Experiment 3 Title: Hydrolysis of Salts and choice of Indicators / Titration Curve Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

To determine the degree of hydrolysis of NH4+ To find out the suitable indicator that needed for acid-base titration To find out the pH value of Sodium salts To determine the hydrolysis of salts To study the relationship between strength of an acid and the strength of its conjugate base 6. To determine the pH of ammonium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium formate, sodium carbonate, and distilled water 7. To carry out titration between sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and also ethanoic acid in order to find out the suitable indicator for each titration

Introduction: There are many different types of salts can be found to exists in nature. The sea contains many salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate and potassium bromide. Besides, the earth crust is made up of minerals containing various types of salts such as sodium fluoride, magnesium sulphate, lead (II)Sulphide and also calcium carbonate. A salt is an ionic compound consisting of a cation such as metal ion or an ammonium ion from a base and an anion from an acid. Thus, in another word, salt is a compound formed when the hydrogen ion in an acid is replaced by a matal ion or an ammonium ion. Salt also can be formed in a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base. Acid + Base Salt + Water NaCl (aq) + H20(l)

HCL(aq) + NaOH (aq)

They are composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Cl ), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COO ) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (F ), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42 ). There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyse to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are basic salts and salts that hydrolyse to produce hydronium ions in water are acid salts. Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts. Zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in the same molecule but are not considered to be salts. Examples included amino acids, many metabolites, peptides and proteins. Salts can appear to be clear and transparent (sodium chloride), opaque, and even metallic and lustrous (iron disulfide). In many cases the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries (boundaries between crystallites), larger crystals tend to be

and corresponding cation. for instance. However. strong bases dissociate essentially to completely in water to give OH. Monoprotic acids include HF. or donate protons to water. H2SO4 can donate two hydrogen ions and also diprotic acid H3PO4 capable donating three protons in successive steps. HBr. are monoprotic acids. The reaction then said to be in equilibrium. dissociating to form RCOO. Of course. Salts are strong electrolytes which may be prepared by evaporating to dryness a solution containing equivalent amounts of an appropriate acid and base. When a salt dissolved in water. In contrast. only fraction of the molecules of weak acids and weak bases react with water to produce ions. Depending on the relative strength of these ions as acids or bases. the crystalline lattice structure is destroyed and the solution may be regarded as containing a large number of positive and negative ions. According to Arrhenius definition. HCL. the hydrolysis of salts. This is concerned with the reactions of these salts with water. whereas more . they can either capture protons from water. Instead. Almost less than 5 %of weak electrolytes dissociates into ions in solution. HNO3 and HNO2. Similarly. an acid is a substance like HCL that dissolve in water to produce H+ ions (protons) and a base is a substance like NaOH that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide (OH-) ions.(aq) A double arrow is used to indicate that both the forward and reverse reactions occur simultaneously. so weak acids and weak bases are weak electrolytes. Acid-base reactions are essential in both biochemistry and industrial chemistry. salts are ionic compounds and they can dissolve in water. For instance.and H+. For instance. We can state that strong acids react essentially completely with water to give H+ and the corresponding anion. while polycrystalline aggregates look like white powders. HCL(g) H2O(l) H+(aq) + ClNaOH(s) H2O(l) Na+(aq) + OHAcid differs in the number of hydrogen ions they can donate.transparent. the solution contains significant amounts of both reactants and products. strong acids and strong bases are both strong electrolytes. In additional. polyprotic acids can donate more than one hydrogen ion per molecule. monoprotic acids are compound that are capable of donating a single proton per molecule. such as acetic acid (CH3COOH). H3PO4 (l) H20(l) H+(aq) + H2PO4-(aq) H2PO4 (aq) HPO4 2-(aq) H+(aq) + HPO4 2 . Thus.(aq) H+(aq) + PO4 3 . HI. the reaction reaches a state in which the concentration of each species in solution remains constant. Over time. some salts are opaque. and thus determining the pH of the solutions. All carboxylic acids that contain a single COOH group. so forward reaction does not go to completion.

HI. 2. KOH. 8.1. 7. 3. 9. 6. common weak acids include HCN.than 95 % is present in un-dissociated form. 2. Bromophenol blue indicator Phenolphthalein indicator HCL HOAc. Apparatus: 1. Chemicals: 1. 4. 5. HF and etc. 8. However. HNO3. H2S. HBr. and H2SO4.5 mol/dm3 sodium carbonate Sodium Hydroxide. HCIO4. NaOH Conical Flask (s) Measuring Cylinder (s) Retort stand White Tile Electronic pH meter Burette Pipette 50 ml Beaker(s) Procedures: 1. Then the pH of 1 mol/dm3 of NH4Cl solution was measured by using an electronic pH meter. 4. 5. The apparatus was set up as shown in diagram 3. ethanoic acid 1mol/dm3 ammonium chloride 1mol/dm3 sodium acetate 1mol/dm3 sodium formate 0. While the most common strong bases are ionic compounds that contain the hydroxide ion as the anion such as NaOH. Common strong acids are HCL. . 10 ml of 1 mol/dm3 NH4Cl was pipetted into a 50 ml beaker by using a pipette. 7. and Ca(OH)2. 3. 6. 2.

and also 10ml of 0. The pH of each solution was measured by using an electronic pH meter.3. NaOH by setting up burette with retort stand. This method was repeated twice to get an average volume reading of NaOH used in titration. The HCl and HOAc in conical flask were titrated with Sodium Hydroxide. Few drops of Bromophenol blue indicator was added into the solution of conical flask in order to determine the volume of NaOH used by observing the yellow colour of indicator change into blue colour. Sodium formate HCOONa.5 mol/dm3 Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 solutions were separately pipetted into 3 different 50 ml beakers by using pipette. Then. . 4. 10 ml of 1 mol/dm3 Sodium acetate CH3COONa.

95 25.00 2. Ammonium Chloride.25 8.50 34. The method 4 was repeated by using Phenolphthalein Indicator and the average volume reading of NaOH used in titration was recorded. Sodium Formate.50 44.70 17.40 0. CH3COONa 3.50 2.50 2.50 17.15 7. Na2CO3 pH value of H2O : 7.50 8.60 10.50 24. Sodium Carbonate.20 8.24 Table 2: Reading(s) Initial volume / cm3 of NaOH used Final volume/ cm3 of NaOH used Volume/ cm3 of NaOH used Average volume/ cm3 of NaOH used Bromophenol Blue Indicator HCl HOAc 0.50 4.5.50 8. Sodium Acetate. NH4Cl 2.90 34.90 8.375 8.40 Phenolphthalein Indicator HCl HOAc 8.40 34.27 11.00 pH Value 5.45 25.23 8.00 10.525 .45 2.90 2. The colour of indicator change from colourless to pink was noted in order to determine the total volume of NaOH used.95 8. HCOONa 4.00 10. Results: Table 1: The pH value of different salt solutions Salts Solution 1.

Do you expect an ammonium chloride solution to be neutral? Answer: No 2. Is the solution more acidic or basic than pure water? Answer: It is more acidic than pure water. Write an equation for the reaction causing this. The dissociation of ammonium chloride in water will produce hydroxonium ions (H3O+).Questions: Part A: Ammonium Chloride 1. 5. Bronsted defined an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. What are concentrations of the following ions in solution? Answer: a. What is water in this reaction? Answer: Since NH4Cl is an acid substance which act as a proton donor.20.0 mol/dm^3 c. thus water is a base which accept the proton from NH4Cl. [H3O+] = 6. 7. but acidic. Measure the pH of a 1 mol/dm3 solution of ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride is the salt resulted from the reaction between strong acid and weak base. From the data given. On what previously obtained EXPERIMENTAL evidence do you base your above answer? Answer: Ammonium chloride solution is not expected to be neutral. [NH3]= 6.0 mol/dm^3 d.58 x 10^-9 mol/dm^3 e. [Cl-]= 1. [NH4+] = 1. the water which reacts with NH4Cl will receive the proton from it. it has a pH value of 5. [OH-]= 1. Write an expression for the hydrolysis constant Ka (NH4+) Answer: Ka(NH4+) = [NH3][H3O+]/ [NH4+] 8.31 x 10^-6 mol/dm^3 . Answer: NH4+(aq) + H20 (l) NH3(aq) + H3O+(aq) 6.20 4. 3. Answer: pH = 5.31 x 10^-6 mol/dm^3 b.

0mol/dm^3) = 3.1 4.9. CH3COONa HCOONa Na2CO3 Sodium Acetate Sodium Formate Sodium Carbonate pH 8. Measure the pH of 1M sodium acetate.41x10^-6 1.5 M sodium carbonate solutions. which at the end point.23 [H3O+]/moldm^-3 7. 1 mole dm^-3 sodium formate and 0.31x10^-6mol/dm^3) (1.00 2.08x10^-9 5.41x10^-6 x100% = 1. [CH3COO-] = (1 1.89x10^-12 [OH-]/moldm^-3 1.41 x 10-6 ) mol/dm3 3. and complete the following table.70x10^-3 [Na+]/moldm^-3 1.4 indicator will be used to detect the end point as the ammonium chloride is the salt produced at the end point of titration between a strong acid hydrochloric acid and weak base ammonia.15 7. Answer: Ka(NH4+) = [NH3][H3O+]/[NH4+] = (6.41x10^-6 moldm^-3 b.31 x 10^-6 mol/dm^3 11. What are the concentrations of the following ions in NaAc solution? a. What is the % of hydrolysis of acetate ion? Percentage of hydrolysis = degree of hydrolysis x 100% = 1.41x10^-4% . Part b: Sodium Salts: 1. Now calculate Ka(NH4+).86x10^-7 1.00 1. Realizing that you have a solution of ammonium chloride at the end point of the titration of the strong acid hydrochloric acid and weak base ammonia.00 1.37x10^-8 5.31x10^-6mol/dm^3)(6. [CH3COOH] = 1. What is the degree of hydrolysis of NH4+? Answer: 6.98x10^-11mol/dm^3 10.27 11. what indicator would you use to detect this end point in such a titration of approximately molar solution? Answer: Methyl red that has pH range of 3. pH < 7.

and CO3 2. Derive the mathematical form for a general weak acid H20 + HA H3O+ + Afrom the equation Ka and Kb above. and carbonate ions. This was a strong acid .70x10^-3 mol/dm 3 d)[CO3 2-] = 0. Answer: The basic strength of carbonate ions is bigger than acetate ions. OH-.4983 mol/dm 3 7. HCO3-.> CH3COO. formate. Considering the second protonation is small. find the concentration of H3O+.4. Answer: a)[H3O+] = 5. What indicator would you use for the titration of acetic acid with strong base? Why? Answer: Phenolphthalein. the weaker the conjugate base 10. Write an equation for the reaction of formate ion with water.(aq) 6. CO32. It is because titration of acetic acid with strong base has a range of pH 7 pH11 as their end point. the basic strength of acetate ions is bigger than formate ions. Therefore. the results obtained were quite similar with minor difference. However.> HCOO8. Does this agree with the fact that formic acid is a stronger acid than acetic acid and acetic acid is stronger acid than the bicarbonate ion? Answer: Yes 9. Part c: Acid-base titration with different indicators Answer: For the titration of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid with different indicators.(aq) + H2O HCOOH(aq) + OH. Answer: HCOO.89x10^-12 mol/dm 3 b)[HCO3-] = 1. Comment on the relative basic strengths of acetate.70x10^-3mol/dm3 c)[OH-] = 1. 5. Consequently. phenolphthalein which has a pH range of 8 10 is suitable to test the end point. what is the relationship between the strength of an acid and the strength of conjugate base? Answer: The stronger the acid.in Na2CO3 solution.

0 indicators were suitable for the titration. while the concentration of HOAc when phenolphthalein was added is 0. before and after the end point was reached. . Only phenolphthalein was suitable in the titration. this indicate a small change when 1 mole of NaOH reacts with one mole of HCl. For weak acid and strong base titration. this shows a big difference when 1 mole of NaOH reacts with 1 mole of HOAc. and only phenolphthalein indicator can be used to determine the range of weak acid pH7 11.and strong base titration. Thus. The concentration of HCl when bromophenol blue indicator was added is 0. while the concentration of HCl when phenolphthalein was added is 0. the pH range before and after the end point was 7 11. the results obtained were totally different. On the other hand.6. For the titration of sodium hydroxide and ethanoic ac id with different indicator.025mol/dm^3. Any indicators that change 4.0 4. Any indicator that change colour within the range can be used as the indicator of the titration. and only phenolphthalein indicator which has range of pH8-10 can be used to determine the end point.1mol/dm^3. there was a sharp increase in pH from pH 3 pH 11.6 respectively.084 mol/dm^3. Phenolphthalein has pH range of 8 10 while Bromophenol blue has pH range of 3.085 mol/dm^3. Therefore both of the colour within this range can be used as indicator for this titration. and both indicator are suitable used to determine its end point where both indicators has pH range of 8 10 and 3. Thus. the concentration of HOAc when bromophenol blue indicator was added is 0.

In pure water. we used electronic pH meter to determine the pH of variety salts.1 M solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used. a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia. NH4Cl solution was measured by an electronic pH meter and determined its pH value is 5.00 .00 Neutral solution In part A. Thus. Most modern pH meters are able to determine pH values within 0.0. generally a 0. mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. its pH decreases. the probe may be cleaned using pH -electrode cleaning solution.Acidic solution pH > 7. As a solution s acidity decreases. but also on some volcanoes. Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia (NH3) with (HCl). As these chemicals are corrosive. The aqueous ammonium chloride solution is mildly acidic. NH4Cl. Instead of pH value. the glass probe tip must be kept wet at all times to avoid the pH sensing membrane dehydration and the subsequent dysfunction of the electrode.20. that is a neutral.0X10^-7 M An acidic solution is one which [H+] is larger than 10^ -7 M and so has a pH value that less than 7. having a pH of about one. we may define acidic. Occasionally (about once a month). its pH increases.Discussion: In this experiment. The mineral is especially common on burning coal dumps (formed by condensation of coal-derived gases).01 pH units.00. this process has to be performed in vessels lined with nonreactive materials. in its pure form. it belongs to acidic solution as pH less than 7.00 Basic solution pH = 7. When not in use. A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading. It is an electrode system sensitive to the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is first dipped into a soluti on of known pH to calibrate the instrument. [H+] = [OH-] = 1. sodium chloride.00. the apparatus can be used to measure the pH of any other solution simply by immersing the electrode into it. and resear ch grade instruments are capable of even greater precision in the pH range of 0. A basic solution is on e in which the value of [H+] is less than 10^ -7 M and so has a pH greater than 7. . pH < 7. basic and neutral of one substance. is.0 and 14. Sal ammoniac is a name of natural. Once calibrated. Electronic pH meter is an electronic instrument measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances).00. as a solution s acidity increases. Based on the pH concept. Sodium Chloride.

ammonium chloride acts as a nitrogen source and is used in fertilizers. are much weaker proton donors. the zero point of Fahrenheit temperature scale is determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture of ice. to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary-tract disorders. whereas a base gives OH-. water. The more complete the reaction. Fo r instance. where HCl is completely ionized. and ammonium chloride. in water. leading to crystals forming around the openings of the bottles (mostly appear on those leaking more slowly). H+) from one particle to another. The strength of a Bronsted acid is referring to its ability to donate proton to a base.(aq) NH4+ (aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O(l) Thus. For instance. In the experiment. HC2H3O2. according to Arrhenius. a white cloud forms when vapours from the two bottles mix. Besides. ammonium chloride tends to be more acidic. in oral acid loading test to diagnose distal renal tubular acidosis. the transfer is from H3O+ to NH3. when open bottles of concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated aqueous ammonia are placed side by side. Ammonium chloride can be used to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. as a feed supplement for cattle and as an ingredient in nutritive media for yeast microbiological organisms in biological application. Hence. NH3 + HCl NH 4Cl The aqueous solution of ammonia (a base) is neutralised by an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (an acid). Their reactions with water are far from complete and classify them as weak acids. HCl and HNO3 react completely with water to give H30+ because they are strong proton donors. NH 4Cl NH3 + HCl Ammonium chloride dissolved in water becomes an acid. The cloud consists of tiny crystal of ammonium chloride which form when ammonia and hydrogen chloride gases.NH3 + HCl NH 4Cl This reaction can occur if poorly sealed bottles of household ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and hydrochloric acid are stored in close proximity. ammonium chloride dissolves in water and involves decomposition into ammonia and hydrogen chloride gas. An acid was described as a substance that produces Hydronium ions (H3O+) in water. the relative strength of bronsted bases are assigned according to . For example. An acid-base neutralization. In additional. However. escaping from the open bottles and mix in air and react. acids such as HNO2. is a reaction in which acid and a base combine to produce water and a salt. Both involves the transfer of a proton (a hydrogen ion. ammonium chloride solutions with ammonia(NH3) are also can be used as buffer solutions. The ionic equation is: NH3(aq) + H3O+ (aq) + Cl. It is also used as a systemic acidifying agent in treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis. the stronger the acid. In similarly manner.

1mol/dm^3 of Sodium Hydroxide NaOH with 10 cm3 of HOAc. It changes from colourless pH8 to pink at pH10.0 to blue at pH 4. a burette is filled with a solution of known concentration that will react with analyte.27 respectively. By determine the end point. However. Phen olphthalein has pH range of 8 10 while Bromophenol blue has pH range of 3. Titration is a very useful laboratory technique in which one solution is used to analyze another solution. burette was filled with 0. few drops of Bromophenol blue and Phenolphthalein indicator was added and colour changes was observed. the pH range before and after the end point was 7 11. .6. Any indicators that change colour within this range can be used as indicator for this titration. Therefore both of the indicators were suitable for the titration.base indicator with range lies between pH 8 -10. Oxide ion react completely in water and considered as strong base. Sodium Acetate CH3COONa. such as ammonia. phenolphthalein indi cator is an acid. under goes incomplete reactions with water. In this experiment. Bromophenol blue indicator is an acid-base indicator with its useful range lies between pH 3. However.0 4. For weak acid and strong base titration. The technique involves determining accurately the volume of the standard solution needed to react exactly with a known volume of another solution contained in a conical flask in a reaction for which the stoichiometry reaction is known. In a titration. This was a strong acid and strong base titration.10 cm3 of HCl in order to determine the volume of NaOH used.15 and 7. Sodium Carbonate are stronger base than both salts which has a pH value of 11. there was a sharp increase in pH from pH 3 pH 11.23. the results obtained were quite similar with minor dif ference.1mol/dm^3 of Sodium Hydrox ide NaOH. we classify them as weak bases.6. Any indicator that change colour within the range can be used as the indicator of the titration. before and after the end point was reached. and Sodium Formate HCOONa. For the titration of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid with different indicators. the results obtained were totally different. The reaction then is usually arrange to result in colour change once the reaction is complete. the onset or disappearance of colour indicating the end or titration which also known as the end point of solution by adding small amounts of indicator. are weak bases which have pH value of 8. This process was repeated by titrating 0. For the titration of sodium hydroxide and ethanoic acid with different indicator.0 and 4.their abilities to accept and bind protons. and react with the analyte.+ H2O 2OH- Weaker proton acceptors. Only phenolphthalein was suitable in the titration. in this experiment. O2.6. It changes from yellow at pH 3.

HOAc behaves as a Bronsted acid. the conjugate acid of OH. Occasionally (about once a month).is the othe conjugate acid-base pair. the probe may be cleaned using pH -electrode cleaning solution.. HCHO2 has more H+ than CHO2-.HCHO2 behaves as a Bronsted acid. Because water accepts this proton from HCHO2. HCHO2 (aq) + H2O H30+ (aq) + CHO2-(aq) Thus. Because water accepts this proton from HOAc. So. CHO2 -. . a formic acid molecule donates a proton to the water molecules and changes to a formate ion. the glass probe tip must be kept wet at all times to avoid the pH sensing membrane dehydration and the subsequent dysfunction of the electrode. generally a 0. H30+ Is the conjugate acid of the H20. the conjugate acid of CHO2.is HOAc. H2 O + HOAc = H3O+ + OH-. One member of the pair is called the conjugate acid because it is the pair donor of the two. There are several precautions are needed to be taken in order to prevent incidents occur during the experiment. Thus. water behaves as a Bronsted base. having a pH of about one.1 M solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used. In the experiment. The pair of HOAc and OH. and H20 is the conjugate base of H30+. HOAc has more H+ than OH. a proton acceptor. and the conjugate base of HOAc is OH-. so. when we use an electronic pH meter. thus. The other member is the conjugate base. because it is the pair s proton acceptor. water behaves as a Bronsted base. a proton donor. a proton acceptor. Besides. We should always wear gloves when handle with acids such as concentrated HCl.is HCHO2. H3O+ Is the conjugate acid of H20. Two substances that differ from each other by one proton are referred as to conjugate acid-base pair.In a forward reaction.is the other conjugate acid-base pair. whereas the conjugate base of HCHO2 is CHO2-. The pair HCHO2 and CHO2. a proton donor . and H2O iS the conjugate base of H30+.

Lim Yean Ching (2007). Sodium Acetate CH3COONa. F. Patterns. Sodium Formate. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. In a titration process. Neil D. (Page 606-634) 2. Lim Eng Wah. Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Ninth Edition. Federick A. Chem istry International Student Version. References: 1. Pearson International Edition. Petucci.23 respectively. Jeffry D. 8. (Page 721 -803) 4. 7. only phenolphthalein indictor is suitable to determine their end-point. Averil Eldredge(2007) Chemistry Principles. The degree of hydrolysis of NH4+ is 1.15.Conclusion: The pH value for ammonium chloride NH4Cl. Jesperson (2009). Ralph H. 11.Bhd. Harwood. James E. Madura(2007. William S.2002.20. and Applications. and also Sodium Caronate Na2CO3 are 5. Eng Ngaun Hong.Brady. HCOONa.41x10^-6. (Page 220-229) 3.Geoffrey Herring.Ltd.Senese. Genearl Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications. Chemistry. both phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue indicators are suitable to indicate their end point whereas for a weak acid reacts with strong base. Pearson International Edition (Page 664-695) . strong acid reacts with strong base.27. Fifth Edition.1997).

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