Oracle Architecture and Administration
Duties of a database administrator
Now that we have we fairly good understanding about what the Oracle 10g database is used for and how users can interact with it. We now move on to what this book aims to teach you, i.e. basic administration of the Oracle 10g database. A database administrator is a user of the database who has responsibilities that other regular users may not be concerned with. Every database requires at least one database administrator (DBA). If the database is large and needs to handle many thousands of users a group of administrators maybe required. Since managing the database is such an important and responsible task, being an administrator is not always easy. The individual in addition to being able to administer the database should have certain personal strengths such as being proactive, organized and being able to handle well under stressful situations. A DBA should also be able to communicate well. To effectively manage enterprise databases, a DBA must understand business reasons for storing the data in the database and the technical details of how the data is structured and stored. Given below is a list of tasks which the administrator may need to do: • Install, Upgrade and configure the Oracle Database server based on the organizational requirements. • Since systems are not static, the DBA must be able predict growth based on application and data usage patterns. • Understand the logical and physical structure of the particular database. • Ensuring the database is available to the users with minimum or no downtime, by taking backups regularly and creating well-tested recovery strategies. • Helping and creating primary objects such as tables, views and indexes based on the needs of the application developments. • The DBA must be able to design a database that holds accurate and valid data at all times. • Managing users and ensuring the database is accessible to only valid users. Granting the users the privileges they need to perform various actions in the database. • Monitoring and optimizing the performance of the database. • The DBA must be able to design, debug, implement and maintain stored procedures, triggers and user defined functions that are stored. • Security is becoming increasing important with the need for data to be available across the internet. The DBA should ensure that the data is secure and implement rigorous security schemes for the databases to ensure that only authorized users have access to the data. The list above broadly covers various aspects of the administrators work responsibilities. By now you should have gathered that the responsibilities of an administrator are not
easy. However, companies like Oracle Corporation are making this job easier with each new release. Oracle Database 10g is particularly popular for its introduction of new automated and intelligent features that remove and simplify some the burden on the DBA.
If a user comes to an administrator with a certain problem. manage and retrieve the data in the database. The same goes for a database. The Oracle server is made up of an Oracle instance and an Oracle database. store. • The Oracle Instance –Consists of the memory components of Oracle and various background processes. The Oracle server consists of physical files and memory components. This is absolutely essential before he can start to find a solution to the problem. It consists of all the files. • The Oracle database – This is the centralized repository where the data is stored. how they function and how they interact with each other. the DBA cannot come up with the right solution unless he knows everything he possibly can about the database. structures. manage and manipulate data. A database administrator who is responsible for administering a database should have a complete and thorough understanding of the architecture of the database. what they do. processes that form Oracle Database 10g. The Oracle 10g Database product is made up three main components namely: • The Oracle Server – This is the Oracle database management system that is able to store. The Oracle 10g Database Server allows you to create. An analogy could be a service technician trying to fix a car that is having a problem. It is broadly divided into the memory components which form the Oracle instance and the physical database components where different kinds of data are stored.1 displays the architecture of the Oracle Database 10g. It has a physical structure that is visible to the Operating system made up of operating system files and a logical structure that is recognized only the Oracle Server. The technician wouldn't know where to start unless he knows very clearly what the various components of the car are.
.The Oracle Architecture
A database is a centralized repository of organizational data. The figure 3.
A typical parameter setting would be parameter_name = parameter_value For e. The instance is the created in memory every-time the database is started. The instance and its components are configured using a file known as the Parameter file. the name of the database and other size-related parameters needed by the Oracle instance.Fig 3.
. The memory components of the Oracle Database 10g are also known as the System Global Area (SGA). You can also specify the name of the instance. DB_NAME=moviedb Here the name of the database is moviedb.1: Oracle Architecture
INSTANCE – MEMORY COMPONENTS
Java Pool Redo Log Buffer Database Buffer Cache Data Dictionary Cache Server Process
Redo Log Files
PHYSICAL FILES OF THE DATABASE
The Oracle Instance
The Oracle instance is made up of a number of memory-related components and background processes.g. In Oracle 10g there are two types of initialization files namely the 'Server Parameter file' (spfile) and 'The Parameter file' (pfile). The parameter files hold parameters that can set the sizes of the various buffers and pools of the SGA. The instance is associated to only a single database at any time.
This is the default buffer cache. There maybe certain blocks that should be retained in memory for a longer period of time. It contains are transferred periodically from memory to the online redo log files on disk by the Log Writer (LGWR) background process. The Shared Pool – The contents of this memory area are shared by multiple users and hence the name shared pool. Blocks from standard and frequently accessed packages should be placed in the keep cache. They are the Keep and Recycle cycle buffers. The size of the redo log buffer is determined by the LOG_BUFFER initialization parameter. The Database Buffer Cache – An area in memory that holds all the blocks read in from disk for query or modification. The contents of the redo log buffer are essential for instance recovery purposes. Though they are also subject to the LRU algorithm. This buffer is managed in a manner that free blocks are always made available for new blocks being read into memory. The sizes of the two caches are not set individually and are automatically determined by the Oracle Server. Other caches that can be created in addition to the default database buffer cache. The SGA is made up of the • Redo Log Buffer • The Database Buffer cache • The Shared Pool • The Java Pool • The Large Pool • The Streams Pool Redo Log Buffer – A circular buffer that stores all changes made in the database. Oracle uses the technique known as LRU algorithm. The oldest blocks are the first ones to leave. since they are frequently accessed. Modified blocks that have not yet been written to disk are known as dirty blocks. However it is possible to set the overall size of the Shared pool by using the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter. Blocks that need to be modified. You can specify which cache will be used by an object when the object is created. The Keep cache is used to hold such. are modified in memory and are written back to disk periodically. The blocks that are part of the Database buffer cache are sized by the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter. The contents of the database buffer cache are shared by multiple user processes. Two specific caches form the shared pool. The Recycle cache on the otherhand is used to hold blocks of objects that should be released as soon as they are used if it is unlikely that they will be reused. to create space for new in-coming blocks that need room in buffer cache.
. The size of the Keep cache can be specified by the DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter. blocks are not released as quickly as they would have in the default cache. The size of the default database buffer cache is sized by the DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter. The contents of the database buffer cache are written to datafiles on disk by the Database Writer (DBWR) background process.Memory Components of the SGA
The Oracle Instance is made up of the System Global area (SGA) and the background processes.
It is also used by the Recovery Manager (RMAN) for its functioning when the BACKUP_DISK_IO =n and BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVE=TRUE initialization parameters have been set. index and other object definitions. if not a new parse tree and execution plan are created. In Oracle 10g.
. table. This cache is also managed using the Least Recently Used (LRU) Algorithm. privileges and other relevant information that is frequently accessed. The library cache also holds frequently accessed PL/SQL blocks. The size of this memory area is determined by the LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter. a new feature known as Automatic Shared Memory Management has been introduced. the SHARED_POOL_SIZE. Its size is determined by the JAVA_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter. The database then uses this value to redistribute memory between the various memory components based on the current workload. The cache consists of blocks that hold data dictionary information read in from the datafiles. The Data Dictionary Cache – Sometimes referred to as the Row Cache. When a statement is executed. Automatic Shared Memory Management In Oracle 10g. It is used for handling large I/O requests of server processes. Typical information stored in this cache is user account information.•
Library Cache –It is responsible for storing and reusing frequently used SQL statements. This pool does not use the LRU algorithm. which is on a first-in first-out basis. Its main functions are to provide memory for session memory (UGA) for the shared server environment. The Streams Pool – This memory area is used by the Oracle Streams Product for its functioning. JAVA_POOL_SIZE and DB_CACHE_SIZE are known as the auto-tuned SGA parameters. This cache prevents SQL statements from being repeatedly parsed thus improving performance during execution of SQL statements. The Java Pool – This memory area is used by all session-specific Java code and data within the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Using this feature all you need to specify is the total amount of memory that will be used by all the SGA components. Oracle looks for an identical statement / execution plan in the library cache. parallel execution message buffers (when PARALLEL_AUTOMATIC_TUNING is set to TRUE). Reads that are made to the data dictionary information in the datafiles are also called recursive reads. their execution plans and stored procedures. LARGE_POOL_SIZE. If you set the value for SGA_TARGET to a value greater than zero then the total amount of memory to be allocated for the auto-tuned parameters is obtained by subtracting the SGA_TARGET value from the total amount of memory for manual SGA parameters.
The Large Pool – This is an optional pool. The parameter that needs to be configured for automatic shared memory management is the SGA_TARGET initialization parameter. If one is found it is reused.
This background process is mandatory.
Log Writer (LGWR)
. • More than 1MB of changes (updations) has been made in the database. the Log Writer (LGWR). The DBWR writes to the datafiles when one of the following events occur in the database: • Normal or incremental checkpoint • The number of dirty buffers reaches a pre-defined threshold value • The server process scans a pre-defined number of blocks looking for free space needed by new blocks being read in. Background Processes The background processes of the Oracle instance are responsible for performing asynchronous I/O functions between the Oracle Instance and the physical files of the Oracle database that exist on disk. It transfers redo entries that have been written to the redo log buffer to the online redo log files present on disk. the System Monitor (SMON) and the Process Monitor (PMON). The ASSM feature uses the MMAN background process. the Checkpoint process (CKPT). Given below is a list of the most commonly started background process and the actions they are responsible for in the database. These are the Database Writer (DBWR).. • Timeout occurs • Tablespace is taken offline in normal or immediate mode. • The Redo Log Buffer is one-third full. Other background processes can be started based on certain additional functionality required in the database.. which is responsible for coordinating the sizes of the various pools dynamically based on the current workload in the database. The LGWR writes to the online redo log files when one of the following events occur in the database: • A commit is issued.Setting the SGA_TARGET to a value of zero will result in disabling automatic shared memory management. There are 5 mandatory background processes in Oracle 10g. • Every three seconds • Just before the DBWR writes from the database buffer cache to the datafiles. Background Process Database Writer (DBWR) Description and Function This background process is mandatory. • Tablespace is made read-only • Dropping or truncating a table • Online backup is done on a tablespace using ALTER TABLESPACE. BEGIN BACKUP command. Its function is to transfer modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the datafiles.
System Monitor This background process is mandatory. During instance recovery the SMON process performs a roll forward operation. resources that were being used by the user session continue to remain attached until the PMON background process cleans it up. This mode of database operation allows for complete recovery of the database in an event of a failure.Checkpoint (CKPT)
This background process is mandatory. The PMON background process is responsible for cleaning the resources such locks on tables being held by failure user processes. Instance failure occurs during an abnormal shutdown of the database. a process known as a User process is started on behalf of the user on the client machine. the event is referred to as a CHECKPOINT. Archiver (ARCH) This is an optional background process. The other optional processes in Oracle 10g are the : CJQ0 – Coordinator Job Queue background process Dnnn – Dispatcher process Pnnn – Parallel Query Slaves QMNn – Advanced Queuing RECO – Recoverer Snnn – Shared Server Processes
. When a user connects to the database. The process also restarts dead dispatcher processes. Users connect to the (PMON) database to access data. The ARCH background process transfers the contents of the online redo log files to archival media which could be disk or tape. This process is therefore responsible for synchronizing the database. During this step all committed transactions that were not written out to the datafiles at the time of failure were be completed. When a checkpoint occurs the Checkpoint (CKPT) background process updates the headers of the datafiles and control files to indicate the most recent checkpoint. This step maybe followed by a rollback during which time either the SMON or individual user processes undo all the changes that were uncommitted during the time of failure. It is responsible for (SMON) performing recovery in the event of an instance failure. If the user terminates his/her session abnormally. It can be started when you wish to operate the database in an archivelog mode. such as if a shutdown is performed using the ABORT option. Certain additional functions performed by the System Monitor involve coalescing of free space in dictionary-managed datafiles and releasing temporary segments that are created in the datafiles. Process Monitor This background process is mandatory. When the contents of the database buffer cache are transferred to the datafiles by the DBWR background process.
a server process is created on behalf of the user process. Server processes are always started on the Server side. The contents of the PGA include:
. A user process can be serviced by any available server process. This process remains active till the user completes the session. Server Processes Server processes are created in Oracle to handle requests made by user processes.
The Program Global Area (PGA) This is memory area that is associated with a server process. They are responsible for responding to the user process with appropriate results. The PGA is used to process SQL statements and to hold logon and other session information. a large number of server processes would need to be active. It is created when a user process is created and is released when the user process is terminated. The server process is responsible for satisfying all requests made by the user process and responding with appropriate results. The server process remains idle during periods of inactivity.MMON – Memory Monitor MMAN and MMNL. where many users concurrently access the database using short transactions. iSQL*Plus and a front-end database interface tool. The user has to first supply proper authentication credentials. The server process communicates with the Oracle server using the Oracle Program Interface (OPI). Once the user's credentials are validated a user session is established and a user process is created on the client-side to act on behalf of the user. User Processes A user trying to access data in the database needs to make a connection with the database using an appropriate tool such as SQL*Plus. A one-to-one ratio is maintained between user and server processes. A one-to-one ratio is not maintained as in the dedicated server mode. the instance can operate in one of two modes: • Dedicated server mode: Once a user process is started. Shared Server Mode: In this environment a pool of shared server processes satisfy the required of user processes. In the event that a user process is terminated abnormally the PMON background process cleans up the resources that were held by the user process. The shared server environment is discussed as a separate chapter in this book. In Oracle. A connection is a communication pathway created between a user process and the Oracle Server. The contents of the PGA however vary in dedicated and shared server environments. This memory area is not shared by server processes. The disadvantage of this is that in an OLTP environment where there can be many thousands of users accessing the database simultaneously. Based on the mode in which a database operates either a 1:1 ratio or m:n exists between user and server processes. It contains data and control information held by a single server process or background process. The server process remains attached to the user process as long as the user process is active. This mode of operating is particularly useful in large multi-user online transaction processing (OLTP) environments.
o The database identifier and name o Timestamp of database creation o Tablespace names o Names and locations of data files and online redo log files o Current online redo log file sequence number o Checkpoint information as and when checkpoints are made o Begin and end of undo segments o Redo log archive information o Backup information generated by the recovery manager utility. The number of private SQL areas that a user process can allocate is limited to the OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter that takes a default value of 50. The physical structure of the database is made up of the operating system files that comprise the database. It also hold other control information necessary to keep the database functioning. In a shared server environment. there are three types of files namely: • Datafiles – These files contain the data of the database. SQL Work area – This memory area is used for operations such as Sorting. Each session that issues a SQL statement has a private SQL area.
The Physical Files of the Database Recalling an earlier discussion. blocks from the datafiles are read into the database buffer cache in memory. In order to access the data that is physically stored in the datafiles and reduce the overhead of disk I/O. In a dedicated server environment the Private SQL area is created in the Program Global Area (PGA) of their server process. The following is a list of the entries maintained in the control file. All objects created in the database by users have their data physically stored in the datafiles. Hence it recommended that multiple copies of the control file are maintained in the database on separate disks. The control file keeps a record of the names. Datafiles contain the data dictionary and user created data. the Oracle Server is made up of the Oracle Database and Oracle Instance. Session Memory – This is a memory area that holds a session's variables and session-related information. The Oracle database has a physical and a logical structure. Control Files – This is a very important file that is required for the Oracle database to function. All the data of the database is stored in the physical files. it is located in the System Global area.
. Storage management is a one of the primary functions of the database administrator. In Oracle Database 10g. Hashjoins.•
Private SQL area – contains bind information and runtime memory structures. Bitmap Merge and Bitmap Create operations. this memory area is located in the SGA and is shared by server processes. Once they are modified or are no longer needed they are written back to the datafiles. In a shard server environment. The private SQL area is in turn made up the Persistent area that contains bind information and a Runtime area that is created as soon as an execute request is initiated. If any one of the control files is unavailable the database is shutdown. size and locations different physical files of the database.
Redo entries can be used to recover the database in the event of an instance failure. • Redo Log Files – These files contain a record of all the changes made in the database. Hence even if modified blocks were not written in the event of an instance failure.This file is size by the values specified for a number of parameters during database creation. When the LGWR performs a write. MAXLOGFILES. Any change made in the database is first recorded in the online redo log buffer before it is actually implemented. There are two redo log groups GROUP1 and GROUP2. it first writes simultaneously to Rlog1a and Rlog1b. Multiplexing is maintaining multiple copies or additional members. if one of the disks is lost as a result of failure. it starts writing simultaneously to Rlog2a and Rlog2b.
. Instance failure can occur when the contents of the SGA are lost such as in the event of a power outage or an abnormal shutdown of the database. When the group becomes filled. Since the redo log files are very important for recovery purposes. a minimum of two redo logs should be available. namely MAXLOGMEMBERS. In other words. Consider the figure. GROUP2 has two members Rlog2a and Rlog2b. In Oracle 10g. These changes are referred to as redo entries. each group should have more than one member. Members of the redo log files should be off the same size and placed on separate disks. Now. Oracle recommends that redo logs be multiplexed. MAXDATAFILES and MAXINSTANCES. GROUP1 has two members Rlog1 and Rlog1b. There are two disks DISK1 and DISK2. DISK1 Rlog1a Rlog2a
GROUP1 DISK2 Rlog1b
Redo log groups are used in a circular fashion. These redo logs files are known as redo groups. The contents of the members are identical. the data is still available in a member on another disk. MAXLOGHISTORY. This will prevent loss of redo data in the event of the loss of a disk. the changes can be recovered by using the online redo log files.
Other physical files relevant to the database include: The password file – This file is used to hold the names of privileged users who have been granted the SYSDBA and SYSOPER roles.e. These are called persistent parameters. It holds parameters and their values however any change to a parameter's values requires you to bounce or restart the database. The first one is called the Server parameter file (spfile) introduced in Oracle 9i. The password will is used only when you use database authentication i. The second kind of file is called Parameter file (pfile) which has been around for a while now.Since the contents of the redo log files are very important for recovery purposes. shutdown or recovering the database. There are two kinds of parameter files available. The event when LGWR stops writing to one file and starts writing to another is called a Log Switch.
. Usually complete recovery up to the point of failure is possible if all archive files are available. Archiving helps achieve complete recovery in the event of media failures. The parameter file – The parameter file is a file which contains a number of parameters that can be used to configure the Oracle 10g instance. The archive files – These are files that can be created by a process known as archiving. When a database operates in archivelog mode. which allows you to specify the values to parameters that can be enforced without bouncing the database as well as after re-starting the database. These roles contain the privileges needed to perform actions such as a startup. Archiving can be done automatically every-time a redo log file becomes full and LGWR starts writing to another file. Archive files can be created on disk and transferred to tape to create space for new archive files. This process is known as archiving. you can transfer the redo entries to another media before overwriting them. the contents of the redo log file are transferred to an offline file known as the archive file. the database is responsible for validating user credentials. This file is very useful in the event of a failure and is used for recovery purposes.
known as the initSID. the number of initialization parameters to be configured has been greatly reduced compared to previous versions of Oracle. Parameters have been categorized into basic and advanced parameters. Explicit values can also be assigned to the parameters. The Oracle instance is created in real memory.ora file The initialization parameter file consists of a list of parameters. When a database administrator starts the Oracle database. PFILE. The initialization parameter file specifies information such as the values for various memory structures of the instance. Each parameter has a name and a value.
Sessions Pga_aggregate_target Nls_language Nls_territory Db_domain Shared_servers
. In Oracle 10g. Most actions are first performed in memory and then transferred to disk. known as the spfileSID. the first step involves creating the instance in memory.Parameter Files in Oracle
The Oracle 10g server is made up of the Oracle Instance and the Oracle database. Various memory structures and background processes are started. parameters associated with archiving and so on. To create the instance the Oracle server uses a file known as the Initialization Parameter File. the database name. Most parameters have default values. • The Static parameter file. There are two types of initialization parameter files.ora file • Persistent parameter file. The most important ones being:
Initialization Parameter Compatible
Description Refers to the version of the server with which the instance should be compatible. SPFILE. A comprehensive list of initialization parameters has been displayed along with a brief description. The basic parameters are a list of parameters that are sufficient for day-to-day interaction. The maximum number of operating system processes that can connect simultaneously to the instance. It is therefore very important the Oracle instance be configured properly. the number of processes the can concurrently access the instance.
The change will however only affect the current instance. Select Database Control Home Page -> Instance Section -> All Initialization Parameters link. It is possible to dynamically change certain initialization parameter. Each entry in the PFILE shows the values parameter_name = parameter_value Where parameter_value can consist of a single value or a list of values separated by commas and enclosed in single quotes. This file is a text file which can be read and modified.
.Instance_number Cluster_database Db_block_size Sga_Target Control_files Db_name Db_recovery_file_dest Remote_listener Db_recovery_file_dest_size Db_create_online_log_dest_n Db_create_File_des Log_archive_Dest_n Log_archive_dest_state_n Remote_login_passwordfile Db_unique_name
A list of the initialization parameters are their values can be viewed from the Enterprise Manager Console. Dynamic changes are done by using the ALTER SYSTEM command. When the database is restarted. This change will affect only the current instance. Parameters can be specified in any order. A parameter can be commented in the parameter file by using the #. An example of a dynamic change that will affect the current instance could be: ALTER SYSTEM SET SGA_TARGET = 300.
The Static Parameter File (PFILE) The PFILE can be created when a database is creating using the Database Configuration Assistant and manually. the previous value present in the parameter file will be used.
When using the Database Configuration Assistant. It has a name like initSID. When you set SCOPE=MEMORY. This option is not available when you create a database manually using the CREATE DATABASE command. Persistent Parameter File (spfile) The persistent parameter file often called the spfile was introduced in Oracle 9i. An example of a dynamic change only affecting the spfile is displayed below. Using the spfile you can modify parameters such that the change will not only affect the current instance but also affect future instances of the database. There is a sample file created in the Oracle database. The ALTER SYSTEM command and the SPFILE file The ALTER SYTEM SET command is used to modify the values of instance parameters after the instance has been created. The complete syntax of its usage is displayed below: ALTER SYSTEM [SET|RESET] parameter_name=parameter_value [COMMENT 'text'] [SCOPE = MEMORY|SPFILE|BOTH] [SID='sid' | '*']
. Hence the term persistent.Any permanent change you make to a parameter requires that the database be restarted. It is possible to create multiple initialization parameters files however only one will be active at any time.ora where SID is the system identifier of the database. you are given the option of creating an SPFILE for the database. It is located at the server-side. ALTER SYSTEM SET SGA_TARGET=300M SCOPE=SPFILE. It is also located in the %ORACLE_HOME%\dbs directory. which can be copied and modified based on your requirements. If you are using the SPFILE file. When changing a parameter dynamically. Given below is a sample extract from a spfile file. The values taken by the SCOPE option are MEMORY. If you set SCOPE=SPFILE the change will be made in the parameter file and will come into effect when the database is restarted. you can set the SCOPE option. It can be quite difficult to remember the names of all the parameters and set them properly. it can be backed up using Recovery Manager. SPFILE or BOTH. The CREATE DATABASE command has not been discussed in the book and more information about it can be retrieved from the Oracle Documentation. If you set SCOPE=BOTH then the change will affect both the current instance and will affect future instances for the database. The value BOTH is the default. In the case of the static parameter file any permanent change to a parameter would require a bounce of the database. the change you are making will only affect the current instance. since it is located on the server side. The spfile cannot be modified by the user and any manual change to the file will render it useless. By default the parameter file is located in the %ORACLE_HOME%\dbs directory.
CREATING THE PARAMETER FILES As mentioned earlier it the DBCA tool gives us the option of creating an SPFILE. Retrieving the initialization parameter values using the data dictionary Parameter values stored in the Static parameter file can be viewed using the V$PARAMETER view. for the database.Parameter_name : the name of the parameter to be changed Parameter_value : the new value to be assigned to the parameter COMMENT: A comment to be added to the SPFILE next to the parameter that is being altered. Modify the size of the default database buffer cache to 20M. 'sid': Specific SID to be used in altering the SPFILE '*': Uses the default SPFILE RESET: This causes the parameter to revert to its default value Example of dynamic changes the may or may not affect the changes: 1. An editable parameter file will be created in its default location if a path is not specified. which is optional it will be created in the default location %ORACLE_HOME%\dbs directory. However when a database is created manually. both for the current and future instances.
. If you do not specify the location. only the PFILE can be created. It is possible to create the PFILE from the SPFILE by using the command: CREATE PFILE FROM SPFILE. SPFILE or both areas MEMORY: The change affects only the current running instance SPFILE: The change affects only the SPFILE file BOTH: The change affects both the current instance and the SPFILE. SCOPE: Determines if the change should be made in MEMORY. The parameter values from the Persistent parameter file can be viewed by issuing a query against V$SPPARAMETER data dictionary view. ALTER SYSTEM SET DB_CACHE_SIZE=20M SCOPE=BOTH. during database creation. SID : Identifies the system identifier (ORACLE_SID) for the SPFILE being used currently. If you wish to create an SPFILE using a PFILE you can do so by issuing the command: CREATE SPFILE [= 'location of the spfile'] FROM PFILE [= 'location of the pfile'] .
Once the control file has been read and the location of the physical files of the database identified after mounting. During mounting. Starting up a database should be done by a privileged user. The parameter file identifies the name of the database. The first involves creation of the Oracle instance in memory. the mandatory and optional background processes are started. the files are opened and made available to the users. it will be detected at this point and the SMON background process will perform instance recovery. The files that are opened are the online datafiles and the online redo log files. the database is mounted. When a database is mounted a database administrator can perform certain maintenance or administrative tasks. putting a database in archivelog mode. The initialization parameter file is read. their status. an error will be reported and the database will not be opened. 1) Instance Creation – This is the first step in starting the database.g. In case the database was shutdown improperly the last time. The control files of the database are opened and read.
The syntax of the STARTUP command with its important options has been displayed: STARTUP [FORCE] [RESTRICT] [PFILE= filename] [OPEN [RECOVER] [database] [READ ONLY] | MOUNT | NOMOUNT]
. This information is needed for the next stage of startup which is opening of the database. 2) Mounting the Database – After instance creation. followed by mounting the database where the control files are read and finally opening the database where all the data stored in the database is accessible to the users of the database. The control file contains information about the other files of the database. Users who have been granted the SYSDBA or SYSOPER roles can perform a startup or a shutdown of the database. (spfile or pfile depending on the options used in the STARTUP command) and the System Global Area (SGA) is configured. location and synchronizing information. To get a complete understanding let us deal with each stage individually. If any of the files are unavailable. a database is associated with its previously started instance. The alert log file and other trace files are also started.Lesson 4: Starting and Stopping the Oracle Database
STARTING THE DATABASE A database needs to be started before it can be accessed by users. 3) Opening the database – This is the last stage in starting a database. It is at this point that the Oracle server verifies the consistency of the database. and various sizes for the memory pools. When a database is started three important steps are executed. the optional background processes and so on. For e. renaming datafiles or performing a full database recovery requires the database to be mounted. This phase has to be performed so that users of the database can access the data in the database. During instance creation.
MOUNT: The instance will be created and the database mounted. DML statements are not allowed in the database. Current state of the database: NOMOUNT To change it to the MOUNT state. You may have to use this option for certain operations such as when creating a database manually. database will be mounted and then opened for all the users. You can also start a database using the EM Console. NOMOUNT: Only the instance is created. This is the default option. issue: ALTER DATABASE [database_name] MOUNT.FORCE: Used when a startup does not occur as a result of some kind of problem. It is not possible to re-issue the STARTUP command with the MOUNT or OPEN options. Current state of the database: MOUNT To change it to the OPEN state. you can use this option to abort the running instance and perform a normal startup. In order to then mount / open the database you can use the following ALTER DATABASE command. The ALTER DATABASE Command If you have started the database using the NOMOUNT option. PFILE=filename: this option starts up the database using the static non-default parameter file to startup the database. OPEN [database_name]: The instance will be created. issue: ALTER DATABASE [database_name] OPEN. The option can be used for performing certain maintenance tasks. This option can be used is you wish to perform some kind of maintenance on the database such as an export and import. The SGA will be created in memory and the background processes will be started. issue:
. You can optionally specify the database name. RECOVER: used to perform media recovery when starting the database. RESTRICT: This option is used when you want only users who possess the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege to access the database. READ ONLY: used to open the database for queries only. only the instance is created. To change it to the OPEN state directly.
three phases complementary to the startup are performed in the reverse order. ALTER DATABASE OPEN [READ ONLY | READ WRITE].ALTER DATABASE [database_name] OPEN. an instance recovery will not need to be done during the subsequent startup. The database is not closed or dismounted. It is possible to open a database in a read only or read write mode using the ALTER DATABASE command. The SGA no longer exists in memory and all background processes are stopped. A checkpoint is performed on all the databases and the files are closed. all currently active transactions will be allowed to complete. You can either perform a proper or improper shutdown. ABORT – When the database is shutdown using this option. To startup the database in a read only or read write mode from a NOMOUNT or MOUNT stage you can issue. No new connections are permitted. During a proper shutdown. the instance is shutdown down. The database is then closed. After the transactions have been rolled back the user sessions are terminated. this involves performing a checkpoint on all available datafiles and closing the files. The SHUTDOWN command The syntax of the SHUTDOWN command SHUTDOWN [NORMAL | IMMEDIATE | TRANSACTIONAL | ABORT] NORMAL: This is the default mode for shutting down the database. As soon as a user's transaction completes the user is automatically disconnected. TRANSACTIONAL – When the database is shutdown using this option. No new connections are allowed. At this time. Finally the instance that was created in memory is released. the Oracle server automatically rolls back all currently active transactions. The database is then closed. READ WRITE – the database is opened for normal read and writes. No checkpointing is done. No new user connections will be allowed. dismounted and the instance released. No instance recovery will be performed during subsequent startup.
. First the database is closed. All user connections are abnormally terminated. dismounted and the instance released. When a database is shutdown is this mode. Next the database is dismounted. IMMEDIATE: When a database is shutdown in this mode. the control file is synchronized and closed. Where: READ ONLY – only queries are allowed on the database. No instance recovery will be performed during subsequent startup. This is a case of an improper shutdown. SHUTTING DOWN THE DATABASE A database may be shutdown to make it unavailable for use. The Oracle server waits for all currently connected users to disconnect their sessions.
Error information is usually recorded automatically by the Oracle Server as and when an error occurs in diagnostic files.However. If the database has an spfile. Background Trace Files Background trace files are created whenever an error is encountered by a background process. you issue the STARTUP command with the PFILE='filename' option as shown: SQL> STARTUP PFILE='location of the parameter_file\init<SID>. Since the file contains very important information a database administrator must view its contents at least once a day. If one cannot be found the initSID. the next startup will require an instance recovery to be performed by the SMON background process.ora file does not exist. It also contains values of non-default initialization parameters. then an entry in the PFILE pointing to it location can be specified. A typical trace file created by a
. Every entry in the alert file contains a timestamp. It can also contain checkpoint and day-to-day operational information such as startups and shutdowns and when an instance recovery occurs during startup. It contains a record of all structural changes made to the database such as creation of a tablespace. This file is located in the directory path specified by the BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST initialization parameter. The most important file that contains information about errors and changes affecting the database is the ALERT log file. Example: SPFILE=<location of the SPFILE>
Diagnostic Files of an Oracle Database
The ALERT log file An important function of a database administrator is to ensure that the database is running properly without errors. To do so. There may be times when you wish to startup the database using the PFILE. The file contains errors both fatal ORA-600 errors and warnings about impending error situations. The name of the trace file depends on the background process that created it. These trace files are created in the location specified by the BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST initialization parameter file.ora will be used to configure the instance. The file has a name similar to alert<sid>. Startup Command and Parameter files The command that is used to startup a database is: SQL> STARTUP. Oracle will look for a default SPFILE on the server side.ora If the SPFILE for a database is not located in its default location %ORACLE_HOME%\dbs. by default the spfileSID.ora file on the server side will be used. If the spfileSID.ora.
and 1011 is a process identifier.
.User trace files may contain user error information too. you can issue set the SQL_TRACE initialization parameter to TRUE.trc.trc.trc.background process would have a name like sid_processname_PID. where ORCL is the name of the SID. The trace file has a naming convention of sid_ora_pid. In this case all user sessions will be traced. To initiate SQL tracing in a session. a user can issue: ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE=TRUE. User Trace Files A user can initiate SQL tracing to determine performance statistics for the SQL statements in a session.SET_SQL_TRACE_IN_SESSION packaged procedure. A trace file created by the DBWR would typically have a name like ORCL_DBWR_1011. A database administrator can initiate SQL tracing in a particular session by using the DBMS_SYSTEM. To initiate SQL tracing at an instance level. A user trace file will be created in the location specified by the USER_DUMP_DEST initialization parameter. A user may initiate tracing in a session by setting the SQL_TRACE initialization parameter to TRUE. Background trace file contains information that can be used for diagnosing and troubleshooting problems associated with the background process.
Enter the command: $PROMPT> . All components and services of the enterprise. Enterprise manager provides two configurations with which to monitor your database: Database Control and Grid Control. You can configure Database Control from the database configuration assistant (DBCA) when a new database is being created or reconfigure and existing database. you can use the emctl command-line utility that is found in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. databases. The Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Database Control is one of the main functional areas of the entire Enterprise Manager framework./emctl start dbconsole Stopping the Database Control on UNIX You can stop database control utility by issuing:
. Using the Database Control.
Controlling the Database Control on UNIX To control the Database Control. HTTP servers and Web applications are easily accessible and managed using the Enterprise Manager.Lesson 6: Enterprise Manager Database Control
Enterprise Manager is a web-based integrated management solution provided by Oracle. It is a web-based application for managing the Oracle 10g database. listeners. including hosts. The database control is installed and available with every Oracle Database 10g installation. you can monitor a single Oracle Database instance or a clustered database. application servers.
is used to perform administrative tasks such as creating schema objects (tables. Start the service OR To start the database control using the MS-DOS prompt Enter $PROMPT>%ORACLE_HOME%\BIN\emctl start dbconsole To stop the database control on Windows To stop the database control on Windows you would need to start a service in the following manner. proactive maintenance. backup and recovering the database. Using the interface The Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control./emctl stop dbconsole Controlling the Database Control on Windows To start the database control on Windows you would need to start a service in the following manner. tablespaces. Locate the Database Control service. 1. Locate the Database Control service. Its web-based interface has greatly simplified database administration. After successful logon into the EM console. Stop the Service OR To stop the database control using the MS-DOS prompt Enter $PROMPT>%ORACLE_HOME%\BIN\emctl stop dbconsole Launching Enterprise Manager Database Control The Enterprise Manager console has become a database administrator's most useful and resourceful companion in Oracle 10g. managing user accounts. OracleDBConsoleDatabase_name 3. Select Services from the Start -> Settings -> Administration Tools menu 2. OracleDBConsoleDatabase_name 3. performance tuning. Select Services from the Start -> Settings -> Administration Tools menu 2. users).
. 1. you will be displayed the Database Home page. cloning a database and so on. The SYS or SYSTEM user accounts are administrative accounts that can be used when trying to logon to the EM console.$PROMPT> .
the maintenance tab can be accessed to perform backups of the database.The various sections of the Database Home page.g. allowing a database administrator to perform all administrative actions with ease. For e.
Property pages exist on each home page.
The suggested related links can be accessed to obtain further information. These are categorized based on management tasks.
This web-based interface provided for database administration is complete in itself. and its related links provide a DBA with a wealth of information about the database's environment and health.