P. 1
Gender-based Violence

Gender-based Violence

|Views: 861|Likes:
Published by Oxfam
This book brings together some of the most interesting and innovative work being done to tackle gender-based violence in various sectors, world regions, and socio-political contexts. Articles cover a wide range of manifestations of gender-based violence, including femicide, or the murder of women because they are women, domestic and sexual violence, female genital mutilation or cutting, the sexual exploitation of girls at school, and trafficking for prostitution. The case studies are drawn from South and East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Central America, and a detailed list of resources completes the volume. This collection of articles will be useful to development and humanitarian practitioners, policy makers, and academics, including both gender specialists and non-gender specialists alike. Working in Gender & Development series bring together themed selections of the best articles from the Oxfam journal Gender & Development, supplemented with specially commissioned articles and material drawn from other Oxfam publications. Each title is edited by a key thinker in the field, and includes an up-to-the-minute overview of current thinking and thoughts on future policy responses.
This book brings together some of the most interesting and innovative work being done to tackle gender-based violence in various sectors, world regions, and socio-political contexts. Articles cover a wide range of manifestations of gender-based violence, including femicide, or the murder of women because they are women, domestic and sexual violence, female genital mutilation or cutting, the sexual exploitation of girls at school, and trafficking for prostitution. The case studies are drawn from South and East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Central America, and a detailed list of resources completes the volume. This collection of articles will be useful to development and humanitarian practitioners, policy makers, and academics, including both gender specialists and non-gender specialists alike. Working in Gender & Development series bring together themed selections of the best articles from the Oxfam journal Gender & Development, supplemented with specially commissioned articles and material drawn from other Oxfam publications. Each title is edited by a key thinker in the field, and includes an up-to-the-minute overview of current thinking and thoughts on future policy responses.

More info:

Published by: Oxfam on Apr 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/17/2013

Suggestions that rape is relatively new as weapon of war are fallacious.
Sexual violence, specifically rape, has been part of war and conflict
throughout human history (Durham and Gurd 2005). Rape in war has taken
on several different forms. Before the fall of the Roman Empire, for example,
in ancient Greece and Egypt, acts of rape during conflict were considered

43

4 Sexual violence during firewood collection:
income-generation as protection
in displaced settings

Sarah K. Chynoweth with Erin M. Patrick1

‘rewards’ for the victors and conquered women were often deemed ‘spoils
of war’ (Robinson 2002). Opportunistic rape – which is perpetrated by
anyone acting with impunity in the climate of lawlessness that accompanies
armed conflict – has and continues to be prevalent in conflict settings.
Modern warfare, on the other hand, has seen an increase in rape as a tactic
or weapon of war: rape is systematically and deliberately used to intimidate
and traumatise a population, in which case the perpetrators are enemy
combatants. This type of sexual violence may also be used as a strategy of
genocide or ethnic cleansing by using rape to impregnate women with
‘the child of the enemy’ (Ward 2002).
Although data on sexual violence in conflict-affected settings is scarce,
systematic, organised rape during conflict appears to have greatly escalated
since the First World War (Ward and Marsh 2006), during which German
troops used rape to terrorise local populations in the invasion of Belgium
(Zuckerman 2004). Historians estimate that over two million women were
raped by soldiers of the Russian Army at the end of the Second World War,
and many were raped multiple times, with some women reporting 60 or 70
different attacks (Hitchcock 2004; Mark 2005). Rape was used as a tactic in
the Japanese invasion of China during the Second World War (Chang 1997)
and the Bangladesh war of liberation from Pakistan in 1971 (Thomas and
Ralph 1994). The American military in the Vietnam War also made rape a
‘standard operating procedure aimed at terrorizing the population into
submission’ (Eisen-Bergman 1975, 69).
However, sexual violence in war and conflict did not receive much
international attention and publicity until the Balkan Wars in the 1990s.
An unknown number of people were raped during this decade-long conflict
in which ‘rape camps’ were established to torture and impregnate women
and girls, many of whom were forced to continue their pregnancy until
delivery (Helsinki Watch 1992). Systematic rape of up to 500,000 women
and girls during the Rwandan genocide (UNHCHR 1996), including the
mutilation of their breasts and genitalia, received some media attention only
after the slaughter ended (Human Rights Watch 1996), and rape in the
current conflict in Darfur, Sudan has sparked interest in certain journalists
who attempt to raise awareness on the issue. But prior to this, numerous
campaigns of mass rape and sexual torture in recent conflicts went virtually
unnoticed, such as those in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cyprus, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Uganda (UNICEF 1996).

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd