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Math_Skills for Engineering Science and Applied Mathematics

Math_Skills for Engineering Science and Applied Mathematics

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Sections

  • 1.1 ELEMENTARY NOTATION
  • 1.2 FRACTIONS
  • 1.3 MODULUS
  • 1.4 INEQUALITIES
  • 1.5.1 BINOMIAL EXPANSION
  • 1.5.2 FACTORISING POLYNOMIALS
  • 1.6 PARTIAL FRACTIONS
  • 1.7 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION
  • 1.8.1 RATIONALISING SURD DENOMINATORS
  • 1.9 QUADRATIC EaUATION
  • 1.10 SUMMATION
  • 1.11 FACTORIAL NOTATION
  • 1.12 PERMUTATIONS
  • 1.13 COMBINATIONS
  • 1.14 GEOMETRY
  • 1.15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 5. Write the following expressions as partial fractions
  • 2.2 FUNCTION PROPERTIES
  • 2.4 QUADRATICS
  • 2.6 HYPERBOLA
  • 2.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
  • 2.10 ELLIPSES
  • 2.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • 3.1 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
  • 3.2 INDEX LAWS
  • 3.3 LOGA.RITHM RULES
  • 3.4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
  • 3.5 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
  • 3.6 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
  • 3.7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • 4.1 FIRST PRINCIPLES
  • 4.3 SIMPLE DERIVATIVES
  • 4.4 PRODUCT RULE
  • 4.5 QUOTIENT RULE
  • 4.6 CHAIN RULE
  • 4.7 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION
  • 4.8 PA.RAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION
  • 4.9 SECOND DERIVATIVE
  • 4.10 STATIONARY POINTS
  • 4.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • 5.1 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION
  • 5.2 SIMPLE INTEGRALS
  • 5.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
  • 5.4 A.REAS
  • 5.5 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION
  • 5.6 INTEGRATION BY PA.RTS
  • 5.7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • 6.1 A.DDITION
  • 6.2 MULTIPLICATION
  • 6.3 IDENTITY
  • 6.4 TRANSPOSE
  • 6.5 DETERMINANTS
  • 6.6.1 TWO BY TWO MATRICES
  • 6.6.2 PARTITIONED MATRIX
  • 6.6.3 COFACTORS MATRIX
  • 6.7 MATRIX MANIPULATION
  • 6.8 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS
  • 6.9 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS
  • 6.10 TRACE
  • 6.11 SYMMETRIC M.ATRICES
  • 6.12 DIAGONAL MATRICES
  • 6.13 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • 7.1 VECTOR NOTATION
  • 7.2 ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
  • 7.3 LENGTH
  • 7.4 CARTESIAN UNIT VECTORS
  • 7.5 DOT PRODUCT
  • 7.6 CROSS PRODUCT
  • 7.7 LlNEA.R INDEPENDENCE
  • 7.8 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • 8.1 LIMITS
  • 8.2 L'HOPITAL'S RULE
  • 8.3 TAYLOR SERIES
  • 8.4 ASYMPTOTICS

ilrry

,ESSENTIAL

MATHEMATICAL
SKILLS

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MATHEMATICA SKILLS for engineering. science and applied mathematics Dr Steven Dr Stephen + Ian Barry Alan Davis .

I. Title. 1. exercises.Problems. no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. research. etc.unswpress. Mathematics. 2. ISBN 0 86840 565 5. science and applied mathematics. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study. Mathematics . Essential mathematical skills for engineering.au © Steven Ian Barry and Stephen Alan Davis 2002 First published 2002 This book is copyright.A UNSW Press book Published by University of New South Wales Press Ltd University of New South Wales UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 AUSTRALIA www. as permitted under the Copyright Act.com. Davis. Steven Ian. Stephen. Includes index. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Barry. 510 Printer BPA . II. Inquiries should be addressed to the publisher. criticism or review.

14 Geometry ...9 Circles. 1. 1... 1.8.4 Inequalities .5 Polynomials.4 Quadratics.5..13 Combinations 1. ..8 Surds . . 1. . 1.5. 1... lX Algebra and Geometry 1.CONTENTS Preface 1 . 1. 2...12 Permutations 1. 2.10 Summation .1 Elementary Notation 1. 2. ..11 Example Questions 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 2 17 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 .5 Expansion and Factorisation 1...1 Rationalising Surd Denominators 1.9 Quadratic Equation 1.1 0 Ellipses . 2.7 Exponential and Logarithm Functions 2. .14..8 Trigonometric Functions 2.2 Function Properties 2.3 Straight Lines 2.7 Polynomial Division . . 1..11 Factorial Notation.1 Circles 1.. .. .3 Modulus. 2.1 The Basic Functions and Curves 2.2 Fractions 1.6 Partial Fractions .6 Hyperbola.2 Factorising Polynomials 1.1 Binomial Expansion 1.15 Example Questions Functions and Graphs 2..

..1 Two by Two Matrices... Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Hyperbolic Functions Example Questions 31 31 32 33 35 36 38 39 4 Differentiation 4.3 3. 6. .2 Partitioned Matrix 6.1 Cofactor Expansion... Chain Rule ... . Determinants 6..7 Exponential Function Index Laws .1 5.6.1 3.2 5. . . Stationary Points Example Questions 41 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 50 5 Integration 5.10 Trace .. 6. The Definite Integral Areas .8 Systems of Equations . . 6.9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.6.Vi 3 Transcendental Functions 3. 6.5 5.. ..6 3. .3 4... 6..2 4.6 4.. Transpose.3 Cofactors Matrix 6.7 Antidifferentiation Simple Integrals .5. 6. Logarithm Rules .4 5.2 3.9 4.4 6. Multiplication Identity ..5 3.2 6..7 Matrix Manipulation .3 5.. .1 4. 6.5 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 70 73 74 74 . Simple Derivatives Product Rule Quotient Rule .1 6.10 4.8 4.11 First Principles Linearity.4 4..7 4...6 5.5 4. 6.3 6.6. .4 3.6 Inverse.11 Symmetric Matrices. Implicit Differentiation Parametric Differentiation Second Derivative.. Integration by Substitution Integration by Parts Example Questions 51 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 59 6 Matrices Addition.

...1 First Order Differential Equations 10. . . Div and Curl 11..4 8..3 Integrating Factor .13 Example Questions 7 Vectors 7.1.2 9. Cartesian Unit Vectors Dot Product .3 7.. Example Questions 87 87 88 88 89 90 9 Complex Numbers 9.2. 107 108 111 114 .12 Diagonal Matrices.1 Partial Differentiation 11.1 Integrable .3 8. .2 Inhomogeneous. .1 Homogeneous .5 Taylor Series . Cross Product .2. 74 75 77 . 9. .4 9.1 Vector Notation 7. 10.. .. 8.2 7..CONTENTS Vll 6.1 Definition.. Linear Independence Example Questions .2 L'H6pital's Rule. 8. 6.8 8 Addition and Scalar Multiplication Length .1.. De Moivre's Theorem.7 7.4 Example Questions 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 102 105 107 . Euler's Equation .1. Example Questions 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 10 Differential Equations 10.4 7. Asymptotics .3 9.1 Limits .2 Second Order Differential Equations 10. 10.5 9. . 10.. 77 78 79 80 80 82 83 86 Asymptotics and Approximations 8.. 10.6 7... .2 Separable .3 Example Questions 11 Multivariable Calculus 11.. .5 7.3 Double Integrals.6 Addition and Multiplication Complex Conjugate . 10. 11.2 Grad.

. One .2 Differentiation . One .Vlll 12 Numerical Skills 12..5.4 Test 4: First Year 13.1 Test 1: First Year 13. Two.3 Newton's Method 12. 12. 12. Two.2 Odd Fourier Series 12. 12.5 Test 5: Second Year 13. 12...1 Integration. 12.1 Even Fourier Series.5 Fourier Series .6 Test 6: Second Year 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 131 Semester Semester Semester Semester . .3 Test 3: First Year 13. 14 Answers 15 Other Essential Skills Index 143 146 .4 Differential Equations.2 Test 2: First Year 13..5.6 Example Questions 13 Practice Tests 13.

. Your lecturer will assume that you know them perfectly . If you are having trouble with a section or chapter then we suggest you consult a more thorough textbook.aul . practice tests and also code for the Maple algebraic manipulation package giving solutions for every example and question.sib/EMS. If you are in a first year undergraduate course you may not have covered some of the material included in this book. . Semester Two: Chapters 1-7. You may also lose too many marks making 'silly' mistakes in exams. • Third Year: Everything in the book! There are practice tests in Chapter 13 based on these divisions. We have left a number of blank pages at the back of the book for you to add in skills that you or your lecturers think are important to remember but we did not include.not just a vague idea.. hence there are no long wordy explanations. This book should act as a reminder to you of material you have already learned.PREFACE lX PREFACE TO THE STUDENT There are certain mathematical skills that are essential for any of your courses that use mathematics.ma. we expect our students at University College to have mastered (by the start of each semester) the following: • First Year • First Year Semester One: Chapters 1-3. you will find present and later subjects extremely difficult. engineering or applied mathematics degree.adfa. As a guide. • Second Year: Chapters 1-10. but that you have completely mastered these skills. It is not a textbook and does not attempt to teach you. So what skills do you need to have? This book contains the mathematical skills we think are essential for you to not only know but remember. If you want more questions to practice on then see our extensive website: http://www. fully worked solutions.edu. If you can then you may need this book to help you revise those skills later on.html It contains extra questions. Without these necessary skills. This book covers the essential mathematics in the first one to two years of a science. Can you do the practice test at the end of these notes? If you can't then perhaps there are some skills you need to do some revision on.

edu. in effect. This book represents what we feel is appropriate to our students during their degrees. engineering or science degree. Naturally both the material and the year in which the students see this material will vary from university to university.html It contains more questions.barry@adfa.ma. most students do not get full marks in their previous courses and a few weeks after the exam will only remember a small fraction of a course. However. Naturally we would like our students to know more than the bare essentials detailed in this book. if they can do the questions in the database then they have. Steven Barry and Stephen Davis School of Mathematics and Statistics University College. UNSW Canberra. We invite you to look at our extensive web site: http://www.adfa. We are not concerned that students may access this database. They are also doing many other courses not involving mathematics and are not constantly using their mathematical skills. practice tests and Maple code.x TO THE LECTURER What do you assume your students know? What material do you expect them to have a vague idea about (say the proof of Taylor's Theorem) and what material do you want students to know thoroughly (say the derivative of sin z)? This book is an attempt to define what material students should have completely mastered at each year in an applied mathematics. solutions.. 2600 email: s.au .sib/EMS.edu. This book can then act as guide to what material should realistically be remembered from previous courses. learned the necessary skills. which you can use to format your own tests and assignments. If you have any questions or queries please do not hesitate to email us.aul . There is a database of questions in LaTeX and pdf. ACT..

5. 9. For example x .2x E W. 2. (a.J2 4. 6.1 ELEMENTARY NOTATION I. b): Bounds of a variable. This is . 3}. For example -2. 8. For example < x < 3. EXAMPLES 1. = a + b» where a. E: A member of a set. [a. ~: Approximately equal to. R: The set of real numbers. 7. (0).1. greater than. 2. l/x -+ 0 as x -+ 00. also written as x E [5.2.3) means 1 10. <.3] means 1 :5 x :5 3. For example -1. Z: The set of integers. Hence 1 + 2x E Wand 3 . {}: A set of objects. For example 3.3.02 ~ 3. W = {f(x) = a + b» : a. -+: Tends to.2 = 3 ===} x = 5. For example x E [1. R. b]: Bounds of a variable. greater than or equal to.~: Less than or equal to.. Becomes. b S = {x : x 2: 5. 2. 11. bE R} means W is the set of all functions f(x) are real numbers (constants).7> :5. For example x E (1. ===}: 5. 3 E Z. For example 5 < 6. >: Less than. x E R} means that S is the set of all numbers bigger than or equal to 5. E 3. 0.CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. For example 3 E {I.3.

=36 66 6 2 x +2 _ x .d ~ 0) EXAMPLES I.+ . 3 2 9 3 8 6 72 1 12 112131 +.c.+.d ~ 0) (c.2 FRACTIONS A fraction is of the form tor.=c d cd b ab ad x ~ = be 4. i where a is called the numerator and b is called the denomina- Rules for operating on fractions 1.2)(x (x - + 2) 2)2 = (x2 + 4x + 4) (x2 - (x2 - 4x + 4) =~ x2 - 4) 4 11 1 4. b+d cad = b (b.2 +2 + 2)2 (x .=. x. To rearrange the equation . b+d a a a c = ad+bc bel 3.x y = x -10' .= .= .2 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. .d~O) 2. -x-=-=2. a b a+ b -+-=-c c c (c ~ 0) (b.x .to find y write x y 10 1 Y = = ===> ===> 1 1 1 10 x x -10 Y lOx lOx NOT Y = 10.2 = (x x .

2:5 3 ===> ===> -5x:5 5 x 2:: -1.3 MODULUS The absolute value or modulus of x. If x 2. is defined by Ixl = { x. and u < ay if a is negative. EXAMPLES I. 2.2 :5 3 write -5x . but ax > y then ax > ay if a is positive. -x. > v. then x + u > y + v. written lxi. The absolute value is the magnitude of a number and ignores whether it is positive or negative.MODULUS 3 1. ~fx 2:: 0 lf x < O. To find x such that -5x .5 we write x+1>2x-5 ===> x . 2. 1+51 = 5 1-31 = 3 I-xllyl = Ixllyl = IxYI 1. .4 INEQUALITIES I. If x 3. 3. EXAMPLES 1. If x >y >y then x + a > y + a for any a. To find values of x such that x + 1 > 2x < 6.

5 EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION (a+b)(c+d) (a-b)(a+b) (a±b)2 = = = a(c+d)+b(c+d) a2_b2 a2±2ab+b2 =ac+ad+bc+bd EXAMPLES I.b) < -a.bl < a can be written as -a written as < x . EXAMPLES I.11 :s 3 write s3 ===} ===} ===} 12x .1 -2:S 2x:S 4 -1:S x S. (x2 .::: 3 or 1. To find x such that -4- 1 -11 x . The inequality 2. Ix . The inequality Ix .bl > a can be x .b > a or (x .11 -3:S 2x .b < a. -7 7 x <-3' x. :s 3 3 2. To find x such that 12x .4 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY Inequalities with modulus I. 2.3)2 = X4 + 2( -3)x2 + 9 = X4 - 6x2 +9 .:::2 write or -- 3x-l <-2 43x S.

(a + 1)3 = (a + l)(a2 + 2a + 1) = a3 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 1.3)(x = (X " 2 - + 3)(x + 5)2 9)(x + lOx + 25) 2 " " " 3.b + . EXAMPLES 2. (1 + X)4 = 1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + X4 + x)5 is 10 X 3. (x . To remember the coefficients of each term use Pascal's triangle where each number is the sum of the two numbers above it.. . The coefficient of x3 in (2 22 = 40.5.3)(x + 5)2(x + 3) = (x . s2-4 2+s (s-2)(s+2) = -'-----:-'-'--_-'2+s =s-2 4.EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION 5 2. 1 1 1 1 14 1 5 10 2 1 1 3 6 3 4 10 1 1 5 1 Each term in a row represents the coefficients of the corresponding term in the expansion.1 BINOMIAL EXPANSION (a + b)n = an + nan-1b +"n(n 2! -1) n 2 2 "a .13).. + nabn-1 + bn (See also Section 1.

2)(x . splitting the polynomial into its factors: p(x) = (x .an). 3x2 4.2)2 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 = (a + 1)3 1.6 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.. (x .-----.2 FACTORISING POLYNOMIALS Factorising a polynomial is the opposite of the expansion described above.al)(x . x2 3. x2 2.l)(x .2) x(x .5.. EXAMPLES I. x3 5.1) 7x 4x2 (3x ..1)(x 3x + 1) + 2 = (x +2 = + 4x = . 1 Some similar partial fraction expansions are (x (x2 + aF(x + b) + a) = --+ x+a Ax+B x2 + bx ABC (x+aF +-x+b C 1 + bx + c)(x + c + x + a· .6 PARTIAL FRACTIONS It is sometimes convenient to write ex+d A . that is.---::-.<l2) ..:-:--= (x + a)(x + b) + --B x +a x +b where A and B are constants found by equating the numerators of both sides once the light hand side is written as one fraction: ex + d = A(x + b) + B(x + a). a3 - 1 = (x .

The constants A and B can be found two simple ways. First. Alternatively. ( x+l 1 )( x-I .1) + B(x + 1) = 1. . ) m the rorm -- x+l + -x-I implies .3) = x +7 +x = 3x B -3 A(x .-( -x-+-7 + -x---3 . Setting x = 3 implies B = 1 and setting x = -7 implies A = 2. setting x=1 x=-1 ===} ===} Alternatively the equation could be expanded as Ax and the coefficients of Xl + Bx and xO -A +B =1 equated giving A+B=O -A+B=1.PARTIAL FRACTIONS 7 EXAMPLES 1.3A + 7B = 3x +1 A+B=3 -3A+ 7B = 1. cAB. A(x . Wntmg .-)--. Hence 3x+l 2 1 --. x-_-3::--c-) = .7:-..3) + B(x + 7) + 1. Solving these equations simultaneously gives A = -1/2 (x 2.1) ="2 1( 1 x-I and B = 1/2. 10 3x + _ . expan d (x + 7)(x 1 3) using partiial fracti ractions wnte (x giving + 7) (x 3x+l A . equating the coefficients of Ax gives + Bx . Thus -x +1 1) . These simultaneous equations are solved for A and B to give A = 2 and B = 1.-( x-+----. 'T' + 1)(x 1 .

=2 + -giving 3 (x2+x+l)(x+2) Ax+B x +x+l C x+2 3 = (Ax + B)(x + 2) + C(x2 + Hence X + 1)0 x =-2 x=O order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} C=1 3=2B+C O=A+C ===} ===} B= 1 A= -1.------~------.8 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 30 The partial fraction for ( x+l )!(x+2 ) is 1 ABC --.------~------.--= 1 (x+l)2(x+2) 1 (x+l)2 ---+-- 1 x+l 1 x+2° 40 The partial fraction for ( 2 x +x+l 3 )( x+2 ) is --.----...-----------::-.--=--+ (x+l)2(x+2) x+l giving (x+l)2 +-x+2 1 = A(x + 1)(x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C(x + 1)2 so that x =-1 x =-2 order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} I=B I=C O=A+C ===} A =-1. (x2 + X 3 + 1)(x + 2) 1 -- x+2 - ----0---- x-I x2 +x+ 1 0 . --.--------:::-.:---.

EXAMPLES 1. =x + 2· x+ 1 .POLYNOMIAL DIVISION 9 1. Subtracting 2(x + 1) from 2x + 4 gives + 1) goes into 2x + 4 two x+2 x+1)x2+3x+4 x2 +x 2x+4 2x+2 2 Thus x2 + 3x+ 4 ---1- X+ = (x+2)+--1' 2 " X+ gives 2. The first step is therefore x x + 1 ) x2 + 3x + 4 x2 +x 2x+4 The division is completed by considering that x (the leading order of x times. Dividing 3x3 + 2X2 + X + 1by x-I 3x+2x+x+l 32 .1 4x3+6x2+4x+l ------2x + 1 22 = x+ 3256 x+ 7 +--1' . Thus x goes into x2. x.7 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION Polynomial division is a type of long division for polynomials best illustrated by the following examples. Thus x(x + 1) = x2 + z. When dividing x2 + 3x + 4 by x + 1consider only the leading order terms to begin with. x- 3. which is subtracted from x2 + 3x + 4. x times.

~=J¥ 3.. .c .. 2.8 SURDS A surd is of the form nJii (= a1/n): I. 3v'iO .jC b-v'c = a(b .J7 SURD DENOMINATORS 1. bJii ± cVa = (b ± c)Jii EXAMPLES I./27 = .. Jii x Vb = VQi. 2.. v'5 x v'2 =v'iO .1 RATIONALISING For an expression of the form a b+ . 14 = 3.jC = --x-- b+v'c b-.2v'W = v'W 4.v'c) 1? . A surd denominator is rationalised by multiplying the expression by : a =~ a (= 1): b+ .8. v'2 {l4 V2 = .J9X3 = 3V3 ... -Vi4.jC it may be preferable to have a rational denominator.10 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1.

b.5-V5 (-4) 5V5-5 4 6x = = 6x 1.2). 3. . The roots of a quadratic equation (when y = 0) are A quadratic is factorised if it is written in the form EXAMPLES 1.QUADRATIC EOUATION II EXAMPLES 1.5-V5 (1)2 .(J5)2 5 .2y'X x-----=-= 1 + 2JX 1 . --=--x-1+V5 5 5 I-V5 I--V5 1+V5 = = = 2. The quadratic y = x2 + 2x + 1 is factorised into y = (x + 1) 2.2JX 6x -12xy'x 1-4x 1. The quadratic y = x2 +X 6 is factorised into y = (x + 3)(x .9 QUADRATIC EaUATION A quadratic equation is of the form y = ax2 where + bx +c a. The solutions to x2 + 3x + 1= 0 are x= -3 +-V5 2 - or -3 --V5 2 2. --= 1 + 2JX 5 . c are constants.

EXAMPLE L:i2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 30 i=l 4 1.4.. 3. 2)(1. 2...1 where n is an integer... n! = n(n .1) + f(n). + f(n .8 .2 .10 SUMMATION The summation sign L is defined n as L:f(i) i=l = f(l) + f(2) + f(3) + . 2n = (2.2..(n .I)! 4.2.11 FACTORIAL NOTATION The factorial notation is defined as follows: n! = n.(n . 3.6. EXAMPLES I. 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120 2.2. n) = 2nn! .1).2) .. The solutions to 3x2 + 5x + 1 = x= 0 are 6 -5 ± y'25 -12 so that x= -5+ vTI 6 or -5 -V13 6 1.3 ..12 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 4... O! = 1 by definition.

chosen from a group of n. The number of possible groups of 4 delegates chosen from a group of 11 is given by 11 C4 = 4!(11 _ 4)! = 4!7! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 330. . The number mutations of r unique objects.12 PERMUTATIONS A permutation is a particular ordering of a set of unique objects. 2.13 COMBINATIONS If order is not important when choosing r things from a group of possible combinations is given by n then the number of cn= r r!(n-r)! n! EXAMPLES 1. 1.PERMUTATIONS 13 1. The number ways of choosing a team of 5 people from 7 is 11! 11! 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 cl = 21. is given by of per- pn= r (n .r)! n! EXAMPLE The number of ways a batting lineup of 3 can be chosen from a squad of 8 cricket pi ayers is given by 8 8! 8! P3 = (8 _ 3)1 = 5! = 8 x 7 x 6 = 336.

Pythagoras' Theorem states The sine.14 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1.14 GEOMETRY The trigonometric ratios can be expressed in terms of the sides of a right-angled triangle: c () a b b a sinO . is called the hypotenuse. a sin 0 =-. opposite the right angle. cosO = -. cosine and tangent of the common angles can be related to the following triangles: 1 1 v'2 Jrj4 1 J2 . tan 0 = -b = --0· e e cos The longest length.

right angled: one of the angles is i.14. equilateral: all three sides of of equal length. All triangles have three angles that sum to 1f. i. 3. EXAMPLES 1. A right angled triangle has one other angle -i. circumference = 21fr EXAMPLES I. = 2. . 1. Hence the third angle is 2. An equilateral triangle must have three identical angles of i. isosceles: any two sides are of equal length. The area of a circle with diameter d = 6 is 11"32 911".GEOMETRV 15 EXAMPLE The three common triangles are the I. 2. The circumference of the circle with diameter d = 7 is 711".1 CIRCLES A circle of radius r has 2.

2 (v) --+-x-I x3 _ x2 (vi) x(x2 .4 3 (4 .3)(x (ii) + 3) + 3x . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 5. Simplify the following. (i) (x . Use polynomial division to calculate the following.4)3 4. (i) 3 (x . (i) Y = x2 +4x+4 (ii) Y = x2 Ix -101 < 5 Iz+31 ~ 8 la+41 > 1 1~-~1<2 + 7x + 6 (iii) Y = x2 +x -12 (iv) y = x2 +x .2 (v) y = x2 (vi) y = x2 +x - 3. Find the zeros of the following quadratics.1) 3+v'3 + 6x + 5 +5 2.3) 10. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2x+ 1 (iv) x-4 ----- y'27v'3 v'5 y'45 v'I7 + 5v'I7 2v'I7 2 x2 . + 3x + 4)/(x + 2) + 3x + 2)/(x + 2) (x3 + 5x2 + 7x + 2)/(x + 2) 1O! 7! (v) (x . Use Pascal's triangle (Binomial theorem) to find (i) the expansion of (2 Find the following.4) 4x -1 (x . Write the following expressions as partial fractions. Factorise the following quadratic equations. (i) (x2 (ii) (x2 (iii) (iii) (x (iv) (3 + x)(3x + 2)(x .(. + ----- 1 5 1 10 5 x+2 2x x-2 x-I x+2 x+ 3 x (ii) x x-3 (iii) ----- x-I x+2 6.4x .5 (iv) y = x2 .5 (v) y = 2X2 +x-l 8. Find the solution set for the following inequalities.2) :2 . Simplify the following.1)(x + 2) 1 x2+5x+6 3x (x . Expand the following.2)(x .y) 9. (iv) l)i+ i=l 1) .2)(x + 4) 1 (x + 3)2(X . (i) Y = x2 (ii) Y = x2 . (i) + x)4 (ii) p'6 2 (iii) 6 C2 6 (ii) the expansion of (1 + x)8 (iii) the coefficient of x5 in (1 + x)1.16 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.3X)2 + y)2(X . (i) 2d+2:::.6x (iii) Y = x2 +4x .4d-3 (ii) 3d-2>4d+6 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 7.

Circles: 11.1 THE BASIC FUNCTIONS AND CURVES The standard functions and shapes are I. Cosine: y = cos x 9.CHAPTER 2 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . Hyperbola: y = - x 5.. Logarithm: y = 7.2. Quadratics (parabolas): y = ax2 3. Sine: y = sin x 8. Exponential: y = eo. In x y2 + x2 = r2 y)2 + (X")2 Ellipses: ( a: b = 1. . Polynomials: y = anxn 1 4. Straight Lines: y = mx +c + bx + c + . + atX + ao 2. == expx 6. Tangent: y = tan x 10..

Y = 1j(x . For example: f(x) mapping from x to x2 so that f(3) = 32 = 9. 2.3) has range 0 °< x < 3 (so < y < 9. Y = x2 has range y ~ 0 since any squared number is positive. 2. 3.1. Sometimes the domain is defined as part of the function such as y = x2 for 0 domain is restricted to be in the interval zero to three. EXAMPLES I. Y = sin x has range -1 one. EXAMPLES I. If x = 1 then the function is undefined because of division by zero. + 1. If f(z) = 3x = Z2 + 1 then - f(2) = 7 and f(a) = 3a = 0. Y = x2 + 4 has domain of all real numbers.1) has domain x t. :5 y :5 1 since the sine function is always between positive and negative the domain is restricted to x E (0. < x < 3 so that the The range of a function is the set of all possible output values for that function.18 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. 1 then f(l) The domain of a function is the set of all possible input values for that function.2 FUNCTION PROPERTIES A function is a IUle for mapping one number to another. = x2 is a EXAMPLES I. If f(x) 2. all real numbers except x = 1 can be used in this function. Y = x2. That is. .

If J(x) = 3x2 + 1 then the inverse is found by rearrangement: f(x) = = 3x2 x ± ~ +1 ===> ± ~ f-l(X) ==> = . EXAMPLES 1. For example if I(x) = x2 and g(x) = x + 1 then I(g(x)) = (g(X))2 = (x + 1)2.. 3 2 2. = 2x+3haszerox = --. -2. .1 then I(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) . f(x) . 1(x) = x2 and g( x) =. The zeros of a function.FUNCTION PROPERTIES 19 The argument of a function could be the value of another function. EXAMPLES 1. are the values of x when I(x) = O. If f(x) 2. = 2x + 1 and g(x) = cos(x) then f(g(x)) = 2 cos(x) + 1 and g(1(x)) = cos(2x + 1). f(x) = x2 + 3x + 2 has zeros x = -1.jX are inverses since .1 = 3x + 2. If f(x) = 3x . The inverse of a function is denoted 1-1(x) and has the property that EXAMPLES 1.jX'i = (vfx)2 = x. 2. I(x).

2)2 = r2. A circle with centre (1.a).20 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS A graph y = f(x) in the form shifted from being centred on (0. 2.0) if shifted to having turning point (3. b) is written y .b = f(x .1)2 + (y . Y = f(x) = x3 is odd since f( -x) = (-x)3 = -x3 =- f(x). . Y = f(x) = X4 is even since f( -x) = (_X)4 = X4 = f(x).0) to being centred on (a.4) has equation (y .2) has form (x .4) = (x . 2. EXAMPLES I. y 11 to 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 4 X 5 6 A function is even if f(-x) = f(x) and odd if f(-x) = -f(x). EXAMPLES I.3)2. A parabola y = x2 with turning point (0.

STRAIGHT LINES 21 ."5' 1 4.x is drawn in the following diagram: 1.0) is y = ~ -1.2. 3. The line 5y = x-I has slope m = "5 1 since it can be rewritten as y = x "5 ..3 STRAIGHT LINES A line has the general form y=mx+a where a and m are real numbers and m is the slope of the line.6 . 0+11 3- ° 3 . The line y = 2x + 1 cuts the x axis when y = 0 giving x = . The equation of a line that passes through the points (0. -1) and (3. 3 is found from m= Y2-Yl X2 . The gradient .Xl =--=-. Part of the straight line y = 0. EXAMPLES I.0 2.~ as the zero.0 Y ~--~--~----~--~----~--~x 1.

----.4 QUADRATICS A quadratic (parabola) has the general form y = ax2 +bx+ c and can have either no real zeros.1)2 are drawn in the following diagram: Y + 1.22 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.0 .--------"-f"------. one real zero or two real zeros. y = (x .3)2. o X 7 .C2).-------\.5 2.5 1.0 1. C!. EXAMPLE Sections of the three quadratic functions y = (x .6) 2.0 +---. Y = (x . If the quadratic has two real zeros.--------f------.ct}(x .5 ..5)(x . C2 then it can also be written as y = a(x .

l)(x .. The leading order term in the above polynomial is anxn since this is the term that dominates as x -+ 00. 2. n. The polynomial has degree n if its highest power is xn. and has the following properties. 3.4]: y 6 6x2 + llx . constant term I and leading order term 2x3. i = O .POLVNOMIALS 23 . are real numbers. The constant term in the above polynomial is no.3) = x3 for x E [0.2. Y = 2x3 + 4x2 + 1 has degree 3.6 is plotted below x ·6 . y = x2 + 5x + 6 has two zeros x = -3 and x = -2. A polynomial of degree n has n zeros (some of which may be complex). 4. EXAMPLES 1. The third degree polynomial y = (x .. I.2)(x . 2.5 POLYNOMIALS A polynomial has the general form where ai. - 3.

6 HYPERBOLA A hyperbola centred on the origin is usually written in the form k y= x although other orientations of hyperbolas can be written as or EXAMPLE The hyperbola y = 0.5 X 0.5 1.5 1. .24 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.5 The hyperbola above is not defined for x = o.0 0.15 is drawn in the following diagram: x y 1.0 1.

7 EXPONENTIAL .AND LOGA.2. .EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 25 .RITHM FUNCTIONS The exponential function is y = e~ == expx with its inverse the logarithm function y = lnx. The general properties of the exponential are listed in the next chapter on transcendental functions. EXAMPLE The exponential function y = e~ (upper curve) and logarithm function y = In x (lower curve) are drawn in the following diagram: 8 y 6 -4 The logarithm function is not defined for x :5 o.

which are cyclic with period 27r thus sin(x + 27r) = sin x.0 sin x Y cos z 6 -rrJ2 . Y y 1.0 0.------~-=----_.4.11: /2].------. while tan x = sin x/cos x is plotted for x E [-7r /2. The functions sin x and cos x are plotted below for the first period x E [0.26 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. The function y = sin 2x will have a period of 1f. Sine and Cosine can be defined in terms of angles as discussed in sections 1. 2. EXAMPLES I.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The main trigonometric functions are sinx and cos z.14 and 3. 27r].5 O+----4----~--~~--~x 2~ -1.0 1. x 1112 tan x ·6 .------_.

CIRCLES 27 . which is a circle = 2 cost + 1. t E [0. 3.5)2 = 1 are drawn in the following diagram: 2 ~----~----~~----~----~ -1 2 3 X 2. + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 1.2)2 y 3 + (y . The curve x2 + 2x + y2 + 4y = -4 can be written as (x centred on (-1.1. The circles x2 + y2 = 1 and (x . y(t) = 2 sin t .2111 EXAMPLES I. This is often written in parametric form x(t) = rcost. .2) with radius I.9 CIRCLES A circle centred on the origin has the general equation x2 + y2 = r2 where r is the radius. y(t) = rsint.2. t E [0.211")is the circle radius 2 . The curve represented by x(t) centred on (1.3. -3).

2x].0) with major axis of length 2 in the x direction and minor axis of length ~. t E [0. The ellipse (~) 2 + x2 = 1 is drawn in the following diagram: v -2 -.10 ELLIPSES An ellipse centred on the origin has the general equation C1X 2 + C2XY + C3y2 = 1. An ellipse is often written in parametric form x(t) = asint. x 2 2. y(t) = bcost. The curve (x . EXAMPLES I.28 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. . If the x and y axes are the axes of the ellipse then it is usually written in the form x2 y2 a2+62=1 where 2a is the length of the ellipse in the x direction and 2b the length of the ellipse in the y direction.2)2 + 16y2 = 1 is an ellipse centred on (2.

21.) of quadratics see 0+-----.1]. 19. 4 3 2 y = (x . What is the equation for a circle centred on (1. 25. Draw the circle y2 (Answers are given in Chapter 14) = x3 = x3 = x3 = x3 + 1 what is 1(2)? + 1 what is I(g)? + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 find 1(I(x)). If I(x) 1 = 2" x + 1 find the inverse I lex). What is the period of y = cos 3x? 22. If I(x) 5.2 = O? 31. Draw the curve y = cos from x = 0 to x = n. What type of curve has equation 2y2 + (x . What is the equation of the shape below: x Sines and cosines 17.1)2 = 1.4].2x 16. Draw the curve y = cos 2x 20. If I(x) 2. 2) with radius 2? 29. If I(x) 9.4)? (For more questions on manipulation Chapter 1.1)2 and g(x) and g(l(x)). Draw the quadratic y = x2 . 8. If I(x) 3.-------.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 29 2. = 1. What type of curve has equation 2y+(x-1)2-2=0? 33.1)2 . What is the equation for an ellipse centred on (0.0) with x axis twice as long as the y axis? 28. 32. o 234 36. What is the equation for a circle centred on (a. = -- x+1 . If I(x) 1 =- = x2 . If I(x) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS Circles and ellipses 23. Draw the line y = -2x + 1 for x E [0. from x = 0 to y :z. 24. Where is the zero of the line y = x-I? 13. What type of curve has equation y2 + (x . Where does the line 2y + x-I What is the slope of the line? = 0 cross the y axis? 14. Where does the ellipse (x . If I(x) = (x .2) radius 3? with 7.+ (x -1) = O? 12.11 1.-----. If I(x) 6.3)(x . What type of curve has equation 2 -. Lines 11.1)2 . Where are the zeros of the curve + 1 for x E [0. 2 x = 47r. Draw the curve y = 2sin3x 18._ + 1 find the mverse 1 I lex). What is the equation of the quadratic below: Quadratics 15. If I(x) 4. What is the period of y + 1 from x = sin(x + I)? + I)? = 0 to x = 27r.---. .1) = O? 34. ._ General 30.2 = O? 10. Draw the ellipse y2 1) what is I(g(x))? 1) what is I(g(b))? and g(l(x)). y-1 35.1)2 axis? + 2y2 = 1 cut the x = x2 and g(z) = sin z find I(g(a)) = x2 27. Draw 3y .1 find I(g(x)) x . _ find the mverse I lex). Draw the ellipse + (x + 2x2 4y2 + (x 2)2 = 4. What is the period of y = sin(3x x . What type of curve has equation 2y + (x .x+ 3 = Of or x E [0.2]. 26.

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1 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION An exponential function is defined by I(x) = a. If 3 = log2 y then y = 23 = 8.. = x3 then x = 81/3 = 2. 4. The most useful exponential function is I(x) = e" == exp e where e = 2.CHAPTER 3 FUNCTIONS TRANSCENDENTAL 3. If 2 = 10glO Y then y = 102 = 100. I.71828 . If y = log2 16 then since 16 = 2 Y = 4. EXAMPLES I. so that x = log. 4 .l:. .. where a is the base and x is the index. a> 0. 3. If 8 2.

0. To simplify y = 3293 write 9 = 32 so that -= soy 4 y 641/3 =4 = 1._. for i an integer ..0 =1 EXAMPLES 3. .2 INDEX LAWS I. ... aman = am+n am 3.. 0.32 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3.. a-n =an 7. ambm = (ab)m 5. (am)n = amn Power of a Power Rule 8. i times 2.0. a. = am-n an 4. a/ = .__. :: } Equal Bases Rule = G)m 1 } Equal Indices Rule 6.

) = logax -logaY 3.RITHM RULES I. log.Y + 3 log b = 8 + 27 = 35. lo~(a. . a1og"z=x 6. e1nz = x 3. lo~(xy) = log. 1 = 0 and log.l:) 5. x + log.3 LOGA. 4. Ifloga = 4. log b = 9 then log(a2b3) = 210ga = x. log.1ne=1 4. log. (. y LQg of a Product Log of a Quotient LQg of a Power 2. log2 (~:) The natural logarithm of z.LOGARITHM RULES 33 3. In! = 0 means eC = X == In X z. Inez = x 2. x 4. x·P = p log. is loge (also denoted log x): ln z = c Note that: I. a = 1 =x EXAMPLES 3. the inverse of the exponential function eX.

34 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES 1. Ify = a'" then In y = x In a ===} y = e'" In a . If In y = 3In 2x + c then to find y write Iny = In (2x)3 +c + c) where eC = k ===} y = exp(In (2x)3 = k(2x)3.+ln2 eln". . Ifln X = 2 and In y = 5 then to find In(x3y2) we write In(x3y2) = Inx3 + Iny2 = 3Inx + 2Iny = 3(2) + 2(5) = 16.-2Iny = _e_ = ~ e21ny y2 4. If x = In 3 and y = In 4 then to find exp( x e". + 2y) write 8. 5. 2.+2y = e"'(ey)2 = 3 x 42 = 48. e". = kexp(In (2x)3). 6. 3 . exp(3In 2) = exp(In 23) = exp(In 8) = 8 = e"'eln2 = 2e'" In".

By symmetry all the other major angles can be found. tan 4 = -tan 11" . . ±1.51r=. 4./3/2.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35 3. 6. n = 0. cos 7r /6 =. ±1.sm 6 ..4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The unit circle can be used as an aid for finding the sin and cos of common angles.n=0. For example... .. sm 6 . . cos(n7r) = (-1)'\ 5. sinO -1 EXAMPLES 1.SlD ..±2.J2' 1 11" cos "3 = 2' 1 CQS7r = -1.±I. (2n+ 1)7r 2 =-(-I).. sin(n7r) = 0. ? ~.~_! "4 =-1 n = 0. ±2.2 37r 3. From the diagram we see that 11" cosij = 2' va 7r cos "4 = .. ±2. n .

sm z cot e = --.- 1 ---cosxsinx 2. cos(-a:) = cos e Sine is an odd function while cosine is an even function. To prove the identity tan a: + cot a: = sec a:cosec a: consider the left hand side: sin a: cos z tan x + cot a: = -+ -.5 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES A fundamental trigonometric identity is EXAMPLES I. by simply dividing = sedl x cot x + 1 = cosec2 x sin2 a: + cos2 a: = 1 by either sin2 a: or cos" a:.36 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS sin(-a:) = -sin(a:). The Reciprocallligonometric Functions are 1 see a: = --. tan a: 1 3. It is easy to prove 1+ tan2 x 2 cose sine 2 Si8 x + cos2 x cos x sin x = see x cosec x. .-. cos a: 1 cosec a: = -.

y) = sin x cosy . To find sin ~ consider 6. cos(x = cos x COS1r.sin a: sin y 2 sin a:cos a: cos2 x . 2 .TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES 37 sin(a: + y) cos(a: + y) sin2a: cos2x = sin e cosp + cos e siny a: = CQS cos y .Jl- Jl- CQs1rj6 . cos(a: .cos x 5.sin2 a: 1. sin(x . Alternatively the following method can be used: sm-=· 12 -. sin (x + ~) = sin + 11) X cos ~ + cosx sin ~ = cos z 4.y) = cos XCQsy + sin a: sin y 3. 2 V3j2 .sin x sin 11 = .cos2a: sin2a: = 2 1+ cos2x CQS2a: = 2 EXAMPLES 1. • 11: .cos x siny 2.

0 .38 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3. sinh x -2.2.5 -5.6 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES I. It is easy to show that sinh 0 = 0 cosh 0 = 1 and that COSh2 X since - sinh2 x = 1 2. 21. The plots of sinh x and cosh x are illustrated below on the interval x E [.

Simplify (i) _1 __ cos2 (J (ii) (sin x (iii) tan(J = x cos X an odd or even function? + COSX)2 (J + (sin x- COSX)2 VI + tan2 . To = -20. tan (J.---. 13.1.2 = 1. Simplify as much as possible (i) 6x 3y-2 2 x 1 5y4 24 _x- 7.02)t (iii) 3t7 = 2t5 (iv) Q = Qoant (v) y=3-2Int (vi) 3y = 1 + cosh x = e" 9.--A_:_P_-_c_T. (iv) sec ( 4. Prove the following identities: 1 + sin(J (i) --. Ta = 20. A = 3 X 105. ) 6. Use the multiple angle formulae to find cos 'lr_. Evaluate (i) tan(n) (ii) sm (iii) cos tcr. and sec (J: + 2e4t (i) (J=7r_ 4 3. For the following angles find cos (J. Solve for t using natural logarithms: (i) 5t = 7 (ii) 2 = (1. 12 12. sin (J.7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. Use the trigonometric addition of angle formulae to show cos'lr_ = ~(v'6 12 4 + h). . Is I(x) tan2 (J c = 2 X 103._) 4. h = 10. If In s = 2 and In t = 3 calculate (i) In(st) (ii) In(st2) (iii) In(Vsi) (iv) In~ (v) Int s (ii) (J = 137r_ 6 (iii) (J = 2n 3 (iv) (J = _ 5n 3 (v) (J = 5n 4 11. In an experiment you have to calculate the time to melt a block of ice using the formula t = _l (. Solve the following for values of (J between 0 and 2n (i) cos2 (J + 3sin2 (J = 2 (ii) 2 cos2 (J = 3 sin (J 10glO 2 8. If x t3 = In 3 and y = In 5 then find (i) eXeY (ii) eX+Y (iii) e2x (iv) eX + eY where 5. P = 1 X 103. 10.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 39 3. (6n) 8 l = 0.cosh x = _e-x (iv) sinh x (ii) 8-"3 (iii) 210g105 + 10glO 8 - (iv) 3-1og3 p (v) Inx2 + Iny -Inx (vi) e21nx _lny2 2. C~n) Find t.3cos2 (J (iii) sinh x .p_.-. -(J = (sec (J + tan (J)2 1-sm (ii) 3sin2 (J .o.

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1 FIRST PRINCIPLES The definition of a derivative of a function f(x) is: f(x) = df = lim f(x dx h-+O + h) h . The following diagram This is the slope of the tangent to the function iIIustra tes: f (x) y= f(x} tangent f(x + h} f(x) x x+h . at the point x.CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIATION 4.f(x).

sin x h = lim----------~--------h-->O h = lim sinx(cos h -1) + cos x sin h h-->O h = CQSX since lim CQsh-1 h-+O h =0 ' (see the Asymptotics chapter for how to evaluate these limits).. (f(x) + g(x)) ~(c!(x)) dx .2 LINEARITY ! where c is a constant. 2. = lim sin(a. 4. h-->O + h) h . If lex) = x2 then f'(x) . If f(x) sin x then f'(x) .42 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I.x2 = h-->O hm------~----h = lim 2hx+ h h-->O 2 x2 = = h-->O h lim 2x+ h = 2x.sin x sin x CQS + cos x sin h . = lim (x h-->O + h)2 h -x 2 . + 2hx + h2 .

If f(x) = sin x + e~ then !.(x) = +~ e~ = cosx + eX.SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 43 EXAMPLES d. 1. ~SinX 2. -d. If J(x) = 5x2 + sinh x then J'(x) = lOx + cosh x. 3 dx sm z = 3 cosx.4 PRODUCT RULE dx[f(x)g(x)] d df = dx g(x) + f(x) dx dg . 4. xn sin x cos x e1: ln z sinh x cosh x x eosh z sinh x - 1 EXAMPLES 1. (41nx) d x . = 1 4x 2. 4.3 SIMPLE DERIVATIVES The following derivatives of elementary functions are standard: f(x) c -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ f'(x) 0 nxn-1 cos x -sinx e1: where c is a constant. dx (3smx) = d.

1)(x + 2) . If f(x) sin x = -then cos x f (x) = Thus I.x 2 CQSx. If !(x) 2. If f(x) = -.(x2 = ~--~~~~~--~(x2 + 2)2 x2 +4x. -.x) dxx2 + 2. cos X CQS X - cos2 X sin x( . CQSX-lnx x 4.sin x) = cos2 x' 1 3.44 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I. (Sinx) dx" x2 = CQs(x)x2 X4 2xsinx !!_ (x2 .!:. sm2x 2. . = lnx cos x then P(x) = .!!_ [f(X)] dx = jI(x)g(x) g(x) .2 (x2 + 2)2 + 2)2 - x) 2x . = li[x 2 .x] (x2 + 2) . If f(x) = X2 sin x then f(x) = 2x sinx + x2 coax.(x2 . sin z.x) ~[X2 + 2] (x2 2 (2x . j_ 4. then smx f'(x) x2 = 2' x smx.f(X)gl(X) (g(x))2 EXAMPLES I.5 QUOTIENT RULE .

(g(x))g'(x) df dg Differentiate the outer function first then multiply by the derivative of the inner function. . 4. [x2] 2. EXAMPLES 1.6 CHAIN RULE d dx [f(g(x))] = dg dx = /. +x 2 ] 1+2x 3. Since ! cos x = .sin«x2 + 3x)5)5(x2 + 3X)4(2x + 3) = -5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3X)4 sin«x2 + 3X)5).sin«x2 + 3X)5) ~ [(x2 dx + 3X)5] = . Since ~ x3 = 3x2 and ~ sin x ![sin3x] = = cos x then 3sin2x cos z.CHAIN RULE 45 4. Since ! ln x = ~ then d dx [In(x +x 2' )] = x + x2 1 dx [x d. Since ~ sin x = cos x then d d 2 2 dx [sin(x )] = cos(x ) dx = cos(x2)2x.sin x and dx ' ! x5 = 5x4 then ~ [CQS«X2+ 3X)5)] = .sin«x2 + 3X)5)5(x2 + 3X)4 d~ [(x2 + 3x)] = .

differentiate normally but treat each y as an unknown function of x.:. xcosy+y = x3 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives • ( cosy .7 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION To find y'(x) where y(x) is given implicitly.46 DIFFERENTIATION 4.xsiny ..:!y = ±-v'f="X4. EXAMPLES I. + dx = 3x 2 dy 3x2 .CQsy =---.xsm(y) which can be rearranged to give dY) dy dx . Differentiating 2x 2x CQsy ±Vl- X4 ±y'l- sin'. if given f(y) = g(x) then differentiating gives f'(y): = g'(x) ===} dy dx g'(x) f'(y) where the chain rule has been used to obtain the left hand side. dx 1... For example. Differentiating siny = x2 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives dy cosy dx = 2x or dy dx since CQsy = 2.

(t) .!I(t)' EXAMPLES 1. 4. Higher derivatives are found by repeated differentiation. then 5"(t) = 4e2t is the acceleration.PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION 47 4.9 SECOND DERIVATIVE The second (or double) derivative is the derivative of the derivative: f'(x) = ~.dxjdt _ /. dyjdx dy _ dy/dt may be calculated as dx .(x) = 4x3and r(x) = 12x2. If y(t) = t2 and x(t) = sin t then dy = dyjdt dxjdt = 2t cos dx 2. 51 2. Ify(t) t = sin r and x(t) = cost then dy = dyjdt dx dxjdt = cost . (t) = 2e2t is the velocity and .sint = _ cott . EXAMPLES 1.8 PA. If 5(t) = e2t is the position of a particle with time t.RAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION Given y = f(t) and x = g(t). If J(x) = X4 then /. = ~ (!).

---.48 DIFFERENTIATION 4.---. Y : o :"J minimum r>.2. The function y = xe-z has a maximum when x = 1.----. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary dy =2x+2=O dx point when x = -1. The function y = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary + 12 = 0 points when dy = 6x2 _ 18x dx x= 1... = O.. 3.. At this point the tangent to the EXAMPLES I. y) where f'(x) graph is flat..10 STATIONARY POINTS A stationary point is a point (x. A local maximum is when the function at the stationary point is higher than the surrounding points. ~n . 2. An inflection point is where the graph is flat but neither a maximum nor minimum.-- . 5 6 2 3 4 maximum 0+----. A local minimum is lower than the surrounding points. x ---.

= 0 then x = a is an inflection point. EXAMPLES 1. if f'(a) > 0 then x = a is a local < 0 then x minimum. 2. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary point at x = -1. The function y = (x .1)3 + 3 has derivatives ' dx which are both zero at x dy = 3(x _1)2 -= ~2 ~y 6(x -1) " = 1.STATIONARV POINTS 49 At a stationary point x = a the second derivative indicates the type of stationary point I. which is therefore an inflection point. . 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 X 3. The double derivative ~ dx which is positive at x ~y = 12x-18 = y 2 (a minimum) and negative at x = 1 (a maximum). Note that x = a is a stationary point so f(a) = O. 2. if f'(a) 3. if f'(a) = a is a local maximum. The double derivative is so x = -1 is a minimum. The function y is = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary points at x = 1 and x = 2.

Find dy / dx for these more difficult problems: (i) y = exp(x cos x2) (ii) Y = e'" cos((2x (iii) (iv) 1 + 1)2) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 y X 5 Y = . Find the derivative dT / dt: T=texp(~) where a is a constant. is drawn below.j2+x2 sinx y= (x+1)2 expx2 (v) Y = sin(x2 + exp(x3 + x)) (vi) y=-- x2 . (i) Y = (x . x(t) = sin(t2) (ii) yet) = et. Roughly sketch x2 (iii) Y = e"'sinx (iv) y=lnx x4 lnx e'" (v) Y = sinx cos x (vi) y=- + 9x + 1 (iii) Y = 3x4 . (v) y (ii) Y = 3e'" . 8.1) (ii) cos(2y) = (1 _ X2)1/2 (iii) In(y) = xe'" .forxE[-1.2)2 (ii) Y = x3 .1)2e'" 9. x(t) = sin t 7.x2 (iii) Y = 3lnx (iv) y = 2sinhx +5 2.6x2 (iv) y = xe-'" (v) y = x2In(x) (vi) y=sinx+(1-x)cosx.50 DIFFERENTIATION 4. The function y = f(x) the function fl(x). Use the chain rule to find dy / dx: (i) y = sin(2x) (ii) y = sin(x + x3) + y3 = x2 (vi) y2 + siny = sinx (vii) y(x + 1) .y2 = x 6. Use linearity to find dy / dx: (i) y = 3sinx . x(t) = t2 (iii) yet) = t2. For the following functions find the stationary points and classify them. Use the product rule or the quotient rule to find dy / dx: (i) y= xe'" cos x (ii) y=-- (i) yet) = cos t.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.8x3 + 6x2 (vii) y = x2sinx (viii) y = cosh x sinh x (ix) y=- ell'" x 4.2] (vii) y = (x .3coshx (iv) eY = e3". Use implicit differentiation to find dy/dx: (i) y2 = sin(x .5cosx 5. Use parametric differentiation to find dy / dx: (iii) Y = (x + 4)3 (iv) Y = (x + sinx)5 (v) y = sin(lnx2) (vi) y = exp(cos2 x) (vii) y = cosh(2x2) 3.

If ~ In x = _!_ x then !~.. EXAMPLES 1.1 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION The indefinite integral (antiderivative) of ! f with respect to x is f(x) dx = F(x) +c where F1(x) = f(x) and c is known as the constant of integration.cosh x dx = sinh x . then dx = In Ixl + c. If dx sinh x = cosh x then ! I cos x dx = sin x .. 3. + c. 2.CHAPTER INTEGRATION 5 5. . If ! dx x2 = 2x then !2X dx = x2 + c. If d~ sin x = cos z d. + c. 4.

2.52 INTEGRATION 5. EXAMPLES I. where cis a constant. Simple application of the Chain Rule in differentiation gives coskx dx = / Ii sin kx 1 + c.2 SIMPLE INTEGRALS The following integrals of elementary functions are standard: / / xndx = __ 1 xn+l +c n+l where n f:.. dx sinhxdx / coshxdx Integration is linear so that /U(x) +g(x))dx / cf(x) dx = / f(x) dx +/ g(x) dx. ! ! (sin x + eX) dx = .cosx + c / sinxdx / eXdx = e" +c In [z] + c = = cosh z + c sinh x + c /1 / . -1 cosxdx = sin x + c . c / f(x) dx. .cos x + e" + c 5 cos x da: = 5 sin x + c 3.

f f 6x dx = 3 f 2x dx = 3x 2 +C 6.F(a) where F' (x) = f (z). .cosh( -1) = 0 since cosh(x) is even.cos 7rX 7r 1 [1] 1 0 = --(COS7r 7r 1 - cos O) = - 2 7r 3. 11 x dx = [3 3 [X4]3 '4 1= '4 .THE DEFINITE INTEGFIAL 53 4.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL The definite integral with respect to lb x over the interval [a. 1 o sin 7rxdx = -. EXAMPLES 2. 3sin(2x)dx = -~COS(2X) +C 5.4: = 20 81 1 4. This is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. b] is written as: [F(x)]! f(x) da: = = F(b) . 1-1 r sinh x dx = coshj l).

. f(x)dx=O f(x) dx = f(x) dx + l -i c a f(x) dx f(x) dx = lC f(x) dx can be integrated over the required intervals). If f(x) = {!: : ~~' then 3.54 INTEGRATION la lb lb (assuming f(x) EXAMPLES I. }_1 r [z] dx r Ixl dx + 10 [z] dx r = r -xdx + (2 z d» }_1 10 = 1-1 ==- [~2[1+ [~2J: [0 .~] + [2 .0] = ~ 2. If f(x) is odd then fa {o (a i-a f(x) dx = }_a f(x) dx + 10 f(x) dx = O.

Consider the curve given by f(x) = x3 .5. .O) is the same as for x E [0.3)(x .REAS If f is an integrable function then fal:> f(x) in the region a dx = (area above the z-axis) .25 =0.9x2 + 26x .AREAS 55 5.(area below the z-axis) :5 x :5 b. The area between the curve and the z-axis between x = 2 and x = 4 is given by: y 0. is an even function (so f( -x) f(x)) then f c f(x) dx = 2 -c 10 r l(x) dx since the area for x E [-c.25+0. If /(x) 411(X)1x = d 1 = 3 f(x) dx - fs4 /(x) dx = 0.5 1 2. EXAMPLES 1.4).4 A. c).24 = (x .2)(x .

= f(x).cos(x2 + 2. For definite integrals the limits of the integration are also trans- EXAMPLES I. To find! h l-x2 l f S iU (. To evaluate 1) + c.x2 = cos u and dx = cos 1£du so that 1 --===dx = ~ f cos -cos 1£ 1£ d1£= U • = arcsmx+c..x + 1 +c. where F'(x) formed. To evaluate f 2x sin( x2 + 1) dx 2x sin(x2 let u = x2 + 1 then = ~: = 2x so that f vx+ 1 r::-71 + 1) dx f sin udu = -cosu+c = . ] 1 - sin(O) 5 0 1 =-.1 .. To find 1 0 .. upon which the integral becomes f(u) du = F(u) + c = F(g(x)) + c. f 1 dx let u = x 1 + 1 then f ---== "'.x + 1 dx = f du -d = 1 so that x u-! du = 2u! +c = 2". 3.56 INTEGRATION 5. .5 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION Integrals that can be written in the form f f(g(x))g'(x) dx are solved by the substitution f u = g(x)./2 sin" x cos x d$ let 1£ = sin x so that the integral becomes 4.-/2) u4du= [1£5.. 5 dx let x = sin 1£ since ".

dV dx dx = uv . To evaluate / x cos x dx let u = x and d$ = cos x then dx = 1and v = sm z. cos x + 2 / e2:t:cosxdx = _e2o.INTEGRATION BV PARTS 57 5./ sinxdx = xsinx = z sin z .RTS Integration of a product of two functions can sometimes be solved by integration by parts: I or in short hand. so that dv du . cos x +2 (e 2 :t:sin x- 21 e 2 :t:sin x dx) so by rearranging ! e2:t:sinxdx = 5 (2sinx e2:t: .cosx) + C.IdUdx dx uvu dv = uv - 1 1 v duo EXAMPLES 1. The integral Then we have J0 t' xe :t: dx is performed 2 by setting u = x. / xcosxdx = xsinx . UOl' UOl' 2 3. . 2.6 INTEGRATION BY PA. Integrating by parts twice we can evaluate / e2:t:sin xdx = _e2o. ~~ = e2:t: so that ~~ = 1and v = !e2:t:.(.cosx + cd + cosx + C2.

Find the following integrals using any method.) dx x10 + Xll + X12) dx dx I I I I I i4 xe-". Evaluate the following integrals using integration by parts. sin x dx (integrate twice). Evaluate the following integrals using a substitution. x < 1.1 dx +5 d x z cos ( _z2) dz 4cosh(x) . I(x) = { x3 .3 e2". (x + 1) sinxdx x2e'" dx In x dx by using u = In x and dv = 1.. (iii) X x < 0.e'" dx (vi) lev's -ds (vii) 10 5 e= dz VB fo7r xsin(x2) 9 dx (ii) (iii) (iv) 137r/2 sinxdx 7r/2 11/2 -dx 16 1/4 (viii) e-. x < 1. Evaluate (i) (i) I (~ l-: + I+ I I (x9 sinh(2x) +X5) dx (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) e-14". Find EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 4. (vi) (i) I I I I 1 dx o x2 .y --dy 2. (iv) 1v'U(U+1)dU (v) I ~+ 1 x2 dx (let x = sinhu). Find te= dx 2 I(x) dx where I(x) = { 1.2 dx x+2 x2 +4x --dy 1 ylny 2x3y'7x4 . 1.. 6.7 1. x2:1.. .2x . (i) (ii) j_11 I(x) dx where (ii) _x2. 2: o. x. (iii) 10 I I l="» cosz sinz dz x2 sinxdx 00 I(x) dx where I(x) = { x~.58 INTEGRATION 5. 10 10 10 7r x (i) (ii) fo7r x cos 12 xdx sin(3x) dx (--) X 3 (v) 57r 4 1/ 7r/4 3 -sin dx (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. (i) 12. x2:1.ffj 5. (iv) j_11 I(x) dx where I(x) = Ix31.dx x3 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 2.

DDITION If A and Bare m x n matrices such that A= [ au au . h21 [ bml then A+B = [ :~ :~~ . . [~ ~] + [ ~] cannot be done. 1 . EXAMPLES 1.CHAPTER MATRICES 6 6. i~ 1 [~~ + [-~ 379 3 -14 -~ -~ 1 1 = [-~ 6 -7 ~ 10 ~ 1 2.1 A. U22 amI au + bu + h22 ai n a2n + bIn + h2n . + bmi amn+ bmn Addition of matrices of different sizes is not defined. amI bu and B= .

BA. a22 . . If A = [ -~ 4 2 9] -~ ~ AB [-~3 ~ -~] . EXAMPLES I . a.. [1 2] 3412 [1 -1] = [3 75 3] 2 [1 -1] [1 2] [-2 -2] ... . . . where Gij = ail b1j + Gij is the dot product of row i of A and column j of B. ..1m <l2m . . . .. that is. al2 .. . . . matrices are noncommutative.. . In general AB ai2 b2j + . 1 and B= [ bu ~1 b. #. 1234 = 710 3.. + That is. .. 10 -9 .] [ -q = [ -i and B= -4 -1 2 then 2 -1 12 -~ 3 0 -4 -1 = [ -8+0+27 6+0+3 -4+ 0+6 -28 -4 8+0-36 -6+ 0-4 4+0-8 -16+ 2-9] 12 -1-1 -8+ 1-2 =[ 1: -10 2 -23] . . .60 MATRICES 6. If a. .. arl ar2 arm bnl bn2 then AB = C is an m x n matrix. . .12 ~2 . .2 MULTIPLICATION AB is defined if A is size m x rand B size r x n. . airbrj. .ll A= [ <l2l . .

for all n x n matrices A. 4.2 6+ 4. 6. is and is defined such that. A.4 .2 .6 . IA=AI= EXAMPLE The 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 identity matrices are .IDENTITY 61 while BA = = = [ -2 0 3 2 -4] 0 1 -4 -1 [ 4 2 9] -3 -1 1 2 12 -8 .3 IDENTITY The identity matrix.2 -22 -10 -24 ] 2 2 1 [ 22 9 21 f: AB.8] 0+0+2 0+0+1 0+0+2 [ 12+ 12.1 27 . defined only for square matrices (n x n).4 -18 + 2 .8 -4 .

(AB)t = Bt At EXAMPLE .4 TRANSPOSE The transpose of a matrix is formed by writing its columns as rows.] am2 a2n amn EXAMPLES I. (cA)t = cAt 4." ] U2n amn then At = [ au an . that is. If A ~ [~ _~ 1 men A' ~ [~ ~ _:]. then I. if A= [ U2l an aml al2 a22 a. (At)t = A 2. If A and Bare matrices and c is a scalar.62 MATRICES 6. The transpose of an m x n matrix A is an n x m matrix denoted by At. (A + B)t = At + Bt 3. aln au a22 aml a 7.

34 1 2 1 -1 2 1= -1- 4 = -5. I~ :1 7 2 .be.DETERMINANTS 63 6. 2 -3 1 = -3(5 = -75 + ~1 18) . . all The determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix A= [ an a:n (expanding by the first row). 2.21 . 4. 75 026 003 1 _112 0 ~I+o+o =lx2x3=6 is not possible. 2 1= 4. EXAMPLES 1. -3 21 4 5 6 = -31 5 -3 ~ 1.2(4 -12) + + 11 .: I (-12 -10) 3.6 = -2.5 DETERMINANTS The determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix A = [~ :] is det(A) = IAI = ad .

20)] . + <linCin. (cofactor expansion along the det(A) = <lilCi1 ph column) + <li2Ci2 + . EXAMPLES I. 1 5 3 -5 4 -3 4 -4 2 0 1 9 0 3 -2 -7 (Expansion is along the 3rd column since it has two zeros..3(12 + 36) + 2(16 . The full cofactors matrix for the previous question is found by crossing out each row and column . (cofactor expansion along the ith row) where Cij is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted.36) . multiplied by (-1) i+J. 3.64 MATRICES 6. The matrix of elements Cij is called the cofactors matrix..15) + 2(20 .1 COFACTOR EXPANSION The determinant of an n x n matrix may be found by choosing a row (or column) and summing the products of the entries of the chosen row (or column) and their cofactors: det(A) = o. + 2[1(-9 2.[1(-28 -4 4 5 -5 3 -7 + (-2)(-1)7 1 3 2 4 -4 -3 9 43 + 15) - 3(28 ..39] + 2[-45 .144 + 8] = -310.ljC1j + a2jC2j + . ~~. + tlnjCnj.12)] = -[13 .. 1 10 = -21 1 1 21 = -2(11 2) = 2 by expanding along the second row.5.) = (O)Cn + (I)C23 + (O)C33 + (-2)C43 1 3 2 = (1)(-1)5 = .

INVERSE

65

in tum remembering to multiply by (-l)i+j:

Cll = +11 ~ ~ 1= -2 C12=<-I)1 ~ ~ 1=2 C13 = +11 ~ ~ 1=
and so one, giving 0

6.6

INVERSE

A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists B such that

AB=BA=I.
B is denoted A-I and is unique.

If det(A) = 0 then a matrix is not invertible.

EXAMPLE
The matrix B = [~

~] is the inverse of A =

AB =
and

[31 5] [ -12 2
3

[-i -!] -5] = [1 0] = I 1
since

3

0

BA =

[ -12 -5] [3 5] = [1 0]
12

0

1

=

I.

66

MATRICES

6.6.1

TWO BY TWO MATRICES

For 2 x 2 matrices, if A = [~

~]

then

A
If det(A)=

-1 _

- ad _ be

1 [d -ab]
-e

providing ad - be

f- O.

ad - be = 0 then A -1 does not exist.

EXAMPLES I.IfA=[!

~

2. If A = [ ~

] ;]

then

A -1

= __!_ [
-2

4 -3

-2 ]

1 .

.

then

A -1 = ~ [ 3 30

-2 ]

1

6.6.2

PARTITIONED MATRIX

Inverses can also be found by considering the partitioned matrix

then performing row operations until the final partitioned matrix is of the form

EXAMPLE The inverse of 121 010 [1 1 0

1

can be calculated using row reductions where R3 --t R3 - Rl means that Row 3 becomes the old

INVERSE

67

Row 3 minus Row I.

[ [ [ [ [
hence

2 110 10 0 1 ~ 10 0 0

~

2 1 10 1 0 01 -1 -1 -1 0

1

n n n
J] j]

R3-t R3 -Rl

~0

2 1

1

1

R3-t R3+ R2

0
-1

10 01 -1 1

1 1 -2 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

0

1

Rl-t Rl- 2R2
R3-t -R3

0 0 0 -1 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

1

Rl-t Rl- R3

[
6.6.3

2 1 ~1

~r[
=

~

-1 1 ~ -1 -1

]

COFACTORS MATRIX

The inverse of a n x n matrix A can be found by considering the transpose of the cofactors matrix divided by the determinant:

A-I = _1_Ct

IAI

where Gil is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted., multiplied by (-1 )i+l. The matrix C is called the cofactors matrix.

7 MATRIX MANIPULATION Matrices do not behave as real numbers. Since IAI = -1we get A-1=__!_ -1 [ -1 ~ -~ _~ ]T 0 -1 = [ ~ -~ ~ 1 -1 -1 ]. 2.68 MATRICES EXAMPLES l. When manipulating matrix expressions a distinction is made between multiplying from the left (pre-multiplication) and multiplying from the right (post-multiplication).If then Cll =I ~ ~ 1=0 ~1=1 C21=(-1)1~ and so on. The matrix has cofactors matrix C= hence the inverse [ -2 2 0] 3 -3 4 -2 1 0 6. .

pre-multiply both sides by A -1 post-multiply both sides by C-1 simplifying 2. If Av = AV then A3~ = AA A~ = AA(A~) = AAA~ =A2Av =A3V. 3. then A3 is A3 (PDP-1) (PDP-1) (PDP-1) PD (P-1 P) DP-1 PDP-1 PD2p-1 PDP-1 PD3p-1 since pp-1 = I again since pp-1 = I. . If A = PDP-1.MATRIX MANIPULATION 69 EXAMPLES 1. then A -1 has eigenvalue 1/ A for the same eigenvector. 4. If Av = AV then if A-1 exists then A-1 Av = A-1 AV = AA-lV v = AA-lV :x-~=A 1 -1 ~.9 on eigenvalues since this example shows that if A has eigenvalue A. Given that ABC = I find B? ABC (A-1A)BC IB(CC-1) B I A-1I A-lIC-1 A-1C-1 (CA)-l. with eigenvector~. See Section 6.

3z = 5 3x+6y . EXAMPLES I. If A is invertible then x = A -1h. For example. The augmented matrix is an easy way of writing systems of equations.5z .2Rl means each element in Row 3 becomes the old Row 3 element minus two times the corresponding Row 2 element.5z = 2 is written as or Ax e b. x+y+2z=1 2x+4y . For the following system 2x x+y+2z + 4y .3z 1 5 =2 3x+6y .8 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of m linear equations invol ving n unknowns may be written as a matrix equation. Systems of equations are typically solved by Gaussian elimination. Hence R3 -+ R3 .70 MATRICES 6. Gaussian Elimination allows • a multiple of one row to be added to another row. • a row to be multiplied by a (non-zero) number.

y = 40.2R1 R3 . 2.5y -2 4 -x + 3y written as Ax = b such that The matrix A has inverse A -1 = [~ ~] so . Consider the system 2x .3R1 R2 --t R2/2 R3 --t R3 . z = 11.SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 71 the augmented matrix is [l 1 4 2 -3 6 -5 [! j] 1 [! -: 1 [! 1 [" 1 2 3 2 -7 -11 1 1 3 2 -7/2 -11 1 1 0 2 -7/2 -1/2 n 1 R2 R3 --t --t R2 .3R2 1 3/2 ] -11/2 R3 --t -2R3 o o 1 0 2 -7/2 1 3/~ ] 11 This gives the straightforward solution by back substitution of x = -61.

-1. y.. . t) = (5. and then express z . If you perform row operations to obtain (where a.0) + t( -1. .72 MATRICES After performing Gaussian reduction by row operations the three cases (no solution. t is some parameter. 2. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ then if k3 ¥- ° o Ode k2 0 0 k3 b C kl 1 you get no solution.3. 3 .t = -1 so (e. one solution) are typically represented by the following: I. EXAMPLE To solve the system: perform row reductions to obtain 1 -2 011 -1 [ 000 and setting z = t gives y = 3 - t and x .2(3 . f are non-zero real numbers) then you get one unique solution. .t. y in terms of t. 3.1) or a line in three dimensional space.t) .z) = (5 . infinite solutions. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ o Ode kl k2 00 0 C b 1 then you get an infinite number of solutions that represent a line where you let z = t.t.

To find the eigenvectors solve 1 _A 1] ~ = O.9 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS If A is an n x n matrix then a scalar A is called an eigenvalue of A.l. 1). if associated with it there is a non-zero vector~.All To find the eigenvectors solve = o. t ERe.EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS 73 6.~] then [~ ~] [ . Hence the eigenvector corresponding to Al = 1 is t(l.Yl = 0 so Yl is a free variable. EXAMPLE To find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for set up the characteristic equation which gives X}.1 = 0 so Al [ -A = 1 and A2 = -1 are the eigenvalues. such that Av = AV. called an eigenvector. '" '" To find the eigenvalues solve the characteristic equation IA .~ ] = [ ~ ] .2 = -I let ~ = [ . . Yl ] then Both equations give Xl . . where t is any number. For ). For Al = 1 let VI '" = [ X.

789 6. EXAMPLE A 3 x 3 diagonal matrix has the form [~ g ~]. . The length of the eigenvector is unimportant hence it is convenient to write Vi = (1.10 TRACE The trace of a matrix is the sum of its diagonal elements. 369 6.) EXAMPLE The trace of [ 4 1 23] 5 6 = 1 + 5 + 9 = 15. V2 = (1. (Note that the trace is also equal to the sum of the eigenvalues. EXAMPLE The matrix [ 2 1 2 3] 5 6 is symmetric. -1).11 SYMMETRIC M.74 MATRICES Both equations give X2 + Y2 = 0 so Y2 is a free variable.12 DIAGONAL MATRICES A diagonal matrix is one with only terms along the main diagonal. -1). Hence the eigenvector corresponding to ).2 = -1 is p(l.1). '" '" 6.ATRICES The matrix A is symmetric if A = At.

Find At. (Answers are given in Chapter 14) BA and the trace(A): 5. (i) A = [! ~] 8. solve 4x -y 4y -z 0 0 -4x + 17y - 4z o. Solve the system of equations 2 4 -S.12z 7. ] 1 Sx+3y-7z o 3 o~ o S o 2.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 75 6. if it exists. (iii) infinite solutions. First showing that a non-trivial solution does indeed exist.13 1. At A. Find the inverse. Find the determinants of the following matrices. Find A (i) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS + B. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A: (i) -5 (ii) A= [~ -:] (ii) 4. (ii) no solution. FindAB: ] J] 1 1 -1 4y . 1 A=[~ B = [ -~ (ii) A=[ B=[ (iii) o 3 (i) o [ [ ~ 6 2 o 2 1 2 1 1 -7 -6 2 6 4 9 1] -1 -1 -2 1 -1 ] -2 7 (ii) ~~ o ! ~] -7 6 (iii) [! x+2y-z oo o o o~ ~1 -S 6. for the system B= [ ~ j] (iii) A = [ _~ ] B = [1 3. of the matrices (i) [~ !] ~ (ii) 12 1 [ ~3 ] A=[~ 1 2 o~ ] . For what values of a and c do you get (i) one solution. AAt: (i) A= [ ~ -1 3 3 -1 1 1 x+5y+z x+6y-z 2x 0 2 c? + ay + z 9. AB.

76 This page intentionally left blank .

or geometrically. The vector (1.0) points in the x direction and has length 1. y v b a ~------------------~x The vector has both length II~II and direction. . EXAMPLES 1.1 VECTOR NOTATION A vector in R2 is represented by an ordered pair ~ = (a. 2. The vector (1. by a directed line segment in the plane.CHAPTER VECTORS 7 7. 1) points in a direction with angle 7r / 4 to the x axis. b).

2. ~ = (1. -3. If i = (1.-v 'V .x. 4~ = (4.2) is a five dimensional vector so:e E 7. 2. If~ = (l.2) and ~ = (2.x. . ~ = (Wi. vn). V2.4) and ~ = (1.16).0) and j = (0..Vn+wn) V+W (Vi+Wl>tl2+W2.. (1.. + ~ = (3.2 ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION If ~ = (Vl.2 + x... . . .3) then.7.5.x) 4. (CIJt.-v . -1.0) is not defined. cv EXAMPLES I. wn) and c is a scalar constant then . ~ = (3. R5. .1) then .7). 3. = W2.78 VECTORS A vector in R!' is represented by an ordered n-tuple EXAMPLES I.6) . ~+ ~ and = (2.1. If ~ = (1.CiJn).3. -4.-v + 3j ~ .CiJ2. + (4. ..-v = (2..3) = 2i then ~ .2.x).4) is a three dimensional vector so:e E R3.1 + x. .5.I..-4.

1.3)11= 3.0)11= 4.0) = (4. 11(4.3)11 =V1 The triangle inequality states that That is the length of the sum of vectors must be less than the length of the two individual vectors added.. 3 2 (4.3 LENGTH The length of a vector in B" is given by II~II = Jv~+ vi + .1.3) and 11(0.LENGTH 79 7. 11(1.3) + (4.. + v~. EXAMPLES I.ji6 =4 2.J6 + 1 +4+ 1 +9 =.0) 2 3 4 .11(4..3) (4.2. EXAMPLE (0. 11(1.2.1)11 = Vip + 22 + 12 = .3) (0.3)11 = V32 y 4 + 42 =5 < 3 + 4.

Vectors in If3 are often written as the sum of the components in the direction of the Cartesian unit vectors: v= . (1.80 VECTORS 7. .V2. (VI.1).3) = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 3.0) = 7.... (0.0)..0.4 CARTESIAN UNIT VECTORS The Cartesian unit vectors for R3 are t=(O...1.2.2.. EXAMPLES I.:.. (1. (1.1) = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 2. EXAMPLES I...5 DOT PRODUCT If ~ and'!!. 1I~1I2 ='!.V3) = VI i ~ + V2j~ + V3k.0)..2. ~=(1.3) = i + 2j + 3~ 2j 2.3)· (1..are vectors in R!' then the dot product is defined by This is also called an inner product on H".O.'!.3)· (1.1.: .. The result of a dot product is a scalar...2.2. ~=(O.

-1) = 0 hence cosO = O.2) are still perpendicular to (1. -4) are perpendicular since ~ . Two vectors. b) = (-2. 2. The angle 0 between (1.2.2) write (a.2) = a + 2b = 0 hence the simplest choice is (a. For example (2. 2.2. (1. . EXAMPLES 1.1.3) .1. 3) and (1..2. 1) is such that 6 J42' 2.DOT PRODUCT 81 The angle 0 between two vectors is given by EXAMPLES 1. -1) are at right angles since (1. = 2+2- 4 = O. perpendicular to (1.1) although any multiple of this will be perpendicular to (1. (a.1) and ~ = (2. To find a vector. 1. -1) and (-4. (1. (1. b).1.2). '!!. b) .2).3) and (1. ~ and ~ are orthogonal if they are perpendicular to each other and U·V =0. ~ = (1.

-6).2.4) .2) x (1.0) x (0.1) = is: 1 1 = (2. -1. 1£2Vt) EXAMPLES I.44).82 VECTORS 7.6 CROSS PRODUCT If ~ and!: are two vectors in R3. .1).2. then the cross product ~ x ~ is defined in determinant notation by ~j tt X 11 k 1£3 V3 = 1£1 Vl 1£2 V2 'U3 V3 = = "" i 1 'U.1. then w=uxv= "" "" "" 2 -3 12 4 = ~ 1 -~ "" i j "" k 1 -6 1.~ 11~ -12) -! "" -! 1+ ~ 11~ -~ 1 = i(18 .0) = i "" j k 1 1 1 -1 ° 2 = (2.2) x (1.1) is: "" i j 2 0 k 3 1 (1.1£IV3.0) (1. -3. 1) and ~ = (12.1. If ~ = (2.1£3V2. 1£3Vl .-v 2.2.0) = (0. 2 (1£2V3 .-2).0.0.0. V2 . The cross product (1. . .0. 1. 4. .-v ~ = k.j(-12 ~ ~ + ~ + 36) k(8 = 14i "" + 24j + 44k = "" (14.2 V2 1_ j 1 1£1 "" Vl 1£3 V3 1+ k 1 'Ul "" 1£IV2 - VI 'U.-2). The cross product (1.4. That is i x j . (1.24.2. 3.3) x (1.3) x (1.-1.

1. b. Any vector (a.1. 0.24. (14.44) = 28 .2.2. 2. .UNEAAINDEPENDENCE 83 Note that the result of taking the cross product of two vectors is another vector where the direction of ~ x ~ is perpendicular to both ~ and~.J U2.1) is not a linear combination of (1.7 LlNEA. (0.1. 2.. . Note that (2. -1) . (1.1.-2)· (1.4. .1).3) is a linear combination of (1. + CnUn t"'o.0) since we can never combine the three vectors to get the third component of (1.J t"'o. -2) .Cn are constants.J where Cl.3) = 2(1..0). 1. 11 11 = ClUl t"'o. (1. -6) . In a previous example (2.24. EXAMPLES 1.3.0) = 0.7. (0.1. (2.7..1).1. . -6) = (14. -3. (0. = (2.0) (2.0).. -2). (0. Un if it can be written as + C2U2 + . 3. EXAMPLES 1..24.44) and (2. -1.0.. 0).0).1) .R INDEPENDENCE A vector ~ is a linear combination of the vectors Ul.(0. . In a previous example (1.J t"'o. 1.2..0). I)}. Similarly (12. 1) x (12.0) since (2. (14. 7.0) + 3(0.4.2. c) in R3 can be found from a linear combination of {(I.2) = 0 and 2..72 + 44 = O.2) x (1.1. (2.0.44) = 0. (1.2... 0).2.-1.

..84 VECTORS A set of vectors U1. for example Cl = 1. Cs= 1.0)..0) implies Cl = Cl+C2+CS=0 C2 which gives Cl = C2= Cs= O..0). 3.0) = (0..1).1.1) + Cs(0.0). The vectors (1.2.. More than two vectors in R2 can never be independent. 1. C2 = -1. .2. Since we have two equations in three unknowns we can always find a non-zero Cl.. (1.-v + csk = ai + bj + ck ~ ~ ...0) + C2 (0. C2. =0 are Cl = C2= . ° =° 2. 1. (1.0) are independent since Cl(1. + CnUn . c) = Cl i ~ + C2j .0.0) are dependent since implies Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 2Cl + 2C2 = O. one being Cl = 1. if the only constants Cl.. k are independent since for any vector v ~~~ ~ = (a. 4.0) are dependent (not linearly independent) since Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 Cl+C2=0 0=0 has an infinite number of solutions.. (1.1.. b. C2= -1. EXAMPLES I.. .. b. (2. .0.c) it is possible to write (a.+ C2U2 + .1.1). The vectors i.. Cs = 1. (2. (0. . Cn . (1.. . = Cn = O.. i. Cs to satisfy these equations.2).1.. U2....-v hence if ~ = ~ then Cl = C2= Cs= O. (0. Un are linearly independent that satisfy ClUJ. .

UNEAAINDEPENDENCE

85

A set of vectors is linearly independent if the determinant of the matrix with vectors as columns is not zero.

EXAMPLES I. For (1, 1,0), (0,2,1), (0, 1,0) the determinant
100 12 010 1

=

-1

f:-

0

hence the vectors are independent. 2. For (1,1,0), (2,1,0), (1,0,0) the determinant

121

110
000

=

0

hence the vectors are dependent. We can show that

(2,1,0) = (1,1,0)
so they are not independent of each other.

+ (1,0,0)

86

VECTORS

7.8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS +~, 3~
II~II:

(Answers are given in Chapter 14)
1. Evaluate the sum ~ and 5. Find ~ . ~, ~ the u and v: (i) ~=(1,2,1),~=(-1,3,1) (ii) ~ = (-3,2, -1), ~ = (6,1,1) (iii) ~ = (2,3, 0), ~ = (4, 1, -2) (iv) ~ = (0,0, 0), ~ = (1,4,3) (v) ~ = (3,3, 3), ~ = (-1, -1, -1) (vi) ~ = (1,2, 4), ~ = (2,4, -2) 6. For the previous question verify that ~ = ~ orthogonal (at right angles) to both ~ and ~. 7. Determine whether the following vectors are linearly independent (i) {(4, 1), (1, 2)}
X~ X~

and cos

e where e is the angle between

(i) ~ = (-2, -1), ~ = (1,1) (ii) ~ = (3,4), ~ = (4,3) (iii) ~=(-2,1),~=(-1,-1) (iv) ~ = (3,4, 2), ~ = (1,1,1) (v) ~ = (3,1,1, 0), ~ = (1,0,1,1) (vi) ~ = 2i_ + 3j (vii) u = i
r'V r'V

+~, ~ = i_ r'V

j-~

+ j,
r'V

v = i - 3j
r'V

2. For the above vectors verify the triangle inequality that

is

II~+ ~II :::; I~II+ II~II· I
3. In the diagram below write down the two vectors ~ and ~ in algebraic form then find and draw the vector ~

+ ~.

y

(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2)} (iii) {(I, 1), (1,2), (3, I)}

6 5 4 3 2 1
x

(~) {(1,1,1),(0,2,0),(1,3,2)}
(v) {(I, 1,1), (0,2,0),(1,3,

I)}

(vi) {(I, 2, 0,1), (1, 1,0,1), (2, 1,3,1), (0,2, -3, I)} 8. Find a number c so that (1, 2, c) is orthogonal to (2,1,2). 9. Find the vector which goes from the point (1, 3,1) to the point (2, 5, 3). What is the length of this vector? 10. Show that the line through the points (1, 1, 1) and (2, 3, 4) is perpendicular to the line through the points (1,0,0) and (3, -1,0). 11. Show that a . (b xc) can be written as
al a2 b2
C2

a3 b3
C3

1
4. Evaluate the sum ~

2

3

4

5

6

a . (b xc) =

bl

+ ~ and II~+ ~II:

I

C1

= Ulb2C3 - alb3c2

- a2blc3 - a3b2C1.

(i) ~ = (3,2, -1), ~ = (-1, -2, 1) (ii) ~ = (1,0, 9), ~ = (-2, -2, -2) (iii) ~ = (4, -4, -3), ~ = (8,7,1)

+ a2b3C1 + a3blc2
12. Verify the above equation using the vectors a = (1,1,2), b = (1,0,1), c = (0,1,1).

CHAPTER

8

ASYMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS

8.1

LIMITS

As x

-+ 0 then

I. xn

< xm

if 1 < m

< n, 0 < x < 1

2. lim !(x)
;l)-tO" ;l)-tO

+ g(x) "

= lim !(x)
z-tO z-tO

+ ;l)-tO g(x) lim

3. lim !(x)g(x)
;l)-tO"

= lim !(x) lim g(x)
;l)-tO z-tO

assuming lim !(x) and lim g(x) exist.

EXAMPLES
" 1. (0.1 )3

<. (0.1 )2

3. lim sin x cos x = lim sinx lim cos z = 0 x 1 = 0
;l)-tO z-tO z-tO

4. lim

;l)-tO

x(x - 1) 1 =x(x - 2) 2

+ (x .. x2 2 x3 + xcosO x3 -- sinO .x IIm--=1 "'-tl x-I I' .) + x!.) 2 Maclaurin series + a) = + (x . 2 3 2 6 .88 ASVMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS 8.0. z-tZe lim f(X)) = lim f'(x)f 9 .3 TAYLOR SERIES f(x) f(x = f(O) 1(0. cos x 1m -=1 1 8.- x3 6 coso + ..)1'(0..(O) + ~! f"(x) + .. sin x = sin 0 + x sin' 0 + = sinO x2 2 sin" 0 + 6 sin'" 0 + . 0 0 00 00 as x -+ Xc then lim g'(x). "'-to x = "'-to I'. 2x Im-= 2 1 2.'.) 2! + ..x z-tz< z-tz< EXAMPLES I.. eX = 1+ x x + ...or - f(x) 9x . Taylor series EXAMPLES I.. '. =x--+··· 6 2..0.. sin x 1m 2 "'-tl I.+ x + .)2 1"(0.2 L'HOPITAL'S RULE If -( ) has lUlllt .

4. < ell"'. x -700. < e~/I0 _ ~ as x -+ 00. 2.x2 + 2x + 1 as x -+ 00... if if if m<n a>O a <0. ell' 2 cosh e ell' as x -+ 00. x2 + 1 2x +x+3 x2 + 1 2x3+x+3""" -+ x2 1 -+ 2x 2 -2 as x -+ 00... -2 > e x 2 as x -7 00. > ell"'. 7..2 < (100)0. .4 ASYMPTOTICS As x -+ +00 then Xffi Xffi Xffi n < x.... x2 1 2x3""" 2x as as x -700. EXAMPLES 1.. e2ll' 2e2ll' -.. 9. x +". 8.5 x9 1 3.-. 5.ASYMPTOTlCS 89 8. 6. (100)0.

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