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Chemical Kinetics

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02/17/2014

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Relvin Samal

Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Kinetics Factors that affectConcentration rate: Temperature Surface Area Catalyst Rate: ΔConcentration/Δtime -Δ[Reactants]/Δtime Δ[Products]/time -Δ[A]/time=-Δ[B]/time=Δ[C]/time... Rate Law:K[A]ᵐ⋅[B]ᵑ Reaction Order Rules: k(units)=1/{M^(1-overall order)⋅s} Zero Order First Order Second Order k(units) M/s 1/s 1/Ms. Rate(units) M/s M/s M/s Rate Law k[A]⁰=k k[A]¹ k[A]2 k[A]¹[B]⁰ k[A]¹[B]¹ Integrated Rate Law [At] = - kt + [Ao] =- kt + ln[Ao] = kt + 1/[Ao] ln[At] 1/[At] Straight Line Plot [At] vs. t ln[At] vs. t 1/[A]t vs. t Slope (m of line plot)-k -k k Half-Life (t½) [Ao]/2k 0.693/k 1/k[Ao] all proportional same for all *Can replace [Ao] with moles, mass, or partial pressures Half Life Dependency [Ao] k, k k, [Ao] Half Life: [Ao] x (1/2)ᵑ = [At] *radioactive decay nuclear reactions are 1st order Collision Theory: Effects of temperature: more collisions more effective collisions Arrhenius Equation: = Aeˉᴱᵃ/ᴿᵀ Ea=activation energy k R=8.314 Arrhenius Plot: ln k vs. 1/T ln k = (–Ea/R)(1/T) + ln A Arrhenius Temp Diff: ln(k2/k1) = (Ea/R)(1/T1 – 1/T2) Reaction Mechanisms: consistent with the stoichiometry of net reaction account for the experimentally determined rate law Kinetics and Equilibrium: Keq = kf/kr

Relvin Samal Chemical Kinetics pressures .

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