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DOA:20-02-2010 DOR:18-03-2010 DOS: 08-05-2010
Submitted to: Ms.Shweta Saklany Deptt. Of Physics
Submitted by: Mohit Goyal Roll. No.-RM6901A27 Reg.No.-10900879 Class-B.tech ECE-2A(M6901)
It is with great pleasure that I present this report of “PHY112”. I gratefully acknowledge my profound indebtedness towards my esteemed guider Ms.Shweta Saklany for her valuable guidance, excellent supervision and constant encouragement during the entire course of work. I acknowledge with gratitude the benediction of my institution that extended all facilities and co operation in the completion of this project. I also express sincere gratitude to the librarian who provides helpful study materials.
RADAR employs the transmission and reflection of radio waves in air to detect objects in the atmosphere. . Sound waves are preferable in underwater applications because radio waves lose too much energy when they propagate through the water. Similarly. The basic principles behind both technologies are the same. the propagation of sound waves in air is also inefficient.ABSTRACT Sonar is a remote sensing technique based on the echolocation ofsound waves in water. Likewise. The name Sonar is short for SOund Navigation And Ranging and is closely related to the technology of RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging). SONAR employs sound waves rather than radio waves to detect underwater objects.
CONTENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • INTRODUCTION HISTORY PERFORMANCE-FACTORS TYPES OF SONAR WARFARE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CIVILIAN APPLICATIONS SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS FUTURE PROSPECTIVES CONCLUSION REFERENCES .
INTRODUCTION Sonar (originally an acronym for sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater) to navigate. There are two kinds of sonar: active and passive. The frequencies used in sonar systems vary from infrasonic to ultrasonic. To be literal they should have named it SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) . communicate with or detect other vessels. RADAR was considered very glamorous and effective. and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations. and they wanted to cash in on the name. The study of underwater sound is known as underwater acoustics or sometimes hydroacoustics. Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. . In World War II. the Americans used the term SONAR for their systems. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar. Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. coined as the equivalent of RADAR.
The British made early use of underwater hydrophones. built an experimental system beginning in 1912. The world's first patent for an underwater echo ranging device was filed at the British Patent Office by English meteorologist Lewis Richardson a month after the sinking of the Titanic.HISTORY Although some animals (dolphins and bats) have used sound for communication and object detection for millions of years. Canadian Reginald Fessenden. Constantin Chilowski.In the 19th century an underwater bell was used as an ancillary to lighthouses to provide warning of hazards. worked on the development of active sound devices for detecting submarines in 1915 using quartz. working with a Russian immigrant electrical engineer. while working for the Submarine Signal Company in Boston. The use of sound to 'echo locate' underwater in the same way as bats use sound for aerial navigation seems to have been prompted by the Titanic disaster of 1912. . Revenue (now Coast Guard) Cutter Miami on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland Canada. while the French physicist Paul Langevin. and a German physicist Alexander Behm obtained a patent for an echo sounder in 1913. During World War I the need to detect submarines prompted more research into the use of sound. use by humans in the water is initially recorded by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1490: a tube inserted into the water was said to be used to detect vessels by placing an ear to the tube. and finally in 1914 from the U.S. a system later tested in Boston Harbor.
25 × temperature (in °F)) + (0. as well as the transmitting equipment in an active sonar or the target radiated noise in a passive SONAR. which is speed dependentthe sound waves to refract away from the area of higher sound speed. particularly in the vertical plane. . The sea contains many sources of noise that interfere with the desired target echo or signature. though the difference is small. and pressure. Sound travels more slowly in fresh water than in sea water. Thus sonars required to operate over long ranges tend to utilise low frequencies to minimise absorption effects.0182 × depth (in feet)) + salinity (in parts-perthousand ). classification and localisation performance of a sonar epends on the environment and the receiving equipment. The density effect is small. Sound propagation is also affected by absorption in the water itself as well as at the surface and bottom. The bulk modulus is affected by temperature. dissolved impurities (usually salinity). The motion of the receiver through the water can also cause low frequency noise. The speed of sound (in feet per second) is approximately: 4388 + (11.PERFORMANCE FACTORS The detection. where considerable losses can occur. • Sound propagation Sonar operation is affected by variations in sound speed. The speed is determined by the water's bulk modulus and mass density. In shallow water propagation is generally by repeated reflection at the surface and bottom. The main noise sources are waves and shipping. with several different mechanisms in sea water. This absorption is frequency dependent.
An analogy for reverberation is the scattering of a car's headlights in fog or mist. The radiated spectrum in general will consist of an unresolved continuum of noise with spectral lines in it. • Target-Characteristics The target of a sonar. has two main characteristics that influence the performance of the sonar. known as its target strength. such as a submarine.an active sonar needs to transmit in a narrow beam. This can be a major source of interference but does not occur with passive sonar. scattering occurs from small objects in the sea as well as from the bottom and surface.• Reverberation When active sonar is used. This scattering effect is different from that in room reverberation which is a reflection phenomenon. . the lines being used for classification. Similarly. For active sonar it is its sound reflection characteristics. to overcome reverberation. main headlights are less directional and result in "white-out" where the returned reverberation dominates. For passive sonar the target's radiated noise characteristics are critical. A high-intensity pencil beam will penetrate the fog.
it may be created by other means. often called a "ping". and then listens for reflections (echo) of the pulse. or (2) airguns or (3) plasma sound sources. Active sonobuoy fields may be operated multistatically. (1) chemically using explosives. When the two are in the same place it is monostatic operation. Active sonar creates a pulse of sound. Most sonars are used monostatically with the same array often being used for transmission and reception. power amplifier and electro-acoustic transducer/array.TYPES OF SONAR 1. e. This pulse of sound is generally created electronically using a Sonar Projector consisting of a signal generator. . When more transmitters (or more receivers) are used. When the transmitter and receiver are separated it is bistatic operation. Active Sonar Active sonar uses a sound transmitter and a receiver. However. possibly with a beamformer.g. it is multistatic operation. again spatially separated.
this term can encompass virtually any analytical technique involving remotely generated sound. U. For example. although it is also used in science applications. Intermittent sound sources (such as a wrench being dropped) may also be detectable to passive sonar. In the very broadest usage. but now computers may do .S. This can help to identify its nationality. detecting fish for presence/absence studies in various aquatic environments . If transformers or generators are mounted without proper vibration insulation from the hull or become flooded.g. though it is usually restricted to techniques applied in an aquatic environment. as most European submarines have 50 Hz power systems.2. Until fairly recently.see also passive acoustics and passive radar. an experienced trained operator identified signals. vessels usually operate 60 Hz alternating current power systems. Passive-Sonar Passive sonar listens without transmitting. the 60 Hz sound from the windings can be emitted from the submarine or ship. e. It is often employed in military settings. Passive sonar has a wide variety of techniques for identifying the source of a detected sound.
. Intercept Sonar This is a sonar designed to detect and locate the transmissions from hostile active sonars.3. Hand-Held Sonar Limpet Mine Imaging Sonar (LIMIS) is a hand-held or ROV-mounted imaging sonar designed for patrol divers (combat frogmen or clearance divers) to look for limpet mines in low visibility water. 4.
from various platforms. • Aircraft Helicopters can be used for antisubmarine warfare by deploying fields of active/passive sonobuoys or can operate dipping sonar. such as the AQS-13. Active sonar works the same way as radar: a signal is emitted.Active sonar is extremely useful sometimes. The sonar arrays may be hull mounted or towed. helicopters) and by noisy platforms (most surface ships) but very rarely by submarines. it is silent. Most MCM sonars are hull mounted but a few types are VDS design. • Mine countermeasures Mine Countermeasure (MCM) Sonar. is a specialised type of sonar used for detecting small objects. Helicopters have also been used for mine countermeasure missions using towed sonars such as the AQS-20A. except by submarines.WARFARE Modern naval warfare makes extensive use of sonar. with the advent of modern signal processing passive sonar was preferred for initial detection. As the submarines have become quieter.Since active sonar does not allow exact classification and is very noisy. . sometimes called "Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar (MOAS)". and allows an identification of the target. since it gives the exact bearing to a target (and sometimes the range). • Mines Mines may be fitted with a sonar to detect. water-borne vessels. this type of detection is used by fast platforms (planes. Most importantly. localise and recognise the required target. aircraft and fixed installations. active operation is now more used. • Submarines Submarines rely on sonar to a greater extent than surface ships as they cannot use radar at depth. it can have a greater range than active sonar. Processing from the sonobuoys or dipping sonar can be on the aircraft or on ship. If the target radiated noise level is high enough. generally a submarine. The two types described before are both used. Fixed wing aircraft can also deploy sonobuoys and have greater endurance and capacity to deploy them. The usefulness of active versus passive sonar depends on the radiated noise characteristics of the target.e. i. Passive sonar has several advantages. Although in WW II active sonar was mainly used.
collectively called Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and later Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS). One such device is the Cerebus system. Signal processing was carried out using powerful computers ashore. With the ending of the Cold War a SOSUS array has been turned over to scientific use. they were in very quiet conditions so long ranges could be achieved. . This can be applicable around ships or at entrances to ports. • Ocean surveillance For many years. A similar system is believed to have been operated by the Soviet Union.• Underwater communications Dedicated sonars can be fitted to ships and submarines for underwater communication. As permanently mounted arrays in the deep ocean were utilised. Active sonar can also be used as a deterrent and/or disablement mechanism. the United States operated a large set of passive sonar arrays at various points in the world's oceans. • Underwater-Security Sonar can be used to detect frogmen and other scuba divers.
S. Coast and Geodetic Survey the precursor to NOAA’s National Ocean Service was using it to map deep-water areas. Sonar was first used during World War I to detect submarines.The technology steadily improved. the U. Sonar is applied to water-based activities because sound waves attenuate (taper off) less in water as they travel than do radar and light waves. It is also used determine water depth (bathymetry).ADVANTAGES OF SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging SONAR is used to find and identify objects in water. and by World War II. By the 1920s.was used once again for military purposes. .
" But they don't really know. The Navy has pronounced the LFA Sonar system impacts as "negligible. dolphins. Furthermore. fishermen. and snorkelers. .DISADVANTAGES OF SONAR Surprisingly there are some disadvantages to this technology. swimmers." "minimal. It is a threat to humans as well . surfers. when used inshore as Earth Island believes is the main objective. and fisheries. sea turtles. 2) LFA Sonar not only threatens sensitive marine life such as whales.divers and the military. too. because the sound levels produced by LFA Sonar have never been tested on marine life. Imagine a sound so loud traveling such long distances that it can kill or seriously damage sensitive ears and drown out all other sounds. seals and sea lions. to communicate with their mates and young." and "not biologically significant. depend on sound to find their food. and.The LFA sonar will also reveal "friendly" Navy submarines to our opponent. a number of incidents of stricken whales connected with local use of Navy Sonar systems from around the world have emerged. such as whales. and to navigate in the oceans. Many marine species. 1) SONAR waves can interfere with whale and dolphin echolocation.
bottom contour. acoustic technology has been one of the most important driving forces behind the development of the modern commercial fisheries.APPLICATIONS • CIVILIAN APPLICATIONS • Fisheries Fishing is an important industry that is seeing growing demand. sounders and sonars.500 metres per second. Sound waves travel differently through fish than through water because a fish's airfilled swim bladder has a different density than seawater. The sound pulse is generated by a transducer that emits an acoustic pulse and then “listens” for the return signal. Historically. fishermen have used many different techniques to find and harvest fish. However. allows bottom depth and targets to be measured. measured in milliseconds. • Eco-Sounding An echo-sounder sends an acoustic pulse directly downwards to the seabed and records the returned echo. and bottom composition. However. As the speed of sound in water is around 1. the time interval. Fishermen also use active sonar and echo sounder technology to determine water depth. The industry faces a future of continuing worldwide consolidation until a point of sustainability can be reached. commercial fishing vessels rely almost completely on acoustic sonar and sounders to detect fish. but world catch tonnage is falling as a result of serious resource problems. . Acoustic technology is especially well suited for underwater applications since sound travels farther and faster underwater than in air. Today. the consolidation of the fishing fleets are driving increased demands for sophisticated fish finding electronics such as sensors. between the pulse being transmitted and the echo being received. The time for the signal to return is recorded and converted to a depth measurement by calculating the speed of sound in water. This density difference allows the detection of schools of fish by using reflected sound.
Two main types are available. Short and Long Baseline sonars may be used for caring out the location. to accommodate the distance from the transducer to the display unit. The Long-Term Mine Reconnaissance System is an UUV for MCM purposes.in which the signals are sent acoustically between the net and hull mounted receiver/hydrophone on the vessel. Vehicle location Sonars which act as beacons are fitted to aircraft to allow their location in the event of a crash in the sea.• Net-Location The net sounder is an echo sounder with a transducer mounted on the headline of the net rather than on the bottom of the vessel. which is much greater than in a normal echo-sounder. Ship velocity measurement Sonars have been developed for measuring a ship's velocity either relative to the water or to the bottom. . Nevertheless. In this case there has to be the provision of a cable drum on which to haul. The second type is the cable less net-sounder – such as Marport’s Trawl Explorer . such asLBL. In this case no cable drum is required but sophisticated electronics are needed at the transducer and receiver. several refinements have to be made. shoot and stow the cable during the different phases of the operation. The first is the cable type in which the signals are sent along a cable. ROV and UUV Small sonars have been fitted to Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) to allow their operation in murky conditions. These sonars are used for looking ahead of the vehicle.
Data is usually processed and analysed using a variety of software such as Echoview. Bottom type assessment Sonars have been developed that can be used to characterise the sea bottom into. These echoes provide information on fish size. for example. 2. Different algorithms exist. See Also: Hydroacoustics andFisheries Acoustics. but they are all based on changes in the energy or shape of the reflected sounder pings.• SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS • Biomass estimation Detection of fish. Water velocity measurement Special short range sonars have been developed to allow measurements of water velocity. such as fish. location. From this statistics of the surface conditions at a location can be derived. Low frequency sonars such as GLORIA have been used for continental shelf wide surveys while high frequency sonars are used for more detailed surveys of smaller areas. Relatively simple sonars such as echo sounders can be promoted to seafloor classification systems via add-on modules. and gravel. Bottom topography measurement Side-scan sonars can be used to derive maps of the topography of an area by moving the sonar across it just above the bottom. mud. and other marine and aquatic life. and estimation their individual sizes or total biomass using active sonar techniques. . that reflect sound back toward the sound source. 1. Wave measurement An upward looking echo sounder mounted on the bottom or on a platform may be used to make measurements of wave height and period. abundance and behavior. 3. As the sound pulse travels through water it encounters objects that are of different density or acoustic characteristics than the surrounding medium. Advanced substrate classification analysis can be achieved using calibrated (scientific) echosounders and parametric or fuzzy-logic analysis of the acoustic data (See: Acoustic Seabed Classification) 4. sand. converting echo parameters into sediment type.
6. and when fully developed and carefully measured it has no obvious sidelobes: see Parametric array. An explanation of their operation is given in synthetic aperture sonar. narrow beamwidth.J. Sub-bottom profiling Powerful low frequency echo-sounders have been developed for providing profiles of the upper layers of the ocean bottom. Parametric sonar Parametric sources use the non-linearity of water to generate the difference frequency between two high frequencies. Westervelt's seminal 1963 JASA paper summarizes the trends involved.5. P. A virtual end-fire array is formed. Such a projector has advantages of broad bandwidth. . Synthetic aperture sonar Various synthetic aperture sonars have been built in the laboratory and some have entered use in mine-hunting and search systems. 7.. Its major disadvantage is very low efficiency of only a few percent.
• 3D Sub-seafloor plotting sonar This technique is still very much in its infancy. The remaining principles are similar to SSS. It is. the only known manufacturer of this equipment is GeoAcoustics. looking down and sideways at a swath of the seafloor. Sonar is a key technology in mine-hunting. Across track resolution is achieved by using higher frequencies and shorter pulses (greater bandwidth). however is extremely promising for detection of buried mines. which results in a very narrow along-track beam width. Echo delay corresponds to across track distance from the platform. Sonar imaging technology is vital in mine hunting. this artificially creates a long array with a large number of elements. This is achieved by using advanced signal processing techniques to combine the echoes from not just one. . being superseded by SAS. This is a brief discussion of three types of Sonar technology. In effect. target distance and frequency is removed.FUTURE PROSPECTIVES • Mine-Hunting Mine Hunting is the process of locating sea-mines. and likely relevance in the future of mine-hunting. allowing for the formation of a 2D image. Three types of imaging sonar will be considered here: • Conventional Side Scan Sonar (SSS) • Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) • 3D sub-seafloor plotting Sonar • Side Scan Sonar and Synthetic Aperture Sonar Conventional SSS is still the most popular technique for sea floor imaging. Currently. SAS typically has a reasonably wide beam in the vertical plane. the concept. however. and as such merits further examination. but many pings. but not detonating them. GeoAcoustics claim their ‘GeoChirp 3D’ is capable of achieving true 3D imaging at decimetric resolution to ‘several tens of metres’ in unconsolidated seabed. The main advantage of SAS is that the traditional dependence of azimuth resolution on physical array size.
• New Advances in Sonar Diver Detection Systems The Hidden Threat Facing Military and Civilian Ports The Mumbai terrorist attacks this past fall have served to highlight a potential Achilles’ heel in the soft. • . Unfolding events continue to conﬁrm the sub-surface weakness of ports — a soft target since at least World War II. when navy frogmen ﬁrst began to use them as points of attack. high-frequency. • In light of the increased threat. making it clearer than ever that these areas are not well protected against incursion by terrorist or enemy special forces divers. This graphic of navy vessels moored alongside demonstrates how a diver-detection system can be set up as a security perimeter around these high-value assets to protect against enemy divers and submersibles. The sonar system is mobile and can be quickly deployed from a pier. wa-terside security issues are receiving much greater emphasis than in the past. It is very clear that active. ship or truck and moved as required to provide full coverage. multi-beam sonar technology is the most effective approach for protecting high-value targets from underwater threats. watery underbelly of military and civil-ian port defences. The increased use of divers to attack from the water demonstrates a belief that underwater access presents an easier way to enter ports and attack ships anchored at dockside.
The red line tracks the movement of a diver toward a designated ship (blue icon) docked at the facility. the purpose of today’s technology is to offer as much early warning as possible toward prevention of an attack. “S” designates the location of the sonar head. Navy studies have conﬁrmed that the frequencies best suited for diver detection surveillance lie between 85 and 100 kHz.• • • U. The dual challenge of detecting a target as small as a human diver at extended ranges and main-taining constant contact are being addressed through the combination of data from multiple sensor types. This screen combines a Defender II with electronic chart display (ECD) of the Vancouver harbour and Canada Place cruise ship terminal. Kongsberg Mesotech’s DDS 9000 oper-ates in this range.S. . Given the potential negative outcomes. Using active and passive sonar in conjunction with radar or other sensors can increase the probability of detection by integrat-ing complementary functions.
SONAR system is used to detect the base of sea .CONCLUSION SONAR is the means of microwave communication .It is also used to detect the obstacle between the way of traveling the submarine . this avoids the accident in the sea . so this system is of great use for navigation purpose. .
scribd.com/doc/13164345/Low-Frequency-LFAS-and-SURTASSSonar-Systems http://en.htm http://answers.yahoo.com/doc/8771657/Ocean-Noise-Summary http://www.com/what-is-sonar/ .com/doc/30779912/FLASH-SONAR-PROGRAM-HelpingBlind-People-Learn-to-See http://www.thegeminigeek.REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • http://www.com/od/sstartinventions/a/sonar_history.scribd.com/doc/19337004/Sonar http://www.about.scribd.com/question/index?qid=20070308234459AAkqzpW http://www.com/doc/23237210/New-Advances-in-Sonar-Diver-DetectionSystems http://www.scribd.wikipedia.scribd.org/wiki/Sonar http://inventors.
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