Name ± Shwetank Shashiraj Misra Roll. No.
± 520945336 Subject ± MB0022 ± Management Process and Organization Behaviour Semester - 1 (Assignment Answer Set ± 1)
Q.1 ³Today managers need to perform various functions´: Elaborate the statement
Ans. 1 In recent time, management functions have been regrouped into four categories, since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to a certain extend. The four functions are as follows:
y y y y
Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
1. Planning ± It involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving these goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Planning also enhances the decision-making process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Therefore, planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. 2. Organizing ± It involves designing, structuring, and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Organizations are groups of people, with ideas and resources, working toward common goals. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization¶s resources to achieve organizational goals. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies, procedures, and goals are clearly stated. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles, lines of authority, and relationships between departments. The steps in the organizing process include:
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Review plans List all tasks to be accomplished Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ± a job Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner Assign work to individuals Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs
. Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set. Supervisors can learn about leadership through research. unaltered data. Deviations or differences that exceed this range would alert the supervisor to a problem. contingency. the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. Controlling ± It involves monitoring the employees¶ behavior and organizational processes and take necessary actions to improve them. A standard is any guideline established as the basis for measurement. and sales tickets. Then. It is a precise. Measure Actual Performance. 4. or organizational unit. Earliest theories assumed that the primary source of leadership effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders themselves.2 ³Skills are the tool for performance´-Explain various management skills. Step 4. While providing insight. Some variation can be expected in all activities and the range of variation ± the acceptable variance ± has to be established. and information. Leadership studies can be classified as trait. provides unfiltered information. machine. clarify role and task requirements for employees. Standards are created when objectives are set during the planning process. contingency can¶t account for the inspiration and innovation that leaders need to compete in today¶s global marketplace. extensive coverage. Thus. Written data might include time cards. if needed. Comparing results with standards determines variation. later research focused on what the leader actually did when dealing with employees. Yet. traits alone cannot explain leadership effectiveness. Database programs allow supervisors to query. Oral reports allow for fast and extensive feedback. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action. contingency theories of leadership studied leadership style in different environments. communicated. Step 3. quantity. if necessary. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others. If the source of variation in work performance is from a deficit in activity. These behavioral theories of leadership sought to explain the relationship between what the leader did and how the employees reacted. Establish Performance Standards. Step 2. oral reports and written reports can be used to measure performance.3. Transactional leaders. Computers give supervisors direct access to real time. or observation of employees working. Supervisors collect data to measure actual performance to determine variation from standard. Compare Measured Performance Against Established Standards. and transformational. They are as follows: Step 1. Yet. statistical reports. Thus. behavior can¶t always account for leadership in different situations. both emotionally and behaviorally. There are four steps in the control process. behavioral. he or she takes action to remove or minimize the cause. spend less time gathering facts. Leading ± An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals. Tolerance is permissible deviation from the standard. can inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization. Personal observation. and time. It is usually expressed numerically and is set for quality. Take Corrective Action. Q. who are charismatic and visionary. individual. inspection reports. production tallies. Newer transformational leadership studies have shown that leaders. Management by exception lets operations continue as long as they fall within the prescribed control limits. then a supervisor can take immediate corrective action and get performance back on track. The supervisor must find the cause of deviation from standard. and be less dependent on other people. this method might be misinterpreted by employees as mistrust. Management by walking around. explicit statement of expected results from a product. and the ability to read between the lines. such as those identified in contingency theories. service. Yet. On line systems enable supervisors to identify problems as they occur. and applied.
generating options and choosing the best available option. It requires creative thinking. Q. ³Soft´ distributive negotiation. Human Skill : This is the ability to work with. who are proficient in technical skill. may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. human. and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. Distributive bargaining When engaged in distributive bargaining. 2008). a strategy is developed. A soft approach leads to accommodation in which one party gives in to the other. Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. The hard approach may lead to a win±lose outcome in which one party dominates and gains. and conceptual. Vocational and on-the-job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Integrative bargaining This strategy is adopted to create a win-win solution. diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution.3 Negotiation Negotiation is a ³process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them (Robbins. takes place when one party is willing to make concessions to the other to get things over with. Integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates collaborative work. People. Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze. it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others. ³Hard´ distributive negotiation takes place when each party holds out to get its own way. but not with interpersonal skills. history. or to compromise in which each party gives up something of value in order to reach agreement. homework needs to be done in regard to the nature. 2003):
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Parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns A sensitivity by both parties to the other¶s needs The ability to trust one another A willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility
The Negotiation Process A model of the negotiation process is as follows: Preparation and planning:
At this stage. one¶s tactics focus on trying to get one¶s opponent to agree to one¶s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible. Both the parties Best Alternative To a Negotiated
.3 What is negotiation? Explain the process of negotiation. All jobs require some specialized expertise. Following conditions are necessary for this type of negotiation to succeed (Robbins. and many people develop their technical skills on the job. ability to motivate others even in adverse situation. understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). To acquire the Human Skill.Ans. Ans. concerned parties of the conflict. Based on the information. This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns.2 Management Skills Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: technical.
Clarification and justification:
When initial positions have been exchanged.Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist. the origal demands of both the parties sneed to be explained and justified. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). respectively.Agreement (BATNA)needs to be determined. GLOBE research GLOBE project integrates the above ±mentioned cultural attributes and variables with managerial behavior in organizations. beautiful and ugly.
Bargaining and problem solving:
The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. after a few repetitions. Ivan Pavlov. This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. where the agreement is formalized and procedures to implement the agreement will be developed. often reflexive. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR). Following are some of the questions asked in this project to prove that leadership and organizational processes were directly influenced by cultural variables:
. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it.5 Hofstede (1991) further proposed that each person carries around several layers of cultural programming. good and bad. Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties. It starts when a child learns basic values: what is right and wrong. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food ± unconditioned response). the negotiators. The first level of culture is the deepest. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired. the most difficult to change and will vary according to the culture in which we grow up. BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement for both the parties. Definition of ground rules:
At the stage.4 Explain Classical Conditioning Theory? Ans. These layers are more of ways of doing things. Significant stimulus evokes an innate. a neutral stimulus (bell) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US ± meat). to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. or practices as opposed to fundamental assumptions about how things are.5 How are culture and society responsible to built value system? Ans. logical and illogical. Culture is about your fundamental assumptions of what it is to be a person and how you should interact with other persons in your group and with outsiders.
Closure and implementation:
This is the final step.
Q. time will be decided. It is the Conditioned Response (CR). through professional or craft training and in organization life. response. Some of the aspects of culture learned later have to do with conventions and ethics in your profession. Q. Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs. Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. Thus. Other layers of culture are learned or programmed in the course of education. the venue.4 Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. Proper documentation is required at this stage to support each of the parties position.
both in organizational and social context are. whereas less than 20% managers from specific cultures such as UK. Denmark. It was found out that most managers from diffused cultures believed that company should provide such facility (former Yugoslavia 89%. friendly. loyalty and cohesiveness in their organizations and families. Managers from Sweden (taskoriented culture) projected least problem with bypassing since getting the job done is more important than
. Performance orientation: this dimension encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement. most U.relationship. It was quite evident that U. assertive and confrontational. Future orientation: it is the degree to which individuals are encouraged in long. three Asian countries found distinctly different patterns for managers in common work situations. managers disagreed whereas. generous and caring. Gender egalitarianism: GLOBE has defined this as an extent to which a society or an organization minimizes gender differences and discrimination. China 82%. France.In-group collectivism: it is the degree to which individuals take pride. agreed on the same. in contrast to managers from diffused cultures who focus on wider range of behavior including employees¶ private and professional lives. For example. etc.oriented cultures where the concept of authority is more important..S. believed more in flatter organizational structure to become more effective. managers from specific cultures tend to focus only on the behavior that takes place at work. in response to the statement which says that in order to have efficient work relationship it is often necessary to bypass the hierarchical line. every individual has a set of attitudes and beliefs ± filters through which he/she views management situations within organizational context. as a result of his survey with managers from nine Western European countries. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998:86) have conducted a survey to find out whether the employees believe their companies should provide housing to the employees. U. attributes and organizational practices universally accepted and effective across cultures? Are they influenced by societal and organizational cultures? What is the effect of violating cultural norms that are relevant to leadership and organizational practices? Can the universal and culture-specific aspects of leadership behaviour and organizational practice be explained with the help of a theory accounting for systematic differences across cultures?
From the above. Similarly..y y y y
Are leader behaviors. Laurent (1983: 75-96). Task and relationship: in response to the statement which states that the main reason for a hierarchical structure was to communicate the authority. Latin American managers strongly agreed. Power distance: it is the degree to which power is unequally shared in a society or an organization.
Work behavior across cultures In every culture. most Asian . Collectivism-II. differences were found across cultures.e.S managers. etc. the second set of managers were from more relationship. Hungary 83%. Australia. This is a function of their own cultural backgrounds. and recognizes collective performance. 2002: 3-10)
y y y y y y y y
Uncertainty. Russia 78%). having an extremely task. rituals and bureaucratic practices. Managerial beliefs.oriented culture. Collectivism-I i. societal collectivism: it is the degree to which society and organization encourages. Assertiveness: it is the degree to which individuals.avoidance: GLOBE project defined this dimension as the extent to which a society or an organization tries to avoid uncertainty by depending heavily on prevalent norms. Managers portray trust and respect in their employees in different ways in different cultures.S. Hanges and Dorfman. there are different sets of attitudes and values which affect behavior. investing. altruistic. attitudes and values can affect organizations positively or negatively. GLOBE project identified nine cultural dimensions (House. On the other hand. Humane orientation: it is the degree to which organizations or society encourage or reward for being fair. Similarly. Javidan.term future ± orientated behaviors such as planning.
High Machs manipulate more. hence. Externals are more compliant and willing to follow directions and be led. Italian managers. Q.
. (2) Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person¶s tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. and believes that ends can justify means.S. Laurent asked managers from various cultures whether it was important for them to have at hand. internals do well on sophisticated tasks. facing the same situation. allowing room for improvisation. or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously. They also believe that providing direct answers to a problem actually discourages subordinates¶ initiative and creativity and ultimately hampers performance. who wrote Il Principe (The Prince). are more motivated to achieve. thus.expressing allegiance to their bosses. maintains emotional distance. Internals search more actively for information before making a decision. Managers as experts or problem-solvers: in the same study. whereas. have higher absenteeism rates. win more. of absenteeism. Internals believe that health is substantially under their own control through proper habits. Rotter (1975) pointed out that internality and externality represent two ends of a continuum.6 (1) Locus of control A person¶s perception of the source of his/her fate is termed locus of control. rather than indirectly. Internals. a twenty-statement personality survey that is now the standard self-assessment tool of Machiavellianism. coming from a relationship-oriented culture. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter¶s (1954) social learning theory of personality. Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. attribute organizational outcomes to their own actions. are lower. but one needs to consider differences in jobs. Internals generally perform better on their jobs.6 Write short notes on (1) Locus of control Ans. and are less involved on their jobs than are internals. are more alienated from the work setting. irrespective of culture. High Machs make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning. and do well on jobs that are well structured and routine and in which success depends heavily on complying with the direction of others. U. and when the situation has a minimum number of rules and regulations. High Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors and flourish when they interact face to face with others. those with a strong external locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck. Individuals who rate high in externality are less satisfied with their jobs. their incidences of sickness and. On the contrary. The concept is named after Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli. college students with a strong internal locus of control may believe that their grades were achieved through their own abilities and efforts. managers believed that a managers¶ role should be to act as a mentor who would facilitate the employees to solve the problem. In contrast. and hence. and make a greater attempt to control their environment. considered bypassing the authority/boss as an act of in-subordination. The above. precise answers to most questions their subordinates might raise about their work. hence. This eventually became the MACH-IV test. French managers believed that they should give precise answers to the questions in order to maintain their credibility and retain the subordinates¶ sense of security. Externals attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances. Christie and Geis (1970) developed a test for measuring a person¶s level of Machiavellianism. they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades. For example. and persuade others more. are persuaded less. Internals are more suited to jobs that require initiative and independence of action and want autonomy and independence in their jobs. not an either/or typology.mentioned example is inevitably a caution signal to the universal management approach. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic.
such as. µTrust. Arjuna suffered from indecisiveness resulting from confusion and a false sense of insecurity. as a whole. not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. A concept of ³Sthitha-prajna´ (emotional stability). while appraising the lecturer. enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person. Emotional Intelligence The importance of both emotion and intelligence in making decisions and achieving success in life was wellaccepted in ancient India. but. students may give prominence to a single trait. Dr. or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived.2 Explain ³Emotional Intelligence´. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen . and criticism because. can be traced in the second chapter of µSrimad Bhagavad-Gita¶ . advises all to balance between intelligence and emotion. For example. found his close relatives. Arjuna. He also told that an individual achieved his/her goal only when the mind became steady. the cousin brothers to restore their kingdom from Kauravas in Kurukshetra. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to ³speed-read´ others. Due to this hriday-durbalata (heart-non-strength). friends and respected µgurusµ in enemy¶s side. Lord Krishna advised Arjuna to become µSthitha-prajna¶ (the steady minded person). object. No. Gita. ± 520945336 Subject ± MB0022 ± Management Process and Organization Behaviour Semester . To win the battle he was supposed to kill those beloved ones. Halo Effect
The halo effect (Murphy & Anhalt. 1992) occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. may be true. as mentioned in Bhagavad Gita. In particular.1 (Assignment Answer Set ± 2)
Q. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms. He got confused about his rightful duty. Radhakrishnan.Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Evidently. similar to the concept of emotional intelligence. enlightened him about the eternal truth of life. in his book . with deep sorrow and pity. Bhagavad Gita is a specific conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna (third Pandava prince) in a specific situation of Kurukshetra battlefield. poised and balanced. In this context. Lord Krishna who played the role as the driver of Arjuna¶s chariot. Pandavas were fighting against the Kauravas. µThe Hindu View of Life¶ (1927) opined that the attitude of the Vedas is one of trust tempered by criticism.
. Q. whatever the older generation hold. because. and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience.Name ± Shwetank Shashiraj Misra Roll. Selective Perception Any characteristic that makes a person. the concept of ³Sthitha-prajna´ (the steady-minded person) talked about a unique interdependence between emotion and intelligence for effective decision-making which was most essential in excelling in every sphere of life. Before the battle started. when the traits have moral overtones.1 ³Halo effect and selective perception are the shortcuts in judging others´ Explain. Similar views on the role of emotional intelligence as a learning process for achieving a balanced personality in different stages of life on an inter-generational basis has been depicted in the Vedas. Ans. According to Lord Krishna. he refused to join the battle.
Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves.3 ³A group formation passes through various stages´: Explain the various stages of group formation. take their perspective and to treat people according to their emotional reactions. The hallmarks of this ability are self-confidence. He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social competences. Empathy is the ability to feel and get concerned for others. So having high emotional intelligence doesn¶t mean that the person never panics or loses his/ her temper. it cannot deny the present of its right to enquire and sift the evidence¶. such as.
Self ± awareness self-regulation motivation
Empathy social skill
Q. interpretation and action as per environmental demand to manipulate the consequence which in turn result in superior performance and better human relationship¶ (Bhattacharya. Motivation is the ability to channelize emotion to achieve a goal through self-control and by moderating impulses as per the requirement of the situation. empathy and social skills.
. self-awareness. The ability to bring out-of-control emotions back into line results in what earlier generations called emotional maturity. self. 1995). Social competence: It comprises of two dimensions namely. Emotional intelligence is a measure of the degree to which a person makes use of his/ her reasoning in the process of emotional responses (both positive and negative) in a given situation.assessment and openness to positive criticism. People having this skill are very effective in persuasiveness and team management. selfregulation and motivation. Personal competence: It comprises of three dimensions of emotional intelligence. whereas social competence determines how we handle our interpersonal relationships. Self-regulation is the ability to control emotions and to redirect those emotions that can have negative impact. It does mean that he / she brings own feelings under control and channels them into productive behaviors. Social skills are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationships with people. integrity. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman (1995). The people who have this ability are optimistic and committed towards organizational as well as individual goals. tolerance of ambiguity and attitude to accept change are some characteristics of this ability. µEmotional intelligence is an aggregate of individuals¶ cognition of own and others¶ emotions. People with this ability are experts in generating and motivating others. feeling. µSocial skill¶ is the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence assuming that people can effectively manage social and work relationships only when they can understand and control their own emotion and can emphasize with the feelings of others. This view aptly points out the need for emotional intelligence in everyday life to become more emotionally balanced and functional individuals in society. 2003). Trustworthiness.however. Self-awareness is the ability of an individual to observe him/herself and to recognize µa feeling as it happens¶ (Goleman. plausible the testimonies of the old views may be.
performing is the last stage in their development. Forming: In this stage the members are entering the group. The structure is fully functional and accepted at this stage. Adjourning: A well-integrated group is able to disband. b. task definitions. a study of a cockpit crew in an airliner found that. Groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. information. goals and group goals. emotionally. Groups may at times regress to earlier stages. and attention shifts toward hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. Punctuated equilibrium model Temporary groups with deadlines do not seem to follow the model explained above. Performing: The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex tasks and handling internal disagreements in novel ways. when its work is accomplished. Sometimes several stages go on simultaneously.Ans. though in itself it may be a painful process for group members. The main concern is to facilitate the entry of the group members. In the process. The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are rampant in today¶s workplaces. and resources required for the group to perform. if required. Group energy makes a transition from member¶s focus on getting to know and understand each other to performing. Group members will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage. and efforts are made to find ways to accomplish group goals while also satisfying individual needs. For instance. their needed contribution the similarity in terms of their personal needs. three strangers assigned to fly together for the first time had become a high-performing group. Another problem is that it ignores organizational context. Storming: This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically form coalitions and cliques to achieve a desired status within the group. For permanent work groups. 5. The structure is stable.
. 3. The rigid organizational context provides the rules.3 Various stages of group formation have been cited below. within ten minutes. The Five-Stage Model 1. do their jobs on a tight schedule. the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. Norming: From the norming stage of group development. 4. membership expectations tend to get clarified. the acceptable normative and behavioral standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the work as a group member. and members are motivated by group goals and are generally satisfied. as when groups are storming and performing. At this point. Members of these groups must be able to convene quickly. The individuals entering are concerned with issues such as what the group can offer them. 2. Individuals begin to understand and appreciate each other¶s interpersonal styles. effectively. close relationships develop and the group shows cohesiveness. Members also go through the process of identifying to their expected role requirements in relation to group requirements. whenever required. and then adjourn²often to reconvene later. Their pattern is called the punctuated-equilibrium model. a.
The essence of power is to control over the behavior of others´: Explain what are the various bases of Power? Ans. The midpoint seems to set an alarm clock going increasing members¶ awareness that their time is limited and that they need to move on fast. This ends Phase 1 and is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes. Such coercive power is the extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people.4 ³Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants. a manager may threaten to withhold a pay raise. Formal power is derived from either one¶s ability to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/ her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. power does not minimize the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. The group is incapable of acting on new insights in Phase 1. A transition triggers off major changes. 2003). The greater B¶s dependence on A. The punctuatedequilibrium model characterizes groups as demonstrating long periods of inertia interspersed with brief and rapid changes triggered mainly by their members¶ awareness of time and targets . 4 Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. For example. Contrasting Leadership and Power In an organizational context leadership and power are related to each others. power is a function of dependency (Robbins.
. The second factor is related to the direction of influence:
Whereas leadership focuses on the downward influence on one¶s followers. or to transfer. The presence of unions and organizational policies on employee treatment can weaken this power base significantly. the group executes plans created during the transition period. The transition sets a revised direction for Phase 2. respectively. Therefore.Phase I²The first meeting sets the group¶s direction. Phase 2 ± It is a new equilibrium and is also a period of inertia. Formal Power: It is based on the position of an individual in an organization. power is a means of facilitating their achievement of goals and objectives that they have set for themselves in view of organizational requirements. These sources are called position power and personal power. Evidence of the same is gained from insights into research on power that has tended to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. The group¶s direction becomes fixed and is unlikely to be reexamined throughout the first half of the group¶s life. This stage is the first inertia phase. so that B acts in accordance with A¶s wishes. Transition ± Then a transition takes place when the group has used up almost half its allotted time. In this phase. The group tends to stand still or become locked into a fixed course of action. or even recommend the firing of a subordinate who does not act as desired. demote. A structure of behavioral patterns and assumptions emerges. merely dependence whereas leadership. In other words. the greater is A¶s power in the relationship. The availability of coercive power also varies across organizations. Q. and adoption of new perspectives. Bases Of Power Power can be categorized into two types: Formal and informal A. replacement old patterns. either by self or by the subordinates. What are differences between leadership and power? The first is in the area of goal compatibility which is as follows:
Power does not require goal compatibility. Power also refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B. The group¶s last meeting is characterized by a flurry of activities. Power is used by leaders as a means to attain group goals. requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and the followers.
available resources and management practice are taken into account in this phase. Diagnosis: OD efforts begin with diagnosis of the current situation. with the OD interventions.5 Process Of Organization Development A typical OD process can be divided into the following phases: Problem identification: The first step in OD process involves understanding and identification of the existing and potential problems in the organization. Q. Q. and reference. mental or emotional response to events which cause mental or bodily tension. Data collection: Having understood the exact problem in this phase. Processes analysis: Process implies the manner in which events take place in a sequence. According to Rao and Hari Krishna (2002). The awareness of the problem includes knowledge of the possible organizational problems of growth. Usually. human satisfaction. the relevant data is collected through personal interviews. results. Rather a number of factors like attitudes. observations and questionnaires. Feedback is a process of relaying evaluations to the client group by means of specific report or interaction.6 Stress Management Stress has been defined as a physical. performance variables. involves the planning and implementation part of the change process. it would cause mental and
. the usage of human resource and organizational effectiveness. group dynamics and conflict management patterns within organizations to help in the process of attainment of organizational goals.B. rational persuasion. Domain analysis: Domain refers to the area of the organization for organizational diagnosis. assumptions. it is not limited to a single problem. . Function analysis: This includes strategic variables. communication. achievements and final outcomes. In the modern day life stress is a part and parcel of our lives. Three bases of personal power are expertise. Personal Power Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual¶s position. Planning and implementation: After diagnosing the problem. At the same time. Ans.5 Explain ³Organizational Development´ process. It refers to the pattern of decision-making. If it exceeds in proportion to a person¶s abilities to cope with it. Ans. the next phase of OD. it should not exceed the capacity of an individual to handle it. Evaluation and feedback: Any OD activity is incomplete without proper feedback. four steps in organizational diagnosis can be identified: Structural analysis: Determines how the different parts of the organization are functioning in terms of laid down goals.6 Write short note on ³Stress Management´.
physical imbalance in the person. The blood supply is diverted away from the gut to the extremities to help the body deal with the situation at hand. the heartbeat speeds up and blood pressure increases. the brain signals the release of stress hormones. While handling a stressful situation. a major challenge for every one today is to make stress work for you as a productive force rather than as a deterrent which can cause imbalance in an individual.
. These chemical substances in turn trigger a set of responses that provides the body with extra energy: blood-sugar levels rise. The muscles tense for action. Therefore.