvclallc maicrials such as loiilcs and cans arc collccicd írom
homcs lv municiµaliiics: in somc arcas organic íood maicrials arc
also collccicd and comµosicd ai ccniralizcd comµosiing íaciliiics.
1hc dav will comc whcn ihc collccicd organic maicrials will includc
ioilci maicrials.
In ihc mcaniimc, homcowncrs who wani io malc comµosi
raihcr ihan scwagc musi do so indcµcndcnilv lv ciihcr consiruciing
a comµosiing ioilci oí ihcir own, luving a commcrcial comµosiing
ioilci, or using a simµlc collcciion ioilci wiih a scµaraic comµosiing
lin. 1hc oµiion onc chooscs dcµcnds uµon how much moncv onc
wanis io sµcnd, whcrc onc livcs, and how much involvcmcni onc
wanis in ihc comµosi-maling µroccss.
A simµlc collcciion ioilci wiih a scµaraic comµosi lin is ihc
lcasi cxµcnsivc, lui icnds io lc limiicd io homcs whcrc an ouidoor
comµosi lin can lc uiilizcd. Such a ioilci is onlv aiiraciivc io µcoµlc
who don`i mind ihc rcgular iol oí cmµiving coniaincrs oí comµosi
onio a comµosi µilc, and who arc willing io rcsµonsillv managc ihc
comµosi io µrcvcni odor and io cnsurc aµµroµriaic comµosiing con-
diiions.
Homcmadc comµosiing ioilcis, on ihc oihcr hand, gcncrallv
includc a comµosi lin undcrncaih ihc ioilci and do noi involvc irans-
µoriing humanurc io a scµaraic comµosiing arca. 1hcv mav lc lcss
cxµcnsivc ihan commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis and ihcv can lc luili
io whaicvcr sizc and caµaciiv a houschold rcouircs, allowing íor somc
crcaiiviiv in ihcir dcsign. 1hcv arc usuallv µcrmancni siruciurcs
locaicd undcr ihc dwclling in a crawl sµacc or lascmcni, lui ihcv can
also lc írcc-sianding ouidoor siruciurcs. 1hc walls arc ivµicallv madc
oí a concrcic maicrial, and ihc ioilcis arc mosi succcssíul whcn µroµ-
crlv managcd. Such managcmcni includcs ihc rcgular addiiion io ihc
ioilci conicnis oí suííicicni carlon-lascd lulling maicrial, such as
sawdusi, µcai moss, siraw, hav or wccds. Homcmadc comµosiing ioi-
lcis gcncrallv do noi rcouirc waicr or clcciriciiv.
Commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis comc in all shaµcs, ivµcs,
sizcs, and µricc rangcs. 1hcv`rc usuallv madc oí íilcrglass or µlasiic
and consisi oí a comµosiing chamlcr undcrncaih ihc ioilci scai.
Somc oí ihcm usc waicr and somc oí ihcm rcouirc clcciriciiv. Somc
rcouirc nciihcr.
104 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 105
COMPOS1ING 1OII£1S MUS1 B£ MANAG£D
Wc havc uscd ílush ioilcis íor so long ihai aíicr wc dcíccaic wc
cxµcci io simµlv µull a handlc and wall awav. Somc ihinl ihai com-
µosiing ioilcis should lchavc in ihc samc manncr. Howcvcr, ílush ioi-
lcis arc J/s/·sa| dcviccs ihai crcaic µolluiion and souandcr soil ícriil-
iiv. Comµosiing ioilcis arc rccvcling dcviccs ihai should crcaic no
µolluiion and should rccovcr ihc soil nuiricnis in human manurc and
urinc. Whcn vou µush a handlc on a ílush ioilci, vou`rc µaving somc-
onc io disµosc oí vour wasic íor vou. Noi onlv arc vou µaving íor ihc
waicr, íor ihc clcciriciiv and íor ihc wasicwaicr ircaimcni cosis, lui
vou arc also coniriluiing io ihc cnvironmcnial µrollcms inhcrcni in
wasic disµosal. Whcn vou usc a comµosiing ioilci, vou arc e.///ae µaid
íor ihc small amouni oí cííori vou cxµcnd in rccvcling vour organic
maicrial. Your µavmcni is in ihc íorm oí comµosi. Comµosiing ioi-
lcis, ihcrcíorc, rcouirc somc managcmcni. You havc io J· somcihing
lcsidcs iusi µushing a handlc and walling awav.
1hc dcgrcc oí vour involvcmcni will dcµcnd on ihc ivµc oí
ioilci vou arc using. In mosi cascs, ihis involvcs simµlv adding somc
clcan organic covcr maicrial such as µcai moss, sawdusi, ricc hulls or
lcaí mould io ihc ioilci aíicr cach usc. Insicad oí ílushing, vou covcr.
Ncvcrihclcss, somconc musi ialc rcsµonsililiiv íor ihc ovcrall man-
agcmcni oí ihc ioilci. 1his is usuallv ihc homcowncr, or somconc clsc
who has voluniccrcd íor ihc iasl. 1hcir iol is simµlv io malc surc
suííicicni covcr maicrials arc availallc and lcing uscd in ihc ioilci.
1hcv musi also add lulling maicrials io ihc ioilci conicnis whcn
nccdcd, and malc surc ihc ioilci is noi lcing uscd lcvond iis caµaci-
iv, noi lccoming waicrloggcd, and noi lrccding ílics. Rcmcmlcr ihai
a comµosiing ioilci houscs an organic mass wiih a high lcvcl oí micro-
scoµic liodivcrsiiv. 1hc conicnis arc alivc, and musi lc waichcd ovcr
and managcd io cnsurc grcaicsi succcss.
££COPHOBIA AND 1H£ PA1HOG£N ISSU£
1hc lclicí ihai humanurc is unsaíc íor agriculiural usc is
callcd /..·//·|/a. Pcoµlc who arc íccoµholic can suíícr írom scvcrc
íccoµholia or a rclaiivclv mild íccoµholia, ihc mildcsi íorm lcing lii-
ilc morc ihan a hcalihv conccrn aloui µcrsonal hvgicnc. Scvcrc ícco-
µholics do noi wani io usc humanurc íor íood growing, comµosicd or
noi. 1hcv lclicvc ihai ii`s dangcrous and unwisc io usc such a maic-
rial in ihcir gardcn. Mildcr íccoµholics mav, howcvcr, comµosi
humanurc and usc ihc íinishcd comµosi in horiiculiural aµµlica-
iions. Pcoµlc who arc noi íccoµholic mav comµosi humanurc and uii-
lizc ii in ihcir íood gardcn.
Ii is wcll lnown ihai humanurc coniains ihc /·/.a//a| io har-
lor discasc-causing microorganisms or /a//·e.as. 1his µoicniial is
dirccilv rclaicd io ihc siaic oí hcalih oí ihc µoµulaiion which is µro-
ducing ihc cxcrcmcni. Ií a íamilv is comµosiing iis own humanurc,
íor cxamµlc, and ii is a hcalihv íamilv, ihc dangcr in ihc µroduciion
and usc oí ihc comµosi will lc vcrv low. Ií onc is comµosiing ihc
humanurc írom orµhanagcs in Haiii whcrc inicsiinal µarasiics arc
cndcmic, ihcn cxira µrccauiions musi lc ialcn io cnsurc maximum
µaihogcn dcaih. Comµosi icmµcraiurcs musi risc signiíicanilv alovc
ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc human lodv (37
O
C or 98.6
O
£) in ordcr io lcgin
climinaiing discasc-causing organisms, as human µaihogcns ihrivc ai
icmµcraiurcs similar io ihai oí ihcir hosis. On ihc oihcr hand, mosi
µaihogcns onlv havc a limiicd vialiliiv ouisidc ihc human lodv, and
givcn cnough iimc, will dic cvcn in low-icmµcraiurc comµosi.
Humanurc is lcsi rcndcrcd hvgicnicallv saíc lv ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing. 1o achicvc ihis, humanurc can simµlv lc collccicd and
dcµosiicd on an ouidoor comµosi µilc lilc anv oihcr comµosi maicri-
al. Oµcn-air, ouidoor comµosi µilcs wiih good acccss arc casilv man-
agcd and oíícr a no-cosi, odorlcss mcihod io achicvc ihc ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing oí humanurc. Howcvcr, such a svsicm docs rcouirc ihc
rcgular collcciion and cariagc oí ihc organic maicrial io ihc comµosi
µilc, maling ii rclaiivclv lalor-inicnsivc whcn comµarcd io low-icm-
µcraiurc, siaiionarv, homcmadc and commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis.
Manv µcoµlc will usc a comµosiing ioilci onlv ií ihcv do noi
havc io do anvihing in anv wav rclaicd io ihc ioilci conicnis.
1hcrcíorc, mosi homcmadc and commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis arc
comµriscd oí largc comµosiing chamlcrs undcr ihc ioilci scai. 1hc
organic maicrial is dcµosiicd dirccilv inio a comµosiing chamlcr,
and ihc conicnis arc cmµiicd onlv vcrv occasionallv.
1hcrmoµhilic condiiions do noi sccm io lc common in ihcsc
ioilcis, íor scvcral rcasons. £or onc, manv commcrcial comµosiing
ioilcis arc dcsigncd io J./vJra/. ihc organic maicrial dcµosiicd in
ihcm. 1his dchvdraiion is achicvcd lv clccirical íans which rol ihc
organic mass oí moisiurc aaJ hcai. Commcrcial ioilcis also oíicn
sirivc io rcducc ihc c·|ao. oí maicrial collcciing in ihc comµosiing
chamlcr (mosilv lv dchvdraiion), in ordcr io limii ihc írcoucncv oí
cmµiving íor ihc salc oí ihc convcnicncc oí ihc uscr. Bullv air-
cniraµµing addiiions io ihc comµosi arc noi cncouragcd, alihough
106 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
ihcsc addiiions will cncouragc ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing. Yci, cvcn
µassivc, low-icmµcraiurc comµosiing will cvcniuallv vicld a rclaiivc-
lv µaihogcn-írcc comµosi aíicr a µcriod oí iimc.
Iow-icmµcraiurc comµosiing ioilcis includc mosi commcr-
cial and manv homcmadc uniis. According io currcni scicniiíic cvi-
dcncc, a ícw monihs rcicniion iimc in iusi aloui anv comµosiing ioi-
lci will rcsuli in ihc dcaihs oí ncarlv all human µaihogcns (scc
Chaµicr 7). 1hc mosi µcrsisicni µaihogcn sccms io lc ihc roundworm
(As.ar/s |ao|r/.·/J.s) and µariicularlv ihc cgg oí ihc roundworm,
which is µroiccicd lv an ouicr covcring which rcsisis chcmicals and
advcrsc cnvironmcnial condiiions. £siimaics oí ihc survival iimc oí
As.ar/s cggs in ccriain soil ivµcs undcr ccriain condiiions arc as high
as icn vcars. Alihough ihc As.ar/s cggs arc rcadilv dcsirovcd lv ihcr-
moµhilic comµosiing, ihcv mav survivc in condiiions gcncraicd lv a
low-icmµcraiurc ioilci. 1his is whv ihc comµosi rcsuliing írom such
ioilcis is gcncrallv noi rccommcndcd íor gardcn usc ií ii comcs in
coniaci wiih íood croµs.
Pcoµlc can lccomc raihcr olscssivc aloui ihis issuc. Onc man
who µullishcd a lool on ihis ioµic wroic io mc io sav ihai a iwo vcar
rcicniion iimc in a low-icmµcraiurc comµosiing ioilci is gcncrallv
considcrcd adcouaic íor ihc dcsiruciion oí As.ar/s ova (cggs). Hc indi-
caicd ihai hc would ncvcr considcr using his own low-icmµcraiurc
comµosi uniil ii had agcd ai lcasi iwo vcars. I aslcd him ií hc was
iníccicd wiih roundworms. Hc said no. I aslcd him ií anvonc clsc was
using his ioilci. No. I aslcd him whv hc would ihinl ihcrc could lc
roundworm cggs in his comµosi whcn hc lncw hc didn'i havc round-
worms in ihc íirsi µlacc? Somciimcs common scnsc is noi so common
whcn issucs oí humanurc arc involvcd. 1his is similar io ihc µholic
µcrson who would ncvcr go io a movic ihcaicr lccausc ihcrc mav lc
somconc in ihc ihcaicr who has iulcrculosis and who mav sncczc.
Alihough ihis is a risl wc all ialc, ii's noi lilclv io lc a µrollcm.
OWN£R-BUII1 COMPOS1ING 1OII£1S
Owncr-luili comµosiing ioilcis arc in widcsµrcad usc
ihroughoui ihc world sincc manv µcoµlc do noi havc ihc íinancial
rcsourccs rcouircd io µurchasc commcrciallv-µroduccd ioilcis.
Owncr-luili dcviccs icnd io lc low-icmµcraiurc comµosiing ioilcis,
alihough ihcv can conccivallv lc ihcrmoµhilic ioilci svsicms ií µroµ-
crlv managcd.
1hc olicciivcs oí anv comµosiing ioilci should lc io achicvc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 107
saíc and saniiarv ircaimcni oí íccal maicrial, io conscrvc waicr, io
íunciion wiih a minimum oí mainicnancc and cncrgv consumµiion,
io oµcraic wiihoui unµlcasani odors and io rccvclc humanurc lacl io
ihc soil.
1hc µrimarv advaniagc oí low-icmµcraiurc ioilcis is ihc µas-
sivc involvcmcni oí ihc uscr. 1hc ioilci collcciion arca nccd noi lc
cnicrcd inio vcrv oíicn unlcss, µcrhaµs, io ralc ihc µilc ílai. 1hc µilc
ihai collccis in ihc chamlcr musi lc ralcd somcwhai cvcrv ícw
monihs, which can lc donc ihrough a íloor acccss door. 1hc chamlcr
is cmµiicd onlv aíicr noihing has lccn dcµosiicd in ii íor ai lcasi a
vcar or iwo, alihough ihis iimc µcriod mav varv dcµcnding on ihc
individual svsicm uscd.
In ordcr íor ihis svsicm io worl wcll, cach ioilci musi havc a
minimum oí iwo chamlcrs. £ccal maicrial and urinc arc dcµosiicd
inio ihc íirsi chamlcr uniil ii's íull, ihcn ihc sccond chamlcr is uscd
whilc ihc íirsi agcs. Bv ihc iimc ihc sccond sidc is íull, ihc íirsi should
lc rcadv io cmµiv. Ii mav ialc scvcral vcars io íill a sidc, dcµcnding
on iis caµaciiv and ihc numlcr oí uscrs. In addiiion io ícccs, carlona-
ccous organic maiicr such as sawdusi, as wcll as lullv vcgciallc mai-
icr such as siraw and wccds, arc rcgularlv addcd io ihc chamlcr in
usc. A clcan covcr oí such maicrial is mainiaincd ovcr ihc comµosi ai
all iimcs íor odor µrcvcniion.
Somc comµosiing ioilcis involvc ihc scµaraiion oí urinc írom
ícccs. 1his is donc lv urinaiing inio a scµaraic coniaincr or inio a
divcrsion dcvicc which causcs ihc urinc io collcci scµaraiclv írom ihc
ícccs. 1hc rcason íor scµaraiing urinc írom ícccs is ihai ihc
urinc/ícccs llcnd coniains ioo much niirogcn io allow íor cíícciivc
comµosiing and ihc collccicd maicrial can gci ioo wci and odorous.
1hcrcíorc, ihc urinc is collccicd scµaraiclv, rcducing ihc niirogcn, ihc
liouid conicni and ihc odor oí ihc collccicd maicrial.
An alicrnaiivc mcihod oí achicving ihc samc rcsuli which
docs noi rcouirc ihc scµaraiion oí urinc írom ícccs docs cxisi.
Organic maicrial wiih ioo much niirogcn íor cíícciivc comµosiing
(such as a urinc/ícccs mixiurc) can lc lalanccd lv adding morc car-
lon maicrial such as sawdusi, raihcr ihan lv rcmoving ihc urinc. 1hc
addcd carlon maicrial alsorls ihc cxccss liouid and will covcr ihc
rcíusc suííicicnilv io climinaic odor comµlciclv. 1his also scis ihc
siagc íor ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing lccausc oí ihc carlon/niirogcn
lalancing.
Onc should íirsi µrimc a comµosiing ioilci chamlcr lcíorc
usc lv crcaiing a "liological sµongc," a ihicl lavcr oí alsorlcni organ-
108 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
ic maicrial in ihc loiiom oí ihc comµosi chamlcr io a dcµih oí uµ io
5O% oí iis caµaciiv. Somc suggcsi ihai ihc ioilci can lc íillcd io 1OO%
oí iis caµaciiv lcíorc lcginning io lc uscd, lccausc ií ihc maicrial is
loosc (such as loosc hav), ii will comµrcss undcr ihc wcighi oí ihc
addcd humanurc. A loiiom sµongc mav cvcn consisi oí lalcs oí hav
or siraw luricd in sawdusi. 1hcsc maicrials alsorl ihc cxccss urinc
as ii is addcd io ihc ioilci. £ccal maicrial is covcrcd aíicr cach usc
wiih maicrials such as sawdusi, µcai, lcaí mould or ricc hulls. A drain
inio a íivc gallon luclci (µcrhaµs µrc-íillcd wiih sawdusi) will collcci
anv lcachaic, which can simµlv lc dcµosiicd lacl on ihc comµosi
µilc. £xira lulling maicrials such as siraw, wccds, hav and íood
scraµs arc rcgularlv addcd io ihc comµosi chamlcr io hclµ oxvgcnaic
and íccd ihc growing organic mass in ordcr io µromoic ihcrmoµhilic
dccomµosiiion. Vcniilaiion can lc cnhanccd lv uiilizing a vcriical
µiµc insiallcd lilc a chimncv, which will allow air io µassivclv circu-
laic inio and oui oí ihc comµosi chamlcr.
Such svsicms will nccd io lc cusiom-managcd according io
ihc circumsianccs oí ihc individuals using ihcm. Somconc nccds io
lccµ an cvc on ihc ioilci chamlcrs io malc surc ihcv'rc rccciving
cnough lulling maicrial. 1hc dcµosiis nccd io lc ílaiicncd rcgularlv
so ihai ihcv rcmain covcrcd and odorlcss. Chuics ihai channcl huma-
nurc írom ihc ioilci scai io ihc comµosi chamlcr musi lc clcancd rcg-
ularlv in ordcr io µrcvcni odors. Whcn onc comµosi chamlcr is íillcd,
ii musi lc rcsicd whilc ihc oihcr is íillcd. A closc cvc on ihc ioilci con-
icnis will µrcvcni waicrlogging. Anv lcachaic svsicm musi lc moni-
iorcd.
In shori, anv comµosiing ioilci will rcouirc somc managc-
mcni. Rcmcmlcr ihai vou arc aciivclv rccvcling organic maicrial and
ihai mcans vou arc doing somcihing consiruciivc. Whcn vou consid-
cr ihc valuc oí ihc íinishcd comµosi, vou can also rcalizc ihai cvcrv
iimc vou dcµosii inio a comµosiing ioilci, ii's as ií vou'rc µuiiing
moncv in ihc lanl.
Homcmadc low-icmµcraiurc comµosiing ioilcis oíícr a
mcihod oí comµosiing humanurc ihai is aiiraciivc io µcrsons waniing
a low-mainicnancc, low-cosi, íairlv µassivc aµµroach io cxcrcmcni
rccvcling. Anv cííori which consiruciivclv rciurns organic rcíusc io
ihc soil wiihoui µolluiing waicr or ihc cnvironmcni ccriainlv
dcmands a high lcvcl oí commcndaiion.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 109
ASIAN COMPOS1ING
Ii is wcll lnown ihai Asians havc rccvclcd humanurc íor ccn-
iurics, µossillv millcnnia. How did ihcv do ii? Hisiorical iníormaiion
conccrning ihc comµosiing oí humanurc in Asia sccms diííiculi io
íind. Rvlczvnsli ci al. siaic ihai comµosiing was onlv iniroduccd io
China in a svsicmaiic wav in ihc 193Os and ihai ii wasn'i uniil 1956
ihai comµosiing ioilcis wcrc uscd on a widc scalc in Vicinam.
1
On ihc
oihcr hand, £ranccvs ci al. icll us ihai comµosiing "has lccn µrac-
iiccd lv íarmcrs and gardcncrs ihroughoui ihc world íor manv ccn-
iurics." 1hcv add ihai, "In China, ihc µraciicc oí comµosiing |huma-
nurc] wiih croµ rcsiducs has cnallcd ihc soil io suµµori high µoµula-
iion dcnsiiics wiihoui loss oí ícriiliiv íor morc ihan 4OOO vcars."
2
Howcvcr, a lool µullishcd in 1978 and iranslaicd dirccilv
írom ihc original Chincsc indicaics ihai comµosiing has noi lccn a
culiural µraciicc in China uniil onlv rcccnilv. An agriculiural rcµori
írom ihc Provincc oí Hoµci, íor cxamµlc, siaics ihai ihc siandardizcd
managcmcni and hvgicnic disµosal (i.c., comµosiing) oí cxcrcia and
urinc was onlv iniiiaicd ihcrc in 1964. 1hc comµosiing icchnioucs
lcing dcvcloµcd ai ihai iimc includcd ihc scgrcgaiion oí ícccs and
urinc, which wcrc laicr "µourcd inio a mixing ianl and mixcd wcll io
íorm a dcnsc íccal liouid" lcíorc µiling on a comµosi hcaµ. 1hc com-
µosi was madc oí 25% human ícccs and urinc, 25% livcsiocl manurc,
25% misccllancous organic rcíusc and 25% soil.
3
1wo acrolic mcihods oí comµosiing wcrc rcµoricd io lc in
widcsµrcad usc in China, according io ihc 1978 rcµori. 1hc iwo mcih-
ods arc dcscrilcd as: 1) suríacc acrolic coniinuous comµosiing: and
2) µii acrolic coniinuous comµosiing. 1hc suríacc mcihod involvcs
consiruciing a comµosi µilc around an inicrnal íramcworl oí lam-
loo, aµµroximaiclv ninc ícci lv ninc ícci lv ihrcc ícci high (3m x 3m
x 1m). Comµosi ingrcdicnis includc íccal maicrial (loih human and
non-human), organic rcíusc and soil. 1hc lamloo µolcs arc rcmovcd
aíicr ihc comµosi µilc has lccn consirucicd ihc rcsuliani holcs
allowing íor ihc µcnciraiion oí air inio ihis raihcr largc µilc oí rcíusc.
1hc µilc is ihcn covcrcd wiih carih or an carih/horsc manurc mix,
and lcíi io dccomµosc íor 2O io 3O davs, aíicr which ihc comµosicd
maicrial is uscd in agriculiurc.
1hc µii mcihod involvcs consiruciing comµosi µiis íivc ícci
widc and íour ícci dccµ lv various lcngihs, and digging channcls in
ihc íloor oí ihc µiis. 1hc channcls (onc lcngihwisc and iwo widih-
wisc) arc covcrcd wiih coarsc organic maicrial such as millci sialls.
110 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
A lamloo µolc is ihcn µlaccd vcriicallv along ihc walls oí ihc µii ai
ihc cnd oí cach channcl. 1hc µii is ihcn íillcd wiih organic rcíusc and
covcrcd wiih carih, and ihc lamloo µolcs arc rcmovcd io allow íor air
circulaiion.
4
A rcµori írom a hvgicnic commiiicc oí ihc Provincc oí
Shaniung µrovidcs us wiih addiiional iníormaiion on Chincsc com-
µosiing.
5
1hc rcµori lisis ihrcc iradiiional mcihods uscd in ihai
µrovincc íor ihc rccvcling oí humanurc:
1) Drving "Drving has lccn ihc mosi common mcihod oí
ircaiing human cxcrcmcni and urinc íor vcars." Ii is a mcihod ihai
causcs a signiíicani loss oí niirogcn:
2) Using ii raw, a mcihod ihai is lnown io allow µaihogcn
iransmission: and
3) "Conncciing ihc houschold µii µrivv io ihc µig µcn . . . a
mcihod ihai has lccn uscd íor ccniurics." 1his is an unsaniiarv
mcihod in which ihc cxcrcmcni was simµlv caicn lv a µig.
No mcniion is madc whaisocvcr oí comµosiing lcing a iradi-
iional mcihod uscd lv ihc Chincsc íor rccvcling humanurc. On ihc
conirarv, all indicaiions wcrc ihai ihc Chincsc govcrnmcni in ihc
196Os was, ai ihai iimc, aiicmµiing io csiallish comµosiing as µrcícr-
allc io ihc ihrcc iradiiional rccvcling mcihods lisicd alovc, mainlv
lccausc ihc ihrcc mcihods wcrc hvgicnicallv unsaíc, whilc comµosi-
ing, whcn µroµcrlv managcd, would dcsirov µaihogcns in humanurc
whilc µrcscrving agriculiurallv valuallc nuiricnis. 1his rcµori also
indicaicd ihai soil was lcing uscd as an ingrcdicni in ihc comµosi, or,
io ouoic dirccilv, "Gcncrallv, ii is adcouaic io comlinc 4O-5O% oí cxc-
rcia and urinc wiih 5O-6O% oí µolluicd soil and wccds."
£or íurihcr iníormaiion on Asian comµosiing, I musi dcícr io
Rvlczvnsli ci al., whosc World Banl rcscarch on low-cosi oµiions íor
saniiaiion considcrcd ovcr 2O,OOO rcícrcnccs and rcvicwcd aµµroxi-
maiclv 1,2OO documcnis. 1hcir rcvicw oí Asian comµosiing is lricí,
lui includcs ihc íollowing iníormaiion, which I havc condcnscd:
1hcrc arc no rcµoris oí comµosiing µrivvs or ioilcis lcing
uscd on a widc scalc uniil ihc 195Os, whcn ihc Dcmocraiic Rcµullic
oí Vicinam iniiiaicd a íivc-vcar µlan oí rural hvgicnc and a largc
numlcr oí anacrolic comµosiing ioilcis wcrc luili. 1hcsc ioilcis,
lnown as ihc Vicinamcsc Doullc Vauli, consisicd oí iwo alovc
ground waicr-iighi ianls, or vaulis, íor ihc collcciion oí humanurc.
£or a íamilv oí íivc io icn µcoµlc, cach vauli was rcouircd io lc 1.2 m
widc, O.7 m high and 1.7 m long (aµµroximaiclv 4 ícci widc lv 28
inchcs high and 5 ícci, 7 inchcs long). Onc ianl is uscd uniil íull and
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 111
lcíi io dccomµosc whilc ihc oihcr ianl is uscd. 1hc usc oí ihis sori oí
comµosiing ioilci rcouircs ihc scgrcgaiion oí urinc, which is divcricd
io a scµaraic rcccµiaclc ihrough a groovc on ihc íloor oí ihc ioilci.
£ccal maicrial is collccicd in ihc ianl and covcrcd wiih soil, whcrc ii
anacrolicallv dccomµoscs. Kiichcn ashcs arc addcd io ihc íccal maic-
rial íor ihc µurµosc oí rcducing odor.
£ighiv-íivc µcrccni oí inicsiinal worm cggs, onc oí ihc mosi
µcrsisicnilv viallc íorms oí human µaihogcns, wcrc íound io lc
dcsirovcd aíicr a iwo-monih comµosiing µcriod in ihis svsicm.
Howcvcr, according io Vicinamcsc hcalih auihoriiics, íoriv-íivc davs
112 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
Vietnamese Double Vault
in a scalcd vauli is adcouaic íor ihc comµlcic dcsiruciion oí all lacic-
ria and inicsiinal µarasiics (µrcsumallv ihcv mcan µaihogcnic lacic-
ria). Comµosi írom such lairincs is rcµoricd io incrcasc croµ viclds lv
1O-25% in comµarison io ihc usc oí raw humanurc. 1hc succcss oí ihc
Vicinamcsc Doullc Vauli rcouircd "long and µcrsisicni hcalih cduca-
iion µrograms."
6
Whcn ihc Vicinamcsc Doullc Vauli comµosiing ioilci svsicm
was cxµoricd io Mcxico and Ccniral Amcrica, ihc rcsuli was "ovcr-
whclminglv µosiiivc," according io onc sourcc, who adds, "Pr·/.r|v
oaaae.J, //.r. /s a· so.|| aaJ a· /|v |r..J/ae /a //.s. /·/|./s. T/.v s..o /·
c·r| /ar//.a|ar|v c.|| /a //. Jrv .|/oa/. ·/ //. M.x/.aa //e/|aaJs. \/.r.
//. svs/.o /as /a/|.J |..aas. ·/ c./a.ss /a //. /r·..ss/ae ./ao|.r, ·J·ars,
aaJ/·r /|v |r..J/ae, // cas asaa||v Ja. /· a·a-.x/s/.a/, c.a|, ·r |aae|.J
/a/·roa//·a, /ra/a/ae aaJ /·||·c-a/."
7
A lacl oí iraining and a µoor
undcrsianding oí ihc comµosiing µroccsscs can causc anv humanurc
comµosiing svsicm io lccomc µrollcmaiic. Convcrsclv, comµlcic
iníormaiion and an cducaicd inicrcsi can cnsurc ihc succcss oí huma-
nurc comµosiing svsicms.
Anoihcr anacrolic doullc-vauli comµosiing ioilci uscd in
Vicinam includcs using loih íccal maicrial and urinc. In ihis svsicm,
ihc loiioms oí ihc vaulis arc µcríoraicd io allow drainagc, and urinc
is íilicrcd ihrough limcsionc io ncuiralizc acidiiv. Oihcr organic
rcíusc is also addcd io ihc vaulis, and vcniilaiion is µrovidcd via a
µiµc.
In India, ihc comµosiing oí organic rcíusc and humanurc is
advocaicd lv ihc govcrnmcni. A siudv oí such comµosi µrcµarcd in
µiis in ihc 195Os showcd ihai inicsiinal worm µarasiics and µaihogcn-
ic lacicria wcrc comµlciclv climinaicd in ihrcc monihs. 1hc dcsiruc-
iion oí µaihogcns in ihc comµosi was aiiriluicd io ihc mainicnancc
oí a icmµcraiurc oí aloui 4O
O
C (1O4
O
£) íor a µcriod oí 1O-15 davs.
Howcvcr, ii was also concludcd ihai ihc comµosi µiis had io lc µroµ-
crlv consirucicd and managcd, and ihc comµosi noi rcmovcd uniil
íullv "riµc," in ordcr io achicvc ihc saiisíaciorv dcsiruciion oí human
µaihogcns. Ií donc µroµcrlv, ii is rcµoricd ihai "ihcrc is vcrv liiilc
hvgicnic risl involvcd in ihc usc and handling oí |humanurc] com-
µosi íor agriculiural µurµoscs."
8
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 113
COMM£RCIAI COMPOS1ING 1OII£1S
Commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis havc lccn µoµular in
Scandinavia íor somc iimc: ai lcasi iwcniv-onc diíícrcni comµosiing
ioilcis wcrc on ihc marlci in Norwav alonc in 1975.
9
Onc oí ihc mosi
µoµular ivµcs oí commcrciallv availallc comµosiing ioilcis in ihc
Uniicd Siaics iodav is ihc mulirum ioilci, invcnicd lv a Swcdish
cnginccr and íirsi µui inio µroduciion in 1964. £ccal maicrial and
urinc arc dcµosiicd iogcihcr inio a singlc chamlcr wiih a doullc loi-
iom. 1hc dccomµosiiion ialcs µlacc ovcr a µcriod oí vcars, and ihc
íinishcd comµosi graduallv íalls down io ihc vcrv loiiom oí ihc ioilci
114 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
chamlcr whcrc ii can lc rcmovcd. Again, ihc dccomµosiiion icmµcr-
aiurcs rcmain cool, noi usuallv climling alovc 32
O
C (9O
O
£).
1hcrcíorc, ii is rccommcndcd ihai ihc íinishcd comµosi lc luricd
undcr onc íooi oí soil or uscd in an ornamcnial gardcn.
1O
Bccausc no waicr is uscd or rcouircd during ihc oµcraiion oí
ihis ioilci, human cxcrcmcni is lcµi oui oí waicr suµµlics. According
io onc rcµori, a singlc µcrson using a Clivus (µronounccd Clcc-vus)
Mulirum will µroducc 4O lg (88 lls) oí comµosi µcr vcar whilc
rcíraining írom µolluiing 25,OOO liicrs (6,6O4 gallons) oí waicr annu-
allv.
11
1hc íinishcd comµosi can lc uscd as a soil addiiivc whcrc ihc
comµosi will noi comc in coniaci wiih íood croµs.
A 1977 rcµori, issucd lv Clivus Mulirum USA, analvzcd ihc
nuiricni conicni in íinishcd comµosi írom scvcn Clivus Mulirum ioi-
lcis which had lccn in usc íor 4 io 14 vcars. 1hc comµosi avcragcd
58% organic maiicr, wiih 2.4% niirogcn, 3.6% µhosµhorous, and
3.9% µoiassium, rcµoricdlv highcr ihan comµosicd scwagc sludgc,
municiµal comµosi or ordinarv gardcn comµosi. Suiiallc conccnira-
iions oí iracc nuiricnis wcrc also íound. 1oxic mcials wcrc íound io
cxisi in conccniraiions íar lclow rccommcndcd saíc lcvcls.
12
Ií a mulirum ioilci is managcd µroµcrlv, ii should lc odor
and worrv-írcc. As alwavs, a good undcrsianding oí ihc lasic conccµis
oí comµosiing hclµs anvonc who wishcs io usc a comµosiing ioilci.
Ncvcrihclcss, ihc mulirum ioilcis, whcn uscd µroµcrlv, should µro-
vidc a suiiallc alicrnaiivc io ílush ioilcis íor µcoµlc who wani io sioµ
dcíccaiing in ihcir drinling waicr. You can µrolallv grow a hccl oí a
rosc gardcn wiih ihc comµosi, ioo.
Incxµcnsivc vcrsions oí mulirum ioilcis wcrc iniroduccd inio
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 115
Source: Schiere, Jacobo (1989). LASF Una Letrina Para la Familia. Cornite Central Menonita, Technologia
Apropriada, Santa Maria Cauque, Sacatepequez, Apartado Postal 1779, Guatemala Cuidad, Guatemala.
116 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
ihc Philiµµincs, Argcniina, Boiswana and 1anzania, lui wcrc noi suc-
ccssíul. According io onc sourcc, "(·o/·s/ aa//s l /as/../.J /a A/r/.a
c.r. //. o·s/ aa/|.asaa/ aaJ /·a|-so.||/ae /·as./·|J |a/r/a.s l /ac. .x/.-
r/.a..J. T/. /r·a||. cas //a/ //. o/x/ar. ·/ .x.r./a aaJ c.e./a||. oa//.r
cas /·· c./, aaJ /asa///./.a/ c.e./a||. oa//.r cas aJJ.J, .s/../a||v Jar/ae
//. Jrv s.as·a."
13
Poor managcmcni and a lacl oí undcrsianding oí
how comµosiing worls mav crcaic µrollcms wiih anv comµosi ioilci.
1oo much liouid will crcaic anacrolic condiiions wiih conscoucni
odors. 1hc acrolic naiurc oí ihc organic mass can lc imµrovcd lv ihc
rcgular addiiion oí carlonaccous lulling maicrials. Comµosi ioilcis
arc noi µii lairincs. You cannoi iusi dcíccaic in a holc and wall awav.
Ií vou do, vour nosc will soon lci vou lnow ihai vou'rc doing somc-
ihing wrong.
Bcsidcs ihc Scandinavian mulirum ioilcis, a variciv oí oihcr
comµosiing ioilcis arc availallc on ihc marlci iodav. Somc cosi
uµwards oí $1O,OOO or morc and can lc couiµµcd wiih insulaicd
ianls, convcvcrs, moior-drivcn agiiaiors, µumµs, sµravcrs, and
cxhausi íans.
15
According io a comµosiing ioilci manuíaciurcr, waicrlcss
comµosiing ioilcis can rcducc houschold waicr consumµiion lv
4O,OOO gallons (151,423 liicrs) µcr vcar.
16
1his is signiíicani whcn onc
considcrs ihai onlv 3% oí ihc £arih's waicr is noi sali waicr, and iwo-
ihirds oí ihc írcshwaicr is loclcd uµ in icc. 1hai mcans ihai lcss ihan
onc µcrccni oí ihc £arih's waicr is availallc as drinling waicr. Whv
shii in ii?
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 117
COMPOST TESTING LABS
WOODS END AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE, INC. - PO Box 297, Mt. Vernon, ME
04352 USA; Ph: 207-293-2457 or 800 451 0337; FAX: 207-293-2488; email: com-
post@woodsend.org; website: woodsend.org; Ascaris and coliform testing as well as
full nutrient tests. Sells the Solvita(R) Maturity Test Kit which is now approved in CA,
CT, ÌL, MA, ME, NJ, NM, OH, TX, and WA. Has developed a soil-respiration test kit
that is approved by the USDA for soil quality investigations.
WOODS END EUROPE - AUC - Agrar und Umwelt-Consult GmbH:; Augustastrasse
9 D-53173 Bonn, Germany; Ph: 049 0228 343246; FAX: 049 0228 343237; Officially
certified for pathogen survival testing. Sells the Solvita(R) Maturity Test Kit which is
now approved in CA, CT, ÌL, MA, ME, NJ, NM, OH, TX, and WA.
CONTROL LAB, INC. - 42 Hangar Way, Watsonville, CA 95076 USA; Ph: 831-724-
5422; Fax: 831-724-3188
COMPOST THERMOMETERS
REOTEMP ÷ 10656 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121 USA; Ph: 858-784-0710
(Toll free: 800-648-7737); Fax: 858-784-0720; email: reotemp@reotemp.com; website:
www.reotemp.com
118 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
A SampIer of CommerciaI Composting
ToiIets and Systems
For more information about these and other composting toilets, search the internet.
Clockwise from top left: Biolet,
Vera Toga, Clivus, Carousel.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms 119
Clockwise from top left: Compost
Toilet Systems, Dowmus, Envirolet,
Solar Composting Advanced Toilet,
Phoenix
120 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 6. Ccmpcs|ine Tci/:|s anJ Svs|:ms
Clockwise from top left: Sven
Linden, Sven Linden, Aquatron,
Dutch Hamar, Alascan, Bio-Sun,
Sun-Mar.
WORMS AND DIS£AS£
I
wcll rcmcmlcr in carlv 1979 whcn I íirsi iníormcd a
íricnd ihai I inicndcd io comµosi mv own manurc and
grow mv own íood wiih ii. ¨(/ ov G·J, v·a .aa´/ J· //a//"
shc cricd.
¨Whv noi?"
¨Worms and discasc!"
Oí coursc.
A voung £nglish couµlc was visiiing mc onc summcr aíicr I
had lccn comµosiing humanurc íor aloui six vcars. Onc cvcning, as
dinncr was lcing µrcµarcd, ihc couµlc suddcnlv undcrsiood ihc hor-
rillc rcaliiv oí ihcir siiuaiion: ihc íood ihcv wcrc aloui io cai was
r..v.|.J /aoaa s///. Whcn ihis íaci alruµilv dawncd uµon ihcm, ii
sccmcd io sci oíí an insiinciivc alarm, µossillv inhcriicd dirccilv
írom Quccn Vicioria. '\. J·a´/ caa/ /· .a/ s////¨ ihcv iníormcd mc,
raihcr disircsscd (ihai`s an cxaci ouoic), as ií in µrcµaring dinncr I
had simµlv sci a sicaming iurd on a µlaic in íroni oí ihcm wiih a
lniíc, íorl and naµlin.
I..·//·|/a is alivc and wcll and running ramµani. Onc com-
mon misconccµiion is ihai íccal maicrial, whcn comµosicd, rcmains
íccal maicrial. l/ J·.s a·/. Humanurc comcs írom ihc carih, and
ihrough ihc miraculous µroccss oí comµosiing, is convcricd lacl inio
carih. Whcn ihc comµosiing µroccss is íinishcd, ihc cnd µroduci is
humus, noi craµ, and ii is uscíul in growing íood. Mv íricnds didn`i
undcrsiand ihis and dcsµiic mv aiicmµis io clariív ihc maiicr íor
ihcir lcncíii, ihcv chosc io cling io ihcir misconccµiions. Aµµarcnilv,
somc íccoµholcs will alwavs rcmain íccoµholcs.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 121
Allow mc io malc a radical suggcsiion: humanurc is noi dan-
gcrous. Morc sµcciíicallv, ii is noi anv morc dangcrous ihan ihc lodv
írom which ii is cxcrcicd. 1hc dangcr lics in whai wc J· wiih huma-
nurc, noi in ihc maicrial iisclí. 1o usc an analogv, a glass iar is noi
dangcrous ciihcr. Howcvcr, ií wc smash ii on ihc liichcn íloor and
wall on ii wiih larc ícci, wc will lc harmcd. Ií wc usc a glass iar
imµroµcrlv and dangcrouslv, wc will suíícr íor ii, lui ihai`s no rcason
io condcmn glass iars. Whcn wc discard humanurc as a wasic maicri-
al and µolluic our soil and waicr suµµlics wiih ii, wc arc using ii
imµroµcrlv, and //a/ is whcrc ihc dangcr lics. Whcn wc consiruciivc-
lv rccvclc humanurc lv comµosiing, ii cnrichcs our soil, and, lilc a
glass iar, aciuallv malcs liíc casicr íor us.
Noi all culiurcs ihinl oí human cxcrcmcni in a ncgaiivc wav.
£or cxamµlc, swcar-words mcaning cxcrcmcni do noi sccm io cxisi in
ihc Chincsc languagc. 1hc 1olvo lurcau chicí íor ihc Ncw Yorl
1imcs cxµlains whv: 'l r.a|/..J c/v /.·/|. //a (//aaj J/J a·/ as. c·rJs
/·r .x.r.o.a/ /a a a.ea//c. cav. TraJ///·aa||v, //.r. cas a·///ae o·r.
ca|aa||. /· a /.asaa/ //aa //aoaaar.j.¨
1
Calling somconc a ¨humanurc
hcad" iusi docsn`i sound lilc an insuli. ¨Humanurc íor lrains" docs-
n`i worl ciihcr. Ií vou iold somconc ihcv wcrc ¨íull oí humanurc,"
ihcv`d µrolallv agrcc wiih vou. ¨Shii," on ihc oihcr hand, is a sul-
siancc ihai is widclv dcnounccd and has a long hisiorv oí cxcoriaiion
in ihc wcsicrn world. Our anccsior`s hisiorical íailurc io rcsµonsillv
rccvclc ihc sulsiancc causcd monumcnial µullic hcalih hcadachcs.
Conscoucnilv, ihc aiiiiudc ihai humanurc //s.|/ is icrrillv dangcrous
has lccn cmlraccd and µromulgaicd uµ io ihc µrcscni dav.
£or cxamµlc, a rcccnilv µullishcd lool on ihc ioµic oí rccv-
cling ¨human wasic" |.e/as wiih ihc íollowing disclaimcr: 'R..v.|/ae
/aoaa cas/. .aa |. .x/r.o.|v Jaae.r·as /· v·ar /.a|//, //. /.a|// ·/ v·ar
.·ooaa//v aaJ //. /.a|// ·/ //. s·/|. B..aas. ·/ //. .arr.a/ |/o//s /· e.a-
.ra| /a||/. |a·c|.Je., /c.j s/r·ae|v J/s.·arae. //. r..v.|/ae ·/ /aoaa
cas/. ·a aa /aJ/c/Jaa| ·r .·ooaa//v |as/s a/ ///s //o. aaJ .aaa·/ assao.
r.s/·as/|/|//v /·r //. r.sa|/s //a/ ·..ar /r·o /ra.//./ae aav ·/ //. o.//·Js
J.s.r/|.J /a ///s /a||/.a//·a.¨ 1hc auihor adds, 'B./·r. .x/.r/o.a//ae,
·|/a/a /.ro/ss/·a /r·o v·ar |·.a| /.a|// aa//·r//v s/a.. //. /.a|// r/s|s ar.
er.a/.¨ 1hc auihor ihcn claloraics uµon a human ¨wasic" comµosiing
mcihodologv which includcs scgrcgaiing urinc írom ícccs, collcciing
ihc manurc in 3O gallon µlasiic coniaincrs, and using siraw raihcr
ihan sawdusi as a covcr maicrial in ihc ioilci.
2
All ihrcc oí ihcsc µro-
ccdurcs arc oncs I would discouragc lascd on mv 26 vcars oí huma-
nurc comµosiing cxµcricncc ihcrc is no nccd io go io ihc loihcr oí
122 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 123
scgrcgaiing urinc: a 3O gallon coniaincr is much ioo lig and hcavv io
lc allc io handlc casilv: and saco/|| sawdusi docs, in íaci, worl lcau-
iiíullv in a comµosiing ioilci, much lciicr ihan siraw. 1hcsc issucs
will lc discusscd in ihc ncxi chaµicr.
I had io asl mvsclí whv an auihor wriiing a lool on rccvcling
humanurc would 's/r·ae|v J/s.·arae. //. r..v.|/ae ·/ /aoaa cas/.,¨
which sccms counicrµroduciivc, io sav ihc lcasi. Ií I didn`i alrcadv
lnow ihai rccvcling humanurc was casv and simµlc, I mighi lc ioial-
lv µciriíicd ai ihc ihoughi oí aiicmµiing such an '.x/r.o.|v Jaae.r·as¨
undcrialing aíicr rcading ihai lool. And ihc lasi ihing anvonc wanis
io do is gci ihc local hcalih auihoriiics involvcd. Ií ihcrc is anvonc
who lnows noihing aloui comµosiing humanurc, ii`s µrolallv ihc
local hcalih auihoriiv, who rcccivcs no such iraining.
1hc ¨Bio-Dvnamic" agriculiural movcmcni, íoundcd lv Dr.
Rudolí Sicincr, µrovidcs anoihcr cxamµlc oí íccoµholia. Dr. Sicincr
has ouiic somc íollowing around ihc world and manv oí his icachings
arc íollowcd almosi rcligiouslv lv his disciµlcs. 1hc Ausirian scicn-
iisi and sµiriiual lcadcr had his own oµinions aloui ihc rccvcling oí
humanurc, lascd on iniuiiion raihcr ihan on cxµcricncc or scicncc.
Hc insisicd ihai humanurc musi onlv lc uscd io ícriilizc soil io grow
µlanis io íccd animals ·//.r ihan humans. 1hc manurc írom //·s. ani-
mals can ihcn lc uscd io ícriilizc soil io grow µlanis íor human con-
sumµiion. According io Sicincr, humans musi a.c.r gci anv closcr io
a dircci human nuiricni cvclc ihan ihai. Oihcrwisc, ihcv will suíícr
¨lrain damagc and ncrvous disordcrs." Sicincr íurihcr warncd
againsi using ¨lavaiorv íluid," including human urinc, which ¨should
ncvcr lc uscd as a ícriilizcr, no maiicr how wcll-µroccsscd or agcd ii
is."
3
Sicincr, ouiic íranllv, was ill-iníormcd, incorrcci, and íccoµho-
lic, and ihai íccoµholia has no douli rullcd oíí on somc oí his íol-
lowcrs.
Hisiorv is riíc wiih humanurc misconccµiions. Ai onc iimc,
dociors insisicd ihai human cxcrcmcni should lc an imµoriani and
ncccssarv µari oí onc`s µcrsonal cnvironmcni. 1hcv argucd ihai,
'Ia/a| /||a.ss oav r.sa|/ /r·o a·/ a||·c/ae a ..r/a/a ao·aa/ ·/ //|// /·
r.oa/a /a /s/r../j ea//.rs /· a//ra./ //·s. /a/r.s..a/ /ar//.|.s ·/ J/s.as.
c//./ ar. .c.r /r.s.a/ /a //. a/r.¨ Ai ihai iimc, ioilci conicnis wcrc sim-
µlv dumµcd in ihc sircci. Dociors lclicvcd ihai ihc gcrms in ihc air
would lc drawn io ihc íilih in ihc sircci and ihcrcíorc awav írom µco-
µlc. 1his linc oí rcasoning so inílucnccd ihc µoµulaiion ihai manv
homcowncrs luili ihcir ouihouscs aiiachcd io ihcir liichcns in ordcr
io lccµ ihcir íood gcrm-írcc and wholcsomc.
4
1hc rcsulis wcrc iusi
ihc oµµosiic ílics madc írcoucni iriµs lciwccn ihc ioilci conicnis
and ihc íood iallc.
Bv ihc carlv 19OOs, ihc U.S. govcrnmcni was condcmning ihc
usc oí humanurc íor agriculiural µurµoscs, warning oí dirc consc-
oucnccs, including dcaih, io ihosc who would darc io do oihcrwisc. A
1928 U.S. Dcµarimcni oí Agriculiurc lullciin madc ihc risls crvsial
clcar: 'Aav s////··a, s|·/ /a/|, s/a| Jra/a, ar/aa|, /r/cv, ..ss/··|, s.cae.
/aa|, ·r s.cae. J/s/r/|a//·a //.|J /s a /·/.a//a| Jaae.r. A |// ·/ s///, ar/a.,
·r /...s //. s/.. ·/ a //a /.aJ oav .·a/a/a oaav /aaJr.J e.ros, a|| /ac/s/-
||. /· //. aa|.J .v. aaJ .a./ ·a. .a/a||. ·/ /r·Ja./ae J/s.as.. T/.s. J/s-
./are.s s/·a|J |. |.// acav /r·o //. /··J aaJ Jr/a| ·/ //aoaasj aaJ aa/-
oa|s. Ir·o s/..///. e.ros //a/ oav |. .arr/.J /a s.cae. a/ aav //o., //.r.
oav r.sa|/ /v//·/J /.c.r, /a|.r.a|·s/s, ./·|.ra, Jvs.a/.rv, J/arr/.a, aaJ
·//.r Jaae.r·as a/|o.a/s, aaJ // /s /r·|a||. //a/ ·//.r oa|aJ/.s oav |.
/ra..J /· /aoaa cas/.. Ir·o ..r/a/a aa/oa| /aras//.s ·r //./r .ees //a/
oav |. .arr/.J /a s.cae. //.r. oav r.sa|/ /a/.s//aa| c·ros, ·/ c//./ //.
o·r. .·oo·a ar. //. /··|c·ro, r·aaJc·ro, c///c·ro, ..|c·ro, /a/.-
c·ro, aaJ s.a/ c·ro.
D/s.as. e.ros ar. .arr/.J |v oaav ae.a./.s aaJ aasas/..//ae|v
r.../c.J |v J.c/·as r·a/.s /a/· //. /aoaa |·Jv. la/..//·a oav .·o. /r·o
//. sc/r|/ae Jas/ ·/ //. ra/|cav r·aJ|.J, /r·o .·a/a./ c/// /raas//·rv ·r
./r·a/. .arr/.rs ·/ J/s.as., /r·o er..a /ra.| /c.e./a||.sj er·ca /a earJ.as
/.r//|/..J c/// a/e// s·/| ·r s.cae., /r·o /··J /r./ar.J ·r /·a./.J |v
aa.|.aa /aaJs ·r c/s//.J |v /|/.s ·r c.ro/a, /r·o o/|| /aaJ|.J |v s/.| ·r
.ar.|.ss Ja/rvo.a, /r·o o/|| .aas ·r a/.as/|s cas/.J c/// .·a/ao/aa/.J
ca/.r, ·r /r·o ./s/.ras, c.||s, s/r/aes, r.s.rc·/rs, /rr/ea//·a J//./.s, |r··|s,
·r |a|.s r.../c/ae //. sar/a.. cas/ ·r //. aaJ.rer·aaJ Jra/aae. /r·o
s.cae.-/·||a/.J s·/|.¨
1hc lullciin coniinucs, 'la S.//.o|.r aaJ (./·|.r, !899, 63
.as.s ·/ /v//·/J /.c.r, r.sa|//ae /a //c. J.a//s, ·..arr.J a/ //. N·r//ao//·a
(Mass.) /asaa. /·s///a|. T//s .//J.o/. cas .·a.|as/c.|v /ra..J /· ..|.rv,
c//./ cas .a/.a /r..|v /a Aaeas/ aaJ cas er·ca aaJ |aa|.J /a a /|·/ //a/
/aJ |..a /.r//|/..J /a //. |a/. c/a/.r ·r .ar|v s/r/ae c/// //. s·|/J r.s/Ja.
aaJ s.ra//aes /r·o a s.cae. //|/.r |.J s//aa/.J ·a //. /·s///a| er·aaJs.¨
And io drivc homc ihc µoini ihai human wasic is highlv dan-
gcrous, ihc lullciin adds, 'Pr·|a||v a· .//J.o/. /a Ao.r/.aa //s/·rv |./-
/.r /||as/ra/.s //. J/r. r.sa|/s //a/ oav /·||·c ·a. //·ae//|.ss a./ //aa //.
·a/|r.a| ·/ /v//·/J /.c.r a/ P|vo·a//, Pa., /a !885. la ]aaaarv aaJ
I.|raarv ·/ //a/ v.ar //. a/e// J/s./are.s ·/ ·a. /v//·/J /.c.r /a//.a/ c.r.
//r·ca ·a/ a/·a //. sa·c a.ar //s /·o.. T/.s., .arr/.J |v s/r/ae //acs
/a/· //. /a||/. ca/.r sa//|v, .aas.J aa .//J.o/. raaa/ae /r·o A/r/| /·
124 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
S.//.o|.r. la a /·/a| /·/a|a//·a ·/ a|·a/ 8,000, !,!01 /.rs·as c.r.
a//a.|.J |v //. J/s.as. aaJ !!1 J/.J.¨
1hc U.S. govcrnmcni lullciin insisicd ihai ihc usc oí human
cxcrcmcni as ícriilizcr was loih ¨dangcrous" and ¨disgusiing." Ii
warncd ihai, 'aaJ.r a· ./r.aos/aa..s s/·a|J sa./ cas/.s |. as.J ·a |aaJ
J.c·/.J /· ..|.rv, |.//a.., raJ/s/.s, .a.ao|.rs, .a||ae.s, /·oa/·.s, o.|·as,
·r ·//.r c.e./a||.s, |.rr/.s, ·r |·c-er·c/ae /ra//s //a/ ar. .a/.a rac.
D/s.as. e.ros ·r /ar//.|.s ·/ s·/| .·a/a/a/ae sa./ e.ros oav aJ/.r. /· //.
s|/as ·/ c.e./a||.s ·r /ra//s aaJ /a/../ //. .a/.r.¨ 1hc lullciin summcd ii
uµ lv siaiing, 'N.c.r as. //aoaaj cas/. /· /.r//|/.. ·r /rr/ea/. c.e./a||.
earJ.as.¨ 1hc ícar oí human cxcrcmcni was so scvcrc ii was adviscd
ihai ihc conicnis oí luclci ioilcis lc lurncd, loilcd, or chcmicallv
disiníccicd, ihcn luricd in a ircnch.
5
1his dcgrcc oí íccoµholia, íosicrcd and sµrcad lv govcrn-
mcni auihoriiics and oihcrs who lncw oí no consiruciivc alicrnaiivcs
io wasic disµosal, siill mainiains a íirm griµ on ihc wcsicrn µsvchc. Ii
mav ialc a long iimc io climinaic. A morc consiruciivc aiiiiudc is dis-
µlavcd lv scicniisis wiih a lroadcr lnowlcdgc oí ihc sulicci oí rccv-
cling humanurc íor agriculiural µurµoscs. 1hcv rcalizc ihai ihc lcn-
cíiis oí µroµcr humanurc rccvcling ¨íar ouiwcigh anv disadvaniagcs
írom ihc hcalih µoini oí vicw."
6
1H£ HUNZAS
Ii`s alrcadv lccn mcniioncd ihai cniirc civilizaiions havc
rccvclcd humanurc íor ihousands oí vcars. 1hai should µrovidc a
íairlv convincing icsiimonv aloui ihc uscíulncss oí humanurc as an
agriculiural rcsourcc. Manv µcoµlc havc hcard oí ihc ¨Hcalihv
Hunzas," a µcoµlc in whai is now a µari oí Palisian who rcsidc among
ihc Himalavan µcals, and rouiinclv livc io lc 12O vcars old. 1hc
Hunzas gaincd íamc in ihc Uniicd Siaics during ihc 196Os hcalih
íood cra whcn scvcral lools wcrc wriiicn aloui ihc íaniasiic longcvi-
iv oí ihis ancicni µcoµlc. 1hcir cxiraordinarv hcalih has lccn aiiril-
uicd io ihc oualiiv oí ihcir ovcrall liícsivlc, including ihc oualiiv oí
ihc naiural íood ihcv cai and ihc soil ii`s grown on. £cw µcoµlc, how-
cvcr, rcalizc ihai ihc Hunzas also comµosi ihcir humanurc and usc ii
io grow ihcir íood. 1hcv`rc said io havc viriuallv no discasc, no can-
ccr, no hcari or inicsiinal iroullc, and ihcv rcgularlv livc io lc ovcr a
hundrcd vcars old whilc 's/ae/ae, Jaa./ae aaJ oa|/ae |·c. a|| //. cav
/· //. erac..¨
According io 1omµlins (1989), 'la //./r oaaar/ae, //.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 125
Haa.a|a/s r./ara .c.rv///ae //.v .aa /· //. s·/|. a|| c.e./a||. /ar/s aaJ
//...s //a/ c/|| a·/ s.rc. as /··J /·r /aoaas ·r |.as/, /a.|aJ/ae sa./ /a||.a
|.ac.s as //. .a//|. c/|| a·/ .a/, o/x.J c/// //./r ·ca s.as·a.J .x.r.o.a/
|cmµhasis minc], /|as Jaae aaJ ar/a. /r·o //./r |aras. L/|. //./r (//a.s.
a./e/|·rs, //. Haa.a|a/s sac. //./r ·ca oaaar. /a s/../a| aaJ.rer·aaJ
ca/s, .|.ar ·/ aav .·a/ao/aa||. s/r.aos, //.r. /· |. s.as·a.J /·r a e··J s/x
o·a//s. Fc.rv///ae //a/ ·a.. /aJ |//. /s e/c.a a.c /· |//. //r·ae/ |·c/ae
/aaJs.¨
7
Sir Allcri Howard wroic in 1947, 'T/. Haa.as ar. J.s.r/|.J as
/ar sar/ass/ae /a /.a|// aaJ s/r.ae// //. /a/a|//aa/s ·/ o·s/ ·//.r .·aa/r/.s,
a Haa.a .aa ca|| a.r·ss //. o·aa/a/as /· G/|e// s/x/v o/|.s acav, /raas-
a./ //s |as/a.ss, aaJ r./ara /·r//c/// c///·a/ /..|/ae aaJa|v /a//ea.J.¨ Sir
Howard mainiains ihai ihis is illusiraiivc oí ihc viial conncciion
lciwccn a sound agriculiurc and good hcalih, insisiing ihai ihc
Hunzas havc cvolvcd a svsicm oí íarming which is µcrícci. Hc adds,
'T· /r·c/J. //. .ss.a//a| /aoas, .c.rv |/aJ ·/ cas/. /s/.j, c.e./a||., aa/oa|
aaJ /aoaa, /s o/x.J aaJ J..av.J /·e.//.r |v //. .a|//ca/·rs aaJ /a.·r/·-
ra/.J /a/· //. s·/|, //. |ac ·/ r./ara /s ·|.v.J, //. aas..a /ar/ ·/ //. r.c·-
|a//·a ·/ //. er.a/ \/..| /s /a////a||v a..·o/|/s/.J.¨
8
Sir Howard`s vicw
is ihai soil ícriiliiv is ihc rcal lasis oí µullic hcalih.
A mcdical µroícssional associaicd wiih ihc Hunzas claimcd,
'Dar/ae //. /.r/·J ·/ ov ass·./a//·a c/// //.s. /.·/|. l a.c.r sac a .as.
·/ as//.a/. Jvs/./s/a, ·/ eas/r/. ·r Ja·J.aa| a|..r, ·/ a//.aJ/.///s, ·/ oa.·as
.·|///s, ·/ .aa..r . . . Ao·ae //.s. /.·/|. //. a|J·o.a ·c.r-s.as///c. /· a.rc.
/o/r.ss/·as, /· /a//ea., aax/./v, ·r .·|J cas aa|a·ca. laJ..J //./r |a·vaa/
a|J·o/aa| /.a|// /as, s/a.. ov r./ara /· //. \.s/, /r·c/J.J a r.oar|a||.
.·a/ras/ c/// //. Jvs/.///. aaJ .·|·a/. |ao.a/a//·as ·/ ·ar //e/|v ./c/|/..J
.·ooaa///.s.¨
Sir Howard adds, 'T/. r.oar|a||. /.a|// ·/ //.s. /.·/|. /s ·a. ·/
//. .·as.aa.a..s ·/ //./r aer/.a|/ar., /a c//./ //. |ac ·/ r./ara /s s.ra/a-
|·as|v ·|.v.J. A|| //./r c.e./a||., aa/oa| aaJ /aoaa cas/.s /s/.j ar. .ar.-
/a||v r./ara.J /· //. s·/| ·/ //. /rr/ea/.J /.rra..s c//./ /r·Ja.. //. era/a,
/ra//, aaJ c.e./a||.s c//./ /..J //.o.¨
9
1hc Hunzas comµosicd ihcir organic maicrial, ihcrclv rccv-
cling ii. 1his aciuallv cnhanccd ihcir µcrsonal hcalih and ihc hcalih
oí ihcir communiiv. 1hc U.S. Dcµarimcni oí Agriculiurc was aµµar-
cnilv unawarc oí ihc cíícciivc naiural µroccss oí comµosiing in 1928
whcn ihcv dcscrilcd ihc rccvcling oí humanurc as ¨dangcrous and
disgusiing." No douli ihc USDA would havc coníuscd ihc Hunzas,
who had íor ccniurics saíclv and consiruciivclv cngagcd in such rccv-
cling.
126 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
PA1HOG£NS*
Clcarlv, cvcn ihc µrimiiivc comµosiing oí humanurc íor agri-
culiural µurµoscs docs noi ncccssarilv µosc a ihrcai io human hcalih,
as cvidcnccd lv ihc Hunzas. Yci, íccal .·a/ao/aa//·a oí ihc cnviron-
mcni ccriainlv .aa µosc a ihrcai io human hcalih. £cccs can harlor a
hosi oí discasc organisms which can coniaminaic ihc cnvironmcni io
inícci innoccni µcoµlc whcn human cxcrcmcni is discardcd as a
wasic maicrial. In íaci, cvcn a hcalihv µcrson aµµarcnilv írcc oí dis-
casc can µass µoicniiallv dangcrous µaihogcns ihrough ihcir íccal
maicrial, simµlv lv lcing a carricr. 1hc World Hcalih Organizaiion
csiimaics ihai 8O% oí all discascs arc rclaicd io inadcouaic saniiaiion
and µolluicd waicr, and ihai halí oí ihc world`s hosµiial lcds arc
occuµicd lv µaiicnis who suíícr írom waicr-rclaicd discascs.
11
As
such, ihc comµosiing oí humanurc would ccriainlv sccm lilc a worih-
whilc undcrialing worldwidc.
1hc íollowing iníormaiion is noi mcani io lc alarming. Ii`s
includcd íor ihc salc oí ihoroughncss, and io illusiraic ihc nccd io
.·o/·s/ humanurc, raihcr ihan io irv io usc ii raw íor agriculiural
µurµoscs. Whcn ihc comµosiing µroccss is sidc-sicµµcd and µaiho-
gcnic wasic is disµcrscd inio ihc cnvironmcni, various discascs and
worms can inícci ihc µoµulaiion living in ihc coniaminaicd arca.
1his íaci has lccn widclv documcnicd.
£or cxamµlc, considcr ihc íollowing ouoic írom Icrvis (199O):
'T/. as. ·/ a/e// s·/| /rac /aoaa /..a| oa/.r/a| aaJ ar/a.j as /.r//|/..r /s
a·/ c///·a/ //s /.a|// /a.arJs. H./a////s B /s /r.ca|.a/ /a Da.a/vaaa
/(//aaj, as // /s /a //. r.s/ ·/ (//aa. S·o. .//·r/ /s |./ae oaJ. /· ./.o/.a|-
|v /r.a/ //aoaaar.j ·r a/ |.as/ /· o/x // c/// ·//.r /aer.J/.a/s |./·r. // /s
a//|/.J /· //. //.|Js. Ba/ ./.o/.a|s ar. .x/.as/c., aaJ ·|J cavs J/. /arJ.
N/e// s·/| /s ·a. r.as·a c/v ar|aa (//a.s. ar. s· s.ra/a|·as a|·a/ /..|/ae
/ra//, aaJ c/v rac c.e./a||.s ar. a·/ /ar/ ·/ //. J/./. N.ea//c. /.a/ar.s
as/J., ·a. /as ·a|v /· |··| a/ sa/.||//. //·/·s ·/ //. er..a |.|/ //a/ sarr·aaJs
(//aa´s .///.s /· aaJ.rs/aaJ //. ca|a. ·/ a/e// s·/|.¨
12
On ihc oihcr hand, ¨worms and discasc" arc noi sµrcad lv
µroµcrlv µrcµarcd comµosi, nor lv hcalihv µcoµlc. 1hcrc is no rcason
io lclicvc ihai ihc manurc oí a hcalihv µcrson is dangcrous unlcss lcíi
io accumulaic, µolluic waicr wiih inicsiinal lacicria, or lrccd ílics
and/or rais, all oí which arc ihc rcsulis oí ncgligcncc or lad cusiom-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 127
*Much oí ihc iníormaiion in ihis scciion is adaµicd írom Aµµroµriaic 1cchnologv íor Waicr Suµµlv and
Saniiaiion, lv £cachcm ci al., World Banl, 198O.
1O
1his comµrchcnsivc worl ciics 394 rcícrcnccs írom
ihroughoui ihc world, and was carricd oui as µari oí ihc World Banl`s rcscarch µroicci on aµµroµriaic icch-
nologv íor waicr suµµlv and saniiaiion.
128 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
Table 7.1
POTENTIAL PATHOGENS IN URINE
Healthy urine on its way out of the human body may contain up to 1,000 bac-
teria, of several types, per milliliter. More than 100,000 bacteria of a single
type per milliliter signals a urinary tract infection. Ìnfected individuals will pass
pathogens in the urine that may include:
Bacteria Disease
Salmonella typhi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Typhoid
Salmonella paratyphi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paratyphoid fever
Leptospira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Leptospirosis
Yersinia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yersiniosis
Escherichia coli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Diarrhea
Worms Disease
Schistosoma haematobium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .schistosomiasis
Source: Feachem et al., 1980; and Franceys, et al. 1992; and Lewis, Ricki. (1992).
FDA Consumer, September 1992. p. 41.
Table 7.2
MINIMAL INFECTIVE DOSES
For Some Pathogens and Parasites
Pathogen MinimaI Infective Dose
Ascaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 eggs
Cryptosporidium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 cysts
Entamoeba coli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 cysts
Escherichia coli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000,000-100,000,000
Giardia lamblia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-100 cysts
Hepatitis A virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 PFU
Salmonella spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,000-10,000,000
Shigella spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-100
Streptococcus fecalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,000,000,000
Vibrio cholerae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000
Pathogens have various degrees of virulence, which is their potential for
causing disease in humans. The minimal infective dose is the number of
organisms needed to establish infection.
Source: Bitton, Gabriel. (1994). Wastewater Microbiology.
New York: Wiley-Liss, Ìnc., p. 77-78. and Biocycle, September 1998, p. 62.
arv haliis. Ii should lc undcrsiood ihai ihc lrcaih onc cxhalcs can
also lc ihc carricr oí dangcrous µaihogcns, as can onc`s saliva and
sµuium. 1hc issuc is coníuscd lv ihc noiion ihai ií somcihing is
µoicniiallv dangcrous, ihcn ii is alwavs dangcrous, which is noi iruc.
£urihcrmorc, ii is gcncrallv noi undcrsiood ihai ihc carcíullv man-
agcd ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing oí humanurc convcris ii inio a sani-
iizcd agriculiural rcsourcc. No oihcr svsicm oí íccal maicrial and
urinc rccvcling or disµosal can achicvc ihis wiihoui ihc usc oí dangcr-
ous chcmical µoisons or a high lcvcl oí icchnologv and cncrgv con-
sumµiion.
£vcn urinc, usuallv considcrcd sicrilc, can coniain discasc
gcrms (scc 1allc 7.1). Urinc, lilc humanurc, is valuallc íor iis soil
nuiricnis. Ii is csiimaicd ihai onc µcrson`s annual urinc ouiµui con-
iains cnough soil nuiricnis io grow grain io íccd ihai µcrson íor a
vcar.
13
1hcrcíorc, ii is iusi as imµoriani io rccvclc urinc as ii is io
rccvclc humanurc, and comµosiing µrovidcs an cxccllcni mcans íor
doing so.
1hc µaihogcns ihai can cxisi in humanurc can lc dividcd inio
íour gcncral caicgorics: c/ras.s, |a./.r/a, /r·/·.·a and c·ros
(/.|o/a//s).
VIRUS£S
£irsi discovcrcd in ihc 189Os lv a Russian scicniisi, viruscs
arc among ihc simµlcsi and smallcsi oí liíc íorms. Manv scicniisis
don`i cvcn considcr ihcm io lc organisms. 1hcv arc much smallcr and
simµlcr ihan lacicria (somc viruscs arc cvcn µarasiiic io lacicria),
and ihc simµlcsi íorm mav consisi onlv oí an RNA molcculc. Bv dcí-
iniiion, a virus is an cniiiv which coniains ihc iníormaiion ncccssarv
íor iis own rcµlicaiion, lui docs noi µosscss ihc µhvsical clcmcnis íor
such rcµlicaiion ihcv havc ihc soíiwarc, lui noi ihc hardwarc. In
ordcr io rcµroducc, ihcrcíorc, viruscs rclv on ihc hardwarc oí ihc
iníccicd hosi ccll which is rc-µrogrammcd lv ihc virus in ordcr io
rcµroducc viral nuclcic acid. As such, viruscs cannoi rcµroducc oui-
sidc ihc hosi ccll.
14
1hcrc arc morc ihan 14O ivµcs oí viruscs worldwidc ihai can
lc µasscd ihrough human ícccs, including µolioviruscs, coxsacl-
icviruscs (causing mcningiiis and mvocardiiis), cchoviruscs (causing
mcningiiis and cnicriiis), rcovirus (causing cnicriiis), adcnovirus
(causing rcsµiraiorv illncss), inícciious hcµaiiiis (causing iaundicc),
and oihcrs (scc 1allc 7.3). During µcriods oí inícciion, onc hundrcd
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 129
130 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
Table 7.4
POTENTIAL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN FECES
Bacteria Disease SymptomIess Carrier?
Campylobacter ..................Diarrhea ........................yes
E. coli ................................Diarrhea .........................yes
Salmonella typhi ..............Typhoid fever .................yes
Salmonella paratyphi ........Paratyphoid fever...........yes
Other Salmonellae ............Food poisoning .............yes
Shigella .............................Dysentery.......................yes
Vibrio cholerae .................Cholera ..........................yes
Other Vibrios ....................Diarrhea ........................yes
Yersinia..............................Yersiniosis......................yes
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
Table 7.3
POTENTIAL VIRAL PATHOGENS IN FECES
Virus Disease Can Carrier Be
SymptomIess?
Adenoviruses ..........varies .....................................yes
Coxsackievirus ........varies .....................................yes
Echoviruses ............varies .....................................yes
Hepatitis A................Ìnfectious hepatitis..................yes
Polioviruses ............Poliomyelitis ...........................yes
Reoviruses ..............varies .....................................yes
Rotaviruses..............Diarrhea..................................yes
Rotaviruses may be responsible for the majority of infant diarrheas. Hepatitis
A causes infectious hepatitis, often without symptoms, especially in children.
Coxsackievirus infection can lead to meningitis, fevers, respiratory diseases,
paralysis, and myocarditis. Echovirus infection can cause simple fever, menin-
gitis, diarrhea, or respiratory illness. Most poliovirus infections don't give rise
to any clinical illness, although sometimes infection causes a mild, influenza-
like illness which may lead to virus-meningitis, paralytic poliomyelitis, perma-
nent disability, or death. Ìt's estimated that almost everyone in developing
countries becomes infected with poliovirus, and that one out of every thou-
sand poliovirus infections leads to paralytic poliomyelitis.
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
million io onc irillion viruscs can lc cxcrcicd wiih cach gram oí íccal
maicrial.
15
BAC1£RIA
Oí ihc µaihogcnic lacicria, ihc gcnus Sa|o·a.||a is signiíicani
lccausc ii coniains sµccics causing ivµhoid ícvcr, µaraivµhoid, and
gasiroinicsiinal disiurlanccs. Anoihcr gcnus oí lacicria, S//e.||a,
causcs dvscnicrv. Mvolacicria causc iulcrculosis (scc 1allc 7.4).
Howcvcr, according io Goiaas, µaihogcnic lacicria 'ar. aaa||. /· sar-
c/c. /.o/.ra/ar.s ·/ 55
0
-60
0
( /·r |·ae.r //aa 30 o/aa/.s /· ·a. /·ar.¨
16
PRO1OZOA
1hc µaihogcnic µroiozoa includc Fa/ao·.|a //s/·|v//.a (caus-
ing amoclic dvscnicrv), and mcmlcrs oí ihc Harimanclla-Nacglcria
grouµ (causing mcningo-cnccµhaliiis scc 1allc 7.5). 1hc cvsi siagc
in ihc liíc cvclc oí µroiozoa is ihc µrimarv mcans oí disscminaiion as
ihc amocla dic ouicllv oncc ouisidc ihc human lodv. Cvsis musi lc
lcµi moisi in ordcr io rcmain viallc íor anv cxicndcd µcriod.
17
PARASI1IC WORMS
£inallv, a numlcr oí µarasiiic worms µass ihcir cggs in ícccs,
including hoolworms, roundworms (As.ar/s) and whiµworms (scc
1allc 7.6). Various rcscarchcrs havc rcµoricd 59 io 8O worm cggs in
samµlcd liicrs oí scwagc. 1his suggcsis ihai lillions oí µaihogcnic
worm cggs mav rcach an avcragc wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlani dailv.
1hcsc cggs icnd io lc rcsisiani io cnvironmcnial condiiions duc io a
ihicl ouicr covcring,
18
and ihcv arc cxircmclv rcsisiani io ihc sludgc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 131
Table 7.5
POTENTIAL PROTOZOAN PATHOGENS IN FECES
Protozoa Disease SymptomIess Carrier?
Balantidium coli .................Diarrhea .......................................yes
Entamoeba histolytica ........Dysentery, colonic .......................yes
ulceration, liver abscess
Giardia lamblia ..................Diarrhea........................................yes
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
132 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
Table 7.6
POTENTIAL WORM PATHOGENS IN FECES
Note: hum. = human; intes.=intestinal; Chin.=Chinese; Vietn=Vietnam
Common Name Pathogen Transmission Distribution
1. Hookworm . . . . . .Ancylostoma doudenale . .Hum.-soil-human. . . . . . . .Warm, wet climates
Necator americanus
2. ---------- . . . . . . . . . .Heterophyes heterophyes .Dog/cat-snail-fish-hum. . .Mid. East/S. Eur./Asia
3. ---------- . . . . . . . . . .Gastrodiscoides . . . . . . . . .Pig -snail- . . . . . . . . . . . .Ìndia/Bangla./Vietn./
aquatic vegetation-hum. Philippines
4. Giant intes. fluke . .Fasciolopsis buski . . . . . .Human/pig-snail- . . . . . . .S.E. Asia/China
aquatic vegetation-human
5. Sheep liver fluke . .Fasciola hepatica . . . . . . .Sheep -snail - . . . . . . . . .Worldwide
aquatic vegetation -human
6. Pinworm . . . . . . . .Enterobius vermicularis . .Human-human . . . . . . . . .Worldwide
7. Fish tapeworm . . .Diphyllobothrium latum . . .Human/animal-copepod - .Mainly temperate
fish-human
8. Cat liver fluke . . . .Opisthorchis felineus . . . .Animal-aquatic snail- . . . .USSR/Thailand
O. viverrini fish-human
9. Chin. liver fluke . . .Chlonorchis sinensi . . . . . .Animal/human-snail-fish- .S.E. Asia
human
10. Roundworm . . . . . .Ascaris lumbricoides . . . . .Human-soil-human . . . . . .Worldwide
11. Dwarf tapeworm . .Hymenolepsis spp. . . . . . .Human/rodent-human . . .Worldwide
12. ---------- . . . . . . . . .Metagonimus yokogawai .Dog/cat-snail-fish-hum. . .Jap./Kor./Chi./
Taiw./Siberia
13. Lung fluke . . . . . . .Paragonimus westermani .Animal/human-snail - . . . .S.E. Asia/Africa/
crab/crayfish-human . . . . .S. America
14. Schistosome, bil. . .S. haematobium . . . . . . . . .Human-snail-human . . . .Africa, M. East, Ìndia
---------- . . . . . . . . . . . .Schistosoma. mansoni . . . .Human-snail-human . . . . .Afr., Arabia, Ltn. Amer.
---------- . . . . . . . . . . . .S. japonicum . . . . . . . . . . .Animal/hum.-snail-hum. .S.E. Asia
15. Threadworm . . . . .Strongyloides stercoralis . .Hum.-hum. (dog-hum.?) . .Warm, wet climates
16. Beef tapeworm . . .Taenia saginata . . . . . . . .Human-cow-human . . . . .Worldwide
Pork tapeworm . . .T. solium . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Human-pig-human or . . .Worldwide
human-human
17. Whipworm . . . . . . .Trichuris trichiura . . . . . . .Human-soil-human . . . . . .Worldwide
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
digcsiion µroccss common in wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlanis. 1hrcc
monihs cxµosurc io anacrolic sludgc digcsiion µroccsscs aµµcars io
havc liiilc cíícci on ihc vialiliiv oí As.ar/s cggs: aíicr six monihs, 1O%
oí ihc cggs mav siill lc viallc. £vcn aíicr a vcar in sludgc, somc viallc
cggs mav lc íound.
19
In 1949, an cµidcmic oí roundworm inícsiaiion
in Gcrmanv was dirccilv iraccd io ihc usc oí raw scwagc io ícriilizc
gardcns. 1hc scwagc coniaincd 54O As.ar/s cggs µcr 1OO ml, and ovcr
9O% oí ihc µoµulaiion lccamc iníccicd.
2O
Ií ihcrc arc aloui 59 io 8O worm cggs in a liicr samµlc oí
scwagc, ihcn wc could rcasonallv csiimaic ihai ihcrc arc 7O cggs µcr
liicr, or 28O cggs µcr gallon io gci a rough avcragc. 1hai mcans
aµµroximaiclv 28O µaihogcnic worm cggs µcr gallon oí wasicwaicr
could cnicr wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlanis. Mv local wasicwaicr ircai-
mcni µlani scrvcs a µoµulaiion oí cighi ihousand µcoµlc and collccis
aloui 1.5 million gallons oí wasicwaicr dailv. 1hai mcans ihcrc could
lc 42O million worm cggs cnicring ihc µlani cach dav and sciiling
inio ihc sludgc. In a vcar`s iimc, ovcr 153 |/||/·a µarasiiic cggs can
µass ihrough mv local small-iown wasicwaicr íaciliiv. Ici`s lool ai
ihc worsi-casc sccnario: all ihc cggs survivc in ihc sludgc lccausc
ihcv`rc rcsisiani io ihc cnvironmcnial condiiions ai ihc µlani. During
ihc vcar, 3O iracior-irailcr loads oí sludgc arc haulcd oui oí ihc local
íaciliiv. £ach iruclload oí sludgc could ihcorciicallv coniain ovcr 5
|/||/·a µaihogcnic worm cggs, cn rouic io mavlc a íarmcr`s íicld, lui
µrolallv io a landíill.
Ii is inicrcsiing io noic ihai roundworms co-cvolvcd ovcr mil-
lcnnia as µarasiics oí ihc human sµccics lv ialing advaniagc oí ihc
long-sianding human halii oí dcíccaiing on soil. Sincc roundworms
livc in ihc human inicsiincs, lui rcouirc a µcriod in ihc soil íor ihcir
dcvcloµmcni, ihcir sµccics is µcrµciuaicd lv our lad haliis. Ií wc
humans ncvcr allowcd our cxcrcmcni io comc in coniaci wiih soil,
and ií wc insicad comµosicd ii, ihc µarasiiic sµccics lnown as As.ar/s
|ao|r/.·/J.s, a µarasiic ihai has µlagucd us íor µcrhaµs hundrcds oí
ihousands oí vcars, would soon lccomc cxiinci. 1hc human sµccics is
íinallv cvolving io ihc cxicni ihai wc arc lcginning io undcrsiand
comµosi and iis aliliiv io dcsirov µarasiics. Wc nccd io ialc ihai a
sicµ íurihcr and cniirclv µrcvcni our cxcrcmcni írom µolluiing ihc
cnvironmcni. Oihcrwisc, wc will coniinuc io lc ouismaricd lv ihc
µarasiiic worms ihai rclv on our ignorancc and carclcssncss íor ihcir
own survival.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 133
INDICA1OR PA1HOG£NS
laJ/.a/·r /a//·e.as arc
µaihogcns whosc dcicciion in
soil or waicr scrvcs as cvidcncc
ihai íccal coniaminaiion cxisis.
1hc asiuic rcadcr will havc
noiiccd ihai manv oí ihc µaih-
ogcnic worms lisicd in 1allc
7.6 arc noi íound in ihc Uniicd
Siaics. Oí ihosc ihai arc, ihc
As.ar/s |ao|r/.·/J.s (round-
worm) is ihc mosi µcrsisicni,
and can scrvc as an indicaior
íor ihc µrcscncc oí µaihogcnic
hclminihs in ihc cnvironmcni.
A singlc ícmalc roundworm
mav lav as manv as 27 million
cggs in hcr liíciimc.
21
1hcsc
cggs arc µroiccicd lv an ouicr
covcring ihai is rcsisiani io
chcmicals and cnallcs ihc cggs
io rcmain viallc in soil íor long
µcriods oí iimc. 1hc cgg shcll
is madc oí íivc scµaraic lavcrs:
an ouicr and inncr mcmlranc,
wiih ihrcc iough lavcrs in
lciwccn. 1hc ouicr mcmlranc mav lccomc µariiallv hardcncd lv
hosiilc cnvironmcnial inílucnccs.
22
1hc rcµoricd vialiliiv oí round-
worm cggs (As.ar/s ova) in soil rangcs írom a couµlc oí wccls undcr
sunnv, sandv condiiions,
23
io iwo and a halí vcars,
24
íour vcars,
25
íivc
and a halí vcars,
26
or cvcn icn vcars
27
in soil, dcµcnding on ihc sourcc
oí ihc iníormaiion. Conscoucnilv, ihc .ees oí ihc roundworm sccm io
lc ihc lcsi indicaior íor dcicrmining ií µarasiiic worm µaihogcns arc
µrcscni in comµosi. In China, currcni siandards íor ihc agriculiural
rcusc oí humanurc rcouirc an As.ar/s morialiiv oí grcaicr ihan 95%.
As.ar/s cggs dcvcloµ ai icmµcraiurcs lciwccn 15.5
O
C (59.9O
£) and 35
O
C (95
O
£), lui ihc cggs disinicgraic ai icmµcraiurcs alovc
38
O
C (1OO.4O £).
28
1hc icmµcraiurcs gcncraicd during ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing can casilv cxcccd lcvcls ncccssarv io dcsirov roundworm
cggs.
134 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
Table 7.7
AVERAGE DENSÌTY OF FECAL
COLÌFORMS EXCRETED ÌN 24 HOURS
(million/100ml)
Human......................... 13.0
Duck ............................ 33.0
Sheep .......................... 16.0
Pig ............................... 3.3
Chicken........................ 1.3
Cow ............................. 0.23
Turkey.......................... 0.29
Figure 7.1 ÷ Source: Recycling Treated Municipal
Wastewater and Sludge Through Forest and Cropland.
Edited by William E. Sopper and Louis T. Kardos. 1973. p.
82. Based on the work of Van Donsel, et al., 1967.
Onc wav io dcicrminc ií ihc comµosi vou`rc using is coniam-
inaicd wiih viallc roundworm cggs is io havc a siool analvsis donc ai
a local hosµiial. Ií vour comµosi is coniaminaicd and vou`rc using ihc
comµosi io grow vour own íood, ihcn ihcrc will lc a chancc ihai
vou`vc coniaminaicd voursclí. A siool analvsis will rcvcal whcihcr
ihai is ihc casc or noi. Such an analvsis is rclaiivclv incxµcnsivc.
I suliccicd mvsclí io ihrcc siool cxaminaiions ovcr a µcriod oí
iwclvc vcars as µari oí ihc rcscarch íor ihis lool. I had lccn comµosi-
ing humanurc íor íouriccn vcars ai ihc iimc oí ihc íirsi icsiing, and
26 vcars ai ihc iimc oí ihc ihird. I had uscd all oí ihc comµosi in mv
íood gardcns. Hundrcds oí oihcr µcoµlc had also uscd mv ioilci ovcr
ihc vcars, µoicniiallv coniaminaiing ii wiih As.ar/s. Yci, all siool
cxaminaiions wcrc comµlciclv ncgaiivc. As oí ihis wriiing, ncarlv
ihrcc dccadcs havc µasscd sincc I lcgan gardcning wiih humanurc
comµosi. During ihosc vcars, I havc raiscd scvcral hcalihv childrcn.
Our ioilci has lccn uscd lv counilcss µcoµlc, including manv
sirangcrs. All oí ihc ioilci maicrial has lccn comµosicd and uscd íor
gardcning µurµoscs in our homc gardcn.
1hcrc arc indicaiors oihcr ihan roundworm cggs ihai can lc
uscd io dcicrminc coniaminaiion oí waicr, soil or comµosi. laJ/.a/·r
|a./.r/a includc íccal coliíorms, which rcµroducc in ihc inicsiinal svs-
icms oí warm lloodcd animals (scc 1allc 7.7). Ií onc wanis io icsi a
waicr suµµlv íor íccal coniaminaiion, ihcn onc lools íor íccal col-
iíorms, usuallv Fs./.r/.//a .·|/. F. .·|/ is onc oí ihc mosi alundani
inicsiinal lacicria in humans: ovcr 2OO sµcciíic ivµcs cxisi. Alihough
somc oí ihcm can causc discasc, mosi arc harmlcss.
29
1hc alscncc oí
F. .·|/ in waicr indicaics ihai ihc waicr is írcc írom íccal coniamina-
iion.
Waicr icsis oíicn dcicrminc ihc lcvcl oí /·/a| .·|//·ros in ihc
waicr, rcµoricd as ihc numlcr oí coliíorms µcr 1OO ml. Such a icsi
mcasurcs a|| sµccics oí ihc coliíorm grouµ and is noi limiicd io
sµccics originaiing in warm-lloodcd animals. Sincc somc coliíorm
sµccics comc írom ihc soil, ihc rcsulis oí ihis icsi arc noi alwavs
indicaiivc oí íccal coniaminaiion in a sircam analvsis. Howcvcr, ihis
icsi can lc uscd íor ground waicr suµµlics, as no coliíorms should lc
µrcscni in ground waicr unlcss ii has lccn coniaminaicd lv a warm-
lloodcd animal.
I..a| coliíorms do noi muliiµlv ouisidc ihc inicsiincs oí
warm-lloodcd animals, and ihcir µrcscncc in waicr is unlilclv unlcss
ihcrc is íccal µolluiion. 1hcv survivc íor a shoricr iimc in naiural
waicrs ihan ihc coliíorm grouµ as a wholc, ihcrcíorc ihcir µrcscncc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 135
indicaics rclaiivclv rcccni µolluiion. In domcsiic scwagc, ihc íccal
coliíorm couni is usuallv 9O% or morc oí ihc ioial coliíorm couni, lui
in naiural sircams, íccal coliíorms mav coniriluic 1O-3O% oí ihc ioial
coliíorm dcnsiiv. Almosi all naiural waicrs havc a µrcscncc oí íccal
coliíorms, sincc all warm-lloodcd animals cxcrcic ihcm. Mosi siaics
in ihc U.S. limii ihc íccal coliíorm conccniraiion allowallc in waicrs
uscd íor waicr sµoris io 2OO íccal coliíorms µcr 1OO ml.
Bacicrial analvscs oí drinling waicr suµµlics arc rouiinclv
µrovidcd íor a small ícc lv agriculiural suµµlv íirms, waicr ircaimcni
comµanics or µrivaic lals.
P£RSIS1£NC£ O£ PA1HOG£NS
IN SOII, CROPS, MANUR£, AND SIUDG£
According io £cachcm ci al. (198O), ihc µcrsisicncc oí íccal
µaihogcns in ihc cnvironmcni can lc summarizcd as íollows:
IN SOII
Survival iimcs oí µaihogcns in soil arc aííccicd lv soil mois-
iurc, µH, ivµc oí soil, icmµcraiurc, sunlighi and organic maiicr.
Alihough íccal coliíorms can survivc íor scvcral vcars undcr oµiimum
condiiions, a 99% rcduciion is lilclv wiihin 25 davs in warm climaics
(scc £igurc 7.1). Sa|o·a.||a lacicria mav survivc íor a vcar in rich,
moisi, organic soil, alihough 5O davs would lc a morc ivµical survival
iimc. Viruscs can survivc uµ io ihrcc monihs in warm wcaihcr, and uµ
io six monihs in cold. Proiozoan cvsis arc unlilclv io survivc íor morc
ihan icn davs. Roundworm cggs can survivc íor scvcral vcars.
1hc viruscs, lacicria, µroiozoa and worms ihai can lc cxcrci-
cd in humanurc all havc limiicd survival iimcs ouisidc oí ihc human
lodv. 1allcs 7.8 ihrough 7.12 rcvcal ihcir survival iimcs in soil.
SURVIVAI O£ PA1HOG£NS ON CROPS
Bacicria and viruscs arc unlilclv io µcnciraic undamagcd
vcgciallc slins. £urihcrmorc, µaihogcns arc unlilclv io lc ialcn uµ
in ihc roois oí µlanis and iransµoricd io oihcr µoriions oí ihc µlani,
3O
alihough rcscarch µullishcd in 2OO2 indicaics ihai ai lcasi onc ivµc
oí F. .·|/ can cnicr lciiucc µlanis ihrough ihc rooi svsicms and iravcl
ihroughoui ihc cdillc µoriions oí ihc µlani.
AA
Somc µaihogcns can survivc on ihc suríaccs oí vcgciallcs,
136 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
csµcciallv rooi vcgciallcs, alihough sunshinc and low air humidiiv
will µromoic ihc dcaih oí µaihogcns. Viruscs can survivc uµ io iwo
monihs on croµs lui usuallv livc lcss ihan onc monih. Indicaior lac-
icria mav µcrsisi scvcral monihs, lui usuallv lcss ihan onc monih.
Proiozoan cvsis usuallv survivc lcss ihan iwo davs, and worm cggs
usuallv lasi lcss ihan onc monih. In siudics oí ihc survival oí As.ar/s
cggs on lciiucc and iomaiocs during a hoi, drv summcr, all cggs
dcgcncraicd cnough aíicr 27 io 35 davs io lc incaµallc oí inícciion.
31
Iciiucc and radishcs in Ohio sµravcd wiih scwagc inoculaicd
wiih Poliovirus I showcd a 99% rcduciion in µaihogcns aíicr six davs:
1OO% wcrc climinaicd aíicr 36 davs. Radishcs grown ouidoors in soil
ícriilizcd wiih írcsh ivµhoid-coniaminaicd ícccs íour davs aíicr
µlaniing showcd a µaihogcn survival µcriod oí lcss ihan 24 davs.
1omaiocs and lciiucc coniaminaicd wiih a susµcnsion oí roundworm
cggs showcd a 99% rcduciion in cggs in 19 davs and a 1OO% rcduc-
iion in íour wccls. 1hcsc icsis indicaic ihai ií ihcrc is anv douli
aloui µaihogcn coniaminaiion oí comµosi, ihc comµosi should lc
aµµlicd io long-scason croµs ai ihc iimc oí µlaniing so ihai suííicicni
iimc cnsucs íor ihc µaihogcns io dic lcíorc harvcsi.
PA1HOG£N SURVIVAI IN SIUDG£ AND ££C£S/URIN£
Viruscs can survivc uµ io íivc monihs, lui usuallv lcss ihan
ihrcc monihs in sludgc and nighi soil. Indicaior lacicria can survivc
uµ io íivc monihs, lui usuallv lcss ihan íour monihs. Salmoncllac
survivc uµ io íivc monihs, lui usuallv lcss ihan onc monih. 1ulcrclc
lacilli survivc uµ io iwo vcars, lui usuallv lcss ihan íivc monihs.
Proiozoan cvsis survivc uµ io onc monih, lui usuallv lcss ihan icn
davs. Worm cggs varv dcµcnding on sµccics, lui roundworm cggs
mav survivc íor manv monihs.
PA1HOG£N 1RANSMISSION 1HROUGH
VARIOUS 1OII£1 SYS1£MS
Ii is clcarlv cvidcni ihai human cxcrcmcni µosscsscs ihc caµa-
liliiv io iransmii various discascs. £or ihis rcason, ii should also lc
cvidcni ihai ihc comµosiing oí humanurc is a scrious undcrialing
and should noi lc donc in a írivolous, carclcss or haµhazard manncr.
1hc µaihogcns ihai mav lc µrcscni in humanurc havc various sur-
vival µcriods ouisidc ihc human lodv and mainiain varicd caµaciiics
íor rc-inícciing µcoµlc. 1his is whv ihc .ar./a| oaaae.o.a/ oí a ihcr-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 137
138 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
Table 7.8
SURVIVAL OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN SOIL
Viruses - These parasites, which are smaller than bacteria, can only reproduce inside
the animal or plant they parasitize. However, some can survive for long periods out-
side of their host.
Enteroviruses - Enteroviruses are those that reproduce in the intestinal tract. They
have been found to survive in soil for periods ranging between 15 and 170 days. The
following chart shows the survival times of enteroviruses in various types of soil and
soil conditions.
Soil Type pH % Moisture Temp. (
o
C) Days of Survival
(less than)
Sterile, sandy 7.5 10-20% . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . 130-170
10-20% . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-110
5.0 10-20% . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . 110-150
10-20% . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-90
Non-sterile, 7.5 10-20% . . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-170
sandy 10-20% . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-110
5.0 0-20% . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-150
10-20% . . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-60
Sterile, loamy 7.5 10-20% . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-150
10-20% . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-110
5.0 10-20% . . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-150
10-20% . . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-60
Non-sterile, 7.5 10-20% . . . . . . .3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-150
loamy 10-20% . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-110
5.0 10-20% . . . . . . .10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-130
10-20% . . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-60
Non-sterile, 7.5 10-20% . . . . . . .18-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25
sandy
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
Table 7.9
SURVIVAL TIME OF E. HISTOLYTICA PROTOZOA IN SOIL
Protozoa SoiI Moisture Temp (
o
C) SurvivaI
E. histolytica . .loam/sand . . .Damp . . .28-34 . . . . 8-10 days
E. histolytica .soil . . . . . . . . .Moist . .? . . . . . . .42-72 hrs.
E. histolytica . .soil . . . . . . . . .Dry . . . . .? . . . . . . .18-42 hrs.
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 139
Table 7.10
SURVIVAL TIMES OF SOME BACTERIA IN SOIL
Bacteria Soil Moisture Temp.(
o
C) Survival
Streptococci . . . . .Loam . . . . . . .? . . . . . . .? . . . . . .9-11 weeks
Streptococci . . . . .Sandy loam .? . . . . . . .? . . . . . . .5-6 weeks
S. typhi . . . . . . . . .various soils .? . . . . . . .22 . . . . . .2 days-400 days
Bovine tubercule .soil & dung .? . . . . . . . ? . . . . . .less than 178 days
bacilli
Leptospires . . . . .varied . . . .varied . . .summer . . .12 hrs-15 days
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
Table 7.11
SURVIVAL OF POLIOVIRUSES IN SOIL
Soil Type Virus Moisture Temp. (C) Days Survival
Sand dunes . . . . . . . .Poliovirus . . . .dry . . . . . . .? . . . . . . Less than 77
Sand dunes . . . . . . . .Poliovirus . . . .moist . . . . .? . . . . . . Less than 91
Loamy fine sand . . . .Poliovirus Ì . . .moist . . . . .4 . . . . . . 90% red. in 84
Loamy fine sand Poliovirus Ì moist 20 99.999%
reduction in 84
Soil irrigated w/ . . . . .Polioviruses . . .9-20% . . . .12-33 . . Less than 8
effluent, pH=8.5 1, 2 & 3
Sludge or effluent . . .Poliovirus Ì . . .180 mm . .-14-27 . . 96-123 after
irrigated soil total rain sludge applied
-14-27 89-96 after
effluent applied
190 mm . . .15-33 less than 11
total rain after sludge or
effluent applied
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
140 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
Table 7.12
SURVIVAL TIME OF SOME PATHOGENIC WORMS IN SOIL
SoiI Moisture Temp. (
0
C) SurvivaI
HOOKWORM LARVAE
Sand ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .room temp. . . . .< 4 months
Soil ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .open shade, . .< 6 months
Sumatra
Soil Moist . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dense shade . .9-11 weeks
Mod. shade . . .6-7.5 weeks
Sunlight . . . . . .5-10 days
Soil Water covered . . . . . . .varied . . . . . . . .10-43 days
Soil Moist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . .< 1 week
16 . . . . . . . . . . .14-17.5 weeks
27 . . . . . . . . . . .9-11 weeks
35 . . . . . . . . . . .< 3 weeks
40 . . . . . . . . . . .< 1 week
HOOKWORM OVA (EGGS)
Heated soil with water covered . . . . . . .15-27 . . . . . . . .9% after 2wks
night soil
Unheated soil with water covered . . . . . . .15-27 . . . . . . . .3% after 2wks
night soil
ROUNDWORM OVA
Sandy, shaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-36 . . . . . . . .31% dead after 54 d.
Sandy, sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-38 . . . . . . . .99% dead after 15 d.
Loam, shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-36 . . . . . . . .3.5% dead after 21 d.
Loam, sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-38 . . . . . . . .4% dead after 21 d.
Clay, shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-36 . . . . . . . .2% dead after 21 d.
Clay, sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-38 . . . . . . . .12% dead after 21 d.
Humus, shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-36 . . . . . . . .1.5% dead after 22 d.
Clay, shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-35 . . . . . . . .more than 90 d.
Sandy, shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-35 . . . . . . . .less than 90 d.
Sandy, sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-35 . . . . . . . .less than 90 d.
Soil irrigated w/sewage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .? . . . . . . . . . . . .less than 2.5 yrs.
Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .? . . . . . . . . . . . .2 years
Source: Feachem et al., 1980; d.=days; <=less than
Table 7.13
PARASITIC WORM EGG DEATH
Eggs Temp.(
0
C) SurvivaI
Schistosome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 minute
Hookworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 minute
Roundworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-30.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 hours
Roundworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 years
Roundworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 minutes
Roundworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 seconds
Source: Compost, Fertilizer, and Biogas Production from Human and Farm Wastes in the People's Republic of China,
(1978), M. G. McGarry and J. Stainforth, editors, Ìnternational Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada. p. 43.
moµhilic comµosi svsicm is imµoriani. Ncvcrihclcss, ihcrc is no
µrovcn, naiural, low-icch mcihod íor dcsiroving human µaihogcns in
organic rcíusc ihai is as succcssíul aaJ acccssillc io ihc avcragc
human as wcll-managcd ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing.
Bui whai haµµcns whcn ihc comµosi is noi wcll-managcd?
How dangcrous is ihc undcrialing whcn ihosc involvcd do noi malc
an cííori io cnsurc ihai ihc comµosi mainiains ihcrmoµhilic icmµcr-
aiurcs? In íaci, ihis is normallv whai haµµcns in mosi owncr-luili
and commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis. 1hcrmoµhilic comµosiing docs
noi occur in owncr-luili ioilcis lccausc ihosc rcsµonsillc oíicn malc
no cííori io crcaic ihc organic llcnd oí ingrcdicnis and ihc cnviron-
mcni nccdcd íor such a microlial rcsµonsc. In ihc casc oí mosi com-
mcrcial comµosiing ioilcis, ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing is noi cvcn
inicndcd, as ihc ioilcis arc dcsigncd io lc dchvdraiors raihcr ihan
ihcrmoµhilic comµosicrs.
On scvcral occasions, I havc sccn simµlc collcciion ioilci svs-
icms (sawdusi ioilcis) in which ihc comµosi was simµlv dumµcd in
an ouidoor µilc, noi in a lin, lacling urinc (and ihcrclv moisiurc),
and noi lavcrcd wiih ihc coarsc organic maicrial nccdcd íor air
cniraµmcni. Alihough ihcsc µilcs oí comµosi did noi givc oíí unµlcas-
ani odors (mosi µcoµlc havc cnough scnsc io insiinciivclv covcr odor-
ous organic maicrial in a comµosi µilc), ihcv also did noi ncccssarilv
lccomc ihcrmoµhilic (ihcir icmµcraiurcs wcrc ncvcr chcclcd).
Pcoµlc who arc noi vcrv conccrncd aloui worling wiih and managing
ihcir comµosi arc usuallv willing io lci ihc comµosi sii íor vcars
lcíorc usc, ií ihcv usc ii ai all. Pcrsons who arc casual aloui ihcir
comµosiing icnd io lc ihosc who arc comíoriallc wiih ihcir own siaic
oí hcalih and ihcrcíorc do noi ícar ihcir own cxcrcmcni. As long as
ihcv arc comlining ihcir humanurc wiih a carlonaccous maicrial
and lciiing ii comµosi, ihcrmoµhilicallv or noi, íor ai lcasi a vcar (an
addiiional vcar oí aging is rccommcndcd), ihcv arc vcrv unlilclv io
lc crcaiing anv hcalih µrollcms. Whai haµµcns io ihcsc casuallv con-
sirucicd comµosi µilcs? Incrcdillv, aíicr a couµlc oí vcars, ihcv iurn
inio humus and, ií lcíi cniirclv alonc, will simµlv lccomc covcrcd
wiih vcgciaiion and disaµµcar lacl inio ihc carih. I havc sccn ii wiih
mv own cvcs.
A diíícrcni siiuaiion occurs whcn humanurc írom a highlv
µaihogcnic µoµulaiion is lcing comµosicd. Such a µoµulaiion would
lc ihc rcsidcnis oí a hosµiial in an undcrdcvcloµcd counirv, íor cxam-
µlc, or anv rcsidcnis in a communiiv whcrc ccriain discascs or µara-
siics arc cndcmic. In ihai siiuaiion, ihc comµosicr musi malc cvcrv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 141
cííori ncccssarv io cnsurc ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing, adcouaic aging
iimc and adcouaic µaihogcn dcsiruciion.
1hc íollowing iníormaiion illusiraics ihc various wasic ircai-
mcni mcihods and comµosiing mcihods commonlv uscd iodav and
shows ihc iransmission oí µaihogcns ihrough ihc individual svsicms.
OU1HOUS£S AND PI1 IA1RIN£S
Ouihouscs havc odor µrollcms, lrccd ílics and µossillv mos-
ouiiocs, and µolluic groundwaicr. Howcvcr, ií ihc conicnis oí a µii
lairinc havc lccn íillcd ovcr and lcíi íor a minimum oí onc vcar, ihcrc
will lc no surviving µaihogcns cxccµi íor ihc µossililiiv oí round-
worm cggs, according io £cachcm. 1his risl is small cnough ihai ihc
conicnis oí µii lairincs, aíicr iwclvc monihs lurial, can lc uscd agri-
culiurallv. £ranccvs ci al. siaic, 'S·|/Js /r·o /// |a/r/a.s ar. /aa·.a·as //
//. |a/r/a.s /ac. a·/ |..a as.J /·r /c· v.ars ·r s·, as /a a|/.raa//ae J·a||.
///s.¨
32
S£P1IC 1ANKS
Ii is saíc io assumc ihai scµiic ianl cíílucnis and sludgc arc
highlv µaihogcnic (scc £igurc 7.3). Viruscs, µarasiiic worm cggs, lac-
icria and µroiozoa can lc cmiiicd írom scµiic ianl svsicms in viallc
condiiion.
CONV£N1IONAI S£WAG£ 1R£A1M£N1 PIAN1S
1hc onlv scwagc digcsiion µroccss µroducing a guaraniccd
µaihogcn-írcc sludgc is laich ihcrmoµhilic digcsiion in which all oí
ihc sludgc is mainiaincd ai 5O
o
C (122
o
£) íor 13 davs. Oihcr scwagc
digcsiion µroccsscs will allow ihc survival oí worm cggs and µossillv
µaihogcnic lacicria. 1vµical scwagc ircaimcni µlanis insicad usc a
coniinuous µroccss whcrc wasicwaicr is addcd dailv or morc írc-
oucnilv, ihcrclv guaraniccing ihc survival oí µaihogcns (scc £igurc
7.2).
I iool an inicrcsi in mv local wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlani
whcn I discovcrcd ihai ihc waicr in our local crccl lclow ihc wasic-
waicr dischargc µoini had icn iimcs ihc lcvcl oí niiraics ihai unµol-
luicd waicr has, and ihrcc iimcs ihc lcvcl oí niiraics acccµiallc íor
drinling waicr.
33
In oihcr words, ihc waicr lcing dischargcd írom ihc
waicr ircaimcni µlani was µolluicd. Wc had icsicd ihc waicr íor
142 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 143
niiraics, lui wc didn`i icsi íor µaihogcns or chlorinc lcvcls. Dcsµiic
ihc µolluiion, ihc niiraic lcvcls wcrc c////a |.ea| |/o//s íor wasicwaicr
dischargcs.
WAS1£ S1ABIIIZA1ION PONDS
Wasic sialilizaiion µonds, or lagoons, largc shallow µonds
widclv uscd in Norih Amcrica, Iaiin Amcrica, Aírica and Asia,
involvc ihc usc oí loih lcncíicial lacicria and algac in ihc dccomµo-
siiion oí organic wasic maicrials. Alihough ihcv can lrccd mosoui-
iocs, ihcv can lc dcsigncd and managcd wcll cnough io vicld
µaihogcn-írcc wasic waicr. Howcvcr, ihcv ivµicallv vicld waicr wiih
low conccniraiions oí loih µaihogcnic viruscs and lacicria (scc
£igurc 7.4).
COMPOS1ING 1OII£1S AND MOUID£RING 1OII£1S
Mosi mouldcring and commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis arc rcl-
aiivclv anacrolic and comµosi ai a low icmµcraiurc. According io
£cachcm ci al., a minimum rcicniion iimc oí ihrcc monihs µroduccs
a comµosi írcc oí all µaihogcns cxccµi µossillv somc inicsiinal worm
cggs. 1hc comµosi oliaincd írom ihcsc ivµcs oí ioilcis can ihcorcii-
callv lc comµosicd again in a ihcrmoµhilic µilc and rcndcrcd suii-
allc íor íood gardcns (scc £igurc 7.5 and 1allc 7.14). Oihcrwisc, ihc
comµosi can lc movcd io an ouidoor comµosi lin, lavcrcd and cov-
crcd wiih siraw (or oihcr lullv organic maicrial such as wccds or lcaí
mould), moisicncd, and lcíi io agc íor an addiiional vcar or iwo in
ordcr io dcsirov anv µossillc lingcring µaihogcns. Microlial aciiviiv
and carihworms will aid in ihc saniiaiion oí ihc comµosi ovcr iimc.
W£II-MANAG£D 1H£RMOPHIIIC COMPOS1ING SYS1£M
Comµlcic µaihogcn dcsiruciion is guaraniccd lv arriving ai a
icmµcraiurc oí 62
o
C (143.6
o
£) íor onc hour, 5O
o
C (122
O
£) íor onc dav,
46
O
C (114.8
O
£) íor onc wccl or 43
O
C (1O9.4
O
£) íor onc monih. Ii
aµµcars ihai no cxcrcicd µaihogcn can survivc a icmµcraiurc oí 65
O
C
(149
O
£) íor morc ihan a ícw minuics. A comµosi µilc coniaining
cniraµµcd oxvgcn mav raµidlv risc io a icmµcraiurc oí 55
O
C (131
O
£)
or alovc, or will mainiain a icmµcraiurc hoi cnough íor a long
cnough µcriod oí iimc io dcsirov human µaihogcns lcvond a
dcicciallc lcvcl (scc £igurc 7.6). As µaihogcn dcsiruciion is aidcd lv
144 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
microlial divcrsiiv, as discusscd in Chaµicr 3, cxccssivclv hcaiing a
comµosi µilc, such as lv íorcing air ihrough ii, can lc counicr-µro-
duciivc.
1allc 7.14 indicaics survival iimcs oí µaihogcns in a) soil,
l) anacrolic dccomµosiiion condiiions, c) comµosiing ioilcis and d)
ihcrmoµhilic comµosi µilcs.
MOR£ ON PARASI1IC WORMS
1his is a good sulicci io discuss in grcaicr dciail as ii is rarclv
a ioµic oí convcrsaiion in social circlcs, vci ii is imµoriani io ihosc
who arc conccrncd aloui µoicniial µaihogcns in comµosi. 1hcrcíorc,
lci`s lool ai ihc mosi common oí human worm µarasiics: µinworms,
hoolworms, whiµworms and roundworms.
PINWORMS
A couµlc oí mv lids had µinworms ai onc iimc during ihcir
childhood. I lnow cxacilv who ihcv goi ihcm írom (anoihcr lid), and
gciiing rid oí ihcm was a simµlc maiicr. Howcvcr, ihc rumor was cir-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 145
culaicd ihai ihcv goi ihcm írom our comµosi. Wc wcrc also iold io
worm our cais io µrcvcni µinworms in ihc lids (ihcsc rumors allcgcd-
lv originaicd in a docior`s oííicc). Yci, ihc µinworm liíc cvclc docs noi
includc a siagc in soil, comµosi, manurc or cais. 1hcsc unµlcasani
µarasiics arc sµrcad írom human io human lv dircci coniaci, and lv
inhaling cggs.
Pinworms (Fa/.r·|/as c.ro/.a|ar/s) lav microscoµic cggs ai ihc
anus oí a human lcing, iis onlv lnown hosi. 1his causcs iiching ai ihc
anus which is ihc µrimarv svmµiom oí µinworm inícsiaiion. 1hc cggs
can lc µiclcd uµ almosi anvwhcrc. Oncc in ihc human digcsiivc svs-
icm ihcv dcvcloµ inio ihc iinv worms. Somc csiimaic ihai µinworms
inícsi or havc inícsicd 75% oí all Ncw Yorl Ciiv childrcn in ihc ihrcc
io íivc vcar agc grouµ, and ihai similar íigurcs cxisi íor oihcr ciiics.
34
1hcsc worms havc ihc widcsi gcograµhic disiriluiion oí anv
oí ihc worm µarasiics, and arc csiimaicd io inícci 2O8.8 million µco-
µlc in ihc world (18 million in Canada and ihc U.S.). An £slimo vil-
lagc was íound io havc a 66% inícciion raic: a 6O% raic has lccn
íound in Brazil, and a 12% io 41% raic in Washingion D.C.
146 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 147
Table 7.15
THERMAL DEATH POÌNTS FOR COMMON PARASÌTES AND PATHOGENS
PATHOGEN THERMAL DEATH
Ascaris lumbricoides eggs . . . . . . . . . . . . Within 1 hour at temps over 50
0
C
Brucella abortus or B. suis . . . . . . . . . . . . Within 1 hour at 55
0
C
Corynebacterium diptheriae . . . . . . . . . . . Within 45 minutes at 55
0
C
Entamoeba histolytica cysts . . . . . . . . . . . Within a few minutes at 45
0
C
Escherichia coli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One hr at 55
0
C or 15-20 min. at 60
0
C
Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus . . . . . . Within 10 minutes at 50
0
C
Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis . Within 15 to 20 minutes at 66
0
C
Necator americanus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within 50 minutes at 45
0
C
Salmonella spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within 1 hr at 55C; 15-20 min. at 60
0
C
Salmonella typhosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No growth past 46C; death in 30 min. 55C
Shigella spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within one hour at 55
0
C
Streptococcus pyogenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within 10 minutes at 54
0
C
Taenia saginata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Within a few minutes at 55
0
C
Trichinella spiralis larvae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quickly killed at 55
0
C
Source: Gotaas, Harold B. (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . p.81.
World Health Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
Table 7.14
PATHOGEN SURVÌVAL BY COMPOSTÌNG OR SOÌL APPLÌCATÌON
Unheated Composting Toilet
Soil Anaerobic (Three mo. min. Thermophilic
Pathogen Application Digestion retention time) Composting
Enteric viruses . . May survive 5 mo .Over 3 mo. . . . . .Probably elim. .Killed rapidly at 60C
Salmonellae . . . . 3 mo. to 1 yr. . . . . .Several wks. . . . .Few may surv. .Dead in 20 hrs. at 60C
Shigellae . . . . . . Up to 3 mo. . . . . . .A few days . . . . .Prob. elim. . . . .Killed in 1 hr. at 55C
or in 10 days at 40C
E. coli . . . . . . . . . Several mo. . . . . . .Several wks. . . . .Prob. elim. . . . .Killed rapidly above 60C
Cholera vibrio . . . 1 wk. or less . . . . .1 or 2 wks. . . . . .Prob. elim. . . . .Killed rapidly above 55C
Leptospires . . . . Up to 15 days . . . .2 days or less . . .Eliminated . . . .Killed in 10 min. at 55C
Entamoeba . . . . 1 wk. or less . . . . .3 wks or less . . . .Eliminated . . . .Killed in 5 min. at 50C or
histolytica 1 day at 40
0
C
cysts
Hookworm . . . . . 20 weeks . . . . . . . .Will survive . . . . .May survive . . .Killed in 5 min. at 50C
eggs or 1 hr. at 45C
Roundworm . . . Several yrs. . . . . . .Many mo. . . . . . .Survive well . . .Killed in 2 hrs. at 55C, 20
(Ascaris) eggs hrs. at 50C, 200 hrs. at 45
0
C
Schistosome . . . One mo. . . . . . . . . .One mo. . . . . . . .Eliminated . . . .Killed in 1 hr. at 50
0
C
eggs
Taenia eggs . . . . Over 1 year . . . . . .A few mo. . . . . . .May survive . . .Killed in 10 min. at 59
0
C,
over 4 hrs. at 45
0
C
Source: Feachem et al., 1980
Inícciion is sµrcad lv ihc hand io mouih iransmission oí cggs
rcsuliing írom scraiching ihc anus, as wcll as írom lrcaihing airlornc
cggs. In houscholds wiih scvcral mcmlcrs iníccicd wiih µinworms,
92% oí dusi samµlcs coniaincd ihc cggs. 1hc dusi samµlcs wcrc col-
lccicd írom iallcs, chairs, lascloards, íloors, couchcs, drcsscrs,
shclvcs, window sills, µiciurc íramcs, ioilci scais, maiircsscs, laih
iuls, wash lasins and lcd shccis. Pinworm cggs havc also lccn íound
in ihc dusi írom school rooms and school caícicrias. Alihough dogs
and cais do noi harlor µinworms, ihc cggs can gci on ihcir íur and
íind ihcir wav lacl io ihcir human hosis. In aloui onc-ihird oí inícci-
cd childrcn, cggs mav lc íound undcr ihc íingcrnails.
Prcgnani ícmalc µinworms coniain 11,OOO io 15,OOO cggs.
£oriunaiclv, µinworm cggs don`i survivc long ouisidc ihcir hosi.
Room icmµcraiurc wiih 3O% io 54% rclaiivc humidiiv will lill oíí
morc ihan 9O% oí ihc cggs wiihin iwo davs. Ai highcr summcr icm-
µcraiurcs, 9O% will dic wiihin ihrcc hours. £ggs survivc longcsi (iwo
io six davs) undcr cool, humid condiiions: in drv air, nonc will sur-
vivc íor morc ihan 16 hours.
A worm`s liíc sµan is 37-53 davs: an inícciion would sclí-icr-
minaic in ihis µcriod, wiihoui ircaimcni, in ihc alscncc oí rcinícc-
iion. 1hc amouni oí iimc ihai µasscs írom ingcsiion oí cggs io ncw
cggs lcing laid ai ihc anus rangcs írom íour io six wccls.
35
la 95% ·/ /a/../.J /.rs·as, //ac·ro .ees ar.a´/ /·aaJ /a //. /...s.
1ransmission oí cggs io ícccs and io soil is noi µari oí ihc µinworm
liíc cvclc, which is onc rcason whv ihc cggs arcn`i lilclv io cnd uµ in
ciihcr ícccs or comµosi. £vcn ií ihcv do, ihcv ouicllv dic ouisidc ihc
human hosi.
Onc oí ihc worsi conscoucnccs oí µinworm inícsiaiion in chil-
drcn is ihc irauma oí ihc µarcnis, whosc ícclings oí guili, no maiicr
how clcan and conscicniious ihcv mav lc, arc undcrsiandallc.
Howcvcr, ií vou`rc comµosiing vour manurc, vou can lc surc ihai vou
arc noi ihcrclv lrccding or sµrcading µinworms. Quiic ihc conirarv,
anv µinworms or cggs gciiing inio vour comµosi arc lcing
dcsirovcd.
36
HOOKWORMS
Hoolworm sµccics in humans includc N..a/·r ao.r/.aaas,
Aa.v|·s/·oa Ja·J.aa|., A. |ra./|/.as., A. .aa/aao and A. ..v|aa/.ao.
1hcsc small worms arc aloui a ccniimcicr long, and humans
arc almosi ihc cxclusivc hosi oí A. Ja·J.aa|. and N. ao.r/.aaas. A
148 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
hoolworm oí cais and dogs, A. .aa/aao, is an cxircmclv rarc inicsiin-
al µarasiic oí humans.
1hc cggs arc µasscd in ihc ícccs and maiurc inio larvac oui-
sidc ihc human hosi in íavorallc condiiions. 1hc larvac aiiach ihcm-
sclvcs io ihc human hosi usuallv ai ihc loiiom oí ihc íooi whcn
ihcv`rc wallcd on, ihcn cnicr ihcir hosi ihrough µorcs, hair íolliclcs,
or cvcn unlrolcn slin. 1hcv icnd io migraic io ihc uµµcr small inics-
iinc whcrc ihcv sucl ihcir hosi`s llood. Wiihin íivc or six wccls,
ihcv`ll maiurc cnough io µroducc uµ io 2O,OOO cggs µcr dav.
Hoolworms arc csiimaicd io inícci 5OO million µcoµlc
ihroughoui ihc world, causing a dailv llood loss oí morc ihan 1 mil-
lion liicrs, which is as much llood as can lc íound in all ihc µcoµlc
in ihc ciiv oí £ric, PA, or Ausiin, 1X. An inícciion can lasi iwo io
íouriccn vcars. Iighi inícciions can µroducc no rccognizallc svmµ-
ioms, whilc a modcraic or hcavv inícciion can µroducc an iron dcíi-
cicncv ancmia. Inícciion can lc dcicrmincd lv a siool analvsis.
1hcsc worms icnd io lc íound in iroµical and scmi-iroµical
arcas and arc sµrcad lv dcíccaiing on ihc soil. Boih ihc high icmµcr-
aiurcs oí comµosiing and ihc írcczing icmµcraiurcs oí winicr will lill
ihc cggs and larvac (scc 1allc 7.16). Drving is also dcsiruciivc.
37
WHIPWORM
Whiµworms (Tr/./ar/s /r/.//ara) arc usuallv íound in humans,
lui mav also lc íound in monlcvs or hogs. 1hcv`rc usuallv undcr iwo
inchcs long: ihc ícmalc can µroducc 3,OOO io 1O,OOO cggs µcr dav.
Iarval dcvcloµmcni occurs ouisidc ihc hosi, and in a íavorallc cnvi-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 149
Table 7.16
HOOKWORMS
Hookworm larvae develop outside the host and favor
a temperature range of 23
0
C to 33
0
C (73
0
F to 91
0
F).
Survival Time of:
Temperature Eggs Larvae
45
o
C (113
o
F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Few hours . . . . . . .less than 1 hour
0
o
C (32
o
F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 days . . . . . . . . . .less than 2 weeks
-11
o
C (12
o
F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? . . . . . . . . . . . . .less than 24 hours
Both thermophilic composting and freezing weather will kill hookworms and eggs.
ronmcni (warm, moisi, shadcd soil), íirsi siagc larvac arc µroduccd
írom cggs in ihrcc wccls. 1hc liícsµan oí ihc worm is usuallv consid-
crcd io lc íour io six vcars.
Hundrcds oí millions oí µcoµlc worldwidc, as much as 8O% oí
ihc µoµulaiion in ccriain iroµical counirics, arc iníccicd lv whiµ-
worms. In ihc U.S., whiµworms arc íound in ihc souih whcrc hcavv
rainíall, a suliroµical climaic, and ícccs-coniaminaicd soil µrovidc a
suiiallc haliiai.
Pcrsons handling soil ihai has lccn dcíccaicd on lv an inícci-
cd µcrson risl inícciion lv hand-io-mouih iransmission. Inícciion
rcsulis írom ingcsiion oí ihc cggs. Iighi inícciions mav noi show anv
svmµioms. Hcavv inícciions can rcsuli in ancmia and dcaih. A siool
cxaminaiion will dcicrminc ií ihcrc is an inícciion.
Cold winicr icmµcraiurcs oí -8
O
C io -12
O
C (17.6
O
£ io 1O.4
O
£)
arc íaial io ihc cggs, as arc ihc high icmµcraiurcs oí ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing.
38
ROUNDWORMS
Roundworms (As.ar/s |ao|r/.·/J.s) arc íairlv largc worms (1O
inchcs in lcngih) which µarasiiizc ihc human hosi lv caiing scmi-
digcsicd íood in ihc small inicsiinc. 1hc ícmalcs can lav 2OO,OOO cggs
µcr dav íor a liíciimc ioial oí 26 million or so. Iarvac dcvcloµ írom
ihc cggs /a s·/| undcr íavorallc condiiions (21
O
C io 3O
O
C/69.8
O
£ io
86
O
£). Alovc 37
O
C (98.6
O
£), ihcv cannoi íullv dcvcloµ.
Aµµroximaiclv 9OO million µcoµlc arc iníccicd wiih round-
worms worldwidc, onc million in ihc Uniicd Siaics. 1hc cggs arc usu-
allv iransmiiicd hand io mouih lv µcoµlc, usuallv childrcn, who havc
comc inio coniaci wiih ihc cggs in ihcir cnvironmcni. Iníccicd µcr-
sons usuallv comµlain oí a vaguc aldominal µain. Diagnosis is lv
siool analvsis.
39
An analvsis oí 4OO,OOO siool samµlcs ihroughoui ihc
U.S. lv ihc Ccnicr íor Discasc Conirol íound As.ar/s in 2.3% oí ihc
samµlcs, wiih a widc íluciuaiion in rcsulis dcµcnding on ihc gco-
graµhical locaiion oí ihc µcrson samµlcd. Pucrio Rico had ihc high-
csi µosiiivc samµlc írcoucncv (9.3%), whilc samµlcs írom Wvoming,
Arizona, and Ncvada showcd no incidcncc oí As.ar/s ai all.
4O
In moisi
iroµical climaics, roundworm inícciion mav aíílici 5O% oí ihc µoµu-
laiion.
41
£ggs arc dcsirovcd lv dircci sunlighi wiihin 15 hours, and arc
lillcd lv icmµcraiurcs alovc 4O
O
C (1O4
O
£), dving wiihin an hour ai
5O
O
C (122
O
£). Roundworm cggs arc rcsisiani io írcczing icmµcraiurcs,
150 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
chcmical disiníccianis and oihcr sirong chcmicals, lui ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing will lill ihcm.
Roundworms, lilc hoolworms and whiµworms, arc sµrcad lv
íccal coniaminaiion oí soil. Much oí ihis coniaminaiion is causcd
and sµrcad lv childrcn who dcíccaic ouidoors wiihin ihcir living
arca. Onc surc wav io cradicaic íccal µaihogcns is io conscicniiouslv
collcci and ihcrmoµhilicallv comµosi a|| íccal maicrial. 1hcrcíorc, ii
is vcrv imµoriani whcn comµosiing humanurc io lc ccriain ihai a||
childrcn usc ihc ioilci íaciliiv and do noi dcíccaic clscwhcrc. Whcn
changing soilcd diaµcrs, scraµc ihc íccal maicrial inio a humanurc
ioilci wiih ioilci µaµcr or anoihcr liodcgradallc maicrial. Ii`s uµ io
adulis io lccµ an cvc on lids and malc surc ihcv undcrsiand ihc
imµoriancc oí a|cavs as/ae a /·/|./ /a./|//v.
£ccal cnvironmcnial coniaminaiion can also lc causcd lv
using raw íccal maicrial íor agriculiural µurµoscs. Pr·/.r //.ro·///|/.
.·o/·s//ae ·/ a|| /..a| oa/.r/a| /s .ss.a//a| /·r //. .raJ/.a//·a ·/ /..a|
/a//·e.as.
And don`i íorgci io wash vour hands lcíorc caiing!
1£MP£RA1UR£ AND 1IM£
1hcrc arc iwo µrimarv íaciors lcading io ihc dcaih oí
µaihogcns in humanurc. 1hc íirsi is /.o/.ra/ar.. A comµosi µilc ihai
is µroµcrlv managcd will dcsirov µaihogcns wiih ihc hcai and liolog-
ical aciiviiv ii gcncraics.
1hc sccond íacior is //o.. 1hc lowcr ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc
comµosi, ihc longcr ihc sulscoucni rcicniion iimc nccdcd íor ihc
dcsiruciion oí µaihogcns. Givcn cnough iimc, ihc widc liodivcrsiiv oí
microorganisms in ihc comµosi will dcsirov µaihogcns lv ihc aniag-
onism, comµciiiion, consumµiion and aniilioiic inhiliiors µrovidcd
lv ihc lcncíicial microorganisms. £cachcm ci al. siaic ihai ihrcc
monihs rcicniion iimc will lill all oí ihc µaihogcns in a low-icmµcr-
aiurc comµosiing ioilci cxccµi worm cggs, alihough 1allc 7.14 (also
írom £cachcm) indicaics ihai somc addiiional µaihogcn survival mav
occur.
A ihcrmoµhilic comµosi µilc will dcsirov µaihogcns, includ-
ing worm cggs, ouicllv, µossillv in a maiicr oí minuics. Iowcr icm-
µcraiurcs rcouirc longcr µcriods oí iimc, µossillv hours, davs, wccls,
or monihs, io cíícciivclv dcsirov µaihogcns. Onc nccd noi sirivc íor
cxircmclv high icmµcraiurcs such as 65
O
C (15O
O
£) in a comµosi µilc
io íccl coníidcni aloui ihc dcsiruciion oí µaihogcns. Ii mav lc morc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 151
rcalisiic io mainiain lowcr icmµcraiurcs in a comµosi µilc íor longcr
µcriods oí iimc, such as 5O
O
C (122
O
£) íor 24 hours, or 46
O
C (115
O
£) íor
a wccl. According io onc sourcc, 'A|| /..a| o/.r··reaa/sos, /a.|aJ/ae
.a/.r/. c/ras.s aaJ r·aaJc·ro .ees, c/|| J/. // //. /.o/.ra/ar. .x...Js
16
0
( (!!1.8
0
I) /·r ·a. c..|.¨
42
Oihcr rcscarchcrs havc drawn similar
conclusions, dcmonsiraiing µaihogcn dcsiruciion ai 5O
O
C (122
O
£),
which µroduccd comµosi ¨comµlciclv acccµiallc írom ihc gcncral
hvgicnic µoini oí vicw."
43
A sound aµµroach io µaihogcn dcsiruciion whcn comµosiing
humanurc is io ihcrmoµhilicallv comµosi ihc ioilci maicrial, ihcn
allow ihc comµosi io sii, undisiurlcd, íor a lcngihv µcriod oí iimc
aíicr ihc ihcrmoµhilic hcaiing siagc has cndcd. 1hc liodivcrsiiv oí
ihc comµosi will aid in ihc dcsiruciion oí µaihogcns as ihc comµosi
agcs. Ií onc wanis io lc µariicularlv cauiious, onc mav allow ihc com-
µosi io agc íor iwo vcars aíicr ihc µilc has lccn comµlcicd, insicad oí
ihc onc vcar ihai is normallv rccommcndcd.
In ihc words oí £cachcm ci al., 'T/. .//..//c.a.ss ·/ .x.r./a
152 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
/r.a/o.a/ o.//·Js J./.aJs c.rv oa./ ·a //./r //o.-/.o/.ra/ar. ./ara./.r-
/s//.s. T/. .//..//c. /r·..ss.s ar. //·s. //a/ .///.r oa|. //. .x.r./a caro
(55
0
(/!3!
0
I), /·|J // /·r a |·ae //o. (·a. v.ar), ·r /.a/ar. s·o. .//..//c.
.·o|/aa//·a ·/ //o. aaJ /.o/.ra/ar..¨ 1hc iimc/icmµcraiurc íacior oí
µaihogcn dcsiruciion is illusiraicd in £igurc 7.7.
In shori, ihc comlincd íaciors oí icmµcraiurc and iimc will
do ihc iol oí iurning vour iurds inio iomaiocs so vou can cai ihcm.
CONCIUSIONS
Humanurc is a valuallc rcsourcc suiiallc íor agriculiural
µurµoscs and has lccn rccvclcd íor such µurµoscs lv largc scgmcnis
oí ihc world`s human µoµulaiion íor ihousands oí vcars.
Howcvcr, humanurc coniains ihc µoicniial íor harloring
human µaihogcns, including lacicria, viruscs, µroiozoa and µarasiiic
worms or ihcir cggs, and ihcrclv can coniriluic io ihc sµrcad oí dis-
casc whcn imµroµcrlv managcd or whcn discardcd as a wasic maicri-
al. Whcn µaihogcnic raw humanurc is aµµlicd io soil, µaihogcnic
lacicria mav coniinuc io survivc in ihc soil íor ovcr a vcar, and round-
worm cggs mav survivc íor manv vcars, ihcrclv mainiaining ihc µos-
sililiiv oí human rcinícciion íor lcngihv µcriods oí iimc.
Howcvcr, whcn humanurc is comµosicd, human µaihogcns
arc dcsirovcd and ihc humanurc is ihcrclv convcricd inio a hvgicni-
callv saíc íorm suiiallc íor soil aµµlicaiions íor ihc µurµosc oí human
íood µroduciion.
1hcrmoµhilic comµosiing rcouircs no clcciriciiv and ihcrc-
íorc no coal comlusiion, no acid rain, no nuclcar µowcr µlanis, no
nuclcar wasic, no µcirochcmicals and no consumµiion oí íossil íucls.
1hc comµosiing µroccss µroduccs no wasic, no µolluianis and no
ioxic lv-µroducis. 1hcrmoµhilic comµosiing oí humanurc can lc car-
ricd oui ccniurv aíicr ccniurv, millcnnium aíicr millcnnium, wiih no
sircss on our ccosvsicms, no unncccssarv consumµiion oí rcsourccs
and no garlagc or sludgc íor our landíills. And all ihc whilc ii will
µroducc a valuallc rcsourcc ncccssarv íor our survival whilc µrcvcni-
ing ihc accumulaiion oí dangcrous and µaihogcnic wasic.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as: 153
154 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 7. Wcrms anJ Dis:as:
1H£ 1AO O£ COMPOS1
O
rganic maicrial should lc rccvclcd lv cvcrv µcrson
on ihc µlanci, and rccvcling should lc as normal as
lrushing iccih or laihing. Organic maicrials can lc
collccicd lv municiµaliiics and comµosicd ai ccn-
iral comµosiing íaciliiics. 1his is now donc in manv µaris oí ihc
world whcrc íood discards arc comµosicd íor urlan communiiics.
1oilci maicrials arc noi vci lcing collccicd and ccnirallv comµosicd
in vcrv manv µlaccs, alihough such collcciion will undoulicdlv
incrcasc as iimc µasscs.
Wc can comµosi our own organic maicrial in our own µcrson-
al comµosi lins in our own laclvards. 1his is alrcadv lccoming com-
monµlacc and comµosi lins arc now µoµµing uµ in laclvards cvcrv-
whcrc lilc mushrooms aíicr a rain. Comµosiing nccd noi cosi moncv
and ii can lc µraciiccd lv anvonc in ihc world ai µrolallv anv loca-
iion whcrc µlanis can grow. 1hcrcíorc, ii is imµoriani ihai wc lcarn io
undcrsiand whai comµosi is and how ii can lc madc.
Ii is also imµoriani ihai wc undcrsiand how io comµosi our
ioilci maicrials in a saíc and simµlc manncr. A low-cosi comµosiing
ioilci svsicm can lc vcrv uscíul as a lacl-uµ ioilci in an cmcrgcncv
siiuaiion whcn clccirical or waicr scrviccs arc disruµicd, or whcn ihc
waicr suµµlv is diminishcd as during a droughi, whcn ílushing drinl-
ing waicr down ioilcis lccomcs csµcciallv ridiculous. Ii can also lc
vcrv uscíul in anv arca whcrc waicr or clcciriciiv is scarcc or non-cxis-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 155
icni, as wcll as in dcvcloµing counirics whcrc ihcrc mav lc manv µco-
µlc wiih liiilc or no moncv io luv commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis.
£inallv, a simµlc, low-cosi comµosiing ioilci svsicm is aiiraciivc io
anvonc sccling a low-imµaci liícsivlc, and who is willing io malc ihc
minimal cííori io comµosi ihcir organic rcsiducs. 1his chaµicr dciails
how io comµosi ioilci maicrials lv using a simµlc, casv, low or no-cosi
mcihod callcd a sawdusi ioilci.
1hc organic maicrials our lodics cxcrcic can lc comµosicd
much ihc samc as anv aµµlc corc or µoiaio µccl lv lcing addcd io
a comµosi µilc. 1hcrc arc csscniiallv iwo wavs io do ihis. 1hc íirsi is
io consiruci or µurchasc a ioilci which dcµosiis dirccilv inio a com-
µosiing chamlcr. 1his is discusscd and illusiraicd in Chaµicr 6. Such
ioilcis musi lc µroµcrlv managcd ií ihcrmoµhilic condiiions arc
dcsircd: mosi commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis do noi achicvc such con-
diiions, and arc noi mcani io.
1hc sccond, lcss cxµcnsivc and simµlcr mcihod is io usc onc`s
ioilci as a collcciion dcvicc, much ihc samc as anv comµosi luclci,
and ihcn comµosi ihc conicnis in a scµaraic comµosi µilc. 1his sim-
µlc icchniouc can lc donc wiihoui unµlcasani odors, and ihc ioilci
can lc ouiic comíoriallv siiuaicd insidc onc`s homc. Moving ioilci
maicrial io a comµosi lin, howcvcr, is an aciiviiv ihai manv individ-
uals havc no inicrcsi in doing, noi lccausc ii is a lurdcnsomc iasl
íor a íamilv oí íour ii should involvc a iwcniv minuic iriµ io a com-
µosi lin aloui cvcrv wccl lui lccausc ii`s s///, íor God`s salc.
1hc µrollcm is noi µraciical, ii is µsvchological. Manv µcoµlc
mav considcr ihc idca oí comµosiing ihcir own cxcrcmcni io lc
lcncaih ihcm. In India, such a iasl was rclcgaicd io ihc ¨uniouch-
allcs," ihc lowcsi casic oí sociciv. 1hc aci oí carrving a coniaincr oí
onc`s own cxcrcmcni io a rccvcling lin is an aci oí humiliiv, and
humiliiv is somciimcs in shori suµµlv. £vcniuallv, ioilcis in gcncral
will lc rcdcsigncd as collcciion dcviccs and ihcir conicnis will lc col-
lccicd and comµosicd as a scrvicc lv municiµal worlcrs. Uniil ihcn,
howcvcr, ihosc oí us who wani io malc comµosi raihcr ihan scwagc
musi do ii lv our own humllc sclvcs.
PRIMAI COMPOS1
1rv io imaginc voursclí in an cxircmclv µrimiiivc sciiing, µcr-
haµs somciimc around 1O,OOO B.C. Imaginc ihai vou'rc slighilv morc
cnlighicncd ihan vour lruiish comµanions and ii dawns on vou onc
dav ihai vour ícccs should lc disµoscd oí in a diíícrcni manncr.
156 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 157
£vcrvonc clsc is dcíccaiing in ihc lacl oí ihc cavc, crcaiing a smcllv,
ílv-inícsicd mcss, and vou don'i lilc ii.
Your íirsi rcvclaiion is ihai smcllv rcíusc should lc dcµosiicd
in onc µlacc, noi sµrcad around íor cvcrvonc io sicµ in, and ii should
lc dcµosiicd awav írom onc's living arca. You waich ihc wild cais and
scc ihai ihcv cach go io a sµccial sµoi io dcíccaic. Bui ihc cais arc siill
onc sicµ ahcad oí ihc humans, as vou soon íind oui, lccausc ihcv
covcr ihcir cxcrcmcni.
Whcn vou'vc shai ouisidc ihc cavc on ihc ground in ihc samc
µlacc scvcral iimcs, vou scc ihai vou'vc siill crcaicd a íoul-smclling,
ílv-inícsicd mcss. Your sccond rcvclaiion is ihai ihc rcíusc vou'rc
dcµosiiing on ihc ground should lc covcrcd aíicr cach dcµosii. So vou
scraµc uµ somc lcavcs cvcrv iimc vou dcíccaic and ihrow ihcm ovcr
ihc ícccs. Or vou µull somc iall grass oui oí ihc ground and usc ii íor
covcr.
Soon vour comµanions arc also dcíccaiing in ihc samc sµoi
and covcring ihcir íccal maicrial as wcll. 1hcv wcrc cncouragcd io
íollow vour cxamµlc whcn ihcv noiiccd ihai vou had convcnicnilv
locaicd ihc dcíccaiion sµoi lciwccn iwo largc rocls, and µosiiioncd
logs across ihc rocls io µrovidc a convcnicni µcrch, allowing íor carc-
írcc dcíccaiion.
A µilc oí dcad lcavcs is now lcing lcµi lcsidc ihc ioilci arca
in ordcr io malc ihc iol oí covcring ii morc convcnicni. As a rcsuli,
ihc oíícnsivc odors oí human ícccs and urinc no longcr íoul ihc air.
Insicad, ii`s íood scraµs ihai arc gcncraiing odors and aiiraciing ílics.
1his is whcn vou havc vour ihird rcvclaiion: íood scraµs should lc
dcµosiicd on ihc samc sµoi and covcrcd as wcll. £vcrv siinlv lii oí
rcíusc vou crcaic is now going io ihc samc µlacc and is lcing covcrcd
wiih a naiural maicrial io climinaic odor. 1his hasn'i lccn hard io íig-
urc oui, ii malcs good scnsc, and ii's casv io do.
You'vc succccdcd in solving ihrcc µrollcms ai oncc: no morc
human wasic scaiicrcd around vour living arca, no morc íood garlagc
and no morc oíícnsivc odors assauliing vour lccn scnsc oí smcll and
gcncrallv ruining vour dav. £vcniuallv, vou also lcgin io rcalizc ihai
ihc illncsscs ihai wcrc µronc io sµrcad ihrough ihc grouµ havc sul-
sidcd, a íaci ihai vou don'i undcrsiand, lui vou susµcci mav lc duc
io ihc grouµ's ncw íound hvgicnic µraciiccs.
Quiic lv accidcni, vou'vc succccdcd in doing onc vcrv rcvolu-
iionarv ihing: v·a'c. .r.a/.J a .·o/·s/ //|.. You lcgin io wondcr whai's
going on whcn ihc µilc gcis so hoi ii's lciiing oíí sicam. Whai vou
don'i lnow is ihai vou'vc donc cxacilv whai naiurc inicndcd vou io do
lv µiling all vour organic rcíusc iogcihcr, lavcrcd wiih naiural,
liodcgradallc covcr maicrials. In íaci, naiurc has "sccdcd" vour
cxcrcmcni wiih microscoµic crcaiurcs ihai µroliícraic in and digcsi
ihc µilc vou'vc crcaicd. In ihc µroccss, ihcv hcai ihc comµosi io such
an cxicni ihai discasc-causing µaihogcns rcsidcni in ihc humanurc
arc dcsirovcd. 1hc microscoµic crcaiurcs would noi muliiµlv raµidlv
in ihc discardcd rcíusc unlcss vou crcaicd ihc µilc, and ihcrclv ihc
condiiions which íavor ihcir µroliícraiion.
£inallv, vou havc onc morc rcvclaiion, a lig onc. You scc ihai
ihc µilc, aíicr ii gcis old, sµrouis all lind oí vilrani µlani growih. You
µui iwo and iwo iogcihcr and rcalizc ihai ihc siinling rcíusc vou
carcíullv disµoscd oí has lccn iransíormcd inio rich carih and ulii-
maiclv inio íood. 1hanls io vou, humanlind has iusi climlcd anoih-
cr sicµ uµ ihc laddcr oí cvoluiion.
1hcrc is onc lasic µrollcm wiih ihis sccnario: ii didn`i ialc
µlacc 12,OOO vcars ago ii`s ialing µlacc now. Comµosi microorgan-
isms arc aµµarcnilv vcrv µaiicni. Noi much has changcd sincc 1O,OOO
B.C. in ihcir cvcs. 1hc invisillc crcaiurcs ihai convcri humanurc inio
humus don`i carc whai comµosiing icchnioucs arc uscd iodav anv-
morc ihan ihcv carcd whai icchnioucs mav havc lccn uscd cons ago,
so long as ihcir nccds arc mci. And ihosc nccds havcn`i changcd in
human mcmorv, nor arc ihcv lilclv io changc as long as humans roam
ihc carih. 1hosc nccds includc: 1) /.o/.ra/ar. (comµosi microorgan-
isms won`i worl ií írozcn): 2) o·/s/ar. (ihcv won`i worl ií ioo drv or
ioo wci): 3) ·xve.a (ihcv won`i worl wiihoui ii): and 4) a |a|aa..J J/./
(oihcrwisc lnown as lalanccd carlon/niirogcn). In ihis scnsc, com-
µosi microorganisms arc a loi lilc µcoµlc. Wiih a liiilc imaginaiion,
wc can scc ihcm as a worling armv oí microscoµic µcoµlc who nccd
ihc righi íood, waicr, air and warmih.
1hc ari oí comµosiing, ihcn, rcmains ihc simµlc and vci µro-
íound ari oí µroviding íor ihc nccds oí invisillc worlcrs so ihcv worl
as vigorouslv as µossillc, scason aíicr scason. And alihough ihosc
nccds mav lc ihc samc worldwidc, ihc icchnioucs uscd io arrivc ai
ihcm mav diíícr írom con io con and írom µlacc io µlacc.
Comµosiing diíícrs írom µlacc io µlacc lccausc ii is a liorc-
gional µhcnomcnon. 1hcrc arc ihousands oí gcograµhic arcas on ihc
£arih cach wiih ihcir own uniouc human µoµulaiion, climaiic condi-
iions and availallc organic maicrials, and ihcrc will lc µoicniiallv
ihousands oí individual comµosiing mcihods, icchnioucs and sivlcs.
Whai worls in onc µlacc on ihc µlanci íor onc grouµ oí µcoµlc mav
noi worl íor anoihcr grouµ in anoihcr gcograµhic locaiion. £or cxam-
158 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
µlc, wc havc lois oí hardwood sawdusi in Pcnnsvlvania, lui no ricc
hulls. Comµosi should lc madc in ordcr io climinaic local wasic and
µolluiion as wcll as io rccovcr rcsourccs, and a comµosi malcr will
sirivc io uiilizc in a wisc and cííicicni manncr whaicvcr local organ-
ic rcsourccs arc availallc.
CIOS£ £NCOUN1£RS O£ 1H£ 1URD KIND
Simµlc mcihods oí collcciing and comµosiing humanurc arc
somciimcs callcd cariagc svsicms or luclci svsicms, as ihc manurc is
carricd io ihc comµosi lin, oíicn in luclcis or oihcr waicrµrooí vcs-
scls. Pcoµlc who uiilizc such simµlc icchnioucs íor comµosiing
humanurc simµlv ialc ii íor granicd ihai humanurc rccvcling is onc
oí ihc rcgular and ncccssarv rcsµonsililiiics íor susiainallc human
liíc on ihis µlanci.
How ii worls is a modcl oí simµliciiv. Onc lcgins lv dcµosii-
ing onc`s organic rcíusc (ícccs and urinc) inio a µlasiic luclci, clav
urn or oihcr non-corrodillc waicrµrooí rcccµiaclc wiih aloui a íivc-
gallon (2O liicr) caµaciiv. £ood scraµs mav lc collccicd in a scµaraic
rcccµiaclc, lui can also lc dcµosiicd inio ihc ioilci rcccµiaclc. A íivc-
gallon caµaciiv is rccommcndcd lccausc a largcr sizc would lc ioo
hcavv io carrv whcn íull. Ií a íull íivc-gallon coniaincr is siill ioo
hcavv íor somconc io carrv, ii can lc cmµiicd whcn onlv halí íull.
1hc conicnis oí ihc ioilci arc a|cavs lcµi covcrcd wiih a clcan,
organic .·c.r oa/.r/a| such as roiicd sawdusi, µcai moss, lcaí mould,
ricc hulls or grass cliµµings, in ordcr io µrcvcni odors, alsorl urinc,
and climinaic anv ílv nuisancc. Urinc is dcµosiicd inio ihc samc
rcccµiaclc, and as ihc liouid suríacc riscs, morc covcr maicrial is
addcd so ihai a clcan lavcr oí organic maicrial covcrs ihc ioilci con-
icnis a/ a|| //o.s.
A lid is lcµi on ihc ioilci rcccµiaclc whcn noi in usc. 1hc lid
nccd noi lc air-iighi: a siandard, hingcd ioilci scai is ouiic suiiallc.
1hc lid docs noi ncccssarilv µrcvcni odor írom cscaµing, and ii docs
noi ncccssarilv µrcvcni ílics írom gaining acccss io ihc ioilci conicnis.
Insicad, //. .·c.r oa/.r/a| J·.s. 1hc covcr maicrial acis as an organic
lid or a |/·//|/.r: ihc µhvsical lid or ioilci scai is uscd µrimarilv íor
convcnicncc and acsihciics. 1hcrcíorc, ihc choicc oí organic covcr
maicrial is vcrv imµoriani and a maicrial ihai has somc moisiurc con-
icni, such as roiicd sawdusi, worls wcll. 1his is noi liln-dricd saw-
dusi írom a carµcnicr shoµ. Ii is sawdusi írom a sawmill whcrc irccs
arc cui inio loards. Such sawdusi is loih moisi and liologicallv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 159
aciivc and malcs a vcrv cíícciivc lioíilicr. Kiln-dricd sawdusi is ioo
lighi and airv io lc a 1OO% cíícciivc lioíilicr, unlcss µariiallv rchv-
draicd. £urihcrmorc, liln-dricd sawdusi írom wood-worling shoµs
mav coniain hazardous chcmical µoisons ií ¨µrcssurc-ircaicd" lum-
lcr is lcing uscd ihcrc.
During a cold winicr, an ouidoor µilc oí sawdusi will írcczc
solid and should lc covcrcd or insulaicd in somc manncr. Oihcrwisc,
íccdsacls íillcd wiih sawdusi siorcd in a lascmcni will worl as an
alicrnaiivc, as will µcai moss and oihcr covcr maicrials siorcd
indoors.
1hc svsicm oí using an organic covcr maicrial in a ioilci
rcccµiaclc worls wcll cnough in µrcvcniing odors io allow ihc ioilci
io lc indoors, vcar round. In íaci, a íull luclci wiih adcouaic and
aµµroµriaic covcr maicrial, and no lid, can lc sci on ihc liichcn iallc
wiihoui cmiiiing unµlcasani odors (ialc mv word íor ii). An indoor
sawdusi ioilci should lc dcsigncd io lc as warm, cozv, µlcasani and
comíoriallc as µossillc. A wcll-lii, µrivaic room wiih a window, a
siandard ioilci scai, a coniaincr oí covcr maicrial and somc rcading
maicrial will suííicc.
£ull luclcis arc carricd io ihc comµosiing arca and dcµosii-
cd on ihc µilc (vou`ll lnow ihai a luclci is íull cnough io cmµiv whcn
vou havc io siand uµ io ialc a shii). Sincc ihc maicrial musi lc movcd
írom ihc ioilci room io an ouidoor comµosi µilc, ihc ioilci room
should lc handv io an ouisidc door. Ií vou arc dcsigning a sawdusi
ioilci in a ncw homc, siiuaic ihc ioilci room ncar a door ihai allows
dircci acccss io ihc ouisidc.
Ii is lcsi io dig a slighi dcµrcssion in ihc ioµ ccnicr oí ihc
comµosi µilc in ihc ouidoor comµosi lin, ihcn dcµosii ihc írcsh ioi-
lci maicrial ihcrc, in ordcr io lccµ ihc incoming humanurc in ihc
hoiicr ccnicr oí ihc µilc. 1his is casilv achicvcd lv raling asidc ihc
covcr maicrial on ioµ oí ihc µilc, dcµosiiing ihc ioilci conicnis in ihc
rcsuliing dcµrcssion, and ihcn raling ihc covcr maicrial lacl ovcr
ihc írcsh dcµosii. 1hc arca is ihcn immcdiaiclv covcrcd wiih addi-
iional clcan, lullv, organic maicrial such as siraw, lcavcs or wccds, in
ordcr io climinaic odors and io iraµ air as ihc µilc is luili.
1hc luclci is ihcn ihoroughlv scrullcd wiih a small ouanii-
iv oí waicr, which can lc rain waicr or gravwaicr, and liodcgradallc
soaµ, ií availallc or dcsircd. A long-handlcd ioilci lrush worls wcll
íor ihis µurµosc. Oíicn, a simµlc lui ihorough rinsing will lc adc-
ouaic. Rain waicr or wasicwaicr is idcal íor ihis µurµosc as iis collcc-
iion rcouircs no clcciriciiv or icchnologv. 1hc soilcd waicr is ihcn
160 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
µourcd on ihc comµosi µilc.
Ii is imµcraiivc ihai ihc rinsc
waicr noi lc allowcd io µolluic ihc
cnvironmcni. 1hc lcsi wav io avoid
ihis is io µui ihc rinsc waicr on ihc
comµosi µilc, as siaicd. Howcvcr, ihc
rinsc waicr can lc µourcd down a
drain inio a scwcr or scµiic svsicm, or
draincd inio an ariiíicial wciland. Ii
can also lc µourcd ai ihc lasc oí a
ircc or shrul ihai is dcsignaicd íor
ihis µurµosc. Such a ircc or shrul
should havc a ihicl lavcr oí organic
maicrial a |/·|·e/.a| s/·ae. ai iis
lasc and lc sialcd or ícnccd io µrc-
vcni acccss lv childrcn or µcis. Undcr
no circumsianccs should ihc rinsc
waicr lc ílung asidc nonchalanilv.
1his can lc a wcal linl in ihis simµlc
humanurc rccvcling chain and ii µro-
vidcs ihc mosi lilclv oµµoriuniiv íor
cnvironmcnial coniaminaiion. Such
coniaminaiion is casv io avoid
ihrough considcraic, rcsµonsillc
managcmcni oí ihc svsicm. £inallv,
ncvcr usc chlorinc io rinsc a comµosi
rcccµiaclc. Chlorinc is a chcmical
µoison ihai is dcirimcnial io ihc cnvi-
ronmcni and is ioiallv unncccssarv
íor usc in anv humanurc rccvcling
svsicm. Simµlc soaµ and waicr is adc-
ouaic.
Aíicr rinsing or washing, ihc
luclci is ihcn rcµlaccd in ihc ioilci
arca. 1hc insidc oí ihc luclci should
ihcn lc dusicd wiih sawdusi, ihc loi-
iom oí ihc cmµiv rcccµiaclc should
lc µrimcd wiih an inch or iwo oí saw-
dusi, and ii`s oncc again rcadv íor
usc. Aíicr aloui icn vcars, ihc µlasiic
luclci mav lcgin io dcvcloµ an odor,
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 161
YARDS AND GARDENS:
TRANSLATING AMERICAN
INTO ENGLISH
Ìn the United States, a "yard¨ is a
grassy area surrounding a house;
the term is equivalent to the English
term "garden.¨ That grassy area may
contain trees, shrubs or flowers. Ìf it
is located in front of the house, it is
called the "front yard.¨ Behind the
house, it is the "back yard.¨ Beside
the house, it is the "side yard.¨ An
American "garden¨ is a plot of veg-
etables, often located within the
yard. An American garden can also
be a flower garden or fruit garden;
some American gardens contain
flowers, fruits and vegetables. Ìn the
UK, the green area around a house
is called the "garden,¨ whether it
contains vegetables, flowers or noth-
ing but mowed grass. English
homes do not have "yards.¨ So the
term "back yard composting,¨ trans-
lated to UK English, would be "back
garden composting.¨
SAWDUST TOILET STATISTICS
One hundred pounds of human body
weight will fill approximately three
gallons (.4 cubic feet, 693 cubic
inches, or approximately 11 liters) in
a sawdust toilet per week - this vol-
ume includes the sawdust cover
material. One hundred pounds of
human body weight will also require
approximately 3 gallons of semi-dry,
deciduous, rotting sawdust per week
for use as a cover material in a toilet.
This amounts to a requirement of
approximately 20 cubic feet of saw-
dust cover material per one hundred
pounds of body weight per year for
the proper functioning of a sawdust
toilet. Human excrement tends to
add weight rather than volume to a
sawdust toilet as it is primarily liquid
and fills the air spaces in the saw-
dust. Therefore, for every gallon of
sawdust-covered excrement collect-
ed in a sawdust toilet, nearly a gallon
of cover material will need to be
used.
162 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 163
164 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
Figure 8.2
BUÌLT-ÌN SAWDUST TOÌLET WÌTH HÌNGED SEAT
The above diagram and photos below show a simple sawdust
toilet permanently built into a toilet room. The compost recep-
tacle (bucket) sits directly on the floor. A standard toilet seat
is attached to an 18¨ square piece of plywood, which lifts on
hinges to allow easy access when removing the compost
material. Bucket setback from the front edge of the plywood
is 1&1/2¨. Top surface of plywood is 1/2¨ lower than top of
bucket rim allowing bucket to protrude through cabinet to con-
tact bottom of toilet seat ring. Plastic bumpers on bottom of
toilet seat ring are swiveled sideways so as to fit around buck-
et. Actual toilet shown below. This toilet produces no odor.
Lid down when not in use
Normal use
Hinged
plywood
Removal to
compost bin
Male urinal (both seats
up). Note how top of
bucket extends above
plywood 1/2¨.
cvcn aíicr a ihorough washing. Rcµlacc odorous luclcis wiih ncw
oncs in ordcr io mainiain an odor-írcc svsicm. 1hc old luclcis will
losc ihcir odor ií lcíi io soal in clcan, soaµv waicr íor a lcngihv µcri-
od (µcrhaµs wccls), rinscd, sun-dricd and µcrhaµs soalcd again, aíicr
which ihcv can lc uscd íor uiiliiv µurµoscs (or, ií vou rcallv havc a
shoriagc oí luclcis, ihcv can lc uscd in ihc ioilci again).
Hcrc`s a hclµíul hini: whcn íirsi csiallishing such a ioilci svs-
icm, ii`s a good idca io acouirc ai lcasi /·ar íivc-gallon luclcis wiih
lids, ihai arc .xa./|v //. sao., and morc ií vou inicnd io comµosi íor a
largc numlcr oí µcoµlc. Usc onc undcr ihc ioilci scai and ihc oihcr
ihrcc, wiih lids, sci asidc in ihc ioilci room, cmµiv and waiiing. Whcn
ihc íirsi lccomcs íull, ialc ii oui oí ihc ioilci, µui a lid on ii, sci ii
asidc, and rcµlacc ii wiih onc oí ihc cmµiv oncs. Whcn ihc sccond onc
íills, ialc ii oui, µui ihc oihcr lid on ii, sci ii asidc, and rcµlacc ii wiih
ihc oihcr cmµiv onc. Now vou havc iwo íull comµosi luclcis, which
can lc cmµiicd ai vour lcisurc, whilc ihc ihird is in µlacc and rcadv
io lc uscd. 1his wav, ihc iimc vou sµcnd cmµiving comµosi is cui in
halí, lccausc ii`s iusi as casv io carrv iwo luclcis io ihc comµosi µilc
as onc. £urihcrmorc, vou µoicniiallv havc a 2O-gallon ioilci caµaciiv
ai anv onc iimc insicad oí iusi íivc gallons. You mav íind ihai cxira
caµaciiv io comc in vcrv handv whcn inundaicd wiih visiiors.
Whv should all oí ihc luclcis lc cxacilv ihc samc? Ií vou
luild a µcrmancni ioilci calinci, ihc ioµ oí ihc luclci should µro-
irudc ihrough ihc calinci io coniaci ihc loiiom oí a siandard ioilci
scai. 1his cnsurcs ihai all organic maicrial gocs inio ihc coniaincr,
noi ovcr iis cdgc. Alihough ihis is noi usuallv a µrollcm, ii can lc
wiih voung childrcn who mav urinaic ovcr ihc ioµ oí a luclci rcccµ-
iaclc whcn siiiing on a ioilci. A good dcsign will cnallc ihc luclci io
íii iighilv ihrough ihc ioilci calinci as shown in £igurcs 8.1 and 8.4.
Sincc all µlasiic luclcis arc slighilv diíícrcni in hcighi and diamcicr,
vou should luild vour ioilci calinci io íii onc sizc luclci. You should
havc cxira idcniical luclcis whcn lacluµ caµaciiv is nccdcd io
accommodaic largc numlcrs oí µcoµlc.
1hcorciicallv, wiih cnough coniaincrs, a sawdusi ioilci svs-
icm can lc uscd íor anv numlcr oí µcoµlc. £or cxamµlc, ií vou arc
using a sawdusi ioilci in vour homc, and vou arc suddcnlv visiicd lv
ihiriv µcoµlc all ai oncc, vou will lc vcrv haµµv io havc cmµiv con-
iaincrs rcadv io rcµlacc ihc oncs ihai íill uµ. You will also lc vcrv
haµµv ihai vou will noi havc io cmµiv anv comµosi coniaincrs uniil
aíicr vour comµanv lcavcs, lccausc vou can simµlv sci ihcm oui oí ihc
wav, wiih lids, in ihc ioilci room as ihcv íill uµ, and ihcn cmµiv ihcm
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 165
166 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 167
168 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
Canadian
toiIet
Hawaiian
toiIet
use of oId toiIet tank
for sawdust storage
Anonymous Reader-Contributed Photos of Owner-Built Toilets
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 169
minimaIist
toiIet
Japanese
toiIet
Mexican
toiIet
roII-away
toiIet bucket
commerciaI
compost toiIet
converted to
sawdust toiIet
170 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
DO ÷ Collect urine,
feces, and toilet paper
in the same toilet
receptacle. Urine pro-
vides essential mois-
ture and nitrogen.
DO ÷ Keep a supply
of clean, organic
cover material handy
to the toilet at all
times. Rotting saw-
dust, peat moss, leaf
mould, and other such
cover materials pre-
vent odor, absorb
excess moisture, and
balance the C/N ratio.
DO ÷ Keep another supply of cover mate-
rial handy to the compost bins for covering
the compost pile itself. Coarser materials
such as hay, straw, weeds, leaves, and
grass clippings, prevent odor, trap air in the
pile, and balance the C/N ratio.
DO ÷ Deposit humanure into a depres-
sion in the top center of the compost pile,
not around edges.
DO ÷ Add a mix of organic materials to
the humanure compost pile, including all
food scraps.
DO ÷ Keep the top of the compost pile
somewhat flat. This allows the compost to
absorb rainwater, and makes it easy to
cover fresh material added to the pile.
DO ÷ Use a compost thermometer to
check for thermophilic activity. Ìf your com-
post does not seem to be adequately heat-
ing, use the finished compost for berries,
fruit trees, flowers, or ornamentals, rather
than food crops. Or allow the constructed
pile to age for two full years before garden
use.
DON'T ÷ Segregate
urine or toilet paper
from feces.
DON'T ÷ Turn the
compost pile if it is
being continuously
added to and a batch
is not available. Allow
the active thermophilic
layer in the upper part
of the pile to remain
undisturbed.
DON'T ÷ Use lime or
wood ashes on the
compost pile. Put
these things directly on the soil.
DON'T ÷ Expect thermophilic activity until
a sufficient mass has accumulated.
DON'T ÷ Deposit anything smelly into a
toilet or onto a compost pile without cover-
ing it with a clean cover material.
DON'T ÷ Allow dogs or other animals to
disturb your compost pile. Ìf you have
problems with animals, install wire mesh or
other suitable barriers around your com-
post, and underneath, if necessary.
DON'T ÷ Segregate food items from your
humanure compost pile. Add all organic
materials to the same compost bin.
DON'T ÷ Use the compost before it has
fully aged. This means one year after the
pile has been constructed, or two years if
the humanure originated from a diseased
population.
DON'T ÷ Worry about your compost. Ìf it
does not heat to your satisfaction, let it age
for a prolonged period, then use it for hor-
ticultural purposes.
DO'S AND DON'TS OF A THERMOPHÌLÌC TOÌLET COMPOSTÌNG SYSTEM
ihc ncxi dav.
£xµcricncc has shown ihai 15O µcoµlc will rcouirc íour íivc-
gallon coniaincrs during a scrious µariv. 1hcrcíorc, alwavs lc µrc-
µarcd íor ihc uncxµccicd, and mainiain a rcscrvc ioilci caµaciiv ai all
iimcs lv having cxira ioilci rcccµiaclcs availallc, as wcll as cxira
covcr maicrial. Incidcniallv, íor cvcrv íull coniaincr oí comµosi maic-
rial carricd oui oí a ioilci room, a íull, samc-sizcd coniaincr oí covcr
maicrial will nccd io lc carricd in. You cannoi succcssíullv usc ihis
sori oí ioilci wiihoui an adcouaic suµµlv oí aµµroµriaic covcr maicri-
al.
£xµcciing íivc hundrcd µcoµlc íor a maior gaihcring oui in
ihc woods? Sawdusi ioilcis will worl íinc, as long as vou lccµ cnough
luclcis handv, as wcll as adcouaic covcr maicrials. Wiih a svsicm sci
uµ io comµosi ihc maicrial and somc voluniccrs io managc ii all, vou
will collcci a loi oí valuallc soil nuiricnis.
1hc advaniagcs oí a sawdusi ioilci svsicm includc low íinan-
cial siari-uµ cosi in ihc crcaiion oí ihc íaciliiics, and low, or no cncr-
gv consumµiion in iis oµcraiion. Also, such a simµlc svsicm, whcn
ihc rcíusc is ihcrmoµhilicallv comµosicd, has a low cnvironmcnial
cosi as liiilc or no icchnologv is rcouircd íor ihc svsicm`s oµcraiion
and ihc íinishcd comµosi is as nicc and lcnign a maicrial as huma-
nurc can cvcr hoµc io lc. No comµosiing íaciliiics arc ncccssarv in or
ncar onc`s living sµacc, alihough ihc ioilci can and should lc insidc
onc`s homc and can lc ouiic comíoriallv dcsigncd and ioiallv odor-
írcc.
No clcciriciiv is nccdcd and no waicr is rcouircd cxccµi a
small amouni íor clcaning µurµoscs. Onc gallon oí waicr can clcan
iwo íivc gallon luclcis. Ii ialcs onc aduli iwo wccls io íill iwo íivc
gallon ioilci luclcis wiih humanurc and urinc, including covcr maic-
rial. 1his rcouircs onc gallon oí clcaning waicr íor cvcrv iwo wccls oí
sawdusi ioilci usc as oµµoscd io ihc siandard ihiriv gallons µcr µcr-
son µcr dav uscd io ílush a waicr ioilci.
1hc comµosi, ií µroµcrlv managcd, will hcai uµ suííicicnilv
íor saniiaiion io occur, ihcrclv maling ii uscíul íor gardcning µur-
µoscs. 1hc comµosiing µroccss is íasi, i.c., ihc humanurc is convcri-
cd ouicllv wiihin a ícw davs ií noi írozcn inio an inoíícnsivc
sulsiancc ihai will noi aiiraci ílics. In cold winicr monihs ihc com-
µosi mav simµlv írcczc uniil sµring ihaw, ihcn hcai uµ. Ií ihc com-
µosi is unmanagcd and docs noi lccomc ihcrmoµhilic, ihc comµosi
can simµlv lc lcíi io agc íor a couµlc oí vcars lcíorc horiiculiural usc.
In ciihcr casc, a comµlcic naiural cvclc is mainiaincd, unlrolcn.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 171
1H£ COMPOS1 BINS
A sawdusi ioilci rcouircs ihrcc comµoncnis: 1) ihc ioilci
rcccµiaclc: 2) covcr maicrials: and 3) a comµosi lin svsicm. 1hc svs-
icm will a·/ worl wiihoui all ihrcc oí ihcsc comµoncnis. 1hc ioilci is
onlv ihc collcciion siagc oí ihc µroccss. Sincc ihc comµosiing ialcs
µlacc acav írom ihc ioilci, ihc comµosi lin svsicm is imµoriani.
1) Us. a/ |.as/ a J·a||.-./ao|.r.J, a|·c.-er·aaJ .·o/·s/ |/a. A
ihrcc-chamlcrcd lin is rccommcndcd. Dcµosii in onc chamlcr íor a
µcriod oí iimc (c.g., a vcar), ihcn swiich io anoihcr íor an coual µcri-
od oí iimc.
2) D./·s// a e··J o/x ·/ ·reaa/. oa/.r/a| /a/· //. .·o/·s/ //|.,
including liichcn scraµs. Ii`s a good idca io µui all oí vour organic
maicrial inio ihc samc comµosi lin. Pav no aiicniion io ihosc µcoµlc
who insisi ihai humanurc comµosi should lc scgrcgaicd írom oihcr
comµosi. 1hcv arc µcoµlc who do noi comµosi humanurc and don`i
lnow whai ihcv`rc ialling aloui.
3) A|cavs .·c.r /aoaaar. J./·s//s /a //. /·/|./ c/// aa ·reaa/.
.·c.r oa/.r/a| such as sawdusi, lcaí mould, µcai moss, ricc hulls,
ground ncwsµrini, íinclv shrcddcd µaµcr or whai havc vou. A|cavs
.·c.r /r.s/ J./·s//s ·a //. .·o/·s/ //|. c/// .·ars. .·c.r oa/.r/a|s such as
hav, wccds, siraw, grass cliµµings, lcavcs or whaicvcr is availallc.
Malc surc ihai cnough covcr maicrial is aµµlicd so ihcrc is nciihcr
cxccss liouid luild-uµ in ihc ioilci nor oíícnsivc odors cscaµing ciihcr
ihc ioilci or ihc comµosi µilc. 1hc iricl io using covcr maicrial is
ouiic simµlc: // // so.||s |aJ ·r |··|s |aJ, .·c.r // aa//| // J·.s a.///.r.
4) K../ e··J a...ss /· //. //|. in ordcr io ralc ihc ioµ somcwhai
ílai, io aµµlv lullv covcr maicrial whcn nccdcd, io allow air acccss io
ihc µilc, and io moniior ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc µilc. 1hc advaniagc oí
acrolic comµosiing, as is ivµical oí an alovc-ground µilc, ovcr rcla-
iivclv anacrolic comµosiing ivµical oí cncloscd comµosiing ioilcis, is
ihai ihc acrolic comµosi will gcncraic highcr icmµcraiurcs, ihcrclv
cnsuring a morc raµid and comµlcic dcsiruciion oí µoicniial human
µaihogcns.
1hc disadvaniagcs oí a collcciion svsicm rcouiring ihc rcgu-
lar iransµoriing oí humanurc io a comµosi µilc arc olvious. 1hcv
includc ihc inconvcnicncc oí: 1) carrving ihc maicrial io ihc comµosi
µilc: 2) lccµing a suµµlv oí organic covcr maicrial availallc and
handv io ihc ioilci: 3) mainiaining and managing ihc comµosi µilc
iisclí. Ií onc can handlc ihcsc simµlc iasls, ihcn onc nccd ncvcr worrv
aloui having a íunciioning, cnvironmcniallv íricndlv ioilci.
172 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
NORMAI COMPOS1ING BIN S£QU£NC£
Ii`s vcrv imµoriani io undcrsiand ihai /c· íaciors arc involvcd
in dcsiroving µoicniial µaihogcns in humanurc. Along wiih hcai, ihc
//o. íacior is imµoriani. Oncc ihc organic maicrial in a comµosi µilc
has lccn hcaicd lv ihcrmoµhilic microorganisms, ii should lc lcíi io
agc or ¨scason." 1his µari oí ihc µroccss allows íor ihc íinal dccom-
µosiiion io ialc µlacc, dccomµosiiion ihai mav lc dominaicd lv
íungi and macroorganisms such as carihworms and sowlugs.
1hcrcíorc, a good comµosi svsicm will uiilizc ai lcasi iwo comµosiing
lins, onc io íill and lcavc io agc, and anoihcr io íill whilc ihc íirsi is
aging. A ihrcc-linncd comµosiing svsicm is cvcn lciicr, as ihc ihird
lin µrovidcs a µlacc io siorc covcr maicrials, and scµaraics ihc aciivc
lins so ihcrc is no µossillc accidcnial iransícr oí írcsh maicrial io an
aging lin.
Whcn comµosiing humanurc, íill onc lin íirsi. Siari ihc com-
µosi µilc lv csiallishing a ihicl lavcr oí coarsc and alsorlcni organ-
ic maicrial on ihc loiiom oí ihc lin. 1his is callcd a ¨liological
sµongc." Iis µurµosc is io aci as a lcachaic alsorµiion larricr. 1hc
sµongc mav lc an 18 inch ·r o·r. lavcr oí hav or siraw, grass cliµ-
µings, lcavcs, and/or wccds. Placc ihc íirsi coniaincr oí ihc huma-
nurc/sawdusi mix írom ihc ioilci dirccilv on ihc ioµ ccnicr oí ihc
sµongc. Covcr immcdiaiclv wiih morc siraw, hav, wccds, or lcavcs
ihc covcr acis as a naiural ¨lioíilicr" íor odor µrcvcniion, and ii caus-
cs air io lccomc iraµµcd in ihc dcvcloµing comµosi µilc, maling
µhvsical iurning oí ihc µilc íor acraiion unncccssarv. A siandard lin
sizc is aloui 5 ícci souarc and 4 ícci high (1.6 mcicrs souarc and 1.3
mcicrs high).
Coniinuc in ihis manncr uniil ihc lin is íull, which is ouiic
lilclv io ialc a vcar, lcing surc io add io ihis lin as much oí ihc oihcr
organic maicrial vou µroducc as is µraciical. 1hcrc is no nccd io havc
anv oihcr comµosi µilcs onc is cnough íor cvcrvihing µroduccd lv
ihc humans in vour houschold. Ií vou havc small animals such as
chiclcns or ralliis, ihcir manurc can go inio ihc samc comµosi µilc.
Small dcad animals can also lc addcd io ihc comµosi µilc.
You nccd io do noihing sµccial io µrcµarc maicrial íor adding
io ihc comµosi µilc. You do noi nccd io choµ uµ vcgciallcs, íor cxam-
µlc. Iusi chucl ii all in ihcrc. Mosi oí ihc ihings comµosi cducaiors
icll vou cannoi lc comµosicd .aa lc comµosicd in vour humanurc
comµosi µilc (such as mcai, íais, oils, ciirus íruiis, animal morialiiics,
cic.). Add ii all io ihc samc comµosi µilc. Anvihing smcllv ihai mav
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 173
174 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 175
176 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
aiiraci ílics should lc dug inio ihc ioµ ccnicr oí ihc µilc. Kccµ a shov-
cl or µiichíorl handv íor ihis µurµosc and usc ihc iool ·a|v íor ihc
comµosi. Kccµ a clcan covcr maicrial ovcr ihc comµosi ai all iimcs
and don`i lci vour comµosi µilc lccomc shaµcd lilc ihc Maiicrhorn
lccµ ii somcwhai ílaiicncd so noihing rolls oíí.
Whcn vou havc a suddcn largc ouaniiiv oí covcr maicrial
availallc, such as an inílux oí grass cliµµings whcn ihc lawn is
mowcd, wccds írom ihc gardcn, or lcavcs in ihc íall, µlacc ihcm in ihc
ccnicr lin íor sioragc and usc ihcm io covcr humanurc dcµosiis as
vou nccd ihcm. Ii is assumcd ihai vou do noi usc anv µoisonous
chcmicals on vour lawn. Ií vou do, lag ihc lawn cliµµings, ialc ihcm
io a ioxic wasic dumµ, and on ihc wav, rcílcci uµon ihc íollv oí such
lchavior. Do noi µui µoisoncd grass cliµµings in vour comµosi µilc.
£illing ihc íirsi lin should ialc a vcar ihai`s how long ii
ialcs us, a íamilv, usuallv oí íour, wiih a loi oí visiiors. Wc havc uscd
ihis svsicm íor 26 coniinuous vcars ai ihc iimc oí ihis wriiing and
cvcrv vcar ai ihc summcr solsiicc (on or aloui Iunc 2Oih) wc siari a
ncw comµosi µilc. During March, Aµril and Mav, ihc µilc alwavs |··|s
lilc ii is alrcadv íull and can`i ialc anv morc maicrial, lui ii alwavs
docs. 1his is duc io ihc consiani shrinlagc oí ihc comµosi µilc ihai
ialcs µlacc as summcr aµµroachcs. Whcn ihc µilc is íinallv comµlci-
cd, ii is covcrcd ovcr wiih a ihicl lavcr oí siraw, lcavcs, grass cliµµings
or oihcr clcan maicrial (wiihoui wccd sccds) io insulaic ii and io aci
as a lioíilicr: ihcn ii is lcíi io agc (scc µhoio, µagc 175).
Ai ihis iimc, ihc sccond lin is siaricd íollowing ihc samc µro-
ccdurc as ihc íirsi siariing wiih a liological sµongc. Whcn ihc scc-
ond chamlcr is ncarlv íull (a vcar laicr), ihc íirsi onc can lcgin io lc
cmµiicd onio ihc gardcn, lcrrics, orchard or ílowcr lcds. Ií vou`rc noi
comíoriallc using vour comµosi íor gardcning µurµoscs íor whaicvcr
rcason, usc ii íor ílowcrs, irccs or lcrrics.
A comµosi µilc can acccµi a hugc amouni oí rcíusc, and cvcn
ihough ihc µilc mav sccm io lc íull, as soon as vou iurn vour lacl ii
will shrinl down and lcavc room íor morc maicrial. Onc common
conccrn among ncoµhvic humanurc comµosicrs is ihc µilc looling
lilc ii`s íilling uµ ioo íasi. Morc ihan lilclv, ihc comµosi µilc will
lccµ ialing ihc maicrial as vou add ii lccausc ihc µilc is coniinuallv
shrinling. Ií, íor somc rcason, vour comµosi µilc docs suddcnlv íill
uµ and vou havc no whcrc io dcµosii ihc comµosi maicrial, ihcn vou
will simµlv havc io siari a ncw comµosi lin. £our woodcn µallcis on
cdgc will malc a ouicl comµosi lin in an cmcrgcncv.
1hc svsicm ouilincd alovc will noi vicld anv comµosi uniil
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 177
iwo vcars aíicr ihc µroccss has siaricd (onc vcar io luild ihc íirsi µilc
and an addiiional vcar íor ii io agc). Howcvcr, aíicr ihc iniiial iwo
vcar siari-uµ µcriod, an amµlc amouni oí comµosi will lc availallc on
an annual lasis.
Whai aloui lcachaic, or noxious liouids draining írom ihc
µilc inio ihc cnvironmcni? £irsi, comµosi r.aa/r.s a loi oí moisiurc:
cvaµoraicd moisiurc is onc oí ihc main rcasons whv comµosi shrinls
so much. Comµosi µilcs arc noi inclincd io Jra/a moisiurc unlcss sul-
iccicd io an cxccssivc amouni oí rain. Mosi rainwaicr is alsorlcd lv
ihc comµosi, lui in hcavv rainíall arcas a rooí or covcr can lc µlaccd
ovcr ihc comµosi µilc ai aµµroµriaic iimcs in ordcr io µrcvcni lcach-
ing. 1his rooí can lc as simµlc as a µiccc oí µlasiic or a iarµ. Sccond,
a ihicl liological sµongc should lc lavcrcd undcr ihc comµosi lcíorc
ihc µilc is luili. 1his acis as a lcachaic larricr.
Ií ihcsc iwo íaciors arcn`i cíícciivc cnough, ii would lc a sim-
µlc maiicr io µlacc a lavcr oí µlasiic undcrncaih ihc comµosi µilc,
undcr ihc liological sµongc, lcíorc ihc µilc is luili. £old ihc µlasiic
so ihai ii collccis anv lcachaic and drains inio a sunlcn íivc gallon
luclci. Ií lcachaic collccis in ihc luclci, µour ii lacl ovcr ihc com-
µosi µilc. 1hc inicríacc lciwccn ihc comµosi µilc and ihc soil acis as
a corridor íor soil organisms io cnicr ihc comµosi µilc, howcvcr, and
µlasiic will µrcvcni ihai naiural migraiion. Ncvcrihclcss, ihc µlasiic
.aa µrovidc simµlc and cíícciivc lcachaic µrcvcniion, ií nccdcd.
178 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
Sawdust works best in compost when it comes
from logs, not kiln-dried lumber. Although kiln-
dried sawdust (from a wood-working shop) will
compost, it is a dehydrated material and will not
decompose as quickly as sawdust from fresh logs,
which are found at sawmills. Kiln-dried sawdust
may originate from "pressure-treated¨ lumber,
which usually is contaminated with chromated
copper arsenate, a known cancer-causing agent,
and a dangerous addition to any backyard compost pile.
Sawdust from logs can be an inexpensive and plentiful local
resource in forested areas. Ìt should be stored out-
side where it will remain damp and continue to
decompose. Although some think sawdust will
make soil acidic, a comprehensive study
between 1949 and 1954 by the Connecticut
Experiment Station showed no instance of
sawdust doing so.
1
1
See: Rodale, The Complete Book of Composting, 1960, p. 192.
A TIP FROM TOMMY TURD
PA1HOG£NIC POPUIA1IONS AND A 2-Y£AR R£1£N1ION 1IM£
£ccoµholcs, as wc havc sccn ihroughoui ihis lool, lclicvc
ihai all human cxcrcmcni is cxircmclv dangcrous and will causc ihc
cnd oí ihc world as wc lnow ii ií noi immcdiaiclv ílushcd down a ioi-
lci. Somc insisi ihai humanurc comµosi µilcs musi lc iurncd írc-
oucnilv io cnsurc ihai all µaris oí ihc µilc arc suliccicd io ihc
inicrnal high icmµcraiurcs.
1hc onlv µrollcm wiih ihai idca is ihai mosi µcoµlc µroducc
organic rcíusc a liiilc ai a iimc. £or cxamµlc, mosi µcoµlc dcíccaic
oncc a dav. A largc amouni oí organic maicrial suiiallc íor ihcr-
moµhilic comµosiing is ihcrcíorc usuallv noi availallc io ihc avcragc
µcrson. As such, wc who malc comµosi a dailv and normal µari oí our
livcs icnd io lc ¨coniinuous comµosicrs." Wc add organic maicrial
coniinuouslv io a comµosi µilc, and almosi ncvcr havc a largc ¨laich"
ihai can lc íliµµcd and iurncd all ai oncc. In íaci, a coniinuous com-
µosi µilc will havc a ihcrmoµhilic |av.r, which will lc locaicd usuallv
in ihc ioµ iwo ícci or so oí ihc µilc. Ií vou iurn ihc comµosi µilc undcr
ihcsc condiiions, ihai lavcr will lccomc smoihcrcd lv ihc ihcr-
moµhilicallv ¨sµcni" loiiom oí ihc µilc, and all ihcrmoµhilic aciiviiv
will grind io a hali.
In hcalihv human µoµulaiions, ihcrcíorc, iurning a coniinu-
ous comµosi µilc is noi rccommcndcd. Insicad, all humanurc
dcµosiis should lc dcµosiicd in ihc ioµ ccnicr oí ihc comµosi µilc in
ordcr io íccd ii io ihc hoi arca oí ihc comµosi, and a ihicl lavcr oí
insulaiing maicrial (c.g., hav) should lc mainiaincd ovcr ihc com-
µosiing mass. Pcrsons who havc doulis aloui ihc hvgicnic saíciv oí
ihcir íinishcd humanurc comµosi arc urgcd io ciihcr usc ihc comµosi
íor non-íood croµs or orchards, or havc ii icsicd ai a lal lcíorc using
on íood croµs.
On ihc oihcr hand, onc mav havc ihc nccd io comµosi huma-
nurc írom a µoµulaiion wiih lnown discasc µrollcms. Ií ihc organic
maicrial is availallc in |a/./.s, ihcn ii can lc iurncd írcoucnilv dur-
ing ihc ihcrmoµhilic siagc, ií dcsircd, in ordcr io cnhancc µaihogcn
dcaih. Aíicr ihc ihcrmoµhilic siagc, ihc comµosi can lc lcíi io agc íor
ai lcasi a vcar. Rcícr io Chaµicr 3 íor morc iníormaiion on iurning
comµosi µilcs.
Ií ihc organic maicrial írom a discascd µoµulaiion is availallc
onlv on a coniinuous lasis, and iurning ihc µilc, ihcrcíorc, is coun-
icrµroduciivc, an aJJ///·aa| vcar-long curing µcriod is rccommcndcd.
1his will rcouirc onc morc comµosiing lin in addiiion io ihc iwo
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 179
alrcadv in usc. Aíicr ihc íirsi is íillcd (µrcsumallv íor a vcar), ii is lcíi
io rcsi /·r /c· v.ars. 1hc sccond is íillcd during ihc sccond vcar, ihcn
ii is lcíi io rcsi íor iwo vcars. 1hc ihird is íillcd during ihc ihird vcar.
Bv ihc iimc ihc ihird is íillcd, ihc íirsi has agcd íor iwo vcars and
should lc µaihogcn-írcc and rcadv íor agriculiural usc. 1his svsicm
will crcaic an iniiial lag-iimc oí ihrcc vcars lcíorc comµosi is avail-
allc íor agriculiural µurµoscs (onc vcar io luild ihc íirsi µilc, and iwo
morc vcars rcicniion iimc), lui ihc cxira vcar`s rcicniion iimc will
µrovidc addcd insurancc againsi lingcring µaihogcns. Aíicr ihc ihird
vcar, íinishcd comµosi will lc availallc on a vcarlv lasis. Again, ií in
douli, ciihcr icsi ihc comµosi íor µaihogcns in a laloraiorv, or usc ii
agriculiurallv whcrc ii will noi comc in coniaci wiih íood croµs.
ANAIYS£S
Aíicr 14 vcars oí humanurc comµosiing I analvzcd mv gardcn
soil, mv vard soil (íor comµarison), and mv comµosi, cach íor ícriili-
iv and µH, using IaMoiic icsi liis írom ihc local univcrsiiv.
1
I also
scni samµlcs oí mv ícccs io a local hosµiial lal io lc analvzcd íor indi-
caior µarasiiic ova or worms. 1hai was lacl in 1993.
1hc humanurc comµosi µrovcd io lc adcouaic in niirogcn
(N), rich in µhosµhorus (P) and µoiassium (K), and highcr ihan
ciihcr ihc gardcn or ihc vard soil in ihcsc consiiiucnis as wcll as in
various lcncíicial mincrals. 1hc µH oí ihc comµosi was 7.4 (slighilv
allalinc), lui no limc or wood ashcs had lccn addcd during ihc com-
µosiing µroccss. 1his is onc rcason whv I don`i rccommcnd adding
180 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
THE SECRET TO COMPOSTING
HUMANURE IS TO KEEP IT COVERED.
Always thoroughly cover toilet deposits with a
clean, organic cover material such as rotting
sawdust, peat moss, leaf mould, rice hulls, or
other suitable material to prevent odor,
absorb urine and balance the nitrogen.
Always cover toilet deposits again, after
adding them to the compost pile, with a clean
cover material such as hay,
straw, weeds, grass clip-
pings, leaves or other suitable material in order to prevent
odors and flies, to create air spaces in the compost pile and
to balance the nitrogen.
Such cover materials also add a blend of organic materials to
the compost, and the variety supports a healthier microbial
population.
ANOTHER TIP FROM
TOMMY TURD
limc (which raiscs ihc µH) io a comµosi µilc. A íinishcd comµosi
would idcallv havc a µH around, or slighilv alovc, 7 (ncuiral).
1hc gardcn soil was slighilv lowcr in nuiricnis (N, P, K) ihan
ihc comµosi, and ihc µH was also slighilv lowcr ai 7.2. I had addcd
limc and wood ashcs io mv gardcn soil ovcr ihc vcars, which mav
cxµlain whv ii was slighilv allalinc. 1hc gardcn soil, howcvcr, was
siill signiíicanilv highcr in nuiricnis and µH ihan ihc vard soil (µH
oí 6.2), which rcmaincd gcncrallv µoor.
Mv siool samµlc was írcc oí µaihogcnic ova or µarasiics. I
uscd mv own siool íor analvsis µurµoscs lccausc I had lccn cxµoscd
io ihc comµosi svsicm and ihc gardcn soil longcr ihan anvonc clsc in
mv íamilv lv a numlcr oí vcars. I had írcclv handlcd ihc comµosi,
wiih larc hands, vcar aíicr vcar, wiih no rcscrvaiions. I rcµcaicd ihc
siool analvsis a vcar laicr, aíicr 15 vcars oí cxµosurc, ihcn 11 vcars
laicr, aíicr 26 vcars oí cxµosurc, again wiih ncgaiivc rcsulis.
Hundrcds oí µcoµlc had uscd mv comµosi ioilci ovcr ihc vcars, µrior
io ihcsc icsis.
1hcsc rcsulis indicaic ihai humanurc comµosi is a good soil
luildcr, and ihai no inicsiinal µarasiics wcrc iransmiiicd írom ihc
comµosi io ihc comµosi handlcr aíicr 26 vcars oí coniinuous, unrc-
siricicd usc in ihc Uniicd Siaics.
Ovcr ihc cniirc 26-vcar µcriod, mosi oí ihc humanurc com-
µosi mv íamilv has µroduccd has lccn uscd in our íood gardcn. Wc
havc raiscd a loi oí íood wiih ihai comµosi, and a croµ oí lovclv and
hcalihv childrcn wiih ihai íood.
Somc mav surmisc ihai ihc Ova & Parasiic lal analvscs I had
donc wcrc µoinilcss. 1hcv didn`i µrovc anvihing lccausc ihcrc mav
noi havc lccn anv coniaminaiion lv inicsiinal µarasiics in ihc com-
µosi io lcgin wiih. Ií, aíicr 26 vcars and liicrallv hundrcds oí uscrs,
no such coniaminanis madc ihcir wav inio mv comµosi, ihcn ihai`s
imµoriani iníormaiion. 1his suggcsis ihai ihc ícars oí humanurc
comµosi arc grosslv ovcrllown. 1hc µoini is ihai mv comµosi has noi
crcaicd anv hcalih µrollcms íor mc or mv íamilv, and ihai`s a vcrv
imµoriani µoini, onc ihai ihc íccoµholcs should ialc noic oí.
MONI1ORING COMPOS1 1£MP£RA1UR£
Bacl in 1993 I charicd ihc icmµcraiurc oí mv ihawing sµring
comµosi µilcs íor iwo vcars in a row. Ovcr ihc winicr, ihc comµosi had
írozcn solid as a shiiciclc and I wanicd io scc whai was haµµcning
aíicr ihc µilcs ihawcd oui. 1hc comµosi consisicd µrimarilv oí
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 181
dcµosiis írom ihc sawdusi ioilci, which coniaincd raw hardwood saw-
dusi, humanurc including all urinc, and ioilci µaµcr. In addiiion io
ihis maicrial, liichcn íood scraµs wcrc addcd io ihc µilc inicrmiiicni-
lv ihroughoui ihc winicr, and hav was uscd io covcr ihc ioilci dcµosiis
on ihc µilc. Somc wccds and lcavcs wcrc addcd now and ihcn.
1hc maicrial was coniinuouslv collccicd írom a íamilv oí
íour. Noihing sµccial was donc io ihc µilc ai anv iimc. No unusual
ingrcdicnis wcrc addcd, no comµosi siaricrs, no waicr, no animal
manurcs oihcr ihan human (alihough a liiilc chiclcn manurc was
addcd io ihc µilc charicd on ihc righi, which mav cxµlain ihc highcr
comµosiing icmµcraiurcs). No iurning was donc whaisocvcr. 1hc
comµosi µilcs wcrc siiuaicd in a ihrcc-sidcd, oµcn-ioµµcd woodcn
182 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
Figure 8.7
TEMPERATURE CURVES OF FROZEN HUMANURE COMPOST PILES,
AT 8" AND 20" DEPTHS, AFTER SPRING THAW
The above compost piles were situated outdoors, in wooden bins, on bare soil. The com-
post was unturned and not manually aerated in any way. No compost starters were used.
Ìngredients included humanure, urine, food scraps, hay, weeds, and leaves (and some
chicken manure on the 1994 compost). The compost was frozen solid through the winter,
but exhibited the above temperature climb after thawing in the spring. Fresh material was
added to the compost pile regularly while these temperatures were being recorded on
unmoved thermometers. The hot area of the compost pile remained in the upper section
of the compost as the pile continued to be built during the following summer. Ìn the fall,
the entire compost pile cooled down, finally freezing and becoming dormant until the fol-
lowing spring, when it regained consciousness and heated again. Ìt is evident that the
internal heat of a compost pile is relatively independent of the ambient temperatures as
the heat is generated by internal microbiological activity, not outside air temperature.
lin on larc soil, ouidoors. 1hc onlv imµoricd maicrials wcrc raw saw-
dusi, a locallv alundani rcsourcc, and hav írom a ncighloring íarm
(lcss ihan iwo lalcs wcrc uscd during ihc cniirc winicr).
1wo ihcrmomcicrs wcrc uscd io moniior ihc icmµcraiurc oí
ihis comµosi, onc having an 8" µrolc, ihc oihcr having a 2O" µrolc.
1hc ouisidc oí ihc µilc (8" dcµih) shown on ihc lcíi graµh was hcai-
cd lv ihcrmoµhilic aciiviiv lcíorc ihc insidc (2O" dcµih). 1hc ouisidc
ihawcd íirsi, so ii siaricd io hcai íirsi. Soon ihcrcaíicr, ihc insidc
ihawcd and also hcaicd. Bv Aµril 8ih, ihc ouicr µari oí ihc µilc had
rcachcd 5O
O
C (122
O
£) and ihc icmµcraiurc rcmaincd ai ihai lcvcl or
alovc uniil Aµril 22nd (a iwo-wccl µcriod). 1hc insidc oí ihc µilc
rcachcd 122
O
£ on Aµril 16ih, ovcr a wccl laicr ihan ihc ouisidc, and
rcmaincd ihcrc or alovc uniil Aµril 23rd. 1hc µilc shown in ihc righi
graµh was alovc 122
O
C íor 25 davs.
Sincc 1993, I havc moniiorcd mv humanurc comµosi icmµcr-
aiurcs coniinuouslv, vcar round. 1hc comµosi ivµicallv rcachcs 12O
dcgrccs £. (49C), ai a dcµih oí 2O", in carlv sµring and now siavs ihcrc
all summcr and íall. In ihc winicr, ihc icmµcraiurc droµs, lui ihc
comµosi µilcs havc noi írozcn sincc 1997. In íaci, ihc comµosi ihcr-
moµhilcs sccm io lc adaµiing io ihc cold winicrs oí Pcnnsvlvania and
ii is noi uncommon íor mv comµosi io rcad icmµcraiurcs ovcr 1OO
dcgrccs £ all winicr long, cvcn whcn ihc amlicni air icmµcraiurc is
in ihc singlc digiis. 1hc maximum icmµcraiurc I havc rccordcd is
aloui 149 dcgrccs £. (65C), lui morc ivµical icmµcraiurcs rangc írom
11O£ (44C) io 122£ (5OC). £or somc rcason, ihc comµosi sccms io
siav around 12O£ mosi oí ihc summcr monihs (ai a dcµih oí 2O").
According io Dr. 1. Gilson, Hcad oí ihc Dcµarimcni oí
Agriculiural Biologv ai ihc £dinlurgh and £asi oí Scoiland Collcgc
oí Agriculiurc, 'A|| //. .c/J.a.. s/·cs //a/ a /.c /·ars a/ !20 J.er..s
Ia/r.a/.// c·a|J .|/o/aa/. //a//·e.a/. o/.r··reaa/sosj .·o/|./.|v. T/.r.
s/·a|J |. a c/J. oare/a ·/ sa/./v // //a/ /.o/.ra/ar. c.r. oa/a/a/a.J /·r
21 /·ars.¨
2
Incidcniallv, I am wriiing ihis µaragraµh on £clruarv 24,
2OO5. I cmµiicd íour 5-gallon humanurc comµosi luclcis ihis morn-
ing lcíorc I siaricd wriiing. 1hc ouidoor icmµcraiurc was 22 dcgrccs
£. 1hc comµosi icmµcraiurc ai 2O" dcµih was iusi ovcr 1OO dcgrccs £.
I glanccd ai ihc clocl lcíorc I siaricd cmµiving ihc comµosi, ihcn
again aíicr I had íinishcd and washcd mv hands. £xacilv íiíiccn min-
uics had claµscd. 1his is a wccllv chorc and morc iimc consuming in
ihc winicr lccausc a gallon iug oí waicr has io lc carricd oui wiih ihc
comµosi in ordcr io rinsc ihc luclcis (ihc rain larrcl ai ihc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 183
Humanurc Hacicnda is draincd during ihc winicr monihs and no
waicr is availallc ihcrc). I havc ncvcr µaid much aiicniion io how
iimc-consuming (or noi) humanurc comµosiing can lc, so I was sur-
µriscd ihai ii iool onlv íiíiccn minuics io cmµiv íour luclcis ai a
lcisurclv µacc during ihc worsi iimc oí vcar.
I shouldn`i lc surµriscd, ihough, lccausc wc`vc dcvcloµcd an
cííicicni svsicm ovcr ihc vcars wc usc a íour-luclci svsicm
lccausc iwo luclcis arc casicr io carrv ihan onc, and íour luclcis
will lasi aµµroximaiclv onc wccl íor a íamilv oí íour, which mcans
onlv cmµiving comµosi on a wccllv lasis. In ihc winicr, onc gallon oí
waicr is rcouircd íor rinsing µurµoscs íor cvcrv iwo comµosi luclcis.
1hai mcans íour µcoµlc will nccd 1/2 gallon oí waicr cach µcr wccl
íor ioilci usc, rcouiring aloui íour minuics µcr µcrson µcr wccl íor
comµosi cmµiving.
Granicd, ihcrc is addiiional iimc rcouircd io acouirc and
sioclµilc covcr maicrials a iol usuallv donc in ihc summcr or íall
(wc go ihrough aloui icn lalcs oí siraw or hav cach vcar, µlus a µicl-
uµ irucl load oí sawdusi). A ícw minuics cach wccl arc also nccdcd
io rcíill covcr maicrial coniaincrs in ihc ioilci room (in our houschold
ihis is usuallv a iol íor ihc lids). 1hc liggcsi iasl is whccllarrowing
ihc comµosi io ihc gardcn cach sµring. Bui ihcn, ihai`s ihc wholc idca
maling comµosi.
££CO£RIGGIN£OBIA
1hcrc sccms io lc an irraiional ícar among íccoµholcs ihai ií
vou don`i dic insianilv írom humanurc comµosi, vou`ll dic a slow,
miscrallc dcaih, or vou`ll surclv causc an cµidcmic oí ihc µlaguc and
cvcrvonc wiihin 2OO milcs oí vou will droµ lilc ílics, or vou`ll lccomc
so inícsicd wiih µarasiiic worms ihai vour hcad will lool lilc
sµaghciii.
1hcsc ícars cxisi µcrhaµs lccausc much oí ihc iníormaiion in
µrini conccrning ihc rccvcling oí humanurc is coníusing, crroncous,
or incomµlcic. £or cxamµlc, whcn rcscarching ihc liicraiurc during
ihc µrcµaraiion oí ihis lool, I íound ii surµrising ihai almosi no
mcniion is cvcr madc oí ihc ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing oí humanurc as
a viallc alicrnaiivc io oihcr íorms oí on-siic saniiaiion. Whcn ¨lucl-
ci" svsicms arc mcniioncd, ihcv arc also callcd ¨cariagc" svsicms and
arc univcrsallv dccricd as lcing ihc lcasi dcsirallc saniiaiion alicrna-
iivc.
£or cxamµlc, in A Ga/J. /· //. D.c.|·/o.a/ ·/ (a-S//.
184 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
Saa//a//·a lv £ranccvs ci al., µullishcd lv ihc World Hcalih
Organizaiion in 1992, ¨luclci lairincs" arc dcscrilcd as 'oa|·J·r·as,
.r.a//ae a /|v aa/saa.., a Jaae.r /· //. /.a|// ·/ //·s. c/· .·||../ ·r as. //.
a/e//s·/|, aaJ //. .·||..//·a /s .ac/r·ao.a/a||v aaJ //vs/.a||v aaJ.s/ra||..¨
1his scniimcni is cchocd in Rvlczvnsli`s (ci al.) World Banl íundcd
worl on low-cosi saniiaiion oµiions, whcrc ii is siaicd ihai '//. |/o/-
/a//·as ·/ //. |a.|./ |a/r/a. /a.|aJ. //. /r.aa.a/ .·||..//·a c/s//s r.aa/r.J /·
.o//v //. soa|| .·a/a/a.r ·/ //aoaaar.j, as c.|| as //. J////.a|/v ·/ r.s/r/./-
/ae //. /assae. ·/ /|/.s aaJ ·J·rs /r·o //. |a.|./.¨
I`vc µcrsonallv uscd a sawdusi ioilci íor 26 vcars and ii has
ncvcr causcd odor µrollcms, ílv µrollcms, hcalih µrollcms, or cnvi-
ronmcnial µrollcms. Quiic ihc conirarv, ii has aciuallv .a/aa..J mv
hcalih, ihc hcalih oí mv íamilv, and ihc hcalih oí mv cnvironmcni lv
µroducing hcalihv, organic íood in mv gardcn, and lv lccµing human
wasic oui oí ihc waicr iallc. Ncvcrihclcss, £ranccvs ci al. go on io sav
ihai '//aoaaar.j .·||..//·a s/·a|J a.c.r |. .·as/J.r.J as aa ·///·a /·r saa-
//a//·a /o/r·c.o.a/ /r·eraoo.s, aaJ a|| .x/s//ae |a.|./ |a/r/a.s s/·a|J |.
r./|a..J as s··a as /·ss/||..¨
Olviouslv £ranccvs ci al. arc rcícrring io ihc µraciicc oí col-
lcciing humanurc in luclcis wiihoui a covcr maicrial (which would
surclv siinl io high hcavcn and aiiraci ílics) and wiihoui anv inicn-
iion oí comµosiing ihc humanurc. Such luclcis oí ícccs and urinc arc
µrcsumallv dumµcd raw inio ihc cnvironmcni. Naiurallv, such a
µraciicc should lc sironglv discouragcd, ií noi ouilawcd.
Howcvcr, raihcr ihan íorcing µcoµlc who usc such crudc
wasic disµosal mcihods io swiich io oihcr morc µrohiliiivclv cosilv
wasic disµosal mcihods, µcrhaµs ii would lc lciicr io cducaic ihosc
µcoµlc aloui r.s·ar.. r..·c.rv, ihc /aoaa aa/r/.a/ .v.|. and aloui .·o-
/·s//ae. Ii would lc morc consiruciivc io hclµ ihcm acouirc adcouaic
and aµµroµriaic .·c.r oa/.r/a|s íor ihcir ioilcis, assisi ihcm in con-
siruciing .·o/·s/ |/as, and ihcrclv climinaic wasic, µolluiion, odor,
ílics and hcalih hazards aliogcihcr. I íind ii inconccivallc ihai inicl-
ligcni, cducaicd scicniisis who olscrvc luclci lairincs and ihc odors
and ílics associaicd wiih ihcm do noi scc ihai ihc simµlc addiiion oí
a clcan, organic covcr maicrial io ihc svsicm would solvc ihc aíorc-
mcniioncd µrollcms, and lalancc ihc niirogcn oí ihc humanurc wiih
carlon.
£ranccvs ci al. siaic, howcvcr, in ihcir lool, ihai 'a/ar/ /r·o
s/·rae. /a J·a||. /// |a/r/a.s, //. o·s/ a//r·/r/a/. /r.a/o.a/ /·r ·a-s//. saa-
//a//·a /s .·o/·s//ae.¨ I would agrcc ihai comµosiing, whcn donc µroµ-
crlv, is ihc mosi aµµroµriaic mcihod oí on-siic saniiaiion availallc io
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 185
186 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
THE SAWDUST TOILET ON CAMPING TRIPS
Humanure composters have tricks up their sleeves. Ever go on a week-
long camping trip or to a camping music festival and hate using those awful portable
chemical toilets that stink? Ìf you have a humanure compost bin at home, simply
take two five gallon buckets with you on the trip. Fill one with a cover material, such
as sawdust, and put a lid on it. Set it inside the empty bucket and pack it along with
your other camping gear. Voila! One portable composting toilet! When you set up
your camp, string up a tarp for privacy and set the two containers in the private
space. Use the empty container as a toilet, and use the cover material to keep it cov-
ered. Place a lid on it when not is use. No standing in line, no odors, no chemicals,
no pollution. This toilet will last several days for two people. When you leave the
camp, take the "soil nutrients¨ home with you and add them to your compost pile.
You will probably be the only campers there who didn't leave anything behind, a lit-
tle detail that you can be proud of. And the organic material you collected will add
another tomato plant or blueberry bush to your garden. You can improve on this sys-
tem by taking a toilet seat that clamps on a five gallon bucket, or even taking along
a home-made toilet box with seat.
A SIMPLE URINAL
Want to collect urine only? Maybe you want a urinal in a private office, bed-
room or shop. Simply fill a five-gallon bucket with rotted sawdust or other suitable
material, and put a tight lid on it. A bucket full of sawdust will still have enough air
space in it to hold about a week's worth of urine from one adult. Urinate into the
bucket, and replace the lid when not in use. For a fancy urinal, place the sawdust
bucket in a toilet cabinet with a regular toilet seat. When the bucket is full, deposit it
on your compost pile. The sawdust inhibits odors, and balances the nitrogen in the
urine. Ìt sure beats the frequent trips to a central toilet room that coffee drinkers are
inclined to make, and no "soil nutrients¨ are going to waste down a drain.
WHY NOT PLACE THE COMPOST BINS
DIRECTLY UNDERNEATH THE TOILET?
The thought of carrying buckets of humanure to a com-
post bin can deter even the most dedicated recycler.
What if you could situate your toilet directly over your
compost bins? Here's some reader feedback:
"Ì finally write back to you after 2 1/2 years of excitingly successful and
inspiring use of humanure methods applied to a 'direct shitter' compost. We
indeed built a beautiful humanure receptacle 10 feet long, 4 feet high and 5
feet wide, divided into two chambers. One chamber was used (sawdust after
every shit, frequent green grass and regular dry hay applications) from May 1996 until June 1997, then
nailed shut. We moved to the second chamber until June 1998 ÷ when with excitement mounting, we
unscrewed the boards at the back of the "Temple of Turds¨ (our local appellation) and sniffed the
aroma...of the most gorgeous, chocolate brownie, crumbly compost ever SEEN. Yes, Ì thrust my hands
fully into the heavenly honey pot of sweet soil, which soon thereafter graced the foundations of our new
raspberry bed. Needless to say, the resulting berries knew no equal. Humanure and the potential for
large-scale . . . even a city size composting collection (apartment building toilets into a central collec-
tion dumpster), along with the crimes of the so-called "septic system,¨ has become one of my most
favored topics of conversation and promotion. Often through direct exposition at our farm. Many thanks
for your noble work of art and contribution to this stinky species of ape.¨ R.T. in CT
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 187
From a PubIic Radio Commentary
"People are saying that the Year 2000 com-
puter problem could foul up a lot of stuff we usually
depend on, all at once. Ì thought Ì'd give this Y2K
Practice Day a try. Turn off the heat, lights, water and
phones. Just for 24 hours. The day before Practice
Day, Ì complained to Larry, telling him that Ì was bitter-
ly disappointed not to try out an emergency toilet. This
complaining really paid off. Larry, who's also a writer
researching Year 2000 emergency preparedness,
phoned a man named Joe Jenkins, author of a book called the Humanure Handbook. Joe reas-
sured my husband of the safe, sanitary, and uncomplicated method for composting human
waste. His solution is based on 20 years of scholarly study. Ìt turns out that the thermophilic
bacteria in human waste, when mixed with organic material like peat moss or sawdust, creates
temperatures over 120 degrees Fahrenheit, rapidly killing pathogens just as Mother Nature
intended.
We grew bold and daring and decided to use our emergency five gallon bucket with
the toilet seat, layering everything with peat moss. Larry spent maybe a half hour building a
special compost bin. This was right up his alley, since he already composts all the kitchen
scraps, yard, and dog wastes.
Surprisingly, Ì found myself liking that little toilet. Ìt was comfortable, clean, with no
odor, just a slightly earthy smell of peat moss. The soul-searching came when Ì contemplated
going back to the flush toilet.
By coincidence, Ì recently heard a presentation by the director of the local waste
treatment facility. He was asked to address the issue of Year 2000 disruptions and explain what
preparations were being made. Ìn a matter-of-fact voice, he described what a visitor from
another planet would undoubtedly consider a barbaric custom. First, we defecate and urinate
in our own clean drinking water. Ìn our town, we have 800 miles of sewers that pipe this efflu-
ent to a treatment facility where they remove what are euphemistically called solids. Then they
do a bunch more stuff to the water, Ì forget exactly what. But Ì do remember that at one point,
they dose it with a potent poison ÷ chlorine, of course ÷ and then they do their best to remove
the chlorine. When all this is done, the liquid gushes into the Spokane River.
At this meeting was a man named Keith who lives on the shores of Long Lake, down
river from us. Keith was quite interested to know what might occur if our sewage treatment
process was interrupted. The waste treatment official assured him that all would be well, but Ì
couldn't help reflecting that Keith might end up drinking water that we had been flushing. Ì like
Keith. So Ì decided to keep on using my camp toilet.
My husband is a passionate organic gardener, at his happiest with a shovel in his
hand, and he's already coveting the new compost. He's even wondering if the neighbors might
consider making a contribution. Ì'm just grateful the kids are grown and moved out, because
they'd have a thing or two to say.¨
Judy Laddon in WA (excerpted with permission)
humans. I would noi agrcc ihai doullc µii sioragc is morc aµµroµri-
aic ihan ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing unlcss ii could lc µrovcn ihai
human µaihogcns could lc adcouaiclv dcsirovcd using such a doullc
µii svsicm, and ihai such a svsicm would lc comíoriallc and convcn-
icni, would µroducc no unµlcasani odor and would noi rcouirc ihc
scgrcgaiion oí urinc írom ícccs. According io Rvlczvnsli, ihc doullc
µii lairinc shows a rcduciion oí As.ar/s ova oí 85% aíicr iwo monihs,
a siaiisiic which docs noi imµrcss mc. Whcn mv comµosi is íinishcd,
I don'i wani aav µaihogcn ihrcai lurling in ii.
Ironicallv, ihc worl oí £ranccvs ci al. íurihcr illusiraics a
¨dccision ircc íor sclcciion oí saniiaiion" ihai indicaics ihc usc oí a
¨comµosi lairinc" as lcing onc oí ihc lcasi dcsirallc saniiaiion mcih-
ods, and onc which can onlv lc uscd ií ihc uscr is willing io collcci
urinc scµaraiclv. Uníoriunaiclv, conicmµorarv µroícssional liicraiurc
is riíc wiih ihis sori oí inconsisicni, incomµlcic and incorrcci iníor-
maiion which would surclv lcad a rcadcr io lclicvc ihai comµosiing
humanurc iusi isn`i worih ihc iroullc.
188 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
On ihc oihcr hand, Hugh £laii, who, I would gucss, is a µrac-
iiiioncr and noi a scicniisi, in Pra.//.a| S.|/-Sa///./.a.v iclls oí a saw-
dusi ioilci svsicm hc had uscd íor dccadcs. Hc livcd on a íarm íor
morc ihan 3O vcars which madc usc oí ¨luclci lavaiorics." 1hc lava-
iorics scrviccd a numlcr oí visiiors during ihc vcar and oíicn iwo
íamilics in ihc íarmhousc, lui ihcv uscd no chcmicals. 1hcv uscd
sawdusi, which Mr. £laii dcscrilcd as ¨alsorlcni and swcci-
smclling." 1hc dcciduous sawdusi was addcd aíicr cach usc oí ihc ioi-
lci, and ihc ioilci was cmµiicd on ihc comµosi µilc dailv. 1hc comµosi
hcaµ was locaicd on a soil lasc, ihc dcµosiis wcrc covcrcd cach iimc
ihcv wcrc addcd io ihc hcaµ, and liichcn rcíusc was addcd io ihc µilc
(as was siraw). 1hc rcsuli was ¨a /r.s/-so.||/ae, /r/a||., |/·|·e/.a||v
a.//c. .·o/·s/ r.aJv /· |. s/r.aJ ·a //. earJ.a."
3
Pcrhaµs ihc "cxµcris" will onc dav undcrsiand, acccµi and
advocaic simµlc humanurc comµosiing icchnioucs such as ihc saw-
dusi ioilci. Howcvcr, wc mav havc io waii uniil Comµosiing 1O1 is
iaughi ai univcrsiiics, which mav occur shorilv aíicr hcll írcczcs ovcr.
In ihc mcaniimc, ihosc oí us who usc simµlc humanurc comµosiing
mcihods musi vicw ihc commcnis oí iodav`s so-callcd cxµcris wiih a
mixiurc oí amuscmcni and chagrin. Considcr, íor cxamµlc, ihc íol-
lowing commcnis µosicd on ihc inicrnci lv anoihcr ¨cxµcri." A rcad-
cr µosicd a oucrv on a comµosi ioilci íorum wclsiic wondcring ií anv-
onc had anv scicniiíic criiicism aloui ihc alovc-mcniioncd sawdusi
ioilci svsicm. 1hc cxµcri rcµlicd ihai hc was aloui io µullish a ncw
lool on comµosiing ioilcis, and hc oíícrcd ihc íollowing cxccrµi:
¨Warning: 1hough µowcríullv aµµcaling in iis logic and sim-
µliciiv, I`d cxµcci ihis svsicm io havc an csµcciallv largc sµrcad
lciwccn iis ihcorciical and iis µraciical cíícciivcncss. Ií vou don`i
havc a consisicni iracl rccord oí mainiaining high icmµcraiurcs in
ouicl comµosi µilcs, I`d counscl againsi using ihis svsicm. £vcn
among gardcncrs, onlv a small minoriiv asscmllc comµosi µilcs
which consisicnilv aiiain ihc ncccssarv high icmµcraiurcs . . .
Hcalih issucs I`d lc conccrncd aloui arc 1) lugs and small criiicrs
ílccing ihc high-icmµcraiurc arcas oí ihc µilc and carrving a coai oí
µaihogcn ladcn ícccs oui oí ihc µilc wiih ihcm: 2) largc criiicrs
(dogs, raccoons, rais . . .) raiding ihc µilc íor íood and iracling raw
wasic awav: and 3) ihc incviiallc dircci cxµosurc írom carrving,
cmµiving, and washing luclcis.
Somc clcvcr and oµcn-mindcd íoll havc hii on ihc insµiraiion
oí comµosiing ícccs . . . lv adding ihcm io ihcir comµosi µilcs! Whai
a rcvoluiionarv conccµi! . . . Sound ioo good io lc iruc? Wcll, in ihc-
orv ii is iruc, ihough in µraciicc I lclicvc ihai ícw íolls would µass
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 189
190 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
ShouId a sawdust toiIet be inside or outside?
Ìnside. Ìt is much more comfortable during cold and wet weather. The contents
of an outside toilet will freeze in the winter and will be very difficult to empty into the com-
post bin. Keep a clean layer of sawdust over the toilet contents at all times and you won't
have any odor inside.
Can the sawdust toiIet receptacIe be Ieft for Iong periods without emptying?
The toilet can sit for months without emptying. Just keep a clean layer of saw-
dust or other cover over the contents.
How fuII shouId the sawdust toiIet receptacIe be before it's emptied?
You know it's time to empty the toilet when you have to stand up to take a shit.
ShouId a compost piIe be separated from the earth by a waterproof barrier to pre-
vent Ieaching?
Put a sheet of plastic under your compost and arrange it to drain into a sunken
bucket if leaching is a concern. Any leachate collected can be poured over the compost.
Otherwise, use an earth bottom.
What sort of seaI shouId I use around the toiIet seat Iid?
You don't need a seal around the toilet seat lid. The "seal¨ is created by the
organic material that covers the humanure.
Can I use Ieaves as a cover materiaI in my compost piIe?
Leaves are great. Keep a bale of straw or hay around too, if you can. Ìt will trap
more air.
What about winter composting? Can I add to a snow-covered compost piIe?
Just deposit on top of the snow. The main problem in the winter is the cover
material freezing. So you need to cover your leaves, sawdust, hay, or whatever you use
to prevent them from freezing so you can use them all winter long. Ì just throw a tarp over
my outdoor pile of sawdust then cover that with a thick layer of straw, and there always
seems to be a section of the sawdust that Ì can dig out, unfrozen, in the winter.
Does a compost bin need to have an open side? ShouIdn't a bin be encIosed in an
urban situation?
You don't need an open side. Someone wrote to me from Manhattan who had
installed sawdust toilets in a communal home, and he made a four sided bin (one side
removable) with a heavy screen top to keep out anything that might want to try to get in
(like flies, rats, skunks, snakes or politicians). That seemed like a good idea for a city sit-
uation (a screen bottom may be necessary too). Ì've also had people write to me from
other large cities telling me they're now using sawdust toilets in the city, with a backyard
compost bin. Wrap your bins in chicken wire if animals are a problem.
Where do you keep your sawdust? I can't seem to decide where to store it.
Ì have lots of space and Ì just have a dump truck bring me a load of sawdust
every year or two and dump it out by my compost bins. Ìf Ì didn't have that option Ì might
try using peat moss, which is handily packaged and could be kept indoors, or bag up saw-
dust in feed sacks (one of my neighbors did this), or use a three-chambered bin and put
the sawdust in the center chamber.
How do I know the edges of the compost piIe wiII get hot enough to kiII aII
pathogens?
You will never be absolutely certain that every tiny bit of your compost has been
subjected to certain temperatures, no matter what you do. Ìf in doubt, let it age for an addi-
tional year, have it tested at a lab, or use the compost on non-food crops.
Can I buiId my compost bin under my house and defecate directIy into it?
Yes, but Ì have never tried this and can't personally vouch for it.
What about meat and dairy products in compost?
They'll compost. Dig them into the top center of the pile, and keep it all covered
with a clean, organic material.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT SAWDUST TOILETS
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 191
What about buiIding codes, septic permits, and other government reguIations?
Some composters are inclined to believe that government bureaucrats are
against composting toilets. This is more paranoia than truth. Alternative solutions are
becoming more attractive as the sewage issue continues to get worse. Government agen-
cies are looking for alternative solutions that work, and they are willing to try new things.
Their concerns are legitimate, and change comes slowly in government. Ìf you work coop-
eratively with your local authority, you may both be satisfied in the end.
What about fIies and rats in the compost?
Flies should not be a problem if the compost is adequately covered. Ìf you have
rats, you may have to envelope your compost bin in wire mesh if you can't get rid of them.
Can I use softwood sawdust in my compost?
Yes. Make sure it's not from "pressure treated¨ lumber, cedar, or redwood. The
sawdust can be moist, but shouldn't be wet.
What about using raiIroad ties to make compost bins?
The creosote is not good for your compost.
What about using dog doo in compost?
Use a separate compost bin because many dogs are not healthy and pass vis-
ible parasites, such as tapeworms, in their stools. Use a cover material, and let the com-
post age a year or two. Same for cats.
What about coffee fiIters and barbecue ashes?
Throw coffee filters in your compost. Grounds, too, and even old coffee.
Barbeque ashes? Maybe throw them in with the dog doo. Use that compost for planting
flowers.
If I don't want to start using humanure in my compost now, couId I do it on short
notice in the event of a municipaI emergency?
Ìn the event of a serious municipal emergency, yes, you could immediately begin
composting humanure, as long as you had a source of clean cover material (sawdust,
leaves, etc.) and a compost bin. Compost works much better when you feed it manure
and urine or other nitrogen sources (grass clippings and other greenery, for example), so
you may find that humanure greatly improves your compost if you haven't already been
adding other animal manures.
What is the hottest temperature you have recorded in your compost? Can it get too
hot?
About 65 degrees Celsius (150F). Yes, it can get too hot (see Chapter 3). A cool-
er pile over a longer period is ideal. Ìt's more likely your compost won't get hot enough.
This is often due either to a dry pile (make sure you compost all urine), or to the use of
wood chips (do not use wood chips ÷ use sawdust).
Can you compost humanure with a Iarge famiIy? WouId it be too Iabor intensive?
For a family of 6-10, depending on body weight, a five gallon compost toilet
receptacle would fill daily. A bigger concern would be the supply of organic cover materi-
al, which would amount to about five gallons of volume daily also.
What about composting on a fIood pIain? WouId a pit Iatrine work better?
Don't compost on a flood plain. Don't use a pit latrine.
What are some other compost bin designs?
One design consists of two concentric wire bins with leaves stuffed in between
and the humanure going into the center. Another is a bin composed entirely of straw or
hay bales. Another design consists of simple wooden pallets arranged on their sides and
tied or screwed together to form compost bins.
Do you recommend using chIorine bIeach as a disinfectant?
No. Ìt's an environmental contaminant. Try hydrogen peroxide or something
more environmentally friendly if you're looking for a germ killer. Or just use soap and
water.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT SAWDUST TOILETS
all ihc liiilc hurdlcs along ihc wav io rcalizing ihcsc lcncíiis. Noi
lccausc anv µari oí ii is so diííiculi, iusi ihai, wcll, ií vou ncvcr aic
sugar and lrushcd and ílosscd aíicr cvcrv mcal, vou won`i gci cavi-
iics ciihcr."
4
Sound a lii cvnical? 1hc alovc commcnis arc cniirclv lacling
in scicniiíic mcrii and cxµosc an ¨cxµcri" who has no cxµcricncc
whaisocvcr aloui ihc sulicci on which hc is commcniing. Ii is dis-
hcaricning ihai such oµinions would aciuallv lc µullishcd, lui noi
surµrising. 1hc wriicr hiis uµon ccriain lncc-icrl ícars oí ícco-
µholcs. His commcni on lugs and criiicrs ílccing ihc comµosi µilc
coaicd wiih µaihogcn-ladcn ícccs is a µcrícci cxamµlc. Ii would µrc-
sumallv lc a lad idca io iníorm ihis ícllow ihai íccal maicrial is a
µroduci oí his lodv, and ihai ií ii is ladcn wiih µaihogcns, hc`s in vcrv
lad shaµc. £urihcrmorc, ihcrc is somc íccal maicrial µrolallv insidc
him ai anv givcn momcni. Imaginc ihai µaihogcn-inícsicd íccal
maicrial lrimming wiih discasc-causing organisms aciuallv siiiing in
ihc man`s lowcls. How can hc survivc?
Whcn onc livcs wiih a humanurc comµosiing svsicm íor an
cxicndcd µcriod oí iimc, onc undcrsiands ihai íccal maicrial comcs
írom onc`s lodv, and cxisis insidc oncsclí ai all iimcs. Wiih such an
undcrsianding, ii would lc hard io lc ícaríul oí onc`s own humanurc,
and imµossillc io scc ii as a sulsiancc lrimming wiih discasc organ-
isms, unlcss, oí coursc, oncsclí is lrimming wiih discasc.
1hc wriicr hiis uµon anoihcr irraiional ícar largc animals,
including rais, invading a comµosi µilc and sµrcading discasc all ovcr
crcaiion. Comµosi lins arc casilv luili io lc animal-µrooí. Ií small
animals such as rais arc a µrollcm, ihc comµosi lin can lc lincd wiih
chiclcn wirc on all sidcs and undcrncaih. 1hc comµosi lins should
havc sidc walls such as µallcis, siraw lalcs, wood loards, or similar
larricrs io lccµ oui dogs. A simµlc µiccc oí wirc ícncing cui io íii ihc
cxµoscd ioµ oí ihc aciivc comµosi µilc will lccµ all animals írom dig-
ging inio ii whilc allowing rain waicr io lccµ ihc µilc moisi.
1hc wriicr warns ihai mosi gardcncrs do noi havc ihcr-
moµhilic comµosi. Mosi gardcncrs also lcavc criiical ingrcdicnis oui
oí ihcir comµosi, ihanls io ihc ícar-mongcring oí ihc ill-iníormcd.
1hosc ingrcdicnis arc humanurc and urinc, which arc ouiic lilclv io
malc onc`s comµosi ihcrmoµhilic. Commcrcial comµosiing ioilcis
almosi ncvcr lccomc ihcrmoµhilic. As wc havc sccn, ii is noi onlv ihc
icmµcraiurc oí ihc comµosi ihai dcsirovs µaihogcns, ii is rcicniion
iimc. 1hc sawdusi ioilci comµosi µilc rcouircs a vcar`s consiruciion
iimc, and anoihcr vcar`s undisiurlcd rcicniion iimc. Whcn a ihcr-
192 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
moµhilic µhasc is addcd io ihis µroccss, I would challcngc anvonc io
comc uµ wiih a morc cíícciivc, carih-íricndlv, simµlcr, low-cosi svs-
icm íor µaihogcn dcsiruciion.
£inallv, ihc wriicr warns oí ¨ihc incviiallc dircci cxµosurc
írom carrving, cmµiving and washing luclcis." I`m noi surc whai
hc`s gciiing ai hcrc, as I havc carricd, cmµiicd and washcd luclcis íor
dccadcs and ncvcr had a µrollcm. Wiµing onc`s luii aíicr dcíccaiing
rcouircs morc ¨dircci cxµosurc" ihan cmµiving comµosi, lui I would
noi discouragc µcoµlc írom doing ii. Ii is ouiic simµlc io wash onc`s
hands aíicr dcíccaiing and aíicr ialing carc oí ihc comµosi, and as
vou can scc, ii`s ouiic casv io gci carricd awav wiih a íroihing-ai-ihc-
mouih íccoµholic írcnzv.
Oihcr rcccni cxµcris havc ihrown in ihcir iwo ccnis worih on
ihc sawdusi ioilci. A lool on comµosiing ioilcis mcniions ihc saw-
dusi ioilci svsicm.
5
Alihough ihc commcnis arc noi ai all cvnical and
arc mcani io lc iníormaiivc, a lii oí misiníormaiion managcs io comc
ihrough. £or cxamµlc, ihc suggcsiion io usc ¨rullcr glovcs and µcr-
haµs a iransµarcni íacc masl so vou do noi gci anvihing sµlashcd on
vou" whcn cmµiving a comµosi luclci onio a comµosi µilc, causcd
groans and a loi oí cvcs io roll whcn rcad aloud io scasoncd humanurc
comµosicrs. Whv noi iusi wcar an £PA aµµrovcd moon suii and carrv
ihc comµosi luclci ai ihc cnd oí a icn-íooi µolc? How is ii ihai whai
has iusi cmcrgcd írom onc`s lodv can lc considcrcd so uiicrlv ioxic?
Can onc noi cmµiv a luclci inio a comµosi µilc wiihoui sµlashing ihc
conicnis all ovcr onc`s íacc? Morc cxaggcraiion and misiníormaiion
cxisicd in ihc lool rcgarding icmµcraiurc lcvcls and comµosi lin
icchnioucs. Onc warning io ¨lurv íinishcd comµosi in a shallow holc
or ircnch around ihc roois oí non-cdillc µlanis," was classic íccoµho-
lia. Aµµarcnilv, humanurc comµosi is io lc lanncd írom human íood
µroduciion. 1hc auihors rccommcndcd ihai humanurc comµosi lc
comµosicd aea/a in a non-humanurc comµosi µilc, or micro-wavcd
íor µasicurizaiion, loih lizarrc suggcsiions. 1hcv add, ¨Your hcalih
agcni and vour ncighlors mav noi carc íor ihis |sawdusi ioilci com-
µosiing] mcihod."
I havc io scraich mv hcad and wondcr whv ihc ¨cxµcris"
would sav ihis sori oí ihing. Aµµarcnilv, ihc aci oí .·o/·s//ae onc`s
own humanurc is so radical and cvcn rcvoluiionarv io ihc µcoµlc who
havc sµcni ihcir livcs irving io J/s/·s. oí ihc sulsiancc, ihai ihcv can`i
ouiic comc io griµs wiih ihc idca. Ironicallv, a vcrv simµlc sawdusi
ioilci uscd lv a µhvsician and his íamilv in Orcgon is ícaiurcd and
illusiraicd in ihc alovc lool. 1hc µhvsician siaics, 'T/.r. /s a· ·//.a-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 193
194 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
Humanure is added to the author's compost bin, above, observed
by Kathleen Meyer, author of How to Shit in the Woods. The huma-
nure is deposited into the center of the pile while a thick layer of
cover material remains around the outside edges. The deposit is
covered immediately afterward. The bucket is then scrubbed and
the rinse water poured into the pile. The compost bin is filled for a
year, then allowed to age for a year. Below, the aged compost is
applied to the spring garden. Photos by author except above, by Jeanine Jenkins.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 195
The human nutrient cycle is completed by returning the household
organic material to the soil in order to grow food for people. The
author's garden is further amended with grass clipping mulch, a lit-
tle annual chicken manure and leaf mulch in the fall. Ìt is located
immediately adjacent to the home as can be seen in the photo
below as well as in the bottom photo on the previous page.
s/c. ·J·r. \.´c. a.c.r /aJ a .·o/|a/a/ /r·o //. a./e/|·rs.¨ 1hcir sawdusi
ioilci svsicm is also illusiraicd and µosicd on ihc inicrnci, whcrc a
lricí dcscriµiion sums ii uµ: 'T//s s/o/|. .·o/·s//ae /·/|./ svs/.o /s /a.x-
/.as/c. |·// /a .·as/ra.//·a aaJ /· ·/.ra/. aaJ, c/.a /r·/.r|v oa/a/a/a.J,
a.s//.//. aaJ /ve/.a/.. l/ /s a /.r/../ .·o/|.o.a/ /· ·reaa/. earJ.a/ae. la
oaav cavs, // ·a/-/.r/·ros .·o/|/.a/.J svs/.os .·s//ae /aaJr.Js ·/ //o.s as
oa./.¨ Oíicn, lnowlcdgc dcrivcd írom rcal-liíc cxµcricnccs can lc
diamciricallv oµµoscd io ihc sµcculaiions oí ¨cxµcris." Sawdusi ioi-
lci uscrs íind, ihrough .x/.r/.a.., ihai such a simµlc svsicm can worl
rcmarlallv wcll.
Whai aloui ¨hcalih agcnis"? Hcalih auihoriiics can lc mislcd
lv misiníormaiion, such as ihai siaicd in ihc µrcccding accounis.
Hcalih auihoriiics, according io mv cxµcricncc, gcncrallv lnow vcrv
liiilc, ií anvihing, aloui ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing. Manv havc ncvcr
cvcn hcard oí ii. 1hc hcalih auihoriiics who havc coniacicd mc arc
vcrv inicrcsicd in gciiing morc iníormaiion, and sccm vcrv oµcn io
ihc idca oí a naiural, low-cosi, cíícciivc, humanurc rccvcling svsicm.
1hcv lnow ihai human scwagc is a dangcrous µolluiani and a scrious
cnvironmcnial µrollcm, and ihcv sccm io lc surµriscd and imµrcsscd
io íind oui ihai such scwagc can lc avoidcd aliogcihcr. Mosi iniclli-
gcni µcoµlc arc willing and allc io cxµand ihcir awarcncss and
changc ihcir aiiiiudcs lascd uµon ncw iníormaiion. 1hcrcíorc, ií vou
arc using a sawdusi ioilci and arc having a µrollcm wiih anv auihor-
iiv, µlcasc givc ihc auihoriiv a coµv oí ihis lool. I havc a sianding
oíícr io donaic, írcc oí chargc, a coµv oí T/. Haoaaar. HaaJ|··| io
anv µcrmiiiing agcni or hcalih auihoriiv, no oucsiions aslcd, uµon
anvonc`s rcoucsi iusi scnd a namc and addrcss io ihc µullishcr ai
ihc íroni oí ihis lool.
Wcll-iníormcd hcalih µroícssionals and cnvironmcnial
auihoriiics arc awarc ihai ¨human wasic" µrcscnis an cnvironmcnial
dilcmma ihai is noi going awav. 1hc µrollcm, on ihc conirarv, is gci-
iing worsc. 1oo much waicr is lcing µolluicd lv scwagc and scµiic
dischargcs, and ihcrc has io lc a consiruciivc alicrnaiivc. Pcrhaµs
ihai is whv, whcn hcalih auihoriiics lcarn aloui ihc ihcrmoµhilic
comµosiing oí humanurc, ihcv rcalizc ihai ihcrc mav vcrv lilclv lc
no lciicr soluiion io ihc human wasic µrollcm. 1hai mav also lc whv
I rcccivcd a lciicr írom ihc U.S. Dcµarimcni oí Hcalih and Human
Scrviccs µraising ihis lool and waniing io lnow morc aloui huma-
nurc comµosiing, or whv ihc U.S. £nvironmcnial Proicciion Agcncv
wroic io mc io commcnd ihc Haoaaar. HaaJ|··| and ordcr coµics, or
whv ihc Pcnnsvlvania Dcµarimcni oí £nvironmcnial Proicciion
196 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
nominaicd Haoaaar. íor an cnvironmcnial award in 1998.
£ccoµholcs mav ihinl comµosiing humanurc is dangcrous. I will
µaiicnilv waii uniil ihcv comc uµ wiih a lciicr soluiion io ihc µrol-
lcm oí ¨human wasic," lui I won`i hold mv lrcaih waiiing.
I£GAII1I£S
1his is an inicrcsiing ioµic. 1hc cvnic will lclicvc ihai com-
µosiing humanurc musi ccriainlv lc illcgal. Aíicrall, humanurc is a
dangcrous µolluiani and musi immcdiaiclv lc disµoscd oí in a µro-
ícssional and aµµrovcd manncr. Rccvcling ii is íoolish and hazardous
io vour hcalih and io ihc hcalih oí vour communiiv and vour cnviron-
mcni. Ai lcasi ihai`s whai íccoµholcs mav ihinl. 1hcrcíorc, rccvcling
humanurc cannoi lc an aciiviiv ihai is wiihin ihc law, can ii? Wcll,
vcs aciuallv, ihc laclvard comµosiing oí humanurc is µrolallv ouiic
wiihin ihc lciicr oí ihc laws io which vou arc suliccicd.
Wasic disµosal is rcgulaicd, and ii should lc. Wasic disµosal
is µoicniiallv vcrv dangcrous io ihc cnvironmcni. Scwagc disµosal
and rccvcling arc also rcgulaicd, and ihcv should lc, ioo. Scwagc
includcs a hosi oí hazardous sulsianccs dcµosiicd inio a waicrlornc
wasic sircam. Pcoµlc who comµosi ihcir humanurc arc nciihcr dis-
µosing oí wasic, nor µroducing scwagc ihcv arc rccvcling.
£urihcrmorc, rcgarding ihc rcgulaiing oí comµosiing iisclí, loih
laclvard comµosiing and íarm comµosiing arc gcncrallv cxcmµi
írom rcgulaiions unlcss ihc comµosi is lcing sold, or unlcss ihc íarm
comµosi oµcraiion is unusuallv largc.
1o ouoic onc sourcc, 'T/. U.S. D./ar/o.a/ ·/ Fac/r·ao.a/a|
Pr·/..//·a (DFP) /as .s/a||/s/.J J./a/|.J r.ea|a//·as /·r //. /r·Ja.//·a
aaJ as. ·/ .·o/·s/ .r.a/.J /r·o /·reaa/. oa/.r/a|j. T/.s. r.ea|a//·as
.x.|aJ. .·o/·s/ ·|/a/a.J /r·o |a.|varJ .·o/·s//ae aaJ a·roa| /aro/ae
·/.ra//·as. (·o/·s/ /r·o //.s. a.//c///.s /s .x.o// /r·o r.ea|a//·a ·a|v //
// /s as.J ·a //. /r·/.r/v c/.r. // cas .·o/·s/.J, as /ar/ ·/ //. /aro/ae
·/.ra//·a. Aav .·o/·s/ c//./ /s s·|J oas/ o../ //. r.aa/r.o.a/s ·/ //. r.e-
a|a//·as.¨
6
Comµosiing ioilcis arc also rcgulaicd in somc siaics.
Howcvcr, comµosiing ioilcis arc ivµicallv dcíincd as ioilcis /as/J.
c//./ .·o/·s//ae /a|.s /|a... A sawdusi ioilci, lv dcíiniiion, is a·/ a
comµosiing ioilci lccausc no comµosiing occurs in ihc ioilci iisclí.
1hc comµosiing occurs in ihc ¨laclvard" and ihcrcíorc is noi rcgu-
laicd lv comµosiing /·/|./ laws. Poriallc ioilci laws mav aµµlv
insicad, alihough ihc laclvard comµosi cxcmµiion will µrolallv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 197
allow sawdusi ioilci uscrs
io coniinuc ihcir rccv-
cling undisiurlcd.
A rcvicw oí comµosi-
ing ioilci laws is loih
inicrcsiing and discon-
ccriing. £or cxamµlc, in
Mainc, ii is aµµarcnilv
illcgal io µui liichcn
íood scraµs down ihc ioi-
lci chuic in a commcrcial
comµosiing ioilci, cvcn
ihough ihc íood scraµs
and ioilci maicrials musi go io ihc cxaci samc µlacc in ihc comµosi-
ing chamlcr. Such a rcgulaiion malcs no scnsc whaisocvcr. In
Massachusciis, íinishcd comµosi írom comµosiing ioilcis musi lc
luricd undcr six inchcs oí soil, or haulcd awav and disµoscd oí lv a
scµiagc haulcr.
Idcallv, laws arc madc io µroicci sociciv. Iaws rcouiring scµ-
iic, wasic and scwagc disµosal svsicms arc suµµoscdlv dcsigncd io
µroicci ihc cnvironmcni, ihc hcalih oí ihc ciiizcns and ihc waicr
iallc. 1his is all io lc commcndcd, and conscicniiouslv carricd oui lv
ihosc who µroducc s.cae., a wasic maicrial. Ií vou don`i disµosc oí
scwagc, vou havc no nccd íor a scwagc disµosal svsicm. 1hc numlcr
oí µcoµlc who µroducc laclvard comµosi insicad oí scwagc is so min-
imal, ihai ícw, ií anv, laws havc lccn cnacicd io rcgulaic ihc µraciicc.
Ií vou`rc conccrncd aloui vour local laws, go io ihc lilrarv
and scc whai vou can íind aloui rcgulaiions conccrning laclvard
comµosi. Or inouirc ai vour couniv scai or siaic agcncv as siaiuics,
ordinanccs and rcgulaiions varv írom localiiv io localiiv. Ií vou don`i
wani io disµosc oí vour manurc lui wani io comµosi ii insicad (which
will ccriainlv raisc a ícw cvclrows ai ihc local municiµal oííicc), vou
mav havc io siand uµ íor vour righis.
A rcadcr callcd írom a small siaic in Ncw £ngland io icll mc
his siorv. Ii sccms ihc man had a sawdusi ioilci in his housc, lui ihc
local municiµal auihoriiics dccidcd hc could onlv usc an ¨aµµrovcd"
waicrlcss ioilci, mcaning, in ihis casc, an incincraiing ioilci. 1hc man
did noi wani an incincraiing ioilci lccausc ihc sawdusi ioilci was
worling wcll íor him and hc lilcd maling and using ihc comµosi. So
hc comµlaincd io ihc auihoriiics, aiicndcd iownshiµ mcciings and
µui uµ a íuss. 1o no avail. Aíicr monihs oí ¨íighiing ciiv hall," hc gavc
198 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
uµ and loughi a vcrv cxµcnsivc and ¨aµµrovcd" incincraiing ioilci.
Whcn ii was dclivcrcd io his housc, hc had ihc dclivcrv µcoµlc sci ii
in a lacl sioragc room and ihai`s whcrc ii rcmaincd, siill in ihc
µacling lox, ncvcr oµcncd. 1hc man coniinucd io usc his sawdusi
ioilci íor vcars aíicr ihai. 1hc auihoriiics lncw ihai hc had loughi
ihc ¨aµµrovcd" ioilci, and ihcrcaíicr lcíi him alonc. Hc ncvcr did usc
ii, lui ihc auihoriiics didn`i carc. Hc |·ae// ihc damn ihing and had
ii in his housc, and ihai`s whai ihcv wanicd. 1hosc local auihoriiics
olviouslv wcrcn`i roclci scicniisis.
Anoihcr inicrcsiing siorv comcs írom a ícllow in 1cnncsscc. Ii
sccms ihai hc loughi a housc which had a raihcr crudc scwagc svs-
icm ihc ioilci ílushcd dirccilv inio a crccl lchind ihc housc. 1hc
ícllow was smari cnough io lnow ihis was noi good, so hc insiallcd a
sawdusi ioilci. Howcvcr, an uníricndlv ncighlor assumcd hc was siill
using ihc dircci wasic dumµ svsicm, and ihc ncighlor rcµoricd him
io ihc auihoriiics. Bui lci him icll ii in his own words:
Our µrimiiivc ouihousc cmµlovs a roiaiing 5-gallon luclci sawdusi shiiicr
ihai siis insidc a 'ihronc.` Our svsicm is simµlc & lascd largclv on vour lool. Wc
iransµori ihc µooµ io a comµosi µilc whcrc wc mix ihc mcss wiih siraw & oihcr
organic maicrials. 1hc rcsidcni in our calin lcíorc wc loughi ihc íarm uscd a ílush
ioilci ihai scni all scwagc dirccilv io a crccllcd. An un-iníormcd ncighlor com-
µlaincd io ihc siaic, assuming ihai wc uscd ihc samc svsicm. 1hc siaic µcoµlc havc
visiicd us scvcral iimcs. Wc wcrc íorccd io íilc a $1OO aµµlicaiion íor a scµiic svs-
icm lui ihc cxµcris agrcc ihai our hillv, roclv housc siic is noi suiiallc íor a iradi-
iional scµiic svsicm cvcn ií wc wanicd onc. 1hcv wcrc conccrncd aloui our grcv
waicr as wcll as our comµosiing ouihousc. Mv rudimcniarv undcrsianding oí ihc
law is ihai ihc siaic aµµrovcs scvcral alicrnaiivc svsicms ihai arc vcrv comµlicaicd
and ai lcasi as cxµcnsivc as a iradiiional scµiic. 1hc simµlc sawdusi ioilci is noi
includcd & ihc siaic docs noi sccm io wani anv civilian io aciuallv iransµori his
own shii írom ihc climinaiion siic io a diíícrcni dccomµosiiion siic. 1hc lurcau-
crais icniaiivclv aµµrovcd an cxµcrimcnial svsicm whcrc our scwagc could íccd a
µcrson-madc aouaiic wcilands ivµc ihingic & ihcv agrccd io hclµ us dcsign &
imµlcmcni ihai svsicm. Currcnilv, wc cannoi aííord io do ihai on our own & con-
iinuc io usc our sawdusi luclci lairinc. 1hc oííicials sccm io wani io lcavc us alonc
as long as our ncighlors don'i comµlain anvmorc. So, ihai's a summarv oí our siiu-
aiion hcrc in 1cnncsscc. I'vc rcad mosi oí ihc siaic laws on ihc ioµic: lilc mosi lcgal
icxis, ihcv arc viriuallv unrcadallc. As íar as I can icll, our svsicm is noi cxµlicii-
lv lanncd lui ii is noi includcd in ihc lisi oí "aµµrovcd" alicrnaiivc svsicms ihai
run ihc gamui írom high-icch, low volumc, íaciorv-µroduccd comµosiing gizmos io
ihc old íashioncd µii lairinc. £or a whilc now, I'vc wanicd io wriic an ariiclc on our
cxµcricncc and vour lool. Uníoriunaiclv, grad school in £nglish has scriouslv
slowcd down mv írcclancc wriiing."
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 199
In Pcnnsvlvania, ihc siaic lcgislaiurc has cnacicd lcgislaiion
'.a.·arae/ae //. J.c.|·/o.a/ ·/ r.s·ar..s r..·c.rv as a o.aas ·/ oaaae/ae
s·|/J cas/., .·as.rc/ae r.s·ar..s, aaJ sa//|v/ae .a.rev." Undcr such lcg-
islaiion ihc icrm ¨disµosal" is dcíincd as '//. /a./a.ra//·a, Jao//ae,
s//||/ae, |.a|/ae, ·r /|a./ae ·/ s·|/J cas/. /a/· ·r ·a //. |aaJ ·r ca/.r /a a
oaaa.r //a/ //. s·|/J cas/. ·r a .·as///a.a/ ·/ //. s·|/J cas/. .a/.rs //.
.ac/r·ao.a/, /s .o///.J /a/· //. a/r ·r /s J/s./are.J /· //. ca/.rs ·/ //.
(·oo·ac.a|//.¨
7
£urihcr lcgislaiion has lccn cnacicd in
Pcnnsvlvania siaiing ihai 'cas/. r.Ja.//·a aaJ r..v.|/ae ar. /r./.ra||. /·
//. /r·..ss/ae ·r J/s/·sa| ·/ oaa/.//a| cas/.,¨ and íurihcr siaiing '/·||a-
//·a /s //. .·a/ao/aa//·a ·/ aav a/r, ca/.r, |aaJ ·r ·//.r aa/ara| r.s·ar..s
·/ ///s (·oo·ac.a|// //a/ c/|| .r.a/. ·r /s |/|.|v /· .r.a/. a /a||/. aa/-
saa.. ·r /· r.aJ.r //. a/r, ca/.r, |aaJ, ·r ·//.r aa/ara| r.s·ar..s /aro/a|,
J./r/o.a/a| ·r /ajar/·as /· /a||/. /.a|//, sa/./v ·r c.|/ar.. . .¨
8
In vicw oí
ihc íaci ihai ihc ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing oí humanurc involvcs
rccovcring a rcsourcc, rcouircs no disµosal oí wasic, and crcaics no
olvious cnvironmcnial µolluiion, ii is unlilclv ihai somconc who .·a-
s./.a//·as|v cngagcs in such an aciiviiv would lc undulv loihcrcd lv
anvonc. Don`i lc surµriscd ií mosi µcoµlc íind such an aciiviiv com-
mcndallc, lccausc, in íaci, ii is.
Ií ihcrc arcn`i anv rcgulaiions conccrning laclvard comµosi-
ing in vour arca, ihcn lc surc ihai whcn vou`rc maling vour comµosi,
vou`rc doing a good iol oí ii. Ii`s noi hard io do ii righi. 1hc mosi lilc-
lv µrollcm vou could havc is an odor µrollcm, and ihai would sim-
µlv lc duc io noi lccµing vour dcµosiis adcouaiclv covcrcd wiih
clcan, noi-ioo-airv, organic ¨lioíilicr" maicrial. Ií vou lccµ ii cov-
crcd, ii docs noi givc oíí oíícnsivc odors. Ii`s ihai simµlc. Pcrhaµs shii
siinls so µcoµlc will lc naiurallv comµcllcd io covcr ii wiih somc-
ihing. 1hai malcs scnsc whcn vou ihinl ihai ihcrmoµhilic lacicria
arc alrcadv in ihc ícccs waiiing íor ihc manurc io lc lavcrcd inio a
comµosi µilc so ihcv can gci io worl. Somciimcs ihc simµlc wavs oí
naiurc arc irulv µroíound.
Whai aloui ílics could ihcv crcaic a µullic nuisancc or
hcalih hazard? I havc ncvcr had µrollcms wiih ílics on mv comµosi.
Oí coursc, a clcan covcr maicrial is lcµi ovcr ihc comµosi µilc ai all
iimcs.
Conccrning ílics, £. H. King, who iravclcd ihrough China,
Korca and Iaµan in ihc carlv 19OOs whcn organic maicrial, csµcciallv
humanurc, was ihc onlv sourcc oí soil ícriilizcr, siaicd, '(a. /a./
c//./ c. J· a·/ /a||v aaJ.rs/aaJ /s //a/, c/.r.c.r c. c.a/, /·as. /|/.s
c.r. c.rv /.c. \. a.c.r s/.a/ a saoo.r c/// s· |///|. aaa·vaa.. /r·o //.o
200 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
as ///s ·a. /a (//aa, K·r.a aaJ ]a/aa. l/ //. s.ra/a|·as /as|aaJ/ae ·/
/·reaa/.j r./as. s· aa/c.rsa||v /ra.//..J /a //.s. .·aa/r/.s r.Ja..s //. /|v
aa/saa.. aaJ ///s o.aa.. /· /.a|// /· //. .x/.a/ c//./ ·ar .x/.r/.a.. sae-
e.s/s, /.r. /s ·a. er.a/ ea/a.¨ Hc addcd, '\. /ac. aJc.r/.J /· //. c.rv
soa|| aao|.r ·/ /|/.s ·|s.rc.J aavc/.r. /a //. .·ars. ·/ ·ar /rac.|, |a/ //s
s/ea///.aa.. c. J/J a·/ r.a|/.. aa//| a.ar //. .aJ ·/ ·ar s/av. laJ..J, /·r
s·o. r.as·a, /|/.s c.r. o·r. /a .c/J.a.. Jar/ae //. //rs/ /c· Javs ·a //.
s/.aos/// ·a/ /r·o Y·|·/aoa ·a ·ar r./ara /r// /· Ao.r/.a, //aa a/ aav
//o. |./·r. ·a ·ar j·ara.v.¨
9
Ií an cniirc counirv ihc sizc oí ihc Uniicd Siaics, lui wiih
iwicc ihc µoµulaiion ai ihai iimc, could rccvclc all oí iis organic
rcíusc wiihoui ihc lcncíii oí clcciriciiv or auiomolilcs and noi havc
a ílv µrollcm, surclv wc in ihc Uniicd Siaics can rccvclc a grcaicr
µoriion oí our own organic rcíusc wiih similar succcss iodav.
£NVIRONM£N1AI PO11Y 1RAINING 1O1
Simµlc, low-icch comµosiing svsicms noi onlv havc a µosiiivc
imµaci on ihc £arih`s ccosvsicms, lui arc µrovcn io lc susiainallc.
Wcsicrncrs mav ihinl ihai anv svsicm noi rcouiring icchnologv is ioo
µrimiiivc io lc worihv oí rcsµcci. Howcvcr, whcn wcsicrn culiurc is
noihing morc ihan a disiani and íading mcmorv in ihc collcciivc
mind oí humaniiv ihousands (hundrcds?) oí vcars írom now, ihc
humans who will havc lcarncd how io survivc on ihis µlanci in ihc
long icrm will lc ihosc who havc lcarncd how io livc in harmonv wiih
ii. 1hai will rcouirc much morc ihan iniclligcncc or icchnologv ii
will rcouirc a scnsiiivc undcrsianding oí our µlacc as humans in ihc
wcl oí liíc. 1hai sclí-rcalizaiion mav lc lcvond ihc grasµ oí our cgo-
ccniric inicllccis. Pcrhaµs whai is rcouircd oí us in ordcr io gain such
an awarcncss is a scnsc oí humiliiv, and a rcncwcd rcsµcci íor ihai
which is simµlc.
Somc would arguc ihai a simµlc svsicm oí humanurc com-
µosiing can also lc ihc mosi advanccd svsicm lnown io humaniiv. Ii
mav lc considcrcd ihc mosi advanccd lccausc ii worls wcll whilc
consuming liiilc, ií anv, non-rcncwallc rcsourccs, µroducing no µol-
luiion and aciuallv crcaiing a rcsourcc viial io liíc.
Oihcrs mav arguc ihai in ordcr íor a svsicm io lc considcrcd
¨advanccd," ii musi disµlav all ihc gadgcis, doodads and icchnologv
normallv associaicd wiih advanccmcni. 1hc argumcni is ihai somc-
ihing is advanccd ií ii`s lccn crcaicd lv ihc scicniiíic communiiv, lv
humans, noi lv naiurc. 1hai`s lilc saving ihc mosi advanccd mcihod
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs| 201
oí drving onc`s hair is using a nuclcar rcaciion in a nuclcar µowcr
µlani io µroducc hcai in ordcr io convcri waicr io sicam. 1hc sicam
is ihcn uscd io iurn an clcciric gcncraior in ordcr io µroducc clcciric-
iiv. 1hc clcciriciiv is uscd io µowcr a µlasiic hair-drving gun io llow
hoi air on onc`s hcad. 1hai`s /../a·|·e/.a| advanccmcni. Ii rcílccis
humaniiv`s /a/.||../aa| µrogrcss . . . (which is dclaiallc).
1ruc advanccmcni, oihcrs would arguc, insicad rcouircs ihc
|a|aa..J dcvcloµmcni oí humaniiv`s inicllcci wiih µhvsical and sµir-
iiual dcvcloµmcni. Wc musi linl whai wc lnow inicllcciuallv wiih
ihc µhvsical cííccis oí our rcsuliani lchavior, and wiih ihc undcr-
sianding oí oursclvcs as small, inicrdcµcndcni, inicrrclaicd liíc íorms
rclaiivc io a grcaicr sµhcrc oí cxisicncc. Oihcrwisc, wc crcaic icchnol-
ogv ihai cxccssivclv consumcs non-rcncwallc rcsourccs and crcaics
ioxic wasic and µolluiion in ordcr io do a simµlc iasl such as hair
drving, which is casilv donc lv hand wiih a iowcl. Ií ihai`s advancc-
mcni, wc`rc in iroullc.
Pcrhaµs wc`rc rcallv advancing oursclvcs whcn wc can íunc-
iion hcalihíullv, µcaccíullv and susiainallv wiihoui souandcring
rcsourccs and wiihoui crcaiing µolluiion. 1hai`s noi a maiicr oí mas-
icring ihc inicllcci or oí masicring ihc cnvironmcni wiih icchnologv,
ii`s a maiicr oí masicring onc`s sclí, a much morc diííiculi undcrial-
ing, lui ccriainlv a worihv goal.
£inallv, I don`i undcrsiand humans. Wc linc uµ and malc a
loi oí noisc aloui lig cnvironmcnial µrollcms lilc incincraiors,
wasic dumµs, acid rain, glolal warming and µolluiion. Bui wc don`i
undcrsiand ihai whcn wc add uµ all ihc iinv cnvironmcnial µrollcms
cach oí us crcaics, wc cnd uµ wiih ihosc lig cnvironmcnial dilcmmas.
Humans arc conicni io llamc somconc clsc, lilc govcrnmcni or cor-
µoraiions, íor ihc mcsscs wc crcaic, and vci wc cach coniinuc doing
ihc samc ihings, dav in and dav oui, ihai havc crcaicd ihc µrollcms.
Surc, corµoraiions crcaic µolluiion. Ií ihcv do, don`i luv ihcir µrod-
ucis. Ií vou havc io luv ihcir µroducis (gasolinc íor cxamµlc), lccµ ii
io a minimum. Surc, municiµal wasic incincraiors µolluic ihc air.
Sioµ ihrowing irash awav. Minimizc vour µroduciion oí wasic.
Rccvclc. Buv íood in lull and avoid µaclaging wasic. Simµliív. 1urn
oíí vour 1V. Grow vour own íood. Malc comµosi. Plani a gardcn. Bc
µari oí ihc soluiion, noi µari oí ihc µrollcm. Ií vou don`i, who will?
202 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 8. T/: Tac c/ Ccmpcs|
GRAYWA1£R SYS1£MS
1
hcrc arc iwo conccµis ihai sum uµ ihis lool: 1) onc
organism`s cxcrciions arc anoihcr organism`s íood,
and 2) ihcrc is no wasic in naiurc. Wc humans nccd
io undcrsiand whai organisms will consumc our
cxcrciions ií wc arc io livc in grcaicr harmonv wiih ihc naiural world.
Our cxcrciions includc humanurc, urinc and ·//.r organic maicrials
ihai wc dischargc inio ihc cnvironmcni, such as ¨gravwaicr," which is
ihc waicr rcsuliing írom washing or laihing. Gravwaicr should lc
disiinguishcd írom ¨llaclwaicr," ihc waicr ihai comcs írom ioilcis.
Gravwaicr coniains rccvclallc organic maicrials such as niirogcn,
µhosµhorous and µoiassium. 1hcsc maicrials arc µolluianis whcn
discardcd inio ihc cnvironmcni. Whcn rcsµonsillv rccvclcd, howcv-
cr, ihcv can lc lcncíicial nuiricnis.
Mv íirsi cxµosurc io an ¨alicrnaiivc" wasicwaicr svsicm
occurrcd on ihc Yucaian Pcninsula oí Mcxico in 1977. Ai ihai iimc, I
was siaving in a icni on a µrimiiivc, isolaicd, lcach-íroni µroµcriv
lincd wiih coconui µalms and ovcrlooling ihc iurouoisc waicrs and
whiic sands oí ihc Carillcan. Mv hosi oµcraicd a small rcsiaurani
wiih a rudimcniarv laihroom coniaining a ioilci, sinl and showcr,
µrimarilv rcscrvcd íor iourisis who µaid io usc ihc íaciliiics. 1hc
wasicwaicr írom ihis room draincd írom a µiµc, ihrough ihc wall, and
dirccilv inio ihc sandv soil ouisidc, whcrc ii ran down an inclincd
sloµc oui oí sighi lchind ihc ihaichcd luilding. I íirsi noiiccd ihc
drain noi lccausc oí ihc odor (ihcrc wasn`i anv ihai I can rcmcmlcr),
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 203
lui lccausc oí ihc ihicl growih oí iomaio µlanis ihai cascadcd down
ihc sloµc lclow ihc drain. I aslcd ihc owncr whv hc would µlani a
gardcn in such an unlilclv locaiion, and hc rcµlicd ihai hc didn`i
µlani ii ai all ihc iomaiocs wcrc voluniccrs: ihc sccds sµrouicd
írom human cxcrciions. Hc admiiicd ihai whcncvcr hc nccdcd a
iomaio íor his rcsiaurani, hc didn`i havc io go íar io gci onc. 1his is
noi an cxamµlc oí saniiarv wasicwaicr rccvcling, lui ii is an cxamµlc
oí how wasicwaicr can lc µui io consiruciivc usc, cvcn lv accidcni.
£rom ihcrc, I iravclcd io Guaicmala, whcrc I noiiccd a simi-
lar wasicwaicr svsicm, again ai a crudc rcsiaurani ai an isolaicd loca-
iion in ihc Pcicn iunglc. 1hc rcsiaurani`s wasicwaicr drain irrigaicd
a small scciion oí ihc µroµcriv scµaraic írom ihc camµ siics and oihcr
human aciiviiics, lui µlainlv visillc. 1hai scciion had ihc mosi lux-
urious growih oí lanana µlanis I had cvcr sccn. Again, ihc waicr
µrovcd io lc a rcsourcc uscíul in íood µroduciion, and in ihis casc,
ihc luxurious growih addcd an acsihciic oualiiv io ihc µroµcriv,
aµµcaring as a lush iroµical gardcn. 1hc rcsiaurani owncr lilcd io
show oíí his ¨gardcn," admiiiing ihai ii was largclv sclí-µlanicd and
sclí-µcrµciuaiing. ¨1hai`s ihc valuc oí drain waicr," hc was ouicl io
µoini oui, and iis valuc was immcdiaiclv aµµarcni io anvonc who
loolcd.
All wasicwaicr coniains organic maicrials, such as íood rcm-
nanis and soaµ. Microorganisms, µlanis and macroorganisms con-
sumc ihcsc organic maicrials and convcri ihcm inio lcncíicial nuiri-
cnis. In a susiainallc svsicm, wasicwaicr is madc availallc io naiural
organisms íor ihcir lcncíii. Rccvcling organic maicrials ihrough liv-
ing organisms naiurallv µuriíics waicr.
In ihc U.S., ihc siiuaiion is ouiic diíícrcni. Houschold wasic-
waicr ivµicallv coniains all ihc waicr írom ioilci ílushings (llaclwa-
icr) as wcll as waicr írom sinls, laihiuls and washing machinc
drains (gravwaicr). 1o comµlicaic ihis, manv houscholds havc in-sinl
garlagc disµosals. 1hcsc coniraµiions grind uµ all oí ihc íood maic-
rial ihai could oihcrwisc lc comµosicd, ihcn cicci ii inio ihc drain
svsicm. Govcrnmcni rcgulaiors assumc ihc worsi-casc sccnario íor
houschold wasicwaicr (lois oí ioilci ílushings, lois oí lalv diaµcrs in
ihc wash, and lois oí garlagc in ihc disµosal unii), ihcn ihcv cnaci
rcgulaiions io accommodaic ihis sccnario. Wasicwaicr is ihcrcíorc
considcrcd a µullic hcalih hazard which musi lc ouaraniincd írom
human coniaci. 1vµicallv, ihc wasicwaicr is rcouircd io go dirccilv
inio a scwagc svsicm, or, in sulurlan and rural locaiions, inio a scµ-
iic svsicm.
204 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 205
A scµiic svsicm gcncrallv consisis oí a concrcic lox luricd
undcrground inio which houschold wasicwaicr is dischargcd. Whcn
ihc lox íills and ovcrílows, ihc cíílucni drains inio µcríoraicd µiµcs
ihai allow ihc waicr io µcrcolaic inio ihc soil. 1hc drain íicld is usu-
allv locaicd dccµ cnough in ihc soil ihai suríacc µlanis cannoi acccss
ihc waicr suµµlv.
In shori, convcniional drainagc svsicms isolaic wasicwaicr
írom naiural svsicms, maling ihc organic maicrial in ihc waicr
unavailallc íor rccvcling. Ai wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlanis (scwagc
µlanis), ihc organic maicrial in ihc wasicwaicr is rcmovcd using com-
µlicaicd, cxµcnsivc µroccdurcs. Dcsµiic ihc high cosi oí such scµara-
iion µroccsscs, ihc organic maicrial rcmovcd írom ihc wasicwaicr is
oíicn luricd in a landíill.
1hc alicrnaiivcs should lc olvious. Allcri £insicin oncc
rcmarlcd ihai ihc human racc will rcouirc an cniirclv ncw manncr oí
ihinling ií ii is io survivc. I am inclincd io agrcc. Our ¨wasic disµos-
al" svsicms musi lc rcihoughi. As an alicrnaiivc io our currcni
ihrow-awav mcnialiiv, wc can undcrsiand ihai organic maicrial is a
rcsourcc, raihcr ihan a wasic, ihai can lc lcncíiciallv rccvclcd using
naiural µroccsscs.
In µursuing ihis alicrnaiivc, ihc íirsi sicµ is io r..v.|. as much
organic maicrial as µossillc, lccµing ii acav írom wasic disµosal svs-
icms aliogcihcr. Wc can climinaic all llaclwaicr írom our drains lv
comµosiing all human manurc and urinc. Wc can also climinaic
almosi all oihcr organic maicrial írom our drains lv comµosiing íood
scraµs. As such, onc should avoid using an in-sinl garlagc disµosal.
As an indicaiion oí how much organic maicrial ivµicallv gocs down a
houschold drain, considcr ihc words oí onc comµosiing ioilci manu-
íaciurcr, 'N.c r.ea|a//·as c/|| s··a J.oaaJ //a/ s.///. /aa|s r.../c/ae
/|as/ /·/|./ aaJ ear|ae. J/s/·sa| cas/.s |. /ao/.J ·a/ aaJ J·.ao.a/.J |v
a s/a/. ..r////.J s.//ae. /aa|.r .c.rv //r.. v.ars. \/.a /·/|./ aaJ ear|ae.
s·|/Js aaJ //./r ass·./a/.J /|as/ ca/.r ar. r.o·c.J /r·o //. s.///. svs/.o
aaJ //. s.///. /aa| /s r.../c/ae ·a|v eravca/.r, //. s.///. /aa| a..Js /ao/-
/ae ·a|v .c.rv /c.a/v v.ars.¨
1
According io ihc U.S. £PA, houschold in-
sinl garlagc disµosal uniis coniriluic 85O% morc organic maiicr and
777% morc susµcndcd solids io wasicwaicr ihan do ioilcis.
2
1hc sccond sicµ is io undcrsiand ihai a drain is noi a wasic
disµosal siic: ii should ncvcr lc uscd io dumµ somcihing io ¨gci rid
oí ii." 1his has uníoriunaiclv lccomc a lad halii íor manv
Amcricans. As an cxamµlc, a íricnd was hclµing mc µroccss somc oí
mv homc-madc winc. 1hc µroccss crcaicd íivc gallons oí sµcni winc
as a lv-µroduci. Whcn I had mv lacl iurncd, ihc ícllow dumµcd ihc
liouid down ihc sinl drain. I íound ihc cmµiv luclci and aslcd whai
haµµcncd io ihc liouid ihai had lccn in ii. ¨I dumµcd ii down ihc
sinl," hc said. I was sµccchlcss. Whv would anvonc dumµ íivc gallons
oí íood-dcrivcd liouid down a sinl drain? Bui I could scc whv. Mv
íricnd considcrcd a drain io lc a wasic disµosal siic, as do mosi
Amcricans. 1his was comµoundcd lv ihc íaci ihai hc had a· /J.a whai
io do wiih ihc liouid oihcrwisc. Mv houschold cíílucni drains dircci-
lv inio a consirucicd wciland which consisis oí a gravwaicr µond.
Bccausc anvihing ihai gocs down ihai drain íccds a naiural aouaiic
svsicm, I am ouiic µariicular aloui whai cnicrs ihc svsicm. I lccµ all
organic maicrial oui oí ihc svsicm, cxccµi íor ihc small amouni ihai
incviiallv comcs írom dishwashing and laihing. All íood scraµs arc
comµosicd, as arc grcasc, íais, oils and cvcrv oihcr lii oí organic íood
maicrial our houschold µroduccs. 1his rccvcling oí organic maicrial
allows íor a rclaiivclv clcan gravwaicr ihai can lc casilv rcmcdiaicd
lv a consirucicd wciland, soillcd or irrigaiion ircnch. 1hc ihoughi oí
dumµing somcihing down mv drain simµlv io disµosc oí ii iusi docs-
n`i íii inio mv wav oí ihinling. So I insirucicd mv íricnd io µour anv
rcmaining organic liouids onio ihc comµosi µilc. Which hc did. I
mighi add ihai ihis was in ihc middlc oí Ianuarv whcn ihings wcrc
ouiic írozcn, lui ihc comµosi µilc siill alsorlcd ihc liouid. In íaci,
ihai winicr was ihc íirsi onc in which ihc aciivc comµosi µilc did noi
írcczc. Aµµarcnilv, ihc 3O gallons oí liouid wc douscd ii wiih lcµi ii
aciivc cnough io gcncraic hcai all winicr long.
Sicµ ihrcc is io climinaic ihc usc oí all ioxic chcmicals and
non-liodcgradallc soaµs in onc`s houschold. Chcmicals will íind
ihcir wav down ihc drains and oui inio ihc cnvironmcni as µolluianis.
1hc ouaniiiv and variciv oí ioxic chcmicals rouiinclv dumµcd down
drains in ihc U.S. is loih incrcdillc and disiurling. Wc can climinaic
a loi oí our wasicwaicr µrollcms lv simµlv lcing carcíul whai wc add
io our waicr. Manv Amcricans don`i rcalizc ihai mosi oí ihc chcmi-
cals ihcv usc in ihcir dailv livcs and lclicvc io lc ncccssarv arc noi
ncccssarv ai all. 1hcv can simµlv lc climinaicd. 1his is a íaci ihai will
noi lc µromoicd on 1V or lv ihc govcrnmcni (including schools),
lccausc ihc chcmical indusirv mighi olicci. I`m ouiic surc ihai vou,
ihc rcadcr, don`i carc whcihcr ihc chcmical indusirv oliccis or noi.
1hcrcíorc, vou willinglv malc ihc small cííori ncccssarv io íind cnvi-
ronmcniallv lcnign clcaning agcnis íor homc usc.
Clcaning µroducis ihai coniain loron should noi lc uscd wiih
gravwaicr rccvcling svsicms lccausc loron is rcµoricdlv ioxic io mosi
206 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
µlanis. Iiouid dcicrgcnis arc lciicr ihan µowdcrcd dcicrgcnis
lccausc ihcv coniriluic lcss salis io ihc svsicm.
3
Waicr soíicncrs mav
noi lc good íor gravwaicr rccvcling svsicms lccausc soíicncd waicr
rcµoricdlv coniains morc sodium ihan unsoíicncd waicr, and ihc
sodium mav luild uµ in ihc soil, io iis dcirimcni. Chlorinc llcach or
dcicrgcnis coniaining chlorinc should noi lc uscd, as chlorinc is a
µoicni µoison. Drain clcancrs and µroducis ihai clcan µorcclain wiih-
oui scrulling should noi lc draincd inio a gravwaicr rccvcling svs-
icm.
Sicµ íour is io rcducc our waicr consumµiion aliogcihcr,
ihcrclv rcducing ihc amouni oí waicr issuing írom our drains. 1his
can lc aidcd lv collcciing and using rainwaicr, and lv rccvcling grav-
waicr ihrough lcncíicial, naiural svsicms.
1hc ¨old school" oí wasicwaicr ircaimcni, siill cmlraccd lv
mosi govcrnmcni rcgulaiors and manv acadcmics, considcrs waicr io
lc a vchiclc íor ihc rouiinc iransícr oí wasic írom onc µlacc io anoih-
cr. Ii also considcrs ihc accomµanving organic maicrial io lc oí liiilc
or no valuc. 1hc ¨ncw school," on ihc oihcr hand, sccs waicr as a
dwindling, µrccious rcsourcc ihai should noi lc µolluicd wiih wasic:
organic maicrials arc sccn as rcsourccs ihai should lc consiruciivclv
rccvclcd. Mv rcscarch íor ihis chaµicr includcd rcvicwing hundrcds
oí rcscarch µaµcrs on alicrnaiivc wasicwaicr svsicms. I was amazcd ai
ihc incrcdillc amouni oí iimc and moncv ihai has gonc inio siudving
how io clcan ihc waicr wc havc µolluicd wiih human cxcrcmcni. In
all oí ihc rcscarch µaµcrs, wiihoui cxccµiion, ihc idca ihai wc should
simµlv sioµ dcíccaiing in waicr was ncvcr suggcsicd.
GRAYWA1£R
Ii is csiimaicd ihai 42 io 79% oí houschold gravwaicr comcs
írom ihc laihiul and showcr, 5 io 23% írom laundrv íaciliiics, 1O io
17% írom ihc liichcn sinl or dishwashcr, and 5 io 6% írom ihc laih-
room sinl. Bv comµarison, ihc ílushing oí llaclwaicr írom ioilcis
consiiiuics 38 io 45% oí all inicrior waicr usc in ihc U.S., and is ihc
singlc largcsi usc oí waicr indoors. On avcragc, a µcrson ílushcs a ioi-
lci six iimcs a dav.
4
Various siudics havc indicaicd ihai ihc amouni oí gravwaicr
gcncraicd µcr µcrson µcr dav varics írom 25 io 45 gallons (96 io 172
liicrs), or 719 io 1,272 gallons (2,688 io 4,816 liicrs) µcr wccl íor a
ivµical íamilv oí íour.
5
In Caliíornia, a íamilv oí íour mav µroducc
1,3OO gallons oí gravwaicr in a wccl.
6
1his amounis io ncarlv a 55-
gallon drum íillcd wiih sinl and laih waicr lv cvcrv µcrson cvcrv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 207
dav, which is ihcn draincd inio a
scµiic or scwagc svsicm. 1his
csiimaic docs noi includc ioilci
waicr. Ironicallv, ihc gravwaicr
wc disµosc oí can siill lc uscíul
íor such µurµoscs as vard, gardcn
and grccnhousc irrigaiion.
Insicad, wc dumµ ihc gravwaicr
inio scwcrs and usc drinling
waicr io irrigaic our lawns.
Rcusc oí gravwaicr íor land-
scaµc irrigaiion can grcailv
rcducc ihc amouni oí drinlallc
waicr uscd íor irrigaiion during
ihc summcr monihs whcn land-
scaµc waicr mav consiiiuic 5O-
8O% oí ihc waicr uscd ai a ivµical
homc. £vcn in an arid rcgion, a
ihrcc-µcrson houschold can gcn-
craic cnough gravwaicr io mcci
all oí ihcir irrigaiion nccds.
7
In
arid 1ucson, Arizona, íor cxam-
µlc, a ivµical íamilv oí ihrcc uscs
123,4OO gallons oí municiµal
waicr µcr vcar.
8
Ii is csiimaicd
ihai 31 gallons oí gravwaicr can
lc collccicd µcr µcrson, µcr dav,
amouniing io almosi 34,OOO gal-
lons oí gravwaicr µcr vcar íor ihc
samc íamilv.
9
An cxµcrimcnial
homc in 1ucson, lnown as Casa
dcl Aoua, rcduccd iis municiµal
waicr usc lv 66% lv rccvcling
gravwaicr and collcciing rainwa-
icr. Gravwaicr rccvcling ihcrc
amounicd io 28,2OO gallons µcr
vcar, and rainwaicr collcciion
amounicd io 7,4OO gallons µcr
vcar.
1O
In cíícci, rccvclcd gravwa-
icr consiiiuics a ¨ncw" waicr
suµµlv lv allowing waicr ihai
208 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
FOUR STEPS TOWARD
BENEFICIAL GRAYWATER
REUSE
1) Keep as much organic material out
of the water as possible. Use a com-
post toilet and have a compost system
for food scraps. Never use an in-sink
garbage disposal. Compost grease,
fats and oils.
2) A household drain is not a waste
disposal site. Consider the drain as a
conduit to the natural world.
3) Do not allow any toxic chemicals to
enter your drain system. Use
biodegradable soaps and environmen-
tally benign cleaning agents.
4) Use water sparingly and efficiently.
Ìf possible, collect rainwater and/or re-
use graywater.
APPROXIMATE WATER USE OF
STANDARD APPLIANCES
US top-loading
washing machine . . . . . .30 gallons
European front loading .10 gallons
washing machine
Dishwasher . . . . . . . . . .3-5 gallons
Low flow shower head,
per shower . . . . . . . . . . .3-7 gallons
Other sink use (shaving,
washing, etc.) . . . . . . . .1-5 gallons
Source: Lindstrom, Carl (1992). Graywater ÷ Facts
About Graywater ÷ What it is, How to Treat it, When
and Where to Use it. www.greywater.com
was µrcviouslv wasicd io lc uscd lcncíiciallv. Waicr rcusc also
rcduccs cncrgv and íossil íucl consumµiion lv rcouiring lcss waicr io
lc µuriíicd and µumµcd, ihcrclv hclµing io rcducc ihc µroduciion oí
glolal warming gascs such as carlon dioxidc.
Bccausc gravwaicr can lc coniaminaicd wiih íccal lacicria
and chcmicals, iis rcusc is µrohiliicd or scvcrclv rcsiricicd in manv
siaics. Sincc govcrnmcni rcgulaiorv agcncics oíicn do noi havc com-
µlcic iníormaiion aloui gravwaicr rccvcling, ihcv mav assumc ihc
worsi-casc sccnario and simµlv lan iis rcusc. 1his is grosslv uníair io
ihosc who arc conscicniious aloui whai ihcv µui down ihcir drains
and who arc dcicrmincd io conscrvc and rccvclc waicr. Gravwaicr
cxµcris conicnd ihai ihc hcalih ihrcai írom gravwaicr is insigniíicani.
Onc siaics, 'l |a·c ·/ a· J·.ao.a/.J /as/aa.. /a c//./ a /.rs·a /a //.
U.S. |..ao. /|| /r·o eravca/.r.¨
11
Anoihcr adds, 'N·/. //a/ a|//·ae/
eravca/.r /as |..a as.J /a (a|//·ra/a /·r a|·a/ 20 v.ars c///·a/ /.ro//s,
//.r. /as a·/ |..a ·a. J·.ao.a/.J .as. ·/ J/s.as. /raaso/ss/·a.¨
12
1hc
hcalih risls írom gravwaicr rcusc can lc rcduccd íirsi lv lccµing as
much organic maicrial and ioxic chcmicals oui oí vour drains as µos-
sillc, and sccond, lv íilicring ihc gravwaicr inio a consirucicd wci-
land, soillcd or lclow ihc suríacc oí ihc ground so ihai ihc gravwaicr
docs noi comc inio dircci human coniaci, or in coniaci wiih ihc cdi-
llc µoriions oí íruiis and vcgciallcs.
In Novcmlcr oí 1994, lcgislaiion was µasscd in Caliíornia
ihai allowcd ihc usc oí gravwaicr in singlc íamilv homcs íor sulsur-
íacc landscaµc irrigaiion. Manv oihcr siaics do noi currcnilv havc anv
lcgislaiion rcgulaiing gravwaicr. Howcvcr, manv siaics arc now rcal-
izing ihc valuc oí alicrnaiivc gravwaicr svsicms and arc µursuing
rcscarch and dcvcloµmcni oí such svsicms. 1hc U.S. £PA considcrs
ihc usc oí wcilands io lc an cmcrging alicrnaiivc io convcniional
ircaimcni µroccsscs.
PA1HOG£NS
Gravwaicr can coniain discasc organisms which originaic
írom íccal maicrial or urinc cnicring laih, wash or laundrv waicr.
Poicniial µaihogcns in íccal maicrial and urinc, as wcll as inícciivc
doscs, arc lisicd in Chaµicr 7.
£ccal coliíorms arc a µolluiion indicaior. Bacicria such as F.
.·|/ rcvcal íccal coniaminaiion oí waicr and ihc µossillc µrcscncc oí
oihcr inicsiinal discasc-causing organisms. A high couni is undcsir-
allc and indicaics a grcaicr chancc oí human illncss rcsuliing írom
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 209
210 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
A SHORT GLOSSARY OF SCIENTIFIC
WETLAND TERMS
BOD (BÌOLOGÌCAL OXYGEN DEMAND)
is the amount of oxygen in water that will
be consumed by microorganisms in a
certain period of time. The more organic
nutrients in the water, the greater the
BOD, because there will be more
microorganisms feeding on the nutrients
and consuming oxygen. BOD is meas-
ured by obtaining equal volumes of water
from a source to be tested. Each speci-
men is diluted with a known volume of
distilled water which has been thoroughly
shaken to ensure oxygen saturation. One
specimen is measured for dissolved oxy-
gen; the other is set aside in a dark place
for five days, then measured. BOD is
determined by subtracting the second
reading from the first. BOD5 is a measure
of the oxygen depletion after five days.
High BOD is an indicator of organic pollu-
tion.
COLÌFORM BACTERÌA - Bacteria occur-
ring naturally in the intestines of warm-
blooded animals. Most do not cause dis-
ease. Drinking water should have less
than four coliform bacteria per 100 ml of
water. Counts higher than 2,300/100 ml
are considered unsafe for swimming, and
waters with 10,000/100 ml are unsafe for
boating.
CONSTRUCTED WETLAND - A human-
made complex of saturated substrates
(such as gravel), with emergent and sub-
mergent plants, animal life and water at
or near the surface, which simulates nat-
ural wetlands for human use and benefit.
HYDRÌC SOÌL - water-saturated soil
HYDROPHYTE - water-loving plant
coniaci wiih ihc gravwaicr. Plani maicrial, soil and íood scraµs can
coniriluic io ihc ioial coliíorm µoµulaiion, lui íccal coliíorms indi-
caic ihai íccal maicrial is also cnicring ihc waicr svsicm. 1his can
comc írom lalv diaµcrs, or iusi írom laihing or showcring.
Morc microorganisms mav comc írom showcr and laih grav-
waicr ihan írom oihcr gravwaicr sourccs. Siudics havc shown ihai
ioial coliíorms and íccal coliíorms wcrc aµµroximaiclv icn iimcs
grcaicr in laihing waicr ihan in laundrv waicr (scc £igurc 9.2).
13
Onc siudv showcd an avcragc oí 215 ioial coliíorms µcr 1OO
ml and 1O7 íccal coliíorms µcr 1OO ml in laundrv waicr: 1,81O ioial
coliíorms and 1,21O íccal coliíorms µcr 1OO ml in laih waicr: and
18,8OO,OOO colonv-íorming uniis oí ioial coliíorms µcr 1OO ml in grav-
waicr coniaining houschold garlagc (such as whcn a garlagc disµos-
al is uscd).
14
Olviouslv, grinding and dumµing íood wasic down a
drain grcailv incrcascs ihc lacicrial µoµulaiion oí ihc gravwaicr.
Duc io ihc undigcsicd naiurc oí ihc organic maicrial in grav-
waicr, microorganisms can grow and rcµroducc in ihc waicr during
sioragc. 1hc numlcrs oí lacicria can aciuallv incrcasc in gravwaicr
wiihin ihc íirsi 48 hours oí sioragc, ihcn rcmain siallc íor aloui 12
davs, aíicr which ihcv slowlv dcclinc (scc £igurc 9.1).
15
£or maximum hvgicnic saíciv, íollow ihcsc simµlc rulcs whcn
using a gravwaicr rccvcling svsicm: don`i drinl gravwaicr: don`i comc
in µhvsical coniaci wiih gravwaicr (and wash µromµilv ií vou acci-
dcnilv do comc in coniaci wiih ii): don`i allow gravwaicr io comc in
coniaci wiih cdillc µoriions oí íood croµs: don`i allow gravwaicr io
µool on ihc suríacc oí ihc ground: and don`i allow gravwaicr io run
oíí vour µroµcriv.
PRAC1ICAI GRAYWA1£R SYS1£MS
1hc olicci oí rccvcling gravwaicr is io malc ihc organic
nuiricnis in ihc waicr availallc io µlanis and microorganisms, µrcícr-
allv on a coniinuous lasis. 1hc organisms will consumc ihc organic
maicrial, ihcrclv rccvcling ii ihrough ihc naiural svsicm.
Ii is csiimaicd ihai 3O gallons oí gravwaicr µcr µcrson µcr dav
will lc µroduccd írom a waicr-conscrvaiivc homc. 1his gravwaicr can
lc rccvclcd ciihcr indoors or ouidoors. Insidc luildings, gravwaicr
can lc íilicrcd ihrough dccµ soil lcds, or shallow gravcl lcds, in a
sµacc whcrc µlanis can lc grown, such as in a grccnhousc.
Ouidoors, in coldcr climaics, gravwaicr can lc draincd inio
lcaching ircnchcs ihai arc dccµ cnough io rcsisi írcczing, lui shallow
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 211
cnough io lccµ ihc nuiricnis wiihin ihc rooi zoncs oí suríacc µlanis.
£rcczing can lc µrcvcnicd lv aµµlving a mulch ovcr ihc sulsuríacc
lcaching ircnchcs. Gravwaicr can also lc circulaicd ihrough con-
sirucicd wcilands (£igurcs 9.4, 9.5 and 9.6), mulch lasins (£igurc
9.8), and soillcds (£igurcs 9.8, 9.9, 9.1O and 9.11).
£VAPO1RANSPIRA1ION
Planis can alsorl gravwaicr ihrough ihcir roois and ihcn
iransµirc ihc moisiurc inio ihc air. A gravwaicr svsicm ihai rclics on
such iransµiraiion is callcd an £vaµoiransµiraiion Svsicm. Such a
svsicm mav consisi oí a ianl io sciilc oui ihc solids, wiih ihc cíílucni
draining or lcing µumµcd inio a shallow sand or gravcl lcd covcrcd
wiih vcgciaiion. Canna lilics, iris, clcµhani cars, caiiails, gingcr lilv,
and umlrclla ircc, among oihcrs, havc lccn uscd wiih ihcsc svsicms.
An avcragc iwo-lcdroom housc mav rcouirc an cvaµoiransµiraiion
ircnch ihai is ihrcc ícci widc and 7O ícci long. Onc sivlc oí cvaµoiran-
sµiraiion svsicm consisis oí a shallow ircnch lincd wiih clav or oihcr
waicrµrooí lining (such as µlasiic), íillcd wiih an inch or iwo oí sian-
dard gravcl, and six inchcs oí µca gravcl. Planis arc µlanicd in ihc
212 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
gravcl, and no soil is uscd. A ¨moihcr-in-law íricndlv" cvaµoiransµi-
raiion svsicm is ihc Waison Wicl (£igurc 9.3).
CONS1RUC1£D W£1IANDS
1hc svsicm oí µlaniing aouaiic µlanis such as rccds or lul-
rushcs in a wci (oíicn gravcl) sulsiraic mcdium íor gravwaicr rccv-
cling is callcd a ¨consirucicd wciland" or ¨ariiíicial wciland." 1hc
íirsi ariiíicial wcilands wcrc luili in ihc 197Os. Bv ihc carlv 199Os,
ihcrc wcrc morc ihan 15O consirucicd wcilands ircaiing municiµal
and indusirial wasicwaicr in ihc U.S..
According io ihc U.S. £nvironmcnial Proicciion Agcncv,
'(·as/ra./.J c./|aaJs /r.a/o.a/ svs/.os .aa |. .s/a||/s/.J a|o·s/ aav-
c/.r., /a.|aJ/ae ·a |aaJs c/// |/o//.J a|/.raa//c. as.s. T//s .aa |. J·a.
r.|a//c.|v s/o/|v c/.r. cas/.ca/.r /r.a/o.a/ /s //. ·a|v /aa.//·a s·ae//.
T/.v .aa |. |a/|/ /a aa/ara| s.///aes, ·r //.v oav .a/a/| .x/.as/c. .ar//o·c-
/ae, .·as/ra.//·a ·/ /o/.ro.a||. |arr/.rs, ·r |a/|J/ae ·/ .·a/a/ao.a/ sa./
as /aa|s ·r /r.a./.s. \./|aaJ c.e./a//·a /as |..a .s/a||/s/.J aaJ oa/a-
/a/a.J ·a sa|s/ra/.s raae/ae /r·o erac.| ·r o/a. s/·/|s /· .|av ·r /.a/ . . .
S·o. svs/.os ar. s./ a/ /· r../are. a/ |.as/ a /·r//·a ·/ //. /r.a/.J cas/.-
ca/.r /· aaJ.r|v/ae er·aaJ ca/.r. (//.rs a./ as /|·c-//r·ae/ svs/.os, J/s-
./are/ae //. //aa| .//|a.a/ /· sar/a.. ca/.rs. (·as/ra./.J c./|aaJs /ac.
J/c.rs. a//|/.a//·as aaJ ar. /·aaJ a.r·ss //. .·aa/rv aaJ ar·aaJ //. c·r|J.
T/.v .aa ·//.a |. aa .ac/r·ao.a/a||v a...//a||., .·s/-.//..//c. /r.a/o.a/
·///·a, /ar//.a|ar|v /·r soa|| .·ooaa///.s.¨
16
A wciland, lv dcíiniiion, musi mainiain a lcvcl oí waicr ncar
ihc suríacc oí ihc ground íor a long cnough iimc cach vcar io suµµori
ihc growih oí aouaiic vcgciaiion. Marshcs, logs, and swamµs arc
cxamµlcs oí naiurallv occurring wcilands. Consirucicd wcilands arc
dcsigncd csµcciallv íor µolluiion conirol and cxisi in locaiions whcrc
naiural wcilands do noi.
1wo ivµcs oí consirucicd wcilands arc in common usc iodav.
Onc ivµc cxµoscs ihc waicr`s suríacc (Suríacc £low Wciland, £igurc
9.5), and ihc oihcr mainiains ihc waicr suríacc lclow ihc lcvcl oí ihc
gravcl (Sulsuríacc £low Wciland, £igurcs 9.4 and 9.6). Somc dcsigns
comlinc clcmcnis oí loih. Sulsuríacc ílow wcilands arc also rcícrrcd
io as Vcgciaicd Sulmcrgcd Bcd, Rooi Zonc Mcihod, Rocl Rccd
£ilicr, Microlial Rocl £ilicr, Hvdroloianical Mcihod, Soil £ilicr
1rcnch, Biological-Macroµhviic Marsh Bcd and Rccd Bcd
1rcaimcni.
17
Sulsuríacc ílow wcilands arc considcrcd io lc advaniagcous
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 213
214 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
The wetland cell is lined with 20 mil plastic,
clay, or other water impermeable layer, filled
with 12 inches of gravel, and covered with
two inches of mulch. Finally, two inches of
topsoil are layered on top. Plants are set in
the topsoil with their roots in the gravel.
APPROXIMATE SIZES OF SINGLE CELL CON-
STRUCTED WETLANDS WITH LEACH FIELD
FOR INDIVIDUAL HOMES
Length of lateral
Bedrooms Size of wetland cell overflow drain field
1 . . . . . . . . . . .120 sq. ft. (4'x30') . . . . . . . . . .100 feet
2 . . . . . . . . . . .240 sq. ft. (4'x60') . . . . . . . . . .150 feet
3 . . . . . . . . . . .360 sq. ft. (5'x72') . . . . . . . . . .200 feet
4 . . . . . . . . . . .480 sq. ft. (6'x80') . . . . . . . . . .300 feet
Source: Kentucky State Guidelines as indicated in ASPÌ Technical
Series TP-30, Artificial or Constructed Wetlands.
Liners can be made from polyethylene,
butyl rubber, PVC, natural clay, or other
waterproof material. Washed 2B gravel
or pea gravel, of uniform size, can be
used as filler. Sand may be useful as a
cushion to protect the liner from the
gravel. The soil cover is optional; plants
can be planted directly into the gravel.
Mulch should be coarse enough to stay
on top of the gravel. Connector pipes
should be 2¨ to 4¨ in diameter. The
holes in the perforated inlet and outlet
pipes are 1/2¨ to 3/4¨ in diameter
(depending on diameter of pipe).
Adapted from ASPÌ Technical
Series TP-30, Artificial or
Constructed Wetlands.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 215
Most biological recycling of organic nutrients occurs in the upper layers of the soil, called
the "bio-active zone.¨ Typical wastewater systems, such as septic systems and leach
fields, are placed below the bio-active zone allowing little nutrient recycling to take place.
A constructed wetland allows the nutrients in wastewater effluent to be beneficially used
by aquatic plants and microorganisms.
comµarcd io oµcn suríacc wcilands and arc morc commonlv uscd íor
individual houscholds. Bv lccµing ihc waicr lclow ihc suríacc oí ihc
gravcl mcdium, ihcrc is lcss chancc oí odors cscaµing, lcss human
coniaci, lcss chancc oí mosouiio lrccding, and íasicr ¨ircaimcni" oí
ihc waicr duc io morc oí ihc waicr lcing cxµoscd io ihc microliallv
µoµulaicd gravcl suríaccs and µlani roois. 1hc sulsuríacc waicr is
also lcss inclincd io írcczc during cold wcaihcr.
Consirucicd wcilands gcncrallv consisi oí onc or morc lincd
lcds, or cclls. 1hc gravcl mcdia in ihc cclls should lc as uniíorm in
sizc as µossillc and should consisi oí small io mcdium sizc gravcl or
sionc, írom onc íooi io ihrcc ícci in dcµih. A lavcr oí sand mav lc
uscd ciihcr ai ihc ioµ or ihc loiiom oí a gravcl mcdium, or a lavcr oí
mulch and ioµsoil mav lc aµµlicd ovcr ihc ioµ oí ihc gravcl. In somc
cascs, gravcl alonc will lc uscd wiih no sand, mulch or ioµsoil. 1hc
sidcs oí ihc wcilands arc lcrmcd io µrcvcni rainwaicr írom ílowing
inio ihcm, and ihc loiiom mav lc slighilv sloµcd io aid in ihc ílow oí
gravwaicr ihrough ihc svsicm. A consirucicd wciland íor a housc-
hold, oncc csiallishcd, rcouircs somc mainicnancc, mainlv ihc annu-
al harvcsiing oí ihc µlanis, which can lc comµosicd.
In anv casc, ihc roois oí aouaiic µlanis will sµrcad ihrough ihc
gravcl as ihc µlanis grow. 1hc mosi common sµccics oí µlanis uscd in
ihc wcilands arc ihc caiiails, lulrushcs, scdgcs and rccds. Gravwaicr
is íilicrcd ihrough ihc gravcl, ihcrclv lccµing ihc growing cnviron-
mcni wci, and liis oí organic maicrial írom ihc gravwaicr lccomc
iraµµcd in ihc íilicring mcdium. 1vµical rcicniion iimcs íor gravwa-
icr in a sulsuríacc ílow wciland svsicm rangc írom iwo io six davs.
During ihis iimc, ihc organic maicrial is lrolcn down and uiilizcd lv
microorganisms living in ihc mcdium and on ihc roois oí ihc µlanis.
A widc rangc oí organic maicrials can also lc ialcn uµ dirccilv lv ihc
µlanis ihcmsclvcs.
Bacicria, loih acrolic and anacrolic, arc among ihc mosi
µlcniiíul microorganisms in wcilands and arc ihoughi io µrovidc ihc
maioriiv oí ihc wasicwaicr ircaimcni. Microorganisms and µlanis
sccm io worl iogcihcr svmlioiicallv in consirucicd wcilands as ihc
µoµulaiion oí microorganisms is much highcr in ihc rooi arcas oí ihc
µlanis ihan in ihc gravcl alonc. Dissolvcd organic maicrials arc ialcn
uµ lv ihc roois oí ihc µlanis, whilc oxvgcn and íood arc suµµlicd io
ihc undcrwaicr microorganisms ihrough ihc samc rooi svsicm.
18
Aouaiic microorganisms havc lccn rcµoricd io mcialolizc a
widc rangc oí organic coniaminanis in wasicwaicr, including lcn-
zcnc, naµihalcnc, iolucnc, chlorinaicd aromaiics, µcirolcum hvdro-
216 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
carlons and µcsiicidcs. Aouaiic µlanis can ialc uµ and somciimcs
mcialolizc waicr coniaminanis such as inscciicidcs and lcnzcnc. 1hc
waicr hvacinih, íor cxamµlc, can rcmovc µhcnols, algac, íccal col-
iíorms, susµcndcd µariiclcs and hcavv mcials including lcad, mcrcu-
rv, silvcr, niclcl, colali and cadmium írom coniaminaicd waicr. In
ihc alscncc oí hcavv mcials or ioxins, waicr hvacinihs can lc harvcsi-
cd as a high-µroicin livcsiocl íccd. 1hcv can also lc harvcsicd as a
íccdsiocl íor mcihanc µroduciion. Rccd-lascd wcilands can rcmovc
a widc rangc oí ioxic organic µolluianis.
19
Duclwccds also rcmovc
organic and inorganic coniaminanis írom waicr, csµcciallv niirogcn
and µhosµhorous.
2O
Whcn ihc ouidoor air icmµcraiurc droµs lclow a ccriain
µoini during ihc winicr monihs in cold climaics, wciland µlanis will
dic and microlial aciiviiv will droµ oíí. 1hcrcíorc, consirucicd wci-
lands will noi µrovidc ihc samc lcvcl oí waicr ircaimcni vcar round.
Ariiíicial wcilands svsicms consiiiuic a rclaiivclv ncw aµµroach io
waicr µuriíicaiion, and ihc cííccis oí variallcs such as icmµcraiurc
íluciuaiions arc noi comµlciclv undcrsiood. Ncvcrihclcss, wcilands
arc rcµoricd io µcríorm manv ircaimcni íunciions cííicicnilv in win-
icr. Onc sourcc rcµoris ihai ihc rcmoval raics oí manv coniaminanis
arc unaííccicd lv waicr icmµcraiurc, adding, 'T/. //rs/ /c· v.ars ·/
·/.ra//·a ·/ a svs/.o /a N·rcav s/·c.J a c/a/.r /.r/·roaa.. a|o·s/ a/ //.
sao. |.c.| as //. saoo.r /.r/·roaa...¨ Somc icchnioucs havc lccn
dcvcloµcd io insulaic wciland svsicms during ihc coldcr monihs. £or
cxamµlc, in Canada, waicr lcvcls in wcilands wcrc raiscd during
írcczing µcriods, ihcn lowcrcd aíicr a lavcr oí icc had íormcd. 1hc
caiiails hcld ihc icc in µlacc, crcaiing an air sµacc ovcr ihc waicr.
Snow collccicd on ioµ oí ihc icc, íurihcr insulaiing ihc waicr undcr-
ncaih.
21
Ii is csiimaicd ihai onc culic íooi oí ariiíicial wciland is
rcouircd íor cvcrv gallon µcr dav oí gravwaicr µroduccd. £or an avcr-
agc singlc lcdroom housc, ihis amounis io aloui a 12O souarc íooi
svsicm, onc íooi dccµ. Somc consirucicd wciland siiuaiions mav noi
havc cnough drainagc waicr írom a rcsidcncc io lccµ ihc svsicm wci
cnough. In ihis casc, cxira waicr mav lc addcd írom rain waicr col-
lcciion or oihcr sourccs.
W£1IAND PIAN1S
Aouaiic µlanis uscd in consirucicd wciland svsicms can lc
dividcd inio iwo gcncral grouµs: microscoµic and macroscoµic. Mosi
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 217
218 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
Plants for constructed wetlands can be
purchased from a greenhouse or suppli-
er. Nature, however, may ultimately play
a major role in deciding what plants
thrive in your constructed wetland.
A CONSTRUCTED WETLAND
REQUÌRES FOUR COMPONENTS
FOR FUNCTÌONAL SUCCESS
1) A substrate (such as gravel)
2) Aquatic plants
3) Water
4) Naturally occurring microorgan-
isms (both aerobic and anaero-
bic)
Two or more growing seasons may
be necessary before plants are com-
pletely established.
Sources: University of Florida, Ìnstitute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences. Circular 912,
Aquascaping: Planting and Maintenance. and
National Small Flows Clearinghouse, Pipeline,
Summer 1998, Vol. 9, No. 3: Constructed
Wetlands, A Natural Treatment Alternative.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 219
For more information about this system
contact: Solar Survival Architecture, PO
Box 1041, Taos, NM 87571 USA. Ask
for the publication "Grey Water ÷
Containment, Treatment, and
Distribution Systems.¨ [Ìllustration cour-
tesy of Solar Survival Architecture.]
Acid loving plants such as rhododendron, azalea, foxglove, hydrangea, fern, gar-
denia, primrose, begonia, hibiscus, violet, impatiens, and others, should not be
used in graywater irrigation systems.
When water under pressure is used for subsurface irrigation, a sleeve system
over the irrigation hose, shown at left, will prevent erosion of the soil around the
hose area.The sleeve will also prevent clogging of the irrigation hose by insects
and roots. For more information contact Carl Lindstrom at www.greywater.com.
A 55 gallon drum is shown above collecting water from a washing machine or sink drains. The
drum may be located in a basement for year-round use and regularly pumped to the outdoor
mulch basins around the trees. The hose is perforated only around the trees, where it is buried
in a shallow trench under a heavy mulch. Entire length of hose may be buried for frost protection.
220 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
A 6¨ PVC pipe, cut in half lengthwise and set on plastic netting to keep the pipe from
sinking into the soil, creates a handy leaching chamber in soilbeds. When the top leach-
ing chamber freezes, water automatically switches into the lower leaching chamber.
Source: Carl Lindstrom, www.greywater.com
oí ihc microscoµic µlanis arc algac, which can lc ciihcr singlc ccll
(such as (/|·r.||a or Fae|.aa) or íilamcnious (such as S//ra|/aa or
S/vr·evra).
Macroscoµic (largcr) µlanis can grow undcr waicr (sulmcr-
gcni) or alovc waicr (cmcrgcni). Somc grow µariiallv sulmcrgcd and
somc µariiallv cmcrgcd. Somc cxamµlcs oí macroscoµic aouaiic
µlanis arc rccds, lulrushcs, waicr hvacinihs and duclwccds (scc
£igurc 9.7). Sulmcrgcd µlanis can rcmovc nuiricnis írom wasicwaicr,
lui arc lcsi suiicd in waicr whcrc ihcrc is µlcniv oí oxvgcn. Waicr
wiih a high lcvcl oí organic maicrial icnds io lc low in oxvgcn duc io
cxicnsivc microlial aciiviiv.
£xamµlcs oí íloaiing µlanis arc duclwccds and waicr
hvacinihs. Duclwccds can alsorl largc ouaniiiics oí nuiricnis. Small
µonds ihai arc ovcrloadcd wiih nuiricnis such as íarm ícriilizcr run-
oíí can oíicn lc sccn cholcd wiih duclwccd, aµµcaring as a grccn car-
µci on ihc µond`s suríacc. In a iwo and a halí acrc µond, duclwccd
can alsorl ihc niirogcn, µhosµhorous and µoiassium írom ihc cxcrc-
iions oí 2O7 dairv cows. 1hc duclwccd can cvcniuallv lc harvcsicd,
dricd, and ícd lacl io ihc livcsiocl as a µroicin-rich íccd. Iivcsiocl
can cvcn cai ihc µlanis dirccilv írom a waicr irough.
22
Algac worl in µarincrshiµ wiih lacicria in aouaiic svsicms.
Bacicria lrcal down comµlcx niirogcn comµounds and malc ihc
niirogcn availallc io algac. Bacicria also µroducc carlon dioxidc
which is uiilizcd lv ihc algac.
23
SOIIBOX£S OR SOIIB£DS
A soillox is a lox dcsigncd io allow gravwaicr io íilicr
ihrough ii whilc µlanis grow on ioµ oí ii (£igurc 9.11). Such loxcs
havc lccn in usc sincc ihc 197Os. Sincc ihc lox musi lc wcll-draincd,
ii is íirsi lavcrcd wiih rocls, µca gravcl, or oihcr drainagc maicrial.
1his is covcrcd wiih scrccning, ihcn a lavcr oí coarsc sand is addcd,
íollowcd lv íincr sand: iwo ícci oí ioµ soil is addcd io íinish ii oíí.
Soilloxcs can lc locaicd indoors or ouidoors, ciihcr in a grccnhousc,
or as µari oí a raiscd-lcd gardcn svsicm.
24
Soilloxcs locaicd in indoor grccnhouscs arc illusiraicd in
£igurcs 9.8 and 9.1O. An ouidoor soillcd is illusiraicd in £igurc 9.9.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 221
P££P£RS
An acid sµring cholcd wiih long, slimv, grccn algac ílows µasi
mv housc írom an alandoncd suríacc coal minc. I iniroduccd lalv
ducls io ihc algac-cholcd waicr, and ouiic lv accidcni, I íound ihai
ihc algac disaµµcarcd as long as I had ducls swimming in ihc waicr.
Whcihcr ihc ducls wcrc caiing ihc algac or iusi lrcaling ii uµ µad-
dling ihcir ícci, I don`i lnow. In anv casc, ihc waicr changcd írom
uglv io lcauiiíul, almosi ovcrnighi, lv ihc simµlc addiiion oí anoih-
cr liícíorm io ihc wciland svsicm. 1his indicaicd io mc ihai µroíound
changcs could occur in ccological svsicms wiih µroµcr cvcn acci-
dcnial managcmcni. Uníoriunaiclv, consirucicd wciland svsicms
arc siill ncw and ihcrc isn`i a wholc loi oí concrcic iníormaiion aloui
ihcm ihai is aµµlicallc io singlc íamilv dwcllings. 1hcrcíorc, I was
íorccd, as usual, io cngagc in cxµcrimcniaiion.
I luili a clav-lincd µond ncar mv housc aloui ihc sizc oí a
largc swimming µool, ihcn divcricd somc oí ihc acid minc waicr io
íill ihc µond. I dirccicd mv gravwaicr inio ihis ¨modiíicd lagoon"
wasicwaicr svsicm via a six inch diamcicr drain µiµc wiih an ouilci
discharging ihc gravwaicr lclow ihc suríacc oí ihc µond waicr. I
insiallcd a largc drainµiµc assuming ii would aci as a µrc-digcsiion
chamlcr whcrc organic maicrial could collcci and lrcal down lv
anacrolic lacicria cn rouic io ihc lagoon, lilc a mini scµiic ianl. I
add scµiic ianl lacicria io ihc svsicm annuallv lv dumµing ii down
ihc houschold drains.
Bcar in mind ihai wc usc a comµosi ioilci and wc comµosi all
oihcr organic maicrial. Whai gocs down ihc houschold drains is laih
waicr, sinl waicr and laundrv waicr. Wc do usc liodcgradallc soaµs,
lui do noi usc an in-sinl garlagc disµosal. Scicniiíic rcscarch shows
ihai such s·ar..-s./ara/.J eravca/.r has ihc samc or lciicr oualiiv
ihan municiµal wasicwaicr cíílucni a//.r /ar///.a//·a. In oihcr words,
sourcc scµaraicd gravwaicr is arguallv cnvironmcniallv clcancr ihan
whai`s dischargcd írom wasicwaicr ircaimcni µlanis.
25
I assumcd ihai ihc small amouni oí organic maiicr ihai
cnicrcd ihc µond írom ihc gravwaicr drain would lc consumcd lv ihc
organisms in ihc waicr, ihcrclv hclµing io liologicallv rcmcdiaic ihc
cxicnsivclv damagcd acid minc waicr. 1hc organic maicrial sciilcs
inio ihc loiiom oí ihc µond, which is aloui íivc ícci ai ihc dccµcsi
µoini, ihcrclv lcing rciaincd in ihc consirucicd svsicm indcíiniiclv.
I also lincd ihc loiiom oí ihc µond wiih limcsionc io hclµ ncuiralizc
ihc incoming acid minc waicr.
222 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
1hc ducls, oí coursc, lovcd ihc ncw µond. 1hcv siill sµcnd
counilcss hours µoling ihcir hcads undcr ihc waicr, scarching ihc
µond loiiom íor ihings io cai. Our housc is locaicd lciwccn our gar-
dcn and ihc µond, and ihc waicr is clcarlv visillc írom ihc liichcn
sinl, as wcll as írom ihc dining room on ihc casi sidc oí ihc housc,
whilc ihc ncarlv gardcn is visillc írom ihc wcsi windows. Shorilv
aíicr wc luili ihc µond, mv íamilv was worling in our gardcn. Soon
wc hcard ihc loud honling oí Canada gccsc in ihc slv ovcrhcad, and
waichcd as a maiing µair swooµcd down ihrough ihc irccs and land-
cd on our ncw, iinv µond. 1his was ouiic cxciiing, as wc rcalizcd ihai
wc now had a µlacc íor wild waicríowl, a lonus wc hadn`i rcallv aniic-
iµaicd. Wc coniinucd worling in ihc gardcn, and wcrc ouiic sur-
µriscd io scc ihc gccsc lcavc ihc µond and wall µasi our housc ioward
ihc gardcn whcrc wc wcrc lusv digging. Wc coniinucd io worl, and
ihcv coniinucd io wall ioward us, cvcniuallv walling righi µasi us
ihrough ihc vard and on io ihc íar cnd oí ihc gardcn. Whcn ihcv
rcachcd ihc orchard, ihcv iurncd around and marchcd righi µasi us
again, maling ihcir wav lacl io ihc µond. 1o us, ihis was an iniiia-
iion íor our ncw µond, a wav ihai naiurc was iclling us wc had con-
iriluicd somcihing µosiiivc io ihc cnvironmcni.
Oí coursc, ii didn`i cnd wiih ihc iwo Canada gccsc. Soon, a
Grcai Bluc Hcron landcd in ihc µond, wading around iis shallow
cdgcs on siili-lilc lcgs. Ii was sµoiicd lv onc oí ihc childrcn during
lrcalíasi, a mcrc íiíiv ícci írom ihc dining room window. 1hcn, a µair
oí coloríul wood ducls sµcni an aíicrnoon µlaving in ihc waicr. 1his
was whcn I noiiccd ihai wood ducls can µcrch on a ircc lranch lilc
a songlird. Iaicr, I counicd 4O Canada gccsc on ihc liiilc µond. 1hcv
covcrcd iis suríacc lilc a ícaihcrv carµci, onlv io suddcnlv ílv oíí in a
grcai rush oí wings.
Wc siill raisc a ícw ducls íor algac conirol, íor cggs and occa-
sionallv íor mcai. Ai onc µoini wc raiscd somc Mallard ducls, onlv io
íind ihai ihis wild sirain will ílv awav whcn ihcv rcach maiuriiv. Onc
oí ihc ícmalc Mallards lccamc iniurcd somchow, and dcvcloµcd a
limµ. Shc was ccriainlv a ¨lamc ducl," lui ihc childrcn lilcd hcr and
iool carc oí hcr. 1hcn onc dav shc comµlciclv disaµµcarcd. Wc
ihoughi a µrcdaior had lillcd ihc dcícnsclcss lird and wc ncvcr
cxµccicd io scc hcr again. 1o ihc childrcn`s dclighi, ihc íollowing
sµring a µair oí wild Mallard ducls landcd on our liiilc µond. Wc
waichcd ihcm swim around íor ouiic somc iimc, uniil ihc ícmalc
camc oui oí ihc waicr and wallcd ioward us. Or, I should sav,
¨limµcd" ioward us. Our lamc Mallard ducl had ílown awav íor ihc
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms 223
winicr onlv io comc lacl in ihc sµring wiih a handsomc lovíricnd!
Our gravwaicr µond was ihc µoini oí rcícrcncc íor hcr migraiion.
Mv voungcsi daughicr was givcn a Canada goosc io raisc. 1hc
iinv gosling couldn`i havc lccn morc ihan a dav or iwo old whcn ii
was discovcrcd lv onc oí ihc ncighlors wandcring losi along a road-
sidc. Phoclc namcd ihc goosc ¨Pccµcrs," and cvcrvwhcrc Phoclc
wcni, Pccµcrs íollowcd. 1hc iwo oí ihcm sµcni manv a dav ai ihc
gravwaicr µond Pccµcrs sµlashcd around in ihc waicr whilc
Phoclc sai on ihc shorc waiching. Soon Pccµcrs was a íull grown
goosc and cvcrvwhcrc Pccµcrs wcni, largc µilcs oí goosc droµµings
íollowcd. 1hc goosc doo siiuaiion lccamc so iniolcrallc io Dad ihai
hc rcnamcd ihc goosc ¨Pooµcrs." Onc dav, whcn no onc clsc was
homc, Pooµcrs and Dad iool a liiilc iriµ io a disiani lalc. Onlv Dad
rciurncd. Phoclc was hcarilrolcn.
1hc íollowing sµring, a µair oí honling Canada gccsc oncc
again ílcw ovcrhcad. Bui ihis iimc, onlv ihc ícmalc landcd in our lii-
ilc µond. Phoclc wcni running io ihc µond whcn shc hcard ihai
íamiliar honling, vclling ¨Pccµcrs! Pccµcrs!" Pccµcrs had comc lacl
io sav hcllo io Phoclc! How did I lnow ii was Pccµcrs? I didn`i. Bui
somchow, Phoclc did. Shc siood on ihc µond lanl íor ouiic somc
iimc ialling io ihc maicsiic goosc: and ihc goosc, sianding on ihc
lanl lcsidc hcr, iallcd lacl io hcr. 1hcv carricd on a convcrsaiion
ihai is rarclv wiincsscd. £inallv, Pccµcrs ílcw oíí, and ihis iimc,
Phoclc was haµµv.
224 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 9. Gravæa|:r Svs|:ms
1H£ £ND IS N£AR
I
adics and gcnilcmcn, allow mc io iniroducc vou io a
ncw and rcvoluiionarv liicrarv dcvicc lnown as ihc
s.|/-/a/.rc/.c/ (Aµµlausc hcard in laclground.
Somconc whooµs.) 1odav I`ll lc inicrvicwing
mvsclí. In íaci, hcrc I am now. (Mvsclí walls in.)
M:. G··J o·ra/ae, s/r. Hac.a´/ l s..a v·a s·o.c/.r. |./·r.·
MyseII: Cui ihc craµ. Ii`s ioo carlv in ihc morning íor ihis. You
scc mc cvcrv iimc vou lool in ihc mirror, which isn`i vcrv oíicn, ihanl
God. Whai, íor crving oui loud, would µosscss vou io inicrvicw vour-
sclí, anvwav?
M. l/ l J·a´/, c/· c/||·
MS: You do havc a µoini ihcrc. In íaci, ihai mav lc an issuc wor-
ihv oí conicmµlaiion.
M. \.||, |./´s a·/ e./ ·// //. /ra.|. T/. /·//. ·/ J/s.ass/·a /·Jav /s a
sa|s/aa.. a.ar aaJ J.ar /· as a||. S/a|| c. s/./ r/e// /a/· //·
MS: Whai ihc hcll arc vou ialling aloui?
M. l´|| e/c. v·a a //a/. l/ ·//.a .aa |. s..a c/// .·ra ·r /.aaa/s ·a
//s |a.|.
MS: £lcµhanis?
M. (|·s., |a/ a· ./ear. A./aa||v, ./ear c·a|J /ac. |..a a |.//.r ea.ss.
\.´r. e·/ae /· /a|| a|·a/ /aoaaar..
MS: You draggcd mc oui oí lcd and íorccd mc io sii hcrc in
íroni oí all ihcsc µcoµlc io iall aloui CRAP?!
M. Y·a cr·/. a |··| ·a //, J/Ja´/ v·a·
MS: So whai? OK, OK. Ici`s gci on wiih ii. I`vc had cnough oí
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar 225
vour ihcairics.
M. \.||, //rs/ ·//, J· v·a .x/../ aav·a. /· /a|. //. Haoaaar.
HaaJ|··| s.r/·as|v·
MS: Whv wouldn`i ihcv?
M. B..aas. a·|·Jv e/c.s a Jaoa a|·a/ /aoaaar.. T/. |as/ ///ae
aav·a. caa/s /· ///a| a|·a/ /s a /arJ, .s/../a||v //./r ·ca. D·a´/ v·a ///a|
//a/ |v |r/ae/ae //. sa|j../ /· //. /·r. v·a´r. r/s|/ae s·o.///ae·
MS: You mcan lilc mass consiiµaiion? Noi ouiic. I`m noi going
io µui anv ioilci lowl manuíaciurcrs oui oí lusincss. I`d csiimaic ihai
onc in a million µcoµlc havc anv inicrcsi ai all in ihc ioµic oí rcsourcc
rccovcrv in rclaiion io human cxcrcmcni. Nolodv ihinls oí human
manurc as a rcsourcc: ihc conccµi is iusi ioo lizarrc.
M. T/.a c/a/´s //. /·/a/·
MS: 1hc µoini is ihai long-sianding culiural µrciudiccs and
µholias nccd io lc challcngcd oncc in a whilc lv somclodv, anvlodv,
or ihcv`ll ncvcr changc. £ccoµholia is a dccµlv rooicd ícar in ihc
Amcrican, and µcrhaµs cvcn /aoaa, µsvchc. Bui vou can`i run írom
whai scarcs vou. Ii iusi µoµs uµ somcwhcrc clsc whcrc vou lcasi
cxµcci ii. Wc`vc adoµicd ihc µolicv oí dcíccaiing in our drinling
waicr and ihcn µiµing ii oíí somcwhcrc io lci somconc clsc dcal wiih
ii. So now wc`rc íinding our drinling waicr sourccs dwindling aaJ
lccoming incrcasinglv coniaminaicd. Whai gocs around comcs
around.
M. (/, .·o. ·a. l Jr/a| ca/.r .c.rv Jav aaJ //´s a.c.r .·a/ao/aa/-
.J. \. Ao.r/.aas /r·|a||v /ac. //. o·s/ a|aaJaa/ sa//|v ·/ sa/. Jr/a|/ae
ca/.r ·/ aav .·aa/rv ·a //. /|aa./.
MS: Ycs and no. 1ruc, vour waicr mav noi suíícr írom íccal con-
iaminaiion, mcaning inicsiinal lacicria in waicr. Bui how much chlo-
rinc do vou drinl insicad? 1hcn ihcrc`s waicr µolluiion írom scwagc
in gcncral, such as lcach µolluiion. Bui I don`i wani io gci inio all
ihis again. I`vc alrcadv discusscd human wasic µolluiion in Chaµicr
1wo.
M. T/.a v·a´|| aJo// //a/ Ao.r/.aa Jr/a|/ae ca/.r sa//|/.s ar.
/r.//v sa/.·
MS: £rom discasc-causing microorganisms, gcncrallv vcs, ihcv
arc. £vcn ihough wc dcíccaic in our waicr, wc go io grcai lcngihs and
cxµcnsc io clcan ihc µolluianis oui oí ii. 1hc chcmical addiiivcs in
our waicr, such as chlorinc, on ihc oihcr hand, arc noi good io drinl.
And lci`s noi íorgci ihai drinling-waicr suµµlics arc dwindling all
ovcr ihc world, waicr iallcs arc sinling, and waicr consumµiion is on
ihc incrcasc wiih no cnd in sighi. 1hai sccms io lc a good rcason noi
io µolluic waicr wiih our dailv lowcl movcmcnis. Yci, ihai`s onlv /a|/
226 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar 227
ihc couaiion.
M. \/a/ J· v·a o.aa·
MS: Wcll, wc`rc siill ihrowing awav ihc agriculiural rcsourccs
ihai humanurc could lc µroviding us. Wc`rc noi mainiaining an
iniaci human nuiricni cvclc. Bv µiµing scwagc inio ihc sca, wc`rc
csscniiallv dumµing grain inio ihc sca. Bv lurving sludgc, wc`rc
lurving a sourcc oí íood. 1hai`s a culiural µraciicc ihai should lc
challcngcd. Ii`s a µraciicc ihai`s noi going io changc ovcrnighi, lui
will changc incrcmcniallv ií wc lcgin aclnowlcdging ii now.
M. S· c/a/´r. v·a sav/ae· Y·a ///a| .c.rv|·Jv s/·a|J s/// /a a //c.-
ea||·a |a.|./·
MS: God íorlid. 1hcn vou c·a|J scc mass consiiµaiion!
M. \.|| //.a, l J·a´/ aaJ.rs/aaJ. \/.r. J· c. e· /r·o /.r.·
MS: I`m noi suggcsiing wc havc a mass culiural changc in ioilci
haliis. I`m suggcsiing ihai, íor siaricrs, wc nccd io changc ihc wav wc
aaJ.rs/aaJ our haliis. Mosi µcoµlc havc ncvcr hcard oí such a ihing
as a nuiricni cvclc. Manv µcoµlc don`i cvcn lnow aloui comµosi.
Rccvcling humanurc is iusi noi somcihing µcoµlc ihinl aloui. I`m
simµlv suggcsiing ihai wc lcgin considcring ncw aµµroachcs io ihc
agc-old µrollcm oí whai io do wiih human cxcrcmcni. Wc also nccd
io siari ihinling a lii morc aloui how wc livc on ihis µlanci, lccausc
our survival as a sµccics dcµcnds on our rclaiionshiµ wiih ihc £arih.
M. T/a/´s a |.e/aa/ae, |a/ //a/´s /r·|a||v a|| c.´|| .c.r s.. /a ·ar |//.-
//o., J·a´/ v·a ///a|· S·o. /.·/|., |/|. v·a /·r .xao/|., c/|| ///a| a|·a/
//.s. ///aes, oav|. cr//. a|·a/ //.o, oav|. .c.a e/c. //.o s·o. |// s.rc-
/... M·s/ /.·/|., ·a //. ·//.r /aaJ, c·a|J ra//.r /ac. a |ae ·/ ./..s. /a//s
/a ·a. /aaJ, a |..r /a //. ·//.r, aaJ a TI /a /r·a/ ·/ //.o.
MS: Don`i lc so surc aloui ihai. 1hings arc changing. 1hcrc arc
morc ihan a ícw µcoµlc who will iurn oíí ihcir 1Vs, µicl ihc orangc
crumls oui oí ihcir iccih, and gci lusv maling ihc world a lciicr
µlacc. I µrcdici, íor cxamµlc, ihai comµosiing ioilcis and ioilci svs-
icms will coniinuc io lc dcsigncd and rcdcsigncd in our liíciimcs.
£vcniuallv, cniirc housing dcvcloµmcnis or cniirc communiiics will
uiilizc comµosiing ioilci svsicms. Somc municiµaliiics will cvcniual-
lv insiall comµosiing ioilcis in all ncw homcs.
M. Y·a ///a| s·· \/a/ c·a|J //a/ |. |/|.·
MS: Wcll, cach homc would havc a rcmovallc coniaincr madc
oí rccvclcd µlasiic ihai would aci as loih a ioilci rcccµiaclc and a
garlagc disµosal.
M. H·c |/e a .·a/a/a.r·
MS: You`d nccd aloui íivc gallons oí caµaciiv µcr µcrson µcr
wccl. A coniaincr ihc sizc oí a 5O-gallon drum would lc íull in aloui
iwo wccls íor an avcragc íamilv. £vcrv houschold would dcµosii all oí
iis organic maicrial cxccµi gravwaicr inio ihis rcccµiaclc, including
mavlc somc grass cliµµings and vard lcavcs. 1hc municiµaliiv could
µrovidc a covcr maicrial íor odor µrcvcniion, consisiing oí ground
lcavcs, roiicd sawdusi, or ground ncwsµrini, ncailv µaclagcd íor cach
houschold and µossillv disµcnscd auiomaiicallv inio ihc ioilci aíicr
cach usc. T//s c·a|J .|/o/aa/. //. /r·Ja.//·a ·/ a|| ·reaa/. ear|ae. aaJ
a|| s.cae., as ii would all lc collccicd wiihoui waicr and comµosicd ai
a municiµal comµosi vard.
M. \/·´J .·||../ //·
MS: Oncc cvcrv couµlc oí wccls or so, vour municiµaliiv or a
lusincss undcr coniraci wiih vour municiµaliiv would ialc ihc com-
µosi rcccµiaclc írom vour housc. A ncw comµosi rcccµiaclc would
ihcn rcµlacc ihc old. 1his is alrcadv lcing donc in ihc cniirc µrovincc
oí Nova Scoiia, Canada, and in arcas oí £uroµc whcrc organic liichcn
maicrials arc collccicd and comµosicd.
Whcn ioilci maicrial is addcd io ihc collcciion svsicm, vour
manurc, urinc and garlagc, mixcd iogcihcr wiih ground lcavcs and
oihcr organic rcíusc or croµ rcsiducs, would lc collccicd rcgularlv,
iusi lilc vour garlagc is collccicd now. £xccµi ihc dcsiinaiion would
noi lc a landíill, ii`d lc ihc comµosi vard whcrc ihc organic maicrial
would lc convcricd, ihrough ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing, inio an agri-
culiural rcsourcc and sold io íarmcrs, gardcncrs, and landscaµcrs
who`d usc ii io grow ihings. 1hc naiural cvclc would lc comµlcic,
immcnsc amounis oí landíill sµacc would lc savcd, a valuallc
rcsourcc would lc rccovcrcd, µolluiion would lc drasiicallv rcduccd,
ií noi µrcvcnicd, and soil ícriiliiv would lc cnhanccd. So would our
long-icrm survival as human lcings on ihis µlanci.
M. l J·a´/ |a·c . . . /·c |·ae |./·r. /.·/|. c/|| |. r.aJv /·r //a/·
MS: In Iaµan iodav, a similar svsicm is in usc, cxccµi ihai raihcr
ihan rcmoving ihc coniaincr and rcµlacing ii wiih a clcan onc, ihc
irucl ihai comcs íor ihc humanurc sucls ii oui oí a holding ianl. Sori
oí lilc a irucl sucling ihc conicnis oui oí a scµiic ianl.
Such a irucl svsicm involvcs a caµiial ouilav aloui a ihird oí
ihai íor scwcrs. Onc siudv which comµarcs ihc cosi lciwccn manual
humanurc rcmoval and waicrlornc scwagc in 1aiwan csiimaics man-
ual collcciion cosis io lc lcss ihan onc-íiíih ihc cosi oí waicrlornc
scwagc ircaicd lv oxidaiion µonds. 1hai ialcs inio accouni ihc µas-
icurizaiion oí ihc humanurc, as wcll as ihc marlci valuc oí ihc rcsuli-
ani comµosi.
1
M. Ba/ //a/´s /a //. Iar Fas/. \. J·a´/ J· s/a// |/|. //a/ /a Ao.r/.a.
MS. Onc oí ihc mosi µrogrcssivc largc scalc cxamµlcs I havc
228 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar
sccn is in Nova Scoiia, Canada. On Novcmlcr 3O, 1998, Nova Scoiia
lanncd all organic maicrial írom cnicring iis landíills. 1hc Provincc
µrovidcs írcc rcccµiaclcs íor cvcrv houschold io dcµosii ihcir íood
scraµs inio. So whcn a lanana µccl or lurni µoµ-iari gcis µiichcd inio
ihc irash, ii gocs inio ihc er..a .ar/ along wiih cgg shclls, coíícc
grounds, and cvcn ccrcal loxcs, waxcd µaµcr and íilc íoldcrs. 1hcn,
cvcrv iwo wccls, a irucl comcs around, iusi lilc ihc siandard garlagc
irucls wc`rc uscd io sccing, and µicls uµ ihc organic maicrial. £rom
ihcrc, ii gocs io onc oí manv ccniral comµosiing vards, whcrc ihc
maicrial gcis run ihrough a grindcr and shovcd inio a giani comµosi-
ing lin. Wiihin 24 io 48 hours, ihc ihcrmoµhilic microorganisms in
ihc garlagc havc raiscd ihc icmµcraiurc oí ihc organic mass io 6O-
7O
O
C (14O-158
O
£). And ii`s a ioiallv naiural µroccss.
1hc Ncihcrlands was onc oí ihc íirsi counirics io mandaic largc
scalc sourcc scµaraiion oí organic maicrial íor comµosiing, having
donc so sincc 1994: in ai lcasi íivc £uroµcan counirics, such scµara-
iion is common.
2
Sincc 1993, in Gcrmanv, íor cxamµlc, discardcd
wasic maicrial musi coniain lcss ihan 5% organic maiicr, oihcrwisc
ihc maicrial has io lc rccvclcd, mainlv lv comµosiing.
3
In £ngland
and Walcs, a iargci has lccn sci io comµosi a million ionncs oí organ-
ic houschold maicrial lv ihc vcar 2OOO.
4
M. Ba/ //·s. ar. a·/ /·/|./s.
MS: Can`i vou scc? 1his is onlv onc small sicµ awav írom col-
lcciing ioilci maicrials and comµosiing ihcm, ioo. 1oilcis will lc
rcdcsigncd as .·||..//·a dcviccs, noi J/s/·sa| dcviccs. Wc`vc dcvcloµcd
ihc ari, scicncc and icchnologv oí comµosiing cnough io lc allc io
consiruciivclv rccvclc our own cxcrcmcni on a largc scalc.
M. S· c/v J·a´/ c.·
MS: Bccausc humanurc docsn`i cxisi, as íar as mosi comµosi
µroícssionals arc conccrncd. Ii`s noi cvcn on ihc radar scrccn. Human
manurc is sccn as human cas/., somcihing io lc disµoscd oí, noi rccv-
clcd. Whcn I was visiiing comµosiing oµcraiions in Nova Scoiia, onc
comµosi cducaior iold mc ihcrc wcrc 275,OOO mciric ionncs oí animal
manurcs µroduccd annuallv in his couniv suiiallc íor comµosiing.
Hc did noi includc human manurc in his asscssmcni. As íar as hc was
conccrncd, humans arc noi animals and ihcv don`i µroducc manurc.
1o givc vou an cxamµlc oí how cluclcss Amcricans arc aloui
comµosiing humanurc, lci mc icll vou aloui somc missionarics in
Ccniral Amcrica.
M. M/ss/·aar/.s·
MS: 1hai`s righi. A grouµ oí missionarics was visiiing an
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar 229
indigcnous grouµ in £l Salvador and ihcv wcrc aµµallcd lv ihc lacl
oí saniiaiion. 1hcrc wcrc no ílush ioilcis anvwhcrc. 1hc availallc ioi-
lci íaciliiics wcrc crudc, smcllv, ílv-inícsicd µii lairincs. Whcn ihc
grouµ rciurncd io ihc Uniicd Siaics, ihcv wcrc vcrv conccrncd aloui
ihc ioilci µrollcm ihcv had sccn and dccidcd ihcv should hclµ. Bui
ihcv didn`i lnow whai io do. So ihcv shiµµcd a dozcn µoriallc ioilcis
down ihcrc, ai grcai cxµcnsc.
M. P·r/a||. /·/|./s·
MS: Ycah, vou lnow, ihosc lig, µlasiic ouihouscs vou scc ai rcsi
sioµs along ihc highwavs, ai consiruciion siics and ícsiivals. 1hc oncs
ihai smcll lad, and arc íillcd wiih a lluc liouid cholcd wiih íloaiing
iurds and ioilci µaµcr.
M. (/ v.a/.
MS: Wcll, ihc villagc in £l Salvador goi ihc µoriallc ioilcis and
ihc µcoµlc ihcrc sci ihcm uµ. 1hcv cvcn uscd ihcm uniil ihcv
íillcd uµ. 1hc íollowing vcar, ihc missionarics visiicd ihc villagc
again io scc how ihcir ncw ioilcis wcrc worling.
M. AaJ·
MS: And noihing. 1hc ioilcis had íillcd uµ and ihc villagcrs
sioµµcd using ihcm. 1hcv wcni lacl io ihcir µii lairincs. 1hcv had a
dozcn µoriallc ioilcis siiiing ihcrc íillcd io ihc lrim wiih urinc and
craµ, siinling io high hcavcn, and a ílv hcavcn ai ihai. 1hc mission-
arics hadn`i ihoughi aloui whai io do wiih ihc ioilcis whcn ihcv wcrc
íull. In ihc U.S., ihcv`rc µumµcd oui and ihc conicnis arc ialcn io a
scwagc µlani. In £l Salvador, ihcv wcrc simµlv alandoncd.
M. S· c/a/´s v·ar /·/a/·
MS: 1hc µoini is ihai wc don`i havc a cluc aloui consiruciivclv
rccvcling humanurc. Mosi µcoµlc in ihc U.S. havc ncvcr cvcn had io
ihinl aloui ii, lci alonc do ii. Ií ihc missionarics had lnown aloui
comµosiing, ihcv mav havc lccn allc io hclµ ihc dcsiiiuic µcoµlc in
Ccniral Amcrica in a mcaningíul and susiainallc wav. Bui ihcv had
no idca ihai human manurc is as rccvclallc as cow manurc.
M. L./ o. e./ ///s s/ra/e//. N·c v·a´r. sav/ae //a/ /aoaas ar. //.
sao. as .·cs·
MS: Wcll, all animals dcíccaic. Manv wcsicrncrs simµlv won`i
admii ii. Bui wc`rc siariing io. Wc Amcricans havc a long wav io go.
1hc liggcsi olsiaclc is in undcrsianding and acccµiing humanurc
and oihcr organic maicrials as rcsourcc maicrials raihcr ihan wasic
maicrials. Wc havc io sioµ ihinling oí human cxcrcmcni and organ-
ic rcíusc as wasic. Whcn wc do, ihcn wc`ll sioµ dcíccaiing in our
drinling waicr and sioµ scnding our garlagc io landíills.
Ii`s criiical ihai wc scµaraic waicr írom humanurc. As long as
230 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar
wc lccµ dcíccaiing in waicr wc`ll havc a µrollcm ihai wc can`i solvc.
1hc soluiion is io sioµ íouling our waicr, noi io íind ncw wavs io clcan
ii uµ. Don`i usc waicr as a vchiclc íor iransµoriing human cxcrcmcni
or oihcr wasic. Humanurc musi lc collccicd and comµosicd along
wiih oihcr solid (and liouid) organic maicrial µroduccd lv human
lcings. Wc won`i lc allc io do ihis as long as wc insisi uµon dcíccai-
ing inio waicr. Granicd, wc can dchvdraic ihc waicrlornc scwagc
sludgc and comµosi ihai. Howcvcr, ihis is a comµlicaicd, cxµcnsivc,
cncrgv-inicnsivc µroccss. £urihcrmorc, ihc sludgc can lc coniami-
naicd wiih all soris oí lad siuíí írom our scwcrs which can lccomc
conccniraicd in ihc comµosi.
5
M. (·o/·s//ae s.cae. s|aJe. /s |aJ·
MS: No. In íaci, comµosiing is µrolallv ihc lcsi ihing vou can
do wiih sludgc. Ii`s ccriainlv a sicµ in ihc righi dircciion. 1hcrc arc
manv sludgc comµosiing oµcraiions around ihc world, and whcn ihc
sludgc is comµosicd, ii malcs a uscíul soil addiiivc. I`vc visiicd
sludgc comµosiing siics in Nova Scoiia, Pcnnsvlvania, Ohio, and
Moniana, and ihc íinishcd comµosi ai all oí ihc siics is ouiic imµrcs-
sivc.
M. l/´|| a.c.r /a//.a (s/a|/ae //s /.aJ). Ia.. //. Ao.r/.aas,
\.s/.ra.rs, c/|| a.c.r s/·/ s/////ae /a ca/.r. T/.v´|| a.c.r, as a s·././v, .·o-
/·s/ //./r oaaar.. l/´s aar.a|/s//.. l/´s aea/as/ ·ar .a|/ara| a/|r/ae/ae.
\.´r. a s·././v ·/ /·/J·es, /a/rs/rav aaJ H·-H·s, a·/ .·o/·s/.J /aoa-
aar., /.r ./r/ssa|.. \. J·a´/ |.|/.c. /a |a|aa./ae /aoaa aa/r/.a/ .v.|.s/ \.
jas/ J·a´/ e/c. a Jaoa. (·o/·s/ oa|/ae /s aae|ao·r·as aaJ v·a .aa´/ e./
r/./ J·/ae //. S· c/v |·//.r·/
MS: You`rc righi on onc µoini Amcricans will ncvcr sioµ shii-
iing. Bui don`i lc so hasiv. In 1988, in ihc Uniicd Siaics alonc, ihcrc
wcrc onlv 49 oµcraiing municiµal sludgc comµosiing íaciliiics.
6
Bv
1997, ihcrc wcrc ovcr 2OO.
7
1hc U.S. comµosiing indusirv grcw írom
lcss ihan 1,OOO íaciliiics in 1988 io ncarlv 3,8OO in 2OOO and ihai num-
lcr will onlv incrcasc.
8
In Duislcrg, Gcrmanv, a dccadcs-old µlani comµosis 1OO ions oí
domcsiic rcíusc dailv. Anoihcr µlani ai Bad Krcuznach handlcs iwicc
ihai amouni. Manv £uroµcan comµosiing µlanis comµosi a mixiurc
oí rcíusc and scwagc sludgc. 1hcrc arc ai lcasi ihrcc comµosiing
µlanis in £gvµi. In Munich, a schcmc was lcing dcvcloµcd in 199O io
µrovidc 4O,OOO houscholds wiih ¨liolins" íor ihc collcciion oí com-
µosiallc rcíusc.
9
Ii`s onlv a maiicr oí iimc lcíorc ihc liolin conccµi is advanccd
io collcci humanurc as wcll. In íaci, somc comµosiing ioilcis alrcadv
arc dcsigncd so ihai ihc humanurc can lc whcclcd awav and com-
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar 231
232 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar
Butler, Pennsylvania, U.S., sewage sludge composting facility (above).
Missoula, Montana, sewage sludge, after composting, is bagged and sold for
home gardens (below).
A Nova Scotian compost operator inspects the windrow sewage sludge com-
posting operation (bottom).
All photos by author.
µosicd ai a scµaraic siic. £vcniuallv, municiµaliiics will assumc ihc
rcsµonsililiiv íor collcciing and comµosiing all organic maicrial írom
urlan and sulurlan human µoµulaiions, including ioilci maicrials.
M. Y.a/, r/e//.
MS: And vou arc now rcvcaling ihc main olsiaclc ioward a sus-
iainallc sociciv. Pcrsonal aiiiiudc. £vcrvihing wc ialc íor granicd
iodav shocs, cloihing, mcial iools, clccironic couiµmcni, hccl,
cvcn ioilci µaµcr, cxisis íor onc rcason, and onc rcason onlv: lccausc
somconc in ihc µasi carcd aloui ihc íuiurc. You`d lc running around
nalcd iodav chasing ralliis wiih a siicl ií µcoµlc in ihc µasi hadn`i
madc ihings lciicr íor us in ihc µrcscni. Wc all havc an olligaiion io
our íuiurc gcncraiions. 1hai`s whai cvoluiion is and ihai`s whai sur-
vival oí ihc sµccics rcouircs. Wc havc io ihinl ahcad. Wc havc io carc
aloui our dcsccndanis ioo, and noi iusi aloui oursclvcs. 1hai mcans
wc havc io undcrsiand ihai wasic is noi good íor us, or íor íuiurc gcn-
craiions. Whcn wc dumµ cndlcss amounis oí garlagc inio ihc cnvi-
ronmcni wiih ihc aiiiiudc ihai somconc in ihc íuiurc can dcal wiih ii,
wc arc noi cvolving, wc`rc J.c·|c/ae.
M. \/a/´s //a/ sa//·s.J /· o.aa·
MS: Ii`s simµlc cnough. OK, vou havc irash. You don`i ihrow ihc
irash ¨oui." 1hcrc is no ¨oui." Ii has io go somcwhcrc. So vou simµlv
sori ihc irash inio scµaraic rcccµiaclcs in vour homc, and ihai malcs
ii casv io rccvclc ihc siuíí. Whcn ii`s rccvclcd, ii`s noi wasicd. A chim-
µanzcc could íigurc ihai oui. Ii`s casv io undcrsiand and ii`s casv io
do.
A loi oí comµosi ihai`s lccn µroduccd lv lig comµosiing µlanis
has lccn coniaminaicd wiih ihings lilc laiicrics, mcial shards, loi-
ilc caµs, µainis and hcavv mcials. As a rcsuli, much oí ii hasn`i lccn
uscíul íor agriculiurc. Insicad, ii`s lccn uscd íor íillcr or íor oihcr
non-agriculiural aµµlicaiions, which, io mc, is alsurd. 1hc wav io
lccµ iunl oui oí comµosi is io valuc comµosiallc maicrial cnough io
collcci ii scµaraiclv írom oihcr irash. A houschold liolin would do
ihc iricl. 1hc liolin could lc collccicd rcgularlv, cmµiicd, iis con-
icnis comµosicd, and ihc comµosi sold io íarmcrs and gardcncrs as a
íinanciallv sclí-suµµoriing scrvicc µrovidcd lv indcµcndcni lusi-
ncsscs.
1hc iricl io succcssíul largc-scalc comµosi µroduciion can lc
summcd uµ in iwo words: s·ar.. s./ara//·a. 1hc organic maicrial
musi lc scµaraicd ai ihc sourcc. 1his mcans ihai individual íamilics
will havc io ialc somc rcsµonsililiiv íor ihc organic maicrial ihcv dis-
card. 1hcv will no longcr lc µcrmiiicd io ihrow ii all in onc garlagc
can wiih ihcir µlasiic Ho-Ho wraµµcrs, µoµ loiilcs, lrolcn ccll
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar 233
µhoncs and worn oui ioasicr ovcns. Organic maicrial is ioo valuallc
io lc wasicd. 1hc µcoµlc in Nova Scoiia havc íigurcd ihai oui, as havc
manv oihcrs ihroughoui ihc world. Amcricans arc a liiilc slow.
M. Ba/ //.v´r. a·/ .·o/·s//ae /·/|./ oa/.r/a|s, ar. //.v·
MS: Somc arc comµosiing scwagc sludgc, which is a lig sicµ in
ihc righi dircciion. Somc cnircµrcncurs arc in ihc scwagc comµosiing
lusincss in ihc Uniicd Siaics, ioo. In 1989, ihc iown oí £airíicld,
Conncciicui, coniracicd io havc iis vard maicrial and scwagc sludgc
comµosicd. 1hc iown is said io havc savcd ai lcasi $1OO,OOO in wasic
disµosal cosis in iis íirsi vcar oí comµosiing alonc. 1hc £airíicld oµcr-
aiion is iusi a ouaricr milc írom halí million dollar homcs and is
rcµoricd io smcll no worsc ihan wci lcavcs írom onlv a ícw vards
awav.
1O
1hc £PA csiimaics ihai Amcricans will lc µroducing 8.2 mil-
lion ions oí |/·s·|/Js ihai`s anoihcr namc íor scwagc sludgc lv
2O1O and ihai 7O% oí ii will lc rccvclcd. Ironicallv, ihcv onlv µrcdici
ihai 7% oí ihai rccvclcd sludgc will lc comµosicd. Mavlc ihc £PA
will walc uµ lcíorc ihcn and so.|| //. |/·s·|/Js.
11
In Missoula, Moniana, all oí ihc ciiv`s scwagc sludgc is com-
µosicd and ihc cniirc comµosiing oµcraiion is íundcd lv ihc iiµµing
íccs alonc. All oí ihc comµosi µroduccd is µurc µroíii and all oí ii is
sold. Comµosiing is a µroíiiallc vcniurc whcn µroµcrlv managcd.
M. Ba/ s//||, //.r.´s //. /.ar ·/ /aoaaar. aaJ //s .a/a|/|//v ·/ .aas-
/ae J/s.as. aaJ /ar|·r/ae /aras//.s.
MS: 1hai's righi. Bui according io ihc liicraiurc, a liological
icmµcraiurc oí 5O
O
C (122
O
£) íor a µcriod oí 24 hours is suííicicni io
lill ihc human µaihogcns µoicniiallv rcsidcni in humanurc. £PA rcg-
ulaiions rcouirc ihai a icmµcraiurc oí 55
O
C (131
O
£) lc mainiaincd íor
ihrcc davs whcn comµosiing scwagc sludgc in lins. 1hcrmoµhilic
microorganisms arc cvcrvwhcrc, waiiing io do whai ihcv do lcsi
malc comµosi. 1hcv`rc on grass, ircc lranchcs, lcavcs, lanana µccls,
garlagc and humanurc. Crcaiing ihcrmoµhilic comµosi is noi diííi-
culi or comµlicaicd and ihcrmoµhilic comµosiing is whai wc nccd io
do in ordcr io saniiizc human cxcrcmcni wiihoui cxccssivc icchnolo-
gv and cncrgv consumµiion. 1hcrmoµhilic comµosiing is somcihing
humans all ovcr ihc world can do whcihcr or noi ihcv havc moncv or
icchnologv.
1hcrc will alwavs lc µcoµlc who will noi lc convinccd ihai com-
µosicd humanurc is µaihogcn-írcc unlcss cvcrv iinv scraµ oí ii is íirsi
analvzcd in a laloraiorv, wiih ncgaiivc rcsulis. On ihc oihcr hand,
ihcrc will alwavs lc µcoµlc, lilc mc, who conscicniiouslv comµosi
humanurc lv mainiaining a wcll-managcd comµosi µilc, and who íccl
ihai ihcir comµosi has lccn rcndcrcd hvgicnicallv saíc as a rcsuli. A
234 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar
lavcr oí siraw covcring ihc íinishcd comµosi µilc, íor cxamµlc, will
insulaic ihc µilc and hclµ lccµ ihc ouicr suríaccs írom cooling µrc-
maiurclv. Ii`s common scnsc, rcallv. 1hc iruc icsi comcs in living wiih
ihc comµosiing svsicm íor long µcriods oí iimc. I don'i lnow anvonc
clsc who has donc so, lui aíicr iwcniv six vcars, I'vc íound ihai ihc
simµlc svsicm I usc worls wcll íor mc. And I don'i do anvihing sµc-
cial or go io anv grcai lcngihs io malc comµosi, oihcr ihan ihc sim-
µlc ihings I'vc ouilincd in ihis lool.
Pcrhaµs Goiaas hiis ihc nail on ihc hcad whcn hc savs, ¨T/.
/aro, //. earJ.a, ·r //. soa|| c/||ae. .·o/·s/ ·/.ra/·r asaa||v c/|| a·/ |.
.·a..ra.J c/// J./a/|.J /.s/s ·//.r //aa //·s. /· .·a//ro //a/ //. oa/.r/a|
/s sa/. /r·o a /.a|// s/aaJ/·/a/, c//./ c/|| |. jaJe.J /r·o //. /.o/.ra/ar.,
aaJ //a/ // /s sa//s/a./·rv /·r //. s·/|, c//./ c/|| |. jaJe.J |v a//.araa...
T/. /.o/.ra/ar. ·/ //. .·o/·s/ .aa |. ./..|.J |v. a) J/ee/ae /a/· //. s/a.|
aaJ /..|/ae //. /.o/.ra/ar. ·/ //. oa/.r/a|, |) /..|/ae //. /.o/.ra/ar. ·/ a
r·J a//.r /as.r//·a /a/· //. oa/.r/a|, ·r .) as/ae a //.ro·o./.r. D/ee/ae /a/·
//. s/a.| c/|| e/c. aa a//r·x/oa/. /J.a ·/ //. /.o/.ra/ar.. T/. oa/.r/a|
s/·a|J /..| c.rv /·/ /· //. /aaJ aaJ |. /·· /·/ /· /.ro// /·|J/ae //. /aaJ
/a //. //|. /·r c.rv |·ae. S/.ao s/·a|J .o.re. /r·o //. //|. c/.a ·/.a.J. A
o./a| ·r c··J.a r·J /as.r/.J /c· /../ (0.5 o) /a/· //. //|. /·r a /.r/·J ·/
5-!0 o/aa/.s /·r o./a| aaJ !0-!5 o/aa/.s /·r c··J s/·a|J |. aa//. /·/ /·
//. /·a./, /a /a./, /·· /·/ /· /·|J. T/.s. /.o/.ra/ar. /.s//ae /../a/aa.s ar.
sa//s/a./·rv /·r //. soa||.r c/||ae. aaJ /aro .·o/·s//ae ·/.ra//·as.¨
12
In oihcr words, humanurc comµosiing can rcmain a simµlc
µroccss, achicvallc lv anvonc. Ii docs noi nccd io lc a comµlicaicd,
high-icch, cxµcnsivc µroccss conirollcd and rcgulaicd lv ncrvous
µcoµlc in whiic coais lcnding ovcr a comµosi µilc, shaling ihcir
hcads and wringing ihcir hands whilc maling ncrdv clucling noiscs.
I wani io malc ii clcar ihough, ihai I can'i lc rcsµonsillc íor
whai oihcr µcoµlc do wiih ihcir comµosi. Ií somc µcoµlc who rcad
ihis lool go aloui comµosiing humanurc in an irrcsµonsillc manncr,
ihcv could run inio µrollcms. Mv gucss is ihc worsi ihing ihai could
haµµcn is ihcv would cnd uµ wiih a mouldcrcd comµosi µilc insicad
oí a ihcrmoµhilic onc. 1hc rcmcdv íor ihai would lc io lci ihc moul-
dcrcd µilc agc íor a couµlc vcars lcíorc using ii agriculiurallv, or io
usc ii horiiculiurallv insicad.
I can'i íauli somconc íor lcing íccoµholic and I lclicvc ihai
íccoµholia lics ai ihc rooi oí mosi oí ihc conccrns aloui comµosiing
humanurc. Whai íccoµholcs mav noi undcrsiand is ihai ihosc oí us
who arcn'i íccoµholcs undcrsiand ihc human nuiricni cvclc and ihc
imµoriancc oí rccvcling organic maicrials. Wc rccvclc organic rcíusc
lccausc wc lnow ii's ihc righi ihing io do, and wc arcn'i hamµcrcd lv
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar 235
irraiional ícars. Wc also malc comµosi lccausc wc nccd ii íor íoriiív-
ing our íood-µroducing soil and wc conscoucnilv cxcrcisc a high
dcgrcc oí rcsµonsililiiv whcn maling ihc comµosi. Ii's íor our own
good.
1hcn, oí coursc, ihcrc's ihc comµosicr's challcngc io íccoµholcs:
s/·c as a |.//.r cav /· J.a| c/// /aoaa .x.r.o.a/.
M. S·aaJs /· o. |/|. v·a /ac. //. //aa| c·rJ ·a //. /·//. ·/ /aoa-
aar..
MS: Hardlv. 1hc Haoaaar. HaaJ|··| is onlv a iinv lcginning
in ihc dialoguc aloui human nuiricni rccvcling.
M. \.||, s/r, ///s /s s/ar//ae /· e./ |·r/ae aaJ ·ar //o. /s raaa/ae ·a/,
s· c.´|| /ac. /· cra/ a/ ///s /a/.rc/.c. B.s/J.s, l'c. /.arJ .a·ae/ /a||
a|·a/ //. c·r|J's o·s/ a·/·r/·as ".aJ" /r·Ja./. S· |./'s /·.as a |///|. ·a //.
.aJ //s.|/, c//./ /as a·c arr/c.J.
MS: And ihis is ii. 1his is ihc cnd?
M. 'T//s /s //. .aJ.¨ (Saae |/|. ]/o M·rr/s·a.) \/a/ J´va sav /·||s·
(Wild aµµlausc, siamµing oí ícci, írcnzicd whisiling, audicncc iumµ-
ing uµ and down, vanling ai ihcir hair, rolls oí ioilci µaµcr arc lcing
ihrown coníciii-lilc ihrough ihc air. Cloihcs arc lcing iorn oíí, µco-
µlc arc chccring, scrcaming and íoaming ai ihc mouih. Somconc
siaris chaniing ¨S·ar.. s./ara//·a, S·ar.. s./ara//·a!" Whai`s ihis!?
1hc audicncc is charging ihc siagc! 1hc inicrvicwcc is lcing carricd
oui ovcr ihc hcads oí ihc crowd! Hoi dang and hallcluiah!)
236 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - C/ap|:r 10. T/: EnJ is N:ar
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck 237
TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS
F C C F
-40 . . . . . . .-40 0 . . . . .32.00°
-30 . . . . . . .-34.44 5 . . . . .41.00°
-20 . . . . . . .-28.88 10 . . . .50.00°
-10 . . . . . . .-23.33 15 . . . .59.00°
0 . . . . . . .-17.77 20 . . . .68.00°
5 . . . . . . .-15.00 25 . . . .77.00°
10 . . . . . . .-12.22 30 . . . .86.00°
15 . . . . . . . .-9.44 35 . . . .95.00°
20 . . . . . . . .-6.66 40 . . .104.00°
25 . . . . . . . .-3.88 45 . . .113.00°
30 . . . . . . . .-1.11 50 . . .122.00°
35 . . . . . . . . .1.66 55 . . .131.00°
40 . . . . . . . . .4.44 60 . . .140.00°
45 . . . . . . . . .7.22 65 . . .149.00°
50 . . . . . . . .10.00 70 . . .158.00°
55 . . . . . . . .12.77 75 . . .167.00°
60 . . . . . . . .15.55 80 . . .176.00°
65 . . . . . . . .18.33 85 . . .185.00°
70 . . . . . . . .21.11 90 . . .194.00°
75 . . . . . . . .23.88 95 . . .203.00°
80 . . . . . . . .26.66 100 . .212.00°
85 . . . . . . . .29.44
90 . . . . . . . .32.22
95 . . . . . . . .35.00
98.6 . . . . . . . .36.99
100 . . . . . . . .37.77
105 . . . . . . . .40.55
110 . . . . . . . .43.33
115 . . . . . . . .46.11
120 . . . . . . . .48.88
125 . . . . . . . .51.66
130 . . . . . . . .54.44
135 . . . . . . . .57.22
140 . . . . . . . .60.00
145 . . . . . . . .62.77
150 . . . . . . . .65.55
155 . . . . . . . .68.33
160 . . . . . . . .71.11
165 . . . . . . . .73.88
F
0
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
C
0
65.55
60.00
54.44
48.8
43.33
37.77
32.22
26.66
21.11
15.55
10.00
4.44
-1.11
-6.66
F
0
= 9/5 C
0
+ 32
238 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - G/cssarv
actinomycete - Bacteria resembling fungi
because they usually produce a characteris-
tic, branched mycelium.
activated sludge - Sewage sludge that is treat-
ed by forcing air through it in order to acti-
vate the beneficial microbial populations res-
ident in the sludge.
aerobic - Able to live, grow, or take place only
where free oxygen is present, such as aero-
bic bacteria.
algae ÷ Small aquatic plants.
ambient air temperature - The temperature of
the surrounding air, such as the outdoor air
temperature in the vicinity of a compost pile.
amendment ÷ See "bulking agent.¨
anaerobic - Able to live and grow where there
is no oxygen.
Ascaris - A genus of roundworm parasitic to
humans.
Aspergillus fumigatus - A spore-forming fun-
gus that can cause allergic reactions in
some people.
bacteria - One-celled microscopic organisms.
Some are capable of causing disease in
humans, others are capable of elevating the
temperature of a pile of decomposing refuse
sufficiently to destroy human pathogens.
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) -The
amount of oxygen used when organic matter
undergoes decomposition by microorgan-
isms. Testing for BOD is done to assess the
amount of organic matter in water.
blackwater ÷ Wastewater from a toilet.
bulking agent - An ingredient in compost, such
as sawdust or straw, used to improve the
structure, porosity, liquid absorption, odor,
and carbon content. The terms "bulking
agent¨ and "amendment¨ can be inter-
changeable.
carbonaceous -Containing carbon.
carbon dioxide (CO
2
) -An inorganic gas com-
posed of carbon and oxygen produced dur-
ing composting.
cellulose ÷ The principal component of cell
walls of plants, composed of a long chain of
tightly bound sugar molecules.
C/N ratio -The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in an
organic material.
combined sewers - Sewers that collect both
sewage and rain water runoff.
compost - A mixture of decomposing veg-
etable refuse, manure, etc., for fertilizing and
conditioning soil.
continuous composting - A system of com-
posting in which organic refuse material is
continuously or daily added to the compost
bin or pit.
cryptosporidia - A pathogenic protozoa which
causes diarrhea in humans.
curing ÷ Final stage of composting. Also called
aging, or maturing.
effluent - Wastewater flowing from a source.
enteric - Ìntestinal.
evapotranspiration ÷ The transfer of water
from the soil into the atmosphere both by
evaporation and by transpiration of the
plants growing on the soil.
fecal coliforms - Generally harmless bacteria
that are commonly found in the intestines of
warm-blooded animals, used as an indicator
of fecal contamination.
fecophobia - Fear of fecal material, especially
in regard to the use of human fecal material
for agricultural purposes.
fungi ÷ Simple plants, often microscopic, that
lack photosynthetic pigment.
graywater -Household drain water from sinks,
tubs, and washing (not from toilets).
green manure - Vegetation grown to be used
as fertilizer for the soil, either by direct appli-
cation of the vegetation to the soil, by com-
posting it before soil application, or by the
leguminous fixing of nitrogen in the root nod-
ules of the vegetation.
heavy metal - Metals such as lead, mercury,
cadmium, etc., having more than five times
the weight of water. When concentrated in
the environment, can pose a significant
health risk to humans.
helminth - A worm or worm-like animal, espe-
cially parasitic worms of the human diges-
tive system, such as the roundworm or
hookworm.
human nutrient cycle - The repeating cyclical
movement of nutrients from soil to plants
and animals, to humans, and back to soil.
humanure - Human feces and urine compost-
ed for agriculture purposes.
humus - A dark, loamy, organic material
resulting from the decay of plant and ani-
mal refuse.
hygiene - Sanitary practices, cleanliness.
indicator pathogen - A pathogen whose
occurrence serves as evidence that certain
environmental conditions, such as pollution,
are present.
K ÷ Chemical symbol for potassium.
latrine - A toilet, often for the use of a large
number of people.
leachate - Any liquid draining from a source.
Pertaining to compost, it is the liquid that
drains from organic material, especially
when rain water comes in contact with the
compost.
lignin ÷ A substance that forms the woody cell
walls of plants and the "cement¨ between
them. Lignin is found together with cellulose
and is resistant to biological decomposition.
THE HUMANURE HANDBOOK - GLOSSARY
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - G/cssarv 239
macroorganism - An organism which, unlike a
microorganism, can be seen by the naked
eye, such as an earthworm.
mesophile - Microorganisms which thrive at
medium temperatures (20-37
0
C or 68-99
0
F).
metric tonne - A measure of weight equal to
1,000 kilograms or 2,204.62 pounds.
microhusbandry - The cultivation of microscop-
ic organisms for the purpose of benefiting
humanity, such as in the production of fer-
mented foods, or in the decomposition of
organic refuse materials.
microorganism ÷ An organism that needs to be
magnified in order to be seen by the human
eye.
moulder (also molder) - To slowly decay, gen-
erally at temperatures below that of the
human body.
mulch - Organic material, such as leaves or
straw, spread on the ground around plants to
hold in moisture, smother weeds, and feed
the soil.
municipal solid waste (MSW) - Solid waste
originating from homes, industries, business-
es, demolition, land clearing, and construc-
tion.
mycelium ÷ Fungus filaments or hyphae.
N - Chemical symbol for nitrogen.
naturalchemy - The transformation of seeming-
ly valueless materials into materials of high
value using only natural processes, such as
the conversion of humanure into humus by
means of microbial activity.
night soil - Human excrement used raw as a
soil fertilizer.
nitrates - A salt or ester of nitric acid, such as
potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, both
used as fertilizers, and which show up in
water supplies as pollution.
organic - Referring to a material from an animal
or vegetable source, such as refuse in the
form of manure or food scraps; also a form of
agriculture which employs fertilizers and soil
conditioners that are primarily derived from
animal or vegetable sources as opposed to
mineral or petrochemical sources.
P ÷ Chemical symbol for phosphorous.
pathogen - A disease-causing microorganism.
PCB - Polychlorinated biphenyl, a persistent and
pervasive environmental contaminant.
peat moss - Organic matter that is under-
decomposed or slightly decomposed originat-
ing under conditions of excessive moisture
such as in a bog.
pH - A symbol for the degree of acidity or alka-
linity in a solution, ranging in value from 1 to
14. Below 7 is acidic, above 7 is alkaline, 7 is
neutral.
phytotoxic ÷ Toxic to plants.
pit latrine - A hole or pit into which human
excrement is deposited. Known as an out-
house or privy when sheltered by a small
building.
protozoa - Tiny, mostly microscopic animals
each consisting of a single cell or a group of
more or less identical cells, and living prima-
rily in water. Some are human pathogens.
psychrophiIe ÷ Microorganism which thrives at
low temperatures [as low as -10
o
C (14
o
F), but
optimally above 20
o
C (68
o
F)].
schistosome - Any genus of flukes that live as
parasites in the blood vessels of mammals,
including humans.
septage ÷ The organic material pumped from
septic tanks.
septic - Causing or resulting from putrefaction
(foul-smelling decomposition).
shigeIIa - Rod-shaped bacteria, certain species
of which cause dysentery.
sludge - The heavy sediment in a sewage or
septic tank. Also called biosolids.
source separation - The separation of discard-
ed material by specific material type at the
point of generation.
sustainable - Able to be continued indefinitely
without a significant negative impact on the
environment or its inhabitants.
thermophilic - Characterized by having an affin-
ity for high temperatures (above 40.5
0
C or
105
0
F), or for being able to generate high
temperatures.
tipping fee - The fee charged to dispose of
refuse material.
vector ÷ A route of transmission of pathogens
from a source to a victim. Vectors can be
insects, birds, dogs, rodents, or vermin.
vermicomposting ÷The conversion of organic
material into worm castings by earthworms.
vermin ÷ Objectionable pests, usually of a small
size, such as flies, mice, and rats, etc..
virus - Any group of submicroscopic pathogens
which multiply only in connection with living
cells.
waste ÷ A substance or material with no inherent
value or usefulness, or a substance or mate-
rial discarded despite its inherent value or
usefulness.
wastewater - Water discarded as waste, often
polluted with human excrements or other
human pollutants, and discharged into any of
various wastewater treatment systems, if not
directly into the environment.
Western - Of or pertaining to the Western hemi-
sphere (which includes North and South
America and Europe) or its human inhabi-
tants.
windrow ÷ A long, narrow pile of compost.
worm castings - Earthworm excrement. Worm
castings appear dark and granular like soil,
and are rich in soil nutrients.
yard material - Leaves, grass clippings, garden
materials, hedge clippings, and brush.
240 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s
HUMANURE HANDBOOK - REFERENCE CITATIONS
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER ONE ÷ CRAP HAPPENS
1 - State of the World 1999, p. 10; State of the World 1998, p. 3.
2 - Brown, Lester R., et al. (1998). Vital Signs 1998. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., p. 20.
3 - State of the World 1998, p. 4, 5.
4 - State of the World 1998, p. 14.
5 - State of the World 1998, p. 11, 41; State of the World 1999, p. 97.
6 - State of the World 1999, p. 13, 97.
7 - State of the World 1999, p. 20, 21, 41, 46.
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER TWO ÷ WASTE NOT WANT NOT
1 - Too Good to Throw Away, Chapter Two.
2 - Brown, Lester R., et al. (1998). State of the World 1998. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., p. 106.
3 - Kantor, Linda S., et al. (1997, January - April). "Estimating and Addressing America's Food Losses.¨ Food
Review. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Agriculture, Commodity Economics Division, Economic
Research Service.
4 - US Environmental Protection Agency. (May 1998) Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United
States: 1997 Update. Report # EPA530-R-98-007. Washington, D.C.: US Environmental Protection
Agency, p. 29, 45.
5 - State of the World 1998, p. 102.
6 - State of the World 1998, p. 101, 166.
7 - Environment Reporter. (1996 September 27)
8 - Too Good to Throw Away, Chapter Two.
9 - Too Good to Throw Away, Chapter Two.
10 - World Resource Foundation. (1998, April). Warmer Bulletin Ìnformation Sheet - Landfill.
17 -Daniel, J.E., et al., (Eds.). 1992 Earth Journal. Boulder, CO: Buzzworm Books, p. 94.
11 - Fahm, Lattee A. (1980). The Waste of Nations: The Economic Utilization of Human Waste in Agriculture.
Montclair, NJ: Allenheld, Osmun & Co., p. 45.
12 - Golden, Jack, et al. (1979). The Environmental Ìmpact Data Book. Ann Arbor, MÌ: Ann Arbor Science
Publishers, Ìnc., p. 495.
13 - US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean Resources,
Conservation and Assessment. (1987). The National Coastal Pollutant Discharge Ìnventory Database.
Silver Spring, MD: DOC/NOAA/ORCA.
14 - Environment Reporter. (1992 July 31). Washington D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, Ìnc., p. 1110.
15 - Paul, Elizabeth. (1998). Testing the Waters VÌÌÌ: Has Your Vacation Beach Cleaned Up Ìts Act?. Washington,
D.C.: Natural Resources Defense Council, Ìnc.; NRDC Worldview News. (1998). Pollution Persists at US
Beaches. Washington, D.C.: Natural Resources Defense Council, Ìnc.
16 - Whitaker, Barbara, Federal Judge Rules Los Angeles Violates Clean Water Laws, N. Y. Times, Dec. 24, 2002
17 - Bitton, Gabriel. (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. New York: Wiley-Liss, Ìnc., p. 368-369.
18 - National Resources Defense Council. (1997). Bulletin: Stop Polluted Runoff - 11 Actions to Clean up Our
Waters. http://www.nrdc.org/nrdcpn/fppubl.html.
19 - Wastewater Microbiology, p. 86.
20 - Ralof, Janet. (1998 March 21). "Drugged Waters ÷ Does it Matter that Pharmaceuticals are Turning Up in
Water Supplies?¨ Science News, Vol. 153 (No. 12), p. 187-189.
21 - State of the New England Environment. (1996). Preserving New England Natural Resources.
http://www.epa.gov/region01/soe/coastal.html.
22 - Toward Organic Security: Environmental Restoration or the Arms Race?. Peace and Environment Platform
Project, c/o World Citizens Assembly, Suite 506, 312 Sutter St., San Francisco, CA 94018.
23 - Vital Signs 1998, p. 156.
24 - Courier. (1985, January). UNESCO. 7 Place de Fentenoy, 75700 Paris, France.
25 - State of the World 1999, p. 137.
26 - Vital Signs 1998, p. 156.
27 - Gever, John, et al. (1986). Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades,
A Summary Report. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co.
28 - Solley, Wayne B., et al. (1990). "Estimated Water Use in the United States in 1990.¨ US Geological Survey
Circular 1081, Table 31. Denver, CO. United State Geological Service, p. 65.
29 - National Resources Defense Council. (1996 December 24). Population and Consumption at NRDC: US
Population Scorecard. Washington, D.C.: National Resources Defense Council.
30 - The Waste of Nations, p. xxiv.
31 - 1993 Ìnformation Please Environmental Almanac, p. 340-341.
32 - Environment Reporter. (1992 April 24) p. 2877-78.
33 - State of the World 1998, p. 100.
34 - Sides, S. (1991, August/September). "Compost." Mother Earth News, Ìssue 127, p. 50.
35 - Brown, Lester R., et al. (1998). Vital Signs 1998. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., p. 44-45.
36 - Vital Signs, p. 44.
37 - Vital Signs, p. 132.
38 - Vital Signs 1998, p. 132.
39 - State of the World 1999, p. 135.
40 - State of the World 1990, p. 184.
41 - Rybczynski, Witold, et al. (1982). Low Cost Technology Options for Sanitation - A State of the Art Review and
Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, p. 23.
42 - Cannon, Charles A. (1997 September 3-5). "Life Cycle Analysis and Sustainability Moving Beyond the Three
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s 241
R's ÷ Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle ÷ to P2R2 ÷ Preserve, Purify, Restore and Remediate.¨ Ìn E.Ì.
Stentiford (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Ìnternational
Conference. Harrogate, UK, p. 252-253. Available from Stuart Brown, National Compost Development
Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23 5UR UK (stuartbrown@compuserve.com)
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER THREE ÷ MÌCROHUSBANDRY
1 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.2.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
2 - Shuval, Hillel Ì., et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.2.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
3 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.ii.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
4 - Rodale, J. Ì. (1960). The Complete Book of Composting. p. 9. Rodale Books, Ìnc., Emmaus, PA.
5 - Sides, S. (1991). Compost. Mother Earth News. Ìssue 127, Aug/Sept 1991 (pp.49-53).
6 - Bem, R., (1978). Everyone's Guide to Home Composting. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., NY (p.4).
7 - Haug, Roger T. (1993). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. p. 2. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000 Corporate Blvd.
N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
8 - Cannon, Charles A., (1997). Life Cycle Analysis and Sustainability Moving Beyond the Three R's - Reduce, Reuse,
and Recycle - to P2R2 - Preserve, Purify, Restore and Remediate. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery
and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United
Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 253. Available from Stuart Brown, National Compost Development
Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23 5UR UK (stuartbrown@compuserve.com).
9 - Howard, Sir Albert, (1943). An Agricultural Testament. Oxford University Press: New York.
10 - Bhamidimarri, R. (1988). Alternative Waste Treatment Systems. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers LTD., Crown
House, Linton Road, Barking, Essex, ÌG11 8JU, England. (p.129).
11 - Rynk, Robert, ed. (1992). On-Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service.
Ph: (607) 255-7654. p. 12.
12 - Haug, Roger T. (1993). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. p. 2. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000 Corporate
Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
13 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. P. 129. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
14 - Howard, Sir Albert, (1943). An Agricultural Testament. (p.48).
15 - Ìngham, Elaine (1998). Anaerobic Bacteria and Compost Tea. Biocycle, June 1998, p 86. The JG Press, Ìnc., 419
State Avenue, Emmaus, PA 18049.
16 - Stoner, C.H. (Ed.). (1977). Goodbye to the Flush Toilet. Rodale Press: Emmaus, PA, 1977. (p.46).
17 - Rodale, J.Ì. et al. (Eds.). (1960). The Complete Book of Composting. Rodale Books Ìnc.: Emmaus, Pa (pp.646-647).
18 - Gotaas, Harold B., (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . p.39. World Health
Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
19 - Mixing Browns and Greens For Backyard Success. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, January 1998.
p. 20 (Regional Roundup). JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
20 - Brock, Thomas D. (1986). Thermophiles - General, Molecular, and Applied Biology. p.4. John Wiley and Sons, Ìnc.
21 - Madigan, Michael T. et al. (1997). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, Eighth edition. Pp. 150, 167. Ìnformation about
water heaters, as well as temperature ranges of bacteria.
22 - Waksman, S.A. (1952). Soil Microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, Ìnc., New York. (p.70).
23 - Rynk, Robert, ed. (1992). On-Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service.
Ph: (607) 255-7654. p. 55.
24 - Thimann, K.V. (1955). The Life of Bacteria: Their Growth, Metabolism, and Relationships. The Macmillan Co., New
York. (p.177).
25 - Wade, Nicholas (1996). Universal Ancestor. The New York Times, as seen in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Monday,
August 26, 1996, p. A-8.
26 - Brock, Thomas D. (1986). Thermophiles - General, Molecular, and Applied Biology. p.23. John Wiley and Sons, Ìnc.
27 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 81. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10518-
0012.
28 - Ìbid. (p. 212)
29 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. P. 123. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
30 - Lynch, J.M. and Poole, N.L. (Eds.). (1979). Microbial Ecology: A Conceptual Approach. Blackwell Scientific
Publications, London. (p.238).
31 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. P. 53. E. & F. N. Spon Ltd.,
New York, NY 10001 USA.
32 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. Pp. 124, 125, 129, 133. CRC
Press, Ìnc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
33 - Ìngham, Elaine (1998). Replacing Methyl Bromide with Compost. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling,
December 1998. p. 80. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
34 - Curry, Dr. Robin (1977). Composting of Source Separated Domestic Organic Waste by Mechanically Turned Open
Air Windrowing. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì.
(ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 184.
35 - Applied Microbiology, December 1969.
36 - Gotaas, Harold B., (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes (p.20). World
Health Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
37 - Curry, Dr. Robin (1977). Composting of Source Separated Domestic Organic Waste by Mechanically Turned Open
Air Windrowing. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì.
(ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 183.
38 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. P. 169. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
39 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. Pp. 121, 124, 134. CRC
Press, Ìnc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
40 - Rodale, J. Ì. (1960). The Complete Book of Composting. p. 702. Rodale Books, Ìnc., Emmaus, PA.
41 - Curry, Dr. Robin (1977). Composting of Source Separated Domestic Organic Waste by Mechanically Turned Open
Air Windrowing. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì.
(ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 183.
42 - Brock, Thomas D. (1986). Thermophiles ÷ General, Molecular, and Applied Biology. p.244. John Wiley and Sons.
43 - Rynk, Robert, ed. (1992). On-Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service.
Ph: (607) 255-7654. p. 13.
44 - Biocycle, November 1998, p.18.
45 - Rodale, J. Ì. (1960). The Complete Book of Composting. p. 932. Rodale Books, Ìnc., Emmaus, PA.
46 -Smalley, Curtis (1998). Hard Earned Lessons on Odor Management. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and
Recycling, January 1998. p. 59. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
47 - Brinton, William F. Jr. (date unknown). Sustainability of Modern Composting - Intensification Versus Cost and
Quality. Woods End Ìnstitute, PO Box 297, Mt. Vernon, Maine 04352 USA.
48 - Brinton, William F. Jr. (date unknown). Sustainability of Modern Composting - Intensification Versus Cost and
Quality. Woods End Ìnstitute, PO Box 297, Mt. Vernon, Maine 04352 USA.
49 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. P. 170. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
50 - Researchers Study Composting in the Cold. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, January 1998. p. 24
(Regional Roundup). JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
51 - Gotaas, Harold B., (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . p.77. World Health
Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
52 - Regan, Raymond W. (1998). Approaching 50 years of Compost Research. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and
Recycling, October 1998. p. 82. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
53 - Howard, Sir Albert (1943). An Agricultural Testament. Oxford University Press: New York. (p.44). Also see: Rodale,
J.Ì. (1946). Pay Dirt. The Devon-Adair Co.: New York.
54 - Rodale, J.Ì. et al. (Eds.) (1960). The Complete Book of Composting. Rodale Books Ìnc.: Emmaus, PA (p.658).
55 - Regan, Raymond W. (1998). Approaching 50 years of Compost Research. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and
Recycling, October 1998. p. 82. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
56 - Poncavage, J. and Jesiolowski, J. (1991). Mix Up a Compost and a Lime. Organic Gardening. March 1991, Vol. 38,
Ìssue 3. (p.18).
57 - Gotaas, Harold B., (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . p.93. World Health
Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
58 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. P. 132. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
59 - US EPA (1998). An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA530-B-98-001,
March 1998.
60 - Haug, Roger T. (1993). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. p. 9. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000 Corporate
Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
61 - US EPA (Oct. 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Bioremediation and Pollution Prevention. EPA530-F-97-042.
62 - US EPA (1998). An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA530-B-98-001,
March 1998.
63 - Cannon, Charles A., (1997). Life Cycle Analysis and Sustainability Moving Beyond the Three R's - Reduce, Reuse,
and Recycle - to P2R2 - Preserve, Purify, Restore and Remediate. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery
and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United
Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 253. Available from Stuart Brown, National Compost Development
Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23 5UR UK (stuartbrown@compuserve.com).
64 - US EPA (October 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Bioremediation and Pollution Prevention. EPA530-F-97-042.
65 - Logan, W.B. (1991). "Rot is Hot.¨ New York Times Magazine. 9/8/91, Vol. 140, Ìssue 4871. (p.46).
66 - Compost Fungi Used to Recover Wastepaper. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, May 1998. p. 6
(Biocycle World). JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
67 - Young, Lily Y., and Cerniglia, Carl E. (Eds.) (1995). Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic
Chemicals. Pp. 408, 461, and Table 12.5. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10518-0012.
68 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. P. 127. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000
Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
69 - Logan, W.B. (1991). "Rot is Hot.¨ New York Times Magazine. 9/8/91, Vol. 140, Ìssue 4871. (p.46).
70 - Lubke, Sigfried. (1989). Ìnterview: All Things Considered in the Wake of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. Acres
U.S.A. December 1989. (p. 20) [also contact Uta and Sigfried Lubke, A4722 Peuerbach, Untererleinsbach 1,
Austria]
71 - US EPA (1998). An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA530-B-98-001,
March 1998.
72 - Cannon, Charles A., (1997). Life Cycle Analysis and Sustainability Moving Beyond the Three R's - Reduce, Reuse,
and Recycle - to P2R2 - Preserve, Purify, Restore and Remediate. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery
and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United
Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 254. Available from Stuart Brown, National Compost Development
Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23 5UR UK (stuartbrown@compuserve.com).
and Schonberner, Doug (1998). Reclaiming Contaminated Soils, as well as Block, Dave (1998). Composting
Breaks Down Explosives. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, September 1998, 36-40.
73 - US EPA (1998). An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA530-B-98-001,
March 1998.
74 - Block, Dave (1998). Degrading PCB's Through Composting. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling,
December 1998. p.
45-48. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
75 - US EPA (October 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Bioremediation and Pollution Prevention. EPA530-F-97-042.
76 - US EPA (October 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Bioremediation and Pollution Prevention. EPA530-F-97-042.
242 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::sr
77 - Rynk, Robert, ed. (1992). On-Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service.
Ph: (607) 255-7654. p. 83.
78 - Hoitink, Harry A. J. et al., (1997). Suppression of Root and Foliar Diseases Ìnduced by Composts. As seen in the
1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational
Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. p. 95.
79 - US EPA (October 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Disease Control for Plants and Animals. EPA530-F-97-044.
80 - US EPA (1998). An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA530-B-98-001,
March 1998.
81 - Logan, W.B. (1991). Rot is Hot. New York Times Magazine. 9/8/91, Vol. 140, Ìssue 4871. (p.46).
82 - US EPA (1998). An Analysis of Composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA530-B-98-001,
March 1998.
83 - Trankner, Andreas, and Brinton, William (date unknown). Compost Practices for Control of Grape
Powdery Mildew (Uncinula necator). Woods End Ìnstitute, PO Box 297, Mt. Vernon, Maine 04352 USA.
84 - Quote from Elaine Ìngham as reported in: Grobe, Karin (1998). Fine-Tuning the Soil Web. Biocycle, Journal of
Composting and Recycling, January 1998. p. 46. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
85 - Sides, S. (1991). Compost. Mother Earth News. Ìssue 127, Aug/Sept 1991 (p.50).
86 - US EPA (October 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Disease Control for Plants and Animals. EPA530-F-97-044.
87 - Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, October 1998. p. 26. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA
18049 USA.
88 - US EPA (October 1997). Innovative Uses of Compost - Disease Control for Plants and Animals. EPA530-F-97-044.
89 - Brodie, Herbert L., and Carr, Lewis E. (1997). Composting Animal Mortality. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery
and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United
Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. Pp. 155-159.
90 - McKay, Bart (1998). Com-Postal-Ing in Texas. Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, May 1998. p. 44-46.
JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus, PA 18049 USA.
91 - Garbage: the Practical Journal for the Environment. May/June 1992, p.66, Old House Journal Corp., 2 Main St.,
Gloucester, MA 01930.
92 - Logan, W.B. (1991). "Rot is Hot.¨ New York Times Magazine. 9/8/91, Vol. 140, Ìssue 4871.
93 - Biocycle, Journal of Composting and Recycling, November 1998. p. 18. JG Press, Ìnc., 419 State Ave., Emmaus,
PA 18049 USA.
XX - For more information see: http://www.deq.state.or.us/wmc/solwaste/documents/Clopyralid%20Study.pdf
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER FOUR ÷ DEEP SHÌT
1 - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. September/October 1998.
2 - Rodale, J. Ì., (1946). Paydirt, Devon-Adair Co.: NY, (p.vi).
3 - Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades, A summary Report. November 1986. Carrying
Capacity Ìnc., 1325 G. Street, NW, Suite 1003, Wash. D.C. 10005.
4 - King, F.H., (1911). Farmers of Forty Centuries. Rodale Press: Emmaus, PA 18049.
5 - Ìbid. (p.193, 196-7).
6 - Ìbid. (p.10).
7 - Ìbid. (p.19).
8 - Ìbid. (p.199).
9 - White, A.D. (1955). The Warfare of Science with Theology. George Braziller: New York. (pp.68,70).
10 - Ìbid. (p.69).
11 - Ìbid. (p.71).
12 - Ìbid. (p.73).
13 - Ìbid. (pp.76-77).
14 - Ìbid. (p.84).
15 - Ìbid. (p.85).
16 - Reyburn, Wallace (1989). Flushed with Pride - The Story of Thomas Crapper. Pavilion Books Limited, 196
Shaftesbury Avenue, London WC2H 8JL. pp. 24-25.
17 - Seaman, L.C.B. (1973). Victorian England. Methuan & Co.: London. (pp. 48-56).
18 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology forWater Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting.
Abstract. World Bank, Washington DC 20433, USA.
19 - Winblad, Uno, and Kilama, Wen (1985). Sanitation Without Water. Macmillan Education Ltd., London and
Basingstoke. p. 12.
20 - Edmonds, Richard Louis (1994). Patterns of China's Lost Harmony - A Survey of the Country's Environmental
Degradation and Protection. p. 9, 132, 137, 142, 146, 156. Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P
4EE and 29 West 35th Street,
New York, NY 10001.
21 - Hoitink, Harry A. J. et al., (1997). Suppression of Root and Foliar Diseases Induced by Composts. As seen in the
1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational
Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. p. 97.
22 - Farmers of Forty Centuries. (p.198).
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER FÌVE ÷ A DAY ÌN THE LÌFE OF A TURD
1 - Manci, K. Septic Tank - Soil Absorption Systems. Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet SW-44. Penn State College of
Agriculture Cooperative Extension, University Park, PA 16802.
2 - Manci, K. Mound Systems for Wastewater Treatment. SW-43. Same as above.
3 - Stewart, John G. (1990). Drinking Water Hazards: How to Know if There Are Toxic Chemicals in Your Water and What
to Do Ìf There Are. Envirographics: Hiram, Ohio. (pp.177-178).
4 - van der Leeden, F. et al. (1990). The Water Encyclopedia. Lewis Publishers Ìnc.: Chelsea, Michigan, 48118. (p.526).
5 - Ìbid. (p.525).
6 - Stewart, John G. (as in #3 above, same pages).
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s 243
7 - Ìbid.
8 - Environment Reporter. 2/28/92. The Bureau of National Affairs, Ìnc., Washington D.C., (pp. 2441-2).
9 - Gray, N.F. (1990). Activated Sludge Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press: New York. (p.125).
10 - Journal of Environmental Health. July/August 1989. "EPA Proposes New Rules for Sewage Sludge Disposal¨.
(P.321).
11 - Logan, W.B. (1991). "Rot is Hot." New York Times Magazine. 9/8/91 Vol. 140, Ìssue 4871, p.46.
12 - van der Leeden, F. et al. (1990). The Water Encyclopedia Second Edition. Lewis Publishers, 121 South Main Street,
Chelsea, Michigan 48118 (p. 541).
13 - Garbage. February/March 1993. Old House Journal Corp., 2 Main St., Gloucester, MA 01930. (p.18).
14 - Pickford, John (1995). Low-Cost Sanitation - A Survey of Practical Experience. p. 96. ÌT Publications, 103-105
Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK.
15 - US EPA (1996). Wastewater Treatment: Alternatives to Septic Systems (Guidance Document). EPA/909-K-96-001.
US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9, Drinking Water Program (W-6-3). p. 16-19. and:
US EPA (1987). Ìt's Your Choice - A Guidebook for Local Officials on Small Community Wastewater Management
Options. EPA 430/9-87-006. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Municipal Pollution
Control (WH-595), Municipal Facilities Division, Washington DC 20460. p.55.
16 - Manahan, S.E. (1990). Hazardous Waste Chemistry, Toxicology and Treatment. Lewis Publishers, Ìnc.: Chelsea,
Michigan. (p.131).
17 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 120. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10518-
0012.
18 - Ìbid. (pp. 148-49).
19 - Baumann, Marty. USA Today. Feb 2, 1994, p. 1A, 4A. USA Today (Gannet Co. Ìnc.) 1000 Wilson Blvd., Arlington,
VA 22229.
20 - "The Perils of Chlorine." Audubon Magazine, 93:30-2. Nov/Dec 1991.
21 - Liptak, B.G. (1991). Municipal Waste Disposal in the 1990's. Chilton Book Co.: Radnor, PA. (pp.196-8).
22 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 312. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, N. Y., NY 10518-0012.
23 - Stiak, J. "The Trouble With Chlorine." Buzzworm. Nov/Dec 1992. (p.22).
24 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 121. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, N. Y., NY 10518-0012.
25 - Environment Reporter. 7/10/92. (p.767).
26 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 121. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, N. Y., NY 10518-0012.
27 - Buzzworm. March/April 1993. (p.17).
28 - Environment Reporter. 7/10/92. (p.767).
29 - Ìbid. 4/24/92. (p.2879).
30 - Ìbid. 8/7/92. (p.1155).
31 - Burke, W.K. "A Prophet of Eden." Buzzworm. Vol. ÌV, Number 2, March/April 1992. (pp.18-19).
32 - Environment Reporter. 8/7/92. (P.1152).
33 - Ìbid. 5/15/92. (p.319).
34 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 352. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, N. Y., NY 10518-0012.
35 - Ìbid. 3/6/92 (p. 2474) and 1/17/92 (p.2145).
36 - Ìbid. 1/3/92 (p.2109).
37 - Ìbid. 11/1/91 (p.1657) and 9/27/96 (p. 1212).
38 - Hammond, A. et al. (Eds.) (1993). The 1993 Ìnformation Please Environmental Almanac. Compiled by the World
Resources Ìnstitute. Houghton Mifflin Co.: New York. (p.41).
39 - Purves, D. (1990). "Toxic Sludge." Nature. Vol. 346, 8/16/1990 (pp. 617-18).
40 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 352. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, N. Y., NY 10518-0012.
41 - Rybczynski, W. et al. (1982). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Low Cost Technology
Options for Sanitation, A State of the Art Review and Annotated Bibliography. World Bank. (p. 124).
42 - Ìbid. (p. 125).
43 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. P. 160. E. & F. N. Spon Ltd.,
New York, NY 10001 USA.
44 - Fahm, L.A. (1980). The Waste of Nations. Allanheld, Osmun & Co.: Montclair, NJ (p.61).
45 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.5.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA
46 - Bitton, Gabriel (1994). Wastewater Microbiology. p. 166, 352. Wiley-Liss, Ìnc. 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY
10518-0012.
47 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. P. 242, 251-2. E. & F. N.
Spon Ltd., New York, NY 10001 USA.
48 - Radtke, T.M., and Gist, G.L. (1989). "Wastewater Sludge Disposal: Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria May Pose Health
Hazard." Journal of Environmental Health. Vol 52, No.2, Sept/Oct 1989. (pp.102-5).
49 - Environment Reporter. 7/10/92. (p.770).
50 - Environment Reporter. 11/1/91. (p.1653).
51 - Ìbid. 1/17/92. (p.2154).
52 - Damsker, M. (1992). "Sludge Beats Lead." Organic Gardening. Feb, 1992, Vol. 39, Ìssue 2, p.19.
53 - Contact JCH Environmental Engineering, Ìnc., 2730 Remington Court, Missoula, MT 59801. Ph: 406-721-1164.
54 - Miller, T. L. et al., (1992). Selected Metal and Pesticide Content of Raw and Mature Compost Samples from Eleven
Illinois Facilities. Ìllinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. and: Manios, T. and Stentiford, E.Ì.
(1998). Heavy Metals Fractionation Before, During, and After Composting of Urban Organic Residues. As
seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational
Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. p. 227-232.
55 - US EPA, (1989) - Summary Report: Ìn-Vessel Composting of Municipal Wastewater Sludge. pp. 20, 161. EPA/625/8-
89/016. Center for Environmental Research Ìnformation, Cincinnati, OH.
56 - Fahm. (1980). The Waste of Nations. (p.xxiv).
57 - Ìbid. (p.40).
58 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. (sum-
mary). Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
59 - Rivard, C.J. et al. (1989). "Waste to Energy." Journal of Environmental Health. Vol 52, No.2, Sept/Oct 1989. (p.100).
244 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s
60 - See Garbage, Oct/Nov 1992, (p.14).
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER SÌX ÷ COMPOSTÌNG TOÌLETS & SYSTEMS
1 - Rybczynski, W. et al. (1982). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Low Cost Technology Options
for Sanitation, A State of the Art Review and Annotated Bibliography. World Bank. Transportation and Water
Department, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20433 USA.
2 - Franceys et al. (1992). A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation. W.H.O., Geneva. (p. 213).
3 - McGarry, Michael G., and Stainforth, Jill (eds.) (1978). Compost, Fertilizer, and Biogas Production from Human and
Farm Wastes in the People's Republic of China, Ìnternational Development Research Center, Box 8500,
Ottawa, Canada, K1G 3H9 (pages 9, 10, 29, 32).
4 - Rybczynski, W. et al. (1982). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Low Cost Technology Options
for Sanitation, A State of the Art Review and Annotated Bibliography. World Bank. Transportation and Water
Department, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20433 USA. (p. 114).
5 - McGarry, Michael G., and Stainforth, Jill (eds.) (1978). Compost, Fertilizer, and Biogas Production from Human and
Farm Wastes in the People's Republic of China, Ìnternational Development Research Center, Box 8500,
Ottawa, Canada, K1G 3H9.
6 - Winblad, Uno, and Kilama, Wen (1985). Sanitation Without Water. Macmillan Education Ltd., London and
Basingstoke. pp. 20-21.
7 - Winblad, Uno (Ed.) (1998). Ecological Sanitation. Swedish Ìnternational Development Cooperation Agency,
Stockholm, Sweden. p. 25.
8 - Rybczynski, W. et al. (1982). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Low Cost Technology Options
for Sanitation, A State of the Art Review and Annotated Bibliography. World Bank. Transportation and Water
Department, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20433 USA.
9 - Ìbid.
10 - Clivus Multrum Maintenance Manual, Clivus Multrum, Ìnc., 21 Canal St., Lawrence, Mass. 01840. (Also contact
Hanson Assoc., Lewis Mill, Jefferson, MD 21755).
11 - Ìbid.
12 - Ìbid.
13 - Source: Pickford, John (1995). Low-Cost Sanitation, Ìntermediate Technology Publications, 103-105 Southampton
Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK. p. 68.
14 - Sun Mar Corp., 900 Hertel Ave., Buffalo, NY 14216 USA; or 5035 North Service Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
L7L 5V2.
15 - AlasCan, Ìnc., 3400 Ìnternational Way, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701, phone/fax (907) 452-5257 [as seen in Garbage,
Feb/Mar 1993, p.35].
16 - Composting Toilet Systems, PO Box 1928 (or 1211 Bergen Rd.), Newport, WA 99156, phone: (509) 447-3708; Fax:
(509) 447-3753.
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER SEVEN ÷ WORMS AND DÌSEASE
AA - Solomon, Ethan B., et. al (2002). Transmission of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 from Contaminated Manure and
Ìrrigation Water to Lettuce Plant Tissue and Ìts Subsequent Ìnternalization. Applied and Environmental
Microbiology, January 2002, p. 397-400. American Society for Microbiology.
1 - Kristof, Nicholas D. (1995). Japanese is Too Polite for Words. Pittsburgh Post Gazette, Sunday, September 24, 1995.
P. B-8.
2 - Beeby, John (1995). The Tao of Pooh (now titled Future Fertility). Disclaimer, and pp. 64-65. Ecology Action of the
Midpeninsula, 5798 Ridgewood Road, Willits, CA 95490-9730.
3 - Beeby, John (1995). The Tao of Pooh (now titled Future Fertility). Pp. 11-12. Ecology Action of the Midpeninsula, 5798
Ridgewood Road, Willits, CA 95490-9730.
4 - Barlow, Ronald S. (1992). The Vanishing American Outhouse. P. 2. Windmill Publishing Co., 2147 Windmill View
Road, El Cajon, California 92020 USA.
5 - Warren, George M. (1922 - revised 1928). Sewage and Sewerage of Farm Homes. US Department of Agriculture,
Farmer's Bulletin No. 1227. As seen in: Barlow, Ronald S. (1992). The Vanishing American Outhouse. Pp.
107-110. Windmill Publishing Co., 2147 Windmill View Road, El Cajon, California 92020 USA.
6 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.8.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
7 - Tompkins, P., and Boyd, C. (1989). Secrets of the Soil. Harper and Row: New York. (pp.94-5).
8 - Howard, Sir Albert. The Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture. Schocken: N. Y. 1947. (pp. 37-38).
9 - Ìbid. (p.177).
10 - Feachem, et al. (1980). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation. The World Bank, Director of
Ìnformation and Public Affairs, Washington D.C. 20433.
11 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. P. 238. E. & F. N. Spon Ltd.,
New York, NY 10001 USA.
12 - Jervis, N. "Waste Not, Want Not". Natural History. May, 1990 (p.73).
13 - Winblad, Uno (Ed.) (1998). Ecological Sanitation. Swedish Ìnternational Development Cooperation Agency,
Stockholm, Sweden. p. 75.
14 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. Pp. 59-60. E. & F. N. Spon
Ltd., New York, NY 10001 USA.
15 - Palmisano, Anna C. and Barlaz, Morton A. (Eds.) (1996). Microbiology of Solid Waste. Pp. 159. CRC Press, Ìnc.,
2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
16 - Gotaas, Harold B., (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . p.20. World Health
Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
17 - Sopper, W.E. and Kardos, L.T. (Eds.). (1973). Recycling Treated Municipal Wastewater and Sludge Through Forest
and Cropland. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (pp. 248-51).
18 - Ìbid. (pp. 251-252).
19 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.4.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s 245
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
20 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. P. 252. E. & F. N. Spon Ltd.,
New York, NY 10001 USA.
21 - Cheng, Thomas C. (1973). General Parasitology. Academic Press, Ìnc., 111 Fifth Avenue, N.Y., NY 10003 (p. 645).
22 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.6.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank),
Washington DC, 20433, USA.
23 - Feachem et al. (1980). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation: Health Aspects of Excreta and
Sullage Management. Energy, Water and Telecommunications Department of the World Bank, 1818 H Street
N.W., Washington D.C. 20433. This comprehensive work cites 394 references from throughout the world, and
was carried out as part of the World Bank's research project on appropriate technology for water supply and
sanitation.
24 - Ìbid.
25 - Olson, O. W. (1974). Animal Parasites - Their Life Cycles and Ecology. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD (p.
451-452).
26 - Crook, James (1985). "Water Reuse in California." Journal of the American Waterworks Association. v77, no. 7. as
seen in The Water Encyclopedia by van der Leeden et al. (1990), Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Mich. 48118.
27 - Boyd, R. F. and Hoerl, B. G. (1977). Basic Medical Microbiology. Little, Brown and Co., Boston Mass. (p. 494).
28 - Cheng, Thomas C. (1973) General Parasitology. Academic Press Ìnc., 111 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003. (p. 645).
29 - Sterritt, Robert M. (1988). Microbiology for Environmental and Public Health Engineers. Pp. 244-245. E. & F. N. Spon
Ltd., New York, NY 10001 USA.
30 - Epstein, Elliot (1998). "Pathogenic Health Aspects of Land Application.¨ Biocycle, September 1998, p.64. The JG
Press, Ìnc., 419 State Avenue, Emmaus, PA 18049.
31 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.5.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
32 - Franceys, R. et al. (1992). A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation. World Health Organization, Geneva.
p. 212.
33 - Schoenfeld, M., and Bennett, M. (1992). Water Quality Analysis of Wolf Creek. (Unpublished manuscript). Slippery
Rock University, Applied Ecology Course, PREE, Fall Semester. (Prof. P. Johnson), Slippery Rock, PA 16057
34 - Pomeranz, V.E. and Schultz, D., (1972). The Mother's and Father's Medical Encyclopedia. The New American
Library, Ìnc., 1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. (p.627).
35 - Chandler, A.C. and Read, C.P. (1961). Ìntroduction to Parasitology. John Wiley and Sons, Ìnc.: New York.
36 - Brown, H.W. and Neva, F.A. (1983). Basic Clinical Parasitology. Appleton-Century-Crofts/Norwalk, Connecticut
06855. (pp.128-31). Pinworm destruction by composting mentioned in: Gotaas, Harold B., (1956).
Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes . p.20. World Health Organization,
Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
37 - Brown, H.W. and Neva, F.A. (1983). Basic Clinical Parasitology. Appleton-Century-Crofts/Norwalk, Connecticut
06855. (pp.119-126).
38 - Ìbid.
39 - Ìbid.
40 - Haug, Roger T. (1993). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. p. 141. CRC Press, Ìnc., 2000 Corporate
Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
41 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.4.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
42 - Franceys, R. et al. (1992). A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation. W.H.O., Geneva. p. 214.
43 - Shuval, Hillel Ì. et al. (1981). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Night Soil Composting. p.7.
Ìnternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), Washington DC, 20433, USA.
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER EÌGHT ÷ THE TAO OF COMPOST
1 - LaMotte Chemical Products Co., Chestertown, MD 21620
2 - Rodale, J. Ì., (1960). The Complete Book of Composting. P. 650, Rodale Books, Emmaus, PA.
3 - Kitto, Dick. (1988). Composting: The Organic Natural Way. Thorsons Publishers Ltd.: Wellingborough, UK. (p. 103).
4 - World of Composting Toilets Forum Update No. 3, Monday, November 2, 1998.
5 - Del Porto, David, and Steinfeld, Carol (1999). The Composting Toilet System Book - editor's draft. Center for
Ecological Pollution Prevention, PO Box 1330, Concord, MA 01742-1330.
6 - Olexa, M. T. and Trudeau, Rebecca L., (1994). How is the Use of Compost Regulated? University of Florida,
Forida Cooperative Extension Service, Document No. SS-FRE-19, September 1994.
7 - Pennsylvania Solid Waste Management Act, Title 35, Chapter 29A.
8 - Pennsylvania Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (1988), Title 53, Chapter 17A.
9 - King, F.H. (1911). Farmers of Forty Centuries. Rodale Press, Ìnc., Emmaus, PA 18049. (pp.78, 202).
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER NÌNE ÷ GRAYWATER SYSTEMS
1 - Waterless Toilets as Repair for Failed Septic Tank Systems. Bio-Sun Systems, Ìnc., RR #2, Box 134A, Millerton, PA
16936. Ph: 717-537-2200. Email:Bio-sun@ix.netcom.com
2 - US EPA (1992). Wastewater Treatment/Disposal for Small Communities. P. 42. EPA/625/R-92/005. US EPA Office of
Research and Development, Office of Water, Washington DC 20460 USA.
3 - Bennett, Dick (1995). Graywater, An Option for Household Water Reuse. Home Energy Magazine, July/August, 1995.
4 - Karpiscak, Martin M. et al. (1990). Residential Water Conservation: Casa del Agua. Water Resources Bulletin,
December 1990, p. 945-946. American Water Resources Association.
5 - Gerba, Charles P. et al. (1995). Water Quality Study of Graywater Treatment Systems. Water Resources Bulletin,
February, 1995, Vol. 31, No. 1, p. 109. American
Water Resources Association.
6 - Rose, Joan B. et al. (1991). Microbial Quality and Persistence of Enteric Pathogens in Graywater from Various
Household Sources. Water Resources, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 37-42, 1991.
246 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s
7 - Gerba, Charles P. et al. (1995). Water Quality Study of Graywater Treatment Systems. Water Resources Bulletin,
February, 1995, Vol. 31, No. 1, p. 109. American
Water Resources Association.
8 - Karpiscak, Martin M. et al. (1990). Residential Water Conservation: Casa del Agua. Water Resources Bulletin,
December 1990, p. 940. American Water Resources Association.
9 - Rose, Joan B. et al. (1991). Microbial Quality and Persistence of Enteric Pathogens in Graywater from Various
Household Sources. Water Resources, Vol. 25, No. 1, p. 40, 1991.
10 - Karpiscak, Martin M. et al. (1990). Residential Water Conservation: Casa del Agua. Water Resources Bulletin,
December 1990, p. 940. American Water Resources Association.
11 - Ludwig, Art (1994). Create an Oasis with Greywater. Oasis Design, 5 San Marcos Trout Club, Santa Barbara, CA
93105-9726. Phone: 805-967-9956.
12 - Bennett, Dick (1995). Graywater, An Option for Household Water Reuse. Home Energy Mag., July/August, 1995.
13 - Rose, Joan B. et al. (1991). Microbial Quality and Persistence of Enteric Pathogens in Graywater from Various
Household Sources. Water Resources, Vol. 25, No. 1, p. 40, 1991.
14 - Rose, Joan B. et al. (1991). Microbial Quality and Persistence of Enteric Pathogens in Graywater from Various
Household Sources. Water Resources, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 37-38, 1991.
15 - Rose, Joan B. et al. (1991). Microbial Quality and Persistence of Enteric Pathogens in Graywater from Various
Household Sources. Water Resources, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 39, 41, 1991.
16 - Bastian, Robert K. (date unknown). Needs and Problems in Sewage Treatment and Effluent Disposal Facing Small
Communities; The Role of Wetland Treatment Alternatives. US EPA, Office of Municipal Pollution Control,
Washington DC 20460.
17 - Hoang, Tawni et al. (1998). Greenhouse Wastewater Treatment with Constructed Wetlands. Greenhouse Product
News, August 1998, p.33.
18 - Golueke, Clarence G. (1977). Using Plants for Wastewater Treatment. Compost Science, Sept./Oct. 1977, p. 18.
19 - Berghage, R.D. et al. (date unknown). "Green" Water Treatment for the Green Industries: Opportunities for
Biofiltration of Greenhouse and Nursery Irrigation Water and Runoff with Constructed Wetlands. and:
Gupta, G.C. (1980). Use of Water Hyacinths in WastewaterTreatment. Journal of Environmental Health.
43(2):80-82. and: Joseph, J. (1978). Hyacinths for Wastewater Treatment. Reeves Journal. 56(2):34-36.
20 - Hillman, W.S. and Culley, D.D. Jr. (1978). The Uses of Duckweed. American Scientist, 66:442-451
21 - Pries, John (date unknown, but 1996 or later). Constructed Treatment Wetland Systems in Canada. Gore and Storrie
Ltd., Suite 600, 180 King St. S., Waterloo, Ontario, N2J 1P8. Ph: 519-579-3500.
22 - Golueke, Clarence G. (1977). Using Plants for Wastewater Treatment. Compost Science, Sept./Oct. 1977, p. 18.
23 - Golueke, Clarence G. (1977). Using Plants for Wastewater Treatment. Compost Science, Sept./Oct.r 1977, p. 17.
24 - For more information, contact Carl Lindstrom at www.greywater.com.
25 - Gunther, Folke (1999). Wastewater Treatment by Graywater Separation: Outline for a Biologically Based Graywater
Purification Plant in Sweden. Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, S-106 91, Stockholm,
Sweden. Ecological Engineering 15 (2000) 139-146.
REFERENCES ÷ CHAPTER TEN ÷ THE END ÌS NEAR
1 - Rybczynski, W. et. al. (1982). Appropriate Technology for Water Supply and Sanitation - Low Cost Technology
Options for Sanitation, A State of the Art Review and Annotated Bibliography. World Bank, Geneva. (p. 20).
2 - Kugler, R. et al. (1998). Technological Quality Guarantees for H.Q. Compost from Bio-Waste. As seen in the 1997
Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational Conference,
Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. P. 31. Available from Stuart Brown, National Compost
Development Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23 5UR UK (stuartbrown@com-
puserve.com).
3 - Vorkamp, Katrin et al. (1998). Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides and their Metabolites in Biological Waste. As seen
in the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford, E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational
Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. p. 221. Available from Stuart Brown, National
Compost Development Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23 5UR UK
(stuartbrown@compuserve.com).
4 - Wheeler, Pat (1998). Results of the Environment Agency Research Programme into Composting of Green and
Household Wastes. As seen in the 1997 Organic Recovery and Biological Treatment Proceedings, Stentiford,
E.Ì. (ed.). Ìnternational Conference, Harrogate, United Kingdom. 3-5 September, 1997. p. 77. Available from
Stuart Brown, National Compost Development Association, PO Box 4, Grassington, North Yorkshire, BD23
5UR UK (stuartbrown@compuserve.com).
5 - Johnson, Julie. (1990). "Waste That No One Wants.¨ New Scientist. 9/8/90, Vol. 127, Ìssue 1733. (p.50).
6 - Benedict, Arthur H. et. al. (1988). "Composting Municipal Sludge: ATechnology Evaluation.¨ Appendix A. Noyes Data
Corporation.
7 - Biocycle, January 1998, p. 71.
8 - http://www.epa.gov/compost/basic.htm
9 - Johnson, Julie. (1990). Waste That No One Wants. (p. 53) see above.
10 - Simon, Ruth. (1990). The Whole Earth Compost Pile? Forbes. 5/28/90, Vol. 145, Ìssue 11. p. 136.
11 - Biosolids Generation, Use and Disposal in theUnited States (1999). EPA 630-R-99-009.
12 - Gotaas, Harold B., (1956). Composting - Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes. p.101. World
Health Organization, Monograph Series Number 31. Geneva.
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - R:/:r:n::s 247
248
A
actinomycetes: 39, 43
population in compost: 39
population in soil: 39
thermophilic: 46
activated sludge treatment: 93
aerobic bacteria: 31
aerosol can remediation: 59
Africa: 117
agricultural land: 72
agricultural limestone: 53
Agricultural Testament: 48
agriculture: 20
Asian: 73
Bio-dynamic: 123
pollution from: 20
agronutrients in humanure: 14
Alascan: 120
algae: 21, 92
bacteria with: 221
alternative graywater systems:
see "constructed wetland¨
ammonia: 95
ammonia gas: 33
anaerobic bacteria: 31
anaerobic odors: 31
analgesics: 19
animal manures: 22
animal mortalities: 62
anthracnose: 60
antibiotic resistant bacteria: 18
antibiotics: 19, 46
produced by microorganisms:
46
antimicrobial compounds: 46
antiseptics: 19
appliances, water use: 208
aquaculture: 21
Aquatron: 120
aquatic plants: 96
illustrated: 218
Argentina: 117
artificial wetland (see "construct-
ed wetland¨)
Ascaris lumbricoides: 26, 107,
133, 134, 137, 150-151
co-evolution: 133
eggs of: 99, 133
viability: 134, 137
shell: 134
development temperatures: 134
ashy stem blight: 60
Asian recycling: 72
Aspergillus fumigatus: 52
B
Bacillus stearothermophilus: 41,
45
bacteria: 27, 131; see also
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x 
"pathogens¨
aerobic: 31
anaerobic: 31
antibiotic resistant: 18
heavy metal resistance: 99
mesophilic: 37
populations in compost: 39
populations in fertile soil: 39
psychrophiles: 37
resistance to antibiotics: 99
size of: 38
thermophilic: 37
Bahrain: 20
Bavaria: 78
beach closings: 17
beach pollution: 18
Beef tapeworm: 99
benzene: 89
beta-blocker heart drugs: 19
bilharzia: 132
biobins: 231
biodiversity: 43, 45
in compost: 43, 45
in nature: 44
in soils: 60
Bio-Dynamic: 123
biofilter: 59, 61, 159
Biolet: 118
biological filtration systems: 59,
61
Biological Oxygen Demand: see
BOD
biological sponge: 108, 161, 173
Biological-Macrophytic Marsh
Bed: 213
biopesticides: 62
biosollids: 234
Bio-Sun: 120
bladder cancer: 95
Black Death: 77
blackwater: 97, 203
BOD: 210
body fat: 5
boron: 206
Botswana: 117
Brazil: 15
bread, thermophiles on: 37
breast cancer: 5
Bronx River: 17
bucket toilets: 125, 156, 159,
185, 189
emptying: 183, 193
bulking material: 104
bulrush: 213
Butler, Pennsylvania: 232
C
C/N ratio: (see "carbon¨)
Calcutta: 21
Campylobacter: 130
cancer: 5, 20, 89, 94
Candida albicans: 45
Cape May: 37
carbofuran: 56
carbon: 33
carbon dioxide: 5, 14, 41
carbon tetrachloride: 94
Carbon/Nitrogen ratio: 32, 33, 34
nitrogen loss and: 33, 34
of humanure: 35
carcinogens: 5, 94
carousel toilet: 116
cartage systems: see "bucket¨
Casa del Aqua: 208
Catholic: 78
cat liver fluke: 132
cattail: 218
Celsius: 237
Central America: 113, 229
cesium: 57
chemical fertilizer: 20
leaching: 20
groundwater pollution: 20
global consumption of: 20
U.S. usage: 20
chemicals, toxic: 56, 97
chemical wastes: 97
Chernobyl: 57
childhood cancers: 5
chili wilt: 60
China: 21, 67, 72, 122, 127, 201
humanure recycling: 81
humanure dumping: 82
sanitation: 82
use of synthetic fertilizers: 81
wastewater disposal: 82
water pollution in: 82
Chinese liver fluke: 132
chloramine: 95
chlorinated chemicals: 58
chlorine: 18, 57, 92, 207
bladder cancer and: 95
chloramines: 95
pregnant women and: 95
rectal cancer and: 95
U.S. population exposure: 95
chloroform: 89, 94
chlorophenol: 57
cholera: 12, 21, 77, 79, 80
Christianity: 77
chromated copper arsenate: 36
Clivus: 115, 118
Clopyralid: 59
CO2: 5, 14
coastal discharges: 17
coastlines: 17
coliform bacteria: 17, 135, 210
fecal: 135
combined sewers: 17, 91
Complete Book of Composting:
32
compost: 26
INDEX
acidity: 53-55
actinomycetes: 43
aerosol can remediation: 59
aerosol emissions: 52
aeration: 50
analysis: 180
antibiotics: 19, 46
batch: 41, 50, 179
benefits of: 22, 28, 32, 62
binding metals: 56
binding lead in soils: 57
bins: 172, 173
biodiversity: 43, 44, 45
biofilters: 59, 173
biopesticides: 62
browns and greens: 36
bulking materials: 66, 104
cold climate heat loss: 52
compost testing labs: 117
continuous: 41, 50, 179
turning: 49, 179
cost of turning: 49, 52
covering: 29, 31, 180
cover materials: 31, 180
curing: 42
decontaminating soil: 58
defined: 26
degrading toxic chemicals: 29,
57
dehydration: 31
designer: 62
dogs and: 29, 64
enzymes: 53
filtration systems:59
flies and: 31
four necessities for: 30
balanced diet: 32
moisture: 30
oxygen: 31
temperature: 31
four stages of: 41
freezing: 31
fungi: (see "fungi¨)
heat of: 45
heavy metals and: 100
inoculants: 52-53
leachate from: 178
leaching: 29, 178
lignins: (see "lignin¨)
liming: 48, 53, 54, 181
microorganisms in: 39
mineral additives: 53
moisture losses: 30
moisture requirement: 29, 30-
31
moisture retention: 28
myths: 48
needs of: 158
newspapers in: 65
nitrogen loss: 49
not managed: 141
odors: 31, 59
oxygen: 31, 48, 51
pathogen destruction and: 113
pH of: 53
 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x
piled on the bare earth: 183
piling: 29
pits: 110, 113
primal: 156
rainfall and: 31
rats and: 192
root rot control: 60
sanitized: 44, 45
self-aeration: 51
shrinking: 30
spirituality and: 69
spontaneous fires: 37
static piles: 52
stormwater filters: 59
suppress plant diseases: 60
tea: 60
temperature: 31
testing: 47
toilets: 103
too hot: 45
turning: 49, 51, 52
uncured: 43
unturned: 51
wood ashes in: 53
compost bins: 172
biofilter: 173
biological sponge: 173
cover material used in: 172
double-chambered: 172
made from pallets: 177
normal bin sequence: 173
illustrated: 176
photos: 175, 194
size: 173
three-chambered: 174-5
constructing: 174-5
photo: 175
underneath the toilet: 186
composting: 21, 22
aerosol emissions: 52
aeration: 50
and rats: 192
animal mortalities: 62
Asian: 80, 110
in China: 67, 110
in Vietnam: 110
batch: 179
benefits: 22, 28, 32, 62
bin: 173
biofilters: 173
bones: 56, 66
browns: 36
chemicals: 56, 58
chlorinated chemicals: 58
Clopyralid: 59
contamination problems: 233
continuous: 110, 179
cooling phase: 41
curing period: 41
dead animals: 62
destroy plant pathogens: 60
Dicambra: 56
diesel fuel: 57
disposable diapers: 65
dog manure: 64
eggshells: 66
fats: 55
flies: 31
for a diseased population: 141
freon: 57
frozen: 181
greens: 36
hair: 65
heavy metals and: 100-101
herbicides: 56
Ìndore process: 48
inoculants: 52
insecticides: 56
in Vietnam: 111
junk mail: 65
leaching: 178
legalitites: 197
lime: 48, 53, 54
lipids: 55
mesophilic stage: 41
myths: 48
newsprint: 65
no turning: 51
odors: 31
oils and fats: 55
oxygen levels: 31, 48, 51
pathogenic population: 141
PCBs: 56, 57, 58
pet manures: 64
pits: 110, 113
RDX: 58
retention time: 178
retention time, diseased popu-
lations: 178
sanitary napkins: 65
segregation of materials: 55
sewage sludge: 231
slow: 26
soil in: 111
source separation: 233
telephone books: 65
TCE: 57
temperature monitoring: 181
curves: 182
thermometer: 117
thermophilic: 26, 41
TNT: 56, 58
toilet paper: 66
toxic chemicals: 56, 58
turning: 48
cost: 49
effects on bacterial
pathogens: 51
emissions: 52
heat loss, cold climates: 52
loss of agricultural nutrients:
49
loss of nitrogen: 49
oxygen, and: 51
unturned: 51
uranium: 57, 100
VOC: 59
weed seeds: 62
what not to compost: 55
wood chips: 66
Composting Council: 27
composting toilet systems: 103
composting toilets: 103, 145,
197
Alascan: 120
Aquatron: 119
Biolet: 118
Bio-Sun: 120
Carousel: 116, 118
Clivus: 115, 118
commercial: 104, 106, 114,
118-120
cover materials: 105
defined: 103
Dowmus: 119
Envirolet: 119
Guatemalan: 115
Hamar: 120
homemade: 104
laws: 198
low-temperature: 107
retention time in: 107
managing: 104, 105, 109
multrum: 114
odor prevention: 108
owner-built: 107
pathogen survival in: 144,
145, 147
Phoenix: 119
priming: 108
solar: 116
Sun-Mar: 120
Sven Linden: 120
transmission of pathogens
through low-temperature: 145
Vera Toga: 118
water savings: 117
composting toilet systems: 103
compost leachate: 178
compost microorganisms: 39
compost pile
aeration: 110
compost pit: 110, 113
compost stormwater filter: 59
compost tea: 60
compost testing labs: 117
compost thermometers: 117
compost toilets: 103
compost toilet systems: 19, 103
Confront: 59
Connecticut River: 90
constructed wetland: 96, 210,
212, 213
cells: 214, 216
defined: 210
evapotranspiration: 212
four components for functional
success: 205, 208
in cold climates: 217
in greenhouse: 219, 220
mulch basins: 219
liners: 214
plants: 216, 217
single cell, diagram: 214
size required per household:
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x 
214, 217
soilbeds: 221
soilboxes: 221
subsurface flow: 213, 214
surface flow: 213, 214
two cell, diagram: 215
two types of: 213
Watson Wick: 212
continuous composting: 110
Control Lab: 117
Cornell University: 99
cover material: 31, 105, 159,
180
coxsackieviruses: 130
crops, pathogen survival on: 136
CTS Toilet: 119
D
DDT: 94, 97
decomposition, optimal: 46
Defense Department: 58
designer compost: 62
detergents: 207
Dicambra: 56
diarrhea: 130
diesel fuel: 57
dioxin: 94
disease: 121, 127
epidemic: 79, 124
disease resistance in plants: 60
dogs: 29, 64
dog manure: 64
Dowmus: 119
drains: 206
drinking water: 16, 226
analysis: 136
chlorine and: 95
quality violations: 95
quantity worldwide: 16, 117
duckweeds: 217
nutrient absorption: 221
dumps: 15
Dutch Hamar: 120
dwarf tapeworm: 132
dysentery: 130
E
E. coli: 42, 46, 51, 135, 136
Earthship: 219
earthworms: 66
Ebola: 5
Echovirus: 130
ego vs. the eco: 70
Egypt: 231
El Salvador: 230
emergency toilet: 155
England: 79, 229
Public Health Act: 79-80
sanitation in: 80
English gardens: 161
Entamoeba histolytica: 131
Envirolet: 119
enzymes: 53
epidemic disease: 79, 124
erosion: 20
Escherichia coli: see "E. coli¨
estuaries: 17
Europe: 228, 231
history: 77
evapotranspiration: 212
extinctions: 3, 5
bird species: 3
mammals: 3
plant species: 4
primates: 3
F
Fahm, Lattee: 101
Fahrenheit: 237
Fairfield, Connecticut: 234
Farmers of Forty Centuries: 73
Feachem et al.: 127
fecal coliforms: 17, 135, 211
excreted in 24 Hours: 134
in bathing water: 211
in laundry water: 211
in natural streams: 136
survival times in soil: 134
fecal material, U.S. production
of: 75
feces
potential bacterial pathogens
in: 130
potential protozoan pathogens
in: 131
potential viral pathogens in:
130
potential worm pathogens in:
132
fecophobia: 105, 184
fertility (loss of in soils): 73
fisheries: 3
fish grown with humanure: 21
fishing: 17
fish tapeworm: 132
flies: 31, 200
Flatt, Hugh: 189
Florida: 13
flush toilets: 15, 20
food waste: 13
forests: 3
France, water use: 20
freon: 57
fungi: 39, 42, 43
breaking down petroleum: 57
enzymes replace chlorine: 57
populations in compost: 39
populations in fertile soil: 39
thermophilic: 43
Fusarium oxysporum: 60
G
garbage disposals: 204, 211
bacteria and: 205
gastroenteritis: 18
Germany: 78, 229
Bad Kreuznach: 231
Duisberg: 231
Munich: 231
water use in: 20
germination of seeds: 40
giant intestinal fluke: 132
Gilgit: 126
global temperature changes: 4
global warming: 2, 4, 13
glossary: 238
God: 72
Gotaas: 235
gravity waterline switch: 220
graywater: 31, 96, 203, 207, 222
amount generated per person
per day: 207, 211
and boron: 206
and powdered detergents: 207
and softened water: 207
bacteria in: 209, 210
growth and survival of: 210
reproduction in storage: 211
4 steps to reuse: 205, 208
garbage disposals and: 204
health threat from: 209
rules to follow: 211
pathogens and: 209
reuse for landscape irrigation:
208
source-separated: 222
green belt: 127
Guatemala: 204
Guatemalan composting toilet:
115
H
Hamar: 120
Hantavirus: 5
health agents: 196
Healthy Hunzas: (see "Hunzas¨)
heavy metals: 98, 100, 102
accumulation in plants: 100
helminths: 26, see "parasitic
worms¨
hepatitis: 18, 21, 82
Hepatitis B: 127
herbicides: 56, 59
Hermiston, Oregon: 58
Himalayas: 125
HÌV: 5
Hoitink, Harry: 60
hookworm: 132, 148
survival time of: 149
Hopei: 110
hormones: 19
Howard, Sir Albert: 29, 48, 54,
 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x
126
Huangpu River: 82
human consumption: 3, 4
human excrement: 21
four ways to deal with: 25
tons produced per year: 101
using raw: 21, 25, 75
U.S. production of: 75
water needed to flush: 101
weight of per capita: 74
Human Nutrient Cycle: 9, 10-11,
human pathogenic potential: 3
human population: 3
human waste: 8, 73
U.S. production of: 75
water needed to flush: 20, 101
humans as pathogens: 70
humans vs. nature: 70
humanure: 41
tons of water needed to flush:
101
bacteria per gram in: 41
composition of: 35
dangers of: 122
discarded: 12
dollar value of: 15
feeding to algae: 21
global production of: 14
nutrient value of: 14
pathogen survival in: 137
raw: 21, 75
recycling: 21
U.S. production of: 75
thermophiles in: 41
tons per square mile: 15
weight of, per capita: 74
humanure, danger of: 21
Humanure Hacienda: 174-175
humility: 70
humus: 19, 22, 28, 70
Hunzakuts: 126
Hunzas: 29, 125
hydric soil: 210
hydrobotanical method: 213
hydrogen ion: 38
hydrophyte: 210
hyperthermophiles: 37
I
incinerating toilet: 198
incineration: 58, 102
Ìndia: 29, 48, 113, 156
indicator bacteria: 135
indicator pathogens: 134
Ìndore process: 48
inks: 65
inoculants: 52-53
insecticides: 56
intestinal parasites: 21, 26
J
jail fever: 77, 79
Japan: 21, 72, 81, 201, 228
Jews: 78
junk mail: 65
K
Kervran-Effect: 100
King, Dr. F.H.: 73, 200
Korea: 21, 201
Koreans: 72
L
lagoons: 92, 93, 143, 144
lakes: 17
landfill: 12, 13
contamination plumes: 13
methane: 13
lavatory fluid: 123
leachate: 178
leachate barrier: 178
leachate collection: 178
lead: 57, 100, 102
lead-contaminated soil: 57, 100
legalities: 197
regarding the composting of
humanure: 197
leguminous plants: 75
lignin: 42
lime: 48, 53, 54
lime stabilized sludge: 53
lipids: 55
London, England: 79
Long Ìsland Sound: 19
Los Angeles: 17
Lovley, Derek: 57
Lubke, Sigfried: 57
lumber, pressure treated: 36
lung fluke: 132
Lyme's Disease: 5
M
macroorganisms: 28
magnification: 27
manures: 22, 35
comparisons of: 35
dog: 64
Mars: 6
marsh filters: 96, 213
mercury: 97
mesophiles: 37, 40
methane: 13, 32
methyl bromide: 60
methylene chloride: 89
Mexican biological digester: 83
Mexico: 113
microbial biodiversity: 45
microbial rock filter: 213
microhusbandry: 25
microorganisms: 37, 39
antibiotic production: 44
biodiversity: 45
mesophilic: 37
thermophilic: 37
microwave toilet: 102
Miguel: 37
Milan, Ìtaly: 78
Milorganite: 98
minimum infective doses: 47,
128
missionaries: 229
Missoula, Montana: 234, 232
Mother Earth News: 28
motor oil: 97
mouldering toilets: 103
pathogens in: 144
mulch basins: 212, 219
multiverse: 72
multrum toilet: 114, 131
munitions sites: 58
N
Native Americans: 79
naturalchemy: 27
nematodes: 44
Netherlands: 229
New England: 79
New York State: 17
sludge produced: 100
newspaper: 65
pigment: 65
newsprint: 65
night soil: 8, 21, 25, 73, 75, 127,
in Asia: 21, 73
in Japan: 81
pathogen inactivation in: 26
nitrates: 20, 142
nitrogen: 19, 33, 49, 75
loss due to C/N ratio: 33, 34
loss due to turning: 49
Norway: 114
Nova Scotia: 52, 228, 229, 232
organics ban date: 52, 229
composting: 229, 232
green cart: 229
nuclear arms race: 71
nuns: 69
nutrient runoff: 20
O
ocean sludge ban: 19
oil: 97
Oklahoma: 99
On-Farm Composting
Handbook: 27
organic matter: 28
calcium movement through
soil: 54
loss due to turning: 49
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x 
organic waste: 6, 13
organochlorines: 94
outhouse: 85, 142
pollution through dry soil: 86
pollution through wet soil: 85
oxidation ponds: 92, 228
oxygen: 27, 31
in water: 19
tension: 51
ozone: 94
ozone depletion: 5
P
Pakistan: 125
parasitic worms: 131, 132, 145
egg death: 140
survival in soil: 140
thermal death points: 147
paratyphoid fever: 130
pathogenic population: 179
pathogens: 44, 51, 127
bacterial: 130
survival in soil: 139
death: 144
and compost turning: 51
safety zone for: 152
time/temperature factor: 151
destroying in compost: 44, 51,
144
in compost toilets: 144
in conventional sewage treat-
ment plants: 142, 143
in lagoons: 143, 144
in outhouses: 142
in septic tanks: 142, 143
in soil: 147
in urine: 128
minimal infective doses: 47,
128
persistence of: 136
in sludge, feces/urine: 137
in soil: 136, 147
on crops: 136
in compost: 147
protozoan: 131
survival: 147
temperature to destroy: 45
thermal death points for: 147
transmission through various
toilet systems: 137
virulence: 128
viruses: 130
survival in soil: 138-139
worms: 132
PCBs: 58, 94, 97
PCPs: 57
Pennsylvania: 200
pestilences: 77
Peten Jungle: 204
pet manures: 64,
petroleum: 57
pH: 38, 54, 181
pharmaceutical drugs: 18, 37
Philippines: 117
Phoenix: 119
phytotoxins: 43
phytophthora: 60
pinworm: 145-148
pit latrines: 85, 142
surviving pathogens: 142
plague: 77
plants: 60
acquiring resistance to dis-
ease: 60
legumes: 75
plant pathogens: 60
Plymouth Colony: 79
pneumonia: 18
polioviruses: 137
survival in soil : 139
Pope Ìnnocent VÌÌÌ: 78
population increase: 16
pork tapeworm: 132
portable toilets: 230
Portland, Oregon: 59
powdery mildew: 62
Practical Self-Sufficiency: 189
pressure-treated lumber: 36, 56
primal compost: 156
proper sanitation: 19
protozoa: 44, 131
survival time in soil: 138
Protestant: 78
psychrophiles: 37
Purves, Mr.: 97
putrefaction: 90
pythium: 60
R
rainwater collection: 175
rats: 192
RDX: 58
rectal cancer: 95
redworms: 66
reed: 213
reed bed treatment: 213
religion: 72
Reotemp: 117
respiratory disease: 18
retention time: 179
Rhizoctonia root rot: 60
rivers: 17
Rockland County, NY: 59
rock reed filter: 213
Rodale, J.Ì.: 27, 54
Rodale, Robert: 48
root zone method: 213
Rotaviruses: 130
roundworm (see "Ascaris¨)
Rybczynski: 111
S
Sahara Desert: 37
Salmonella: 45, 46, 51, 99
salmonellosis: 18
sand mounds: 87
sanitary landfills: 12
sanitation: 19, 82, 127
lacking in world: 19
defined: 19
of compost: 44-46
Santa Monica Bay: 18
Satan: 77
Sawdust: 35, 36, 104, 178
cover material: 159
decomposition rates of: 35
from treated lumber: 160, 178
hardwood: 35
kiln-dried: 36, 178
moisture content of: 36
sawmill: 159, 178
softwood: 35
soil acidity and: 178
sawdust toilet: 141, 159, 172,
185
$25 toilet plans: 162
advantages of: 171
bins: 172, 173
biological sponge: 173
camping: 186
chlorine and: 161
cover material: 172
disadvantages of: 172
do's and don'ts: 170
frequently asked questions:
190-191
misinformation: 185
on camping trips: 186
photos:163, 164, 167, 168-169
reserve capacity: 165
rinse water used with: 161
statistics: 161
three components of: 172
urinal: 164
vital statistics: 161
with hinged seat: 162, 164
with lift-off top: 166-167
Scandinavia: 114
S.C.A.T.: 119
Scharff, Dr. J. W.: 25
schistosome: 132
Schenectady: 37
seed germination: 40
separation of urine from feces:
(see "urine¨)
septic: 89
septic systems: 87, 88
density per square mile: 90
toxic chemicals released: 89
septic tanks: 87, 88
cleaners: 90
cross section: 88
ground water pollution: 89
pumping: 205
transmission of pathogens
through: 90, 142, 143
sewage: 9, 228
collected by truck: 228
toxins in: 12
 T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x
spills: 17
sewage plant: 91
pathogens in: 142
sewage pollution: 12
beaches: 17
coastal: 17
discharges: 17
sewage overflows: 17
surface water: 91
water supplies: 79
sewage sludge: 19, 91
activated: 91
agricultural use of: 97, 98
amount generated in U.S.:
100
bacteria survival in: 137
resistance to antibiotics: 99
resistance to heavy metal
poisoning: 99
beef tapeworm and: 99
burning: 102
composted: 100, 232
detoxifying contamination
and: 100
disposal of in forests: 99
dumping of: 19
fertilizer once sold: 98
forest application: 99
grazing on pastureland: 99
heavy metals in: 97, 98, 100
incinerating: 102
lime-stabilized: 53
lime, effects of: 54
microbes in: 91, 98
ocean dumping of: 19
parasitic worm eggs in: 99
pathogen survival in: 137
production in NY: 100
toxic pollutants in: 97
used motor oil in: 97
worm eggs in: 99, 133
sewage treatment water (releas-
es to U.S. surface waters): 91
sewers:
combined: 91
toxic discharges to: 97
Seymour Johnson Air Force
Base: 58
Shang Dynasty: 72
Shanghai: 21, 74, 82
Shantung: 111
sheep liver fluke: 132
shigella: 130
shigellosis: 18
Sides, S.: 28
siltation: 20
Singapore: 25
Sir Albert Howard: see Howard
Sisters of Humility: 69
skin cancers: 5
skin infections: 18
sludge: (see "sewage sludge¨)
sludge composting: 46, 100
in the United States: 232
facilities: 232
soil
contaminated: 58
fertility loss: 73
fossil fuels and: 73
microorganisms in: 44
nitrogen: 75
pathogen survival in: 136
remediation: 58
sterile: 60
thermophiles in: 37
soilbeds: 212, 220, 221
soilboxes: 220, 221
Solar Aquatics: 96
solid waste discarded: 12
Solar Composting Advanced
Toilet: 119
solar energy: 28
Solar Survival Architecture: 219
solar toilet: 116
solid waste: 12
source separation: 233
South Asia sanitation: 17
South Korea: 21
soy-based inks: 65
Spain: 78
sperm counts: 5
spirituality: 69
spontaneous combustion: 37
St. Abraham: 77
St. Sylvia: 77
Stanley, Dr. Arthur: 82
Steiner, Dr. Rudolph: 123
Stinger: 59
stool analysis: 135, 181
stormwater filters: 59, 61
stormwater runoff (filtration): 59
straw, decomposition of: 35
subsurface flow wetland: 213,
diagram: 214-215
summer solstice: 177
Sun-Mar: 120
Superfund: 5, 58
surface flow wetland: 213
diagram: 214
Sven Linden: 120
swear-words: 122
sweating sickness: 77
swimming: 17
synthetic chemicals: 5
Systemic Acquired Resistance:
60
T
Taiwan: 21, 228
Tanzania: 117
TCE: 57
Technisch Bureau Hamar: 120
temperature conversions: 237
Tennessee: 199
Texas: 99
Thames River: 80
thermometer source: 117
thermophilic microorganisms: 37
age of: 40
antimicrobial compounds: 46
Bacillus: 41
stearothermophilus: 41
distribution in nature: 40
evolution: 40
extreme thermophiles: 37
heat produced by: 45
in soils: 37
quantity in humanure: 41
Thornton, Joe: 95
threadworm: 132
three bin composting: 174-175
tipping fees: 14
TNT: 56, 58
toilet paper: 91
toilets (see "composting toilet¨)
as collection devices: 103,
141, 229
bucket (see "bucket¨)
of the future: 229
pathogen transfer: 137
portable: 230
sawdust (see "sawdust¨)
topsoil: see "soil¨
Tories: 80
toxic discharges: 97
toxic waste: 5, 97
triazine: 56
Transline: 59
Tucson: 208
turning compost: 48
typhoid fever: 12, 18, 21, 77,
124, 130
U
Umatilla Army Depot: 58
underground storage tanks: 58
Universal Ancestor: 40
untouchables: 156
uranium: 57
urine: 31, 123
potential pathogens in: 128,
129
segregation of: 108, 110, 112,
122, 170
use in compost: 31
used motor oil: 97
U.S. government, condemning
humanure: 124
V
Vapor Phase Biofilter: 59, 61
vegetated submerged bed: 213
Vera Toga composting toilet: 118
vermicomposting: 66
Vibrio cholerae: 130
Victoria, Queen: 80
Vietnam: 111
Vietnamese Double Vault: 111
exported to Mexico and
T/: Hamanar: HanJ|cck - lnJ:x 
Central America: 113
viruses: 129, 130
survival in soil: 138-139
VOCs: 89
W
Wad, Y. D.: 48
Wales: 229
Ward, Barbara: 101
waste: 6
waste disposal systems: 83
waste production: 6
waste stabilization ponds: 92
pathogens in: 144
transmission of pathogens
through: 143
wastewater treatment plants: 18,
91, 142
costs of maintenance and
upkeep: 100
chlorine use in: 94
transmission of pathogens
through: 142, 143
water: 16 (see also "drinking¨)
agricultural pollution of: 20
amount Americans use: 16
amount used by nuclear reac-
tors: 16
appliance use: 208
bacterial analyses of: 136
cleanliness standards: 18
depletion: 20
drinking: 16
people currently lacking
access to: 16, 19
drugs in: 19
EPA recreational water cleanli-
ness standards: 18
flushing: 15
nitrate polluted: 19
per capita usage: 16, 20
pharmaceutical drugs in: 18
polluted: 17, 18
agricultural: 20
impacts: 17
number of people who die
each year from: 19
U.S. coastal waters: 17
replacement rates: 20
swimming in: 17, 18
tons needed to flush: 20, 101
quantity used: 16
using it up: 20
water softeners: 207
water tables: 3
water use of appliances: 208
Watson Wick: 212
weed seeds: 62
Westerberg: 45
wetland: 213
wetland plants: 217
illustrated: 218
whipworm: 132, 149
White, Andrew D.: 77
Wiley: 45
witches: 78
wood ashes: 53
wood chips: 66
wood preservatives: 36
Woods End Laboratory: 65, 117
Woods End Agricultural Ìnstitute:
117
Woods End Europe: 117
World Scientists Warning to
Humanity: 1
worm boxes: 66
worm castings: 66
worms, parasitic: 121, 132
Y
Y2K: 187
yeasts: 27
Yersinia: 130
Yersiniosis: 130
Yucatan: 83, 203
Yonkers: 17
Z
zooplankton: 92

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful