BY: PARTHA PAUL ECE, 2ND YEAR, ROLL:09102003032

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the assistance receives from several individuals during the preparation of TECHNICAL REPORT. I am greatly indebted to Miss ANAMITRA CHATTERJEE , PROFESSOR OF HUMANITY DIPARTMENT, KGEC to inspire about this technical report. I am also thankful to NIMAI PAUL, ASSISTANCE OF CAD LAB OF ECE DEPARTMENT, KGEC for internet facility that helps me to collect data about the subject of this report. Heartiest thanks to Mr. ACHINTYA DAS; H.O.D. OF ECE DEPARTMENT, KGEC for gave me permission for internet being used. I am much obliged to my FRIEND & seniors (belongs to my mess) for their help. At last I owe a debt of gratitude to my FATHER & MOTHER for their patience and understanding. I want to DEDICATE this TEACHNICAL REPORT to my FATHER& MOTHER.

SUBMITTED BY: PARTHA PAUL (STUDENT OF ECE, 2nd YEAR,

ROLL NO: 09102003032);

preface peaking power is the power of life. To make communication with other we must have an ability to speak with other via. a medium through gestures or words and for that reason needs study. As we spend every day in our life we are become closer to modern tough competition. The age was started with “RAMAYANA” and approached through exercise books and now we are reached to the digital age where we can’t think our motion without computer. Earth bears uncounted number of animal, but human being is most talented than other and they serves the whole world and that is really happened as they are mentally ahead than other animal, and it is possible as humans had their own thought. Human being always bussy into their work to give a real look of their thought. But as years rolling we discovered new technology as a gift of science. Now one question is coming through the word “discover”, what does it mean? Why we are always negotiate ourselves into the fact? The basic region is that we are human character very much lazy, all-time rest is our only destination, that’s why we are hurry to make practical look of our thoughts that easily done our job without any cost. But now a day students, peoples are very much innovative

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they grows up into the local habitude where their thoughts always permits them to copy it into their notebook for future requirement. This the only reason that we are going to lost our remembering capabilities, and this can be easily proved by showing an example:”when mobile is not so much available into market we are normal people tried to remember many contact numbers, but now we trying to save these numbers…” There are another lot of reason behind the fact that “The loss of reading habit among the youth of population.” We make a survey on the fact and show the ultimate results throughout the report.

INTRODUCTION

The effectiveness of inquiry based learning (IBL) has been the subject of numerous Studies, and the general acceptance of its value has led the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Education Bureau to include IBL in its policy changes for primary education. However, few local schools have successfully integrated an IBL approach within their curricula. In view of this, further studies on implementation of effective IBL approach in local schools and its impact on students are warranted. This paper is part of a larger study investigating a collaborative instructional approach; four kinds of teaching staff1 provided various kinds of support to Primary Four2 (P4) students in a local Hong Kong school in the completion of their IBL projects. About 150 students completed two General Studies’ group projects, each lasting 2-3 months, from December 2006 to June 2007. The main theme for the first project was “The Earth” and the second “History of Hong Kong and Mainland China”. For each theme, students chose their own sub-area to work on. The teaching staff involved played different roles in guiding students through the projects. The IT teachers helped enhance students’ IT literacy (e.g. skills of using Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint), the General Studies teachers focused on teaching research skills (e.g. formulating essential questions and organizing data gathered for the projects), and the Chinese teachers helped students develop the necessary reading and writing abilities for the completion of their projects. Meanwhile, the school librarian assisted in sharpening students’ information literacy skills (e.g. doing searches on a news database and in the public library catalog). Figure 1 presents the model of this IBL approach and the various dimensions measured for improvement. This paper reports on student improvement in reading abilities as a result of the inquiry-based learning projects. Moreover, through working on research topics of their own interest, students are motivated to read more relevant materials. It is therefore suggested that the IBL approach would also bring positive changes to student attitudes towards reading. The possible relationship between reading ability and reading attitude will be examined in the later part of this paper.

METHODOLOGY
The main research questions of this study include: What are the key elements of reading ability? Is the IBL approach taken in the study effective in helping students achieve a higher level of reading ability? Would the IBL approach bring changes to students’ attitude towards reading?

EVATUATION METHOD
The students took the reading test from Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 5 before and after the completion of the two IBL projects. Their performances before and after working on the two projects would be recorded and compared. Besides, students also filled in the PIRLS’s survey on their reading habits, attitudes, and interests. This paper focuses on the changes in students’ reading ability. Some discussion would be based on findings from the survey on their reading attitude in the later part of this paper. The test on students’ reading ability focused on two aspects: (I) process of reading comprehension, and (ii) reading and understanding different reading materials. Students are required to employ various reading processes, include focus on specific aspects of text, make simple and more complex inferences, interpret and integrate ideas and information, and examine and evaluate text features. Two types of reading materials were included in the test battery: literary materials such as stories or fables in which pupils read for enjoyment, and informational materials such as scientific descriptions or manuals which pupils had to read for information (Mullis, Kennedy, Martin & Sainsbury, 2006). Because both types of reading experiences (literary and informational) are important for the reading development of pupils, the reading test battery consisted of one literary passage and one informational passage. Pupils had 40 minutes to answer questions on the first passage, rested for 10 minutes then took another 40 minutes on the second passage of text. Total test scores for each pupil were estimated using the Item Response Theory (IRT) Model (Lord, 1980) based on the responses of each pupil to the test items. The computer program PARSCALE 4 (Murky & Bock, 2003) was used in the estimation of the IRT scores of pupils. The IRT scores were scaled to a mean of 500 (Martin, Mullis & Kennedy, 2003). SPSS was used to conduct parametric tests on the data. Besides, students, teachers and parents were surveyed with another questionnaire between phase 1 and phase 2 after students had completed their first project. By doing so, the effectiveness of the IBL approach in phase 1 could be evaluated and changes could be made when necessary. This survey would also be a supplement for PIRLS since teachers and parents were not surveyed with PIRLS in this study.

DISCUSSION In the whole survey behind the fact “The loss of reading habit among the youth of population” we came to
know and collect some specific reason on the fact. When youth faces their books (it may be exam books or other) they became challenged by few question that helps to loss their interest. There are---** Do you think, in Digital age books are less interested for youths? ** Now a day, which process of education can attract our mind? ** Students have enough time to follow their books in regular basis? ** Do you think other systems become challenge for educational system? ** Do you feel, over 90% students are lost their mind when they become familiar with huge syllabus in a short time? ** Do you follow; sometime students are unable to understand the teachers’ view point?

To make our survey through the above questions we are going though different type of students and catch their opinion. Through this investigation to discover the fact we found----

1. Students are always concerned about new upcoming technology that provide them new thought on the fact and opened a new sight of the techniques. Today everyone trying to beat other, competition forces to everyone to be advanced, at that time computer is only useful device and internet is a unic media where people can very easily familiar with the whole world in a short time. That’s why many books lost their priority. Now if you consider me I am much helped by internet to access some ideas on report’s topic.

2. INDIA is now a advanced country where education means “e-learning” that make a lot of attraction in the youths’ mind (e.g. if teacher want to read the Frictional Force, then it is easier to understand for the students if any video or picture familiar with our regular life is present by the teacher, and therefore students are able to keep the both theoretical and practical knowledge in a very short time.).

3. Before 50 years education is the only medium to the future into the lightning stage. But now a day SPORTS, BUISNESS, NET is very interesting chapter to earn lot of money. Games cross its’ popularity limit and it that kind of job where players got frame from their supporter, so everybody trying to achieve it. For that reason is a big part within a few percent of youth.

4. Educational system type is havoc for students. Universities follow semester system where short time prescribes huge syllabus. At that time neither students perfectly able to understand nor they score high in the exam. Someone said that “good student is not a good teacher, but good teacher is also a good student”. Everyone has their own point of view, sometimes teacher trying to realize one thing, but student couldn’t able to recall it, so misunderstanding one of the basic wire of fuse regarding the loss of interest.

WHO READS?
The short answer to who reads is just about everyone. This is the case in the West and Japan, and is increasingly the case in the developing world. Polls show that most Americans and Europeans read during their leisure time. In a “normal day,” people report spending an average of over a half hour reading magazines, close to three quarters of an hour reading newspapers, and over an hour reading books; moreover, the overwhelming majority report reading some from all three categories of reading each day. Books involve the heaviest time commitment. Although a quarter of people do not read any books in a typical day, more than half read books for over an hour. In 1998, when the General Social Survey asked if respondents had “read novels, short stories, poems, or plays, other than those required by work or school” during the past twelve months, 70% reported that they had (Gen. Soc. Serve. 1998). People think they ought to read even more. More than nine out of ten are convinced that reading is “a good use of your time” (Gallup Org. 1990, question 23). And they think they ought to be able to read more, for very few people find reading “too hard to do” (Gallup Org. 1990, question 48b). They expect to read more in the future. When asked, “Do you think you’ll find yourself reading more in the months and years ahead, reading less, or is the amount of reading you do probably going to stay the same,” 45% said more, 3% less, and 51% the same (Gallup Org. 1990, question 24). People particularly intend to read more materials that are educational or will improve their lives, such as nonfiction books, newspapers, and the Bible. A British survey finds that people actually believe they are reading more. “Despite competition from new media, and increasing pressure on people’s leisure time, relatively few people think they are reading books less now than five years ago. Most (80%) claim to be reading about the same or more” (Book Mark. Ltd. 2000, p. 9). Most Britons report that the only thing that would Make them read more is having more leisure time. The demographic characteristics of readers have remained constant: Reading is associated above all with education. This association is the case worldwide. A 20-country survey concludes that “formal educational attainment is the main determinant of literacy

proficiency. For 17 of the 20 countries it is both the first and the strongest predictor” (OECD Stat. Can. 2000, p. 58). In addition to education level, reading is associated with affluence (affluent people read more), race (whites read more than African Americans or Hispanics), gender (women read more than men), and place of residence (suburbanites read more than rural or inner city residents) (Book Mark. Ltd. 2000, NEA 2004; see also Cushman et al. 1996 for the universality of the gender difference). Historically, reading by the populace at large began as a metropolitan phenomenon. Cities that were commercial or administrative centers—Shanghai, Lagos, Moscow—have led the rest of their respective countries in the literacy and print revolutions, although more strictly industrial cities have lagged behind the others (Brooks 1985, Furet & Ozouf 1982, Griswold 2000, Link 1981). Men gain literacy first, but when this difference evens out, women read more. Another universal pattern is that as soon as a popular reading culture gets established, commentators start worrying about the decline of reading. Headlines from China’s People’s Daily report that “Chinese People Read Less,” according to a new survey (People’s Daily Online 2004). Educated Africans bemoan that the reading cultures of the late colonial and early independence period are decaying (Griswold 2000). Such worries, regardless of their basis in reality, suggest the value accorded to the practice of reading. In the United States, the impact of race and ethnicity on reading is striking and troubling. To cite just one of many studies, the 2004 National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) survey found that 26% of Hispanics, 37% of African Americans, and 51% of white Americans read literature. This pattern holds for every educational and income level and every age. Women read more than men in each race/ethnicity category. White women have by far the highest reading rate (61%), followed by white men and African American women (41% and 43%, respectively). Hispanic (18%) and African American (30%) men read the least (NEA 2004, table 9, p. 11). The NEA study confirms earlier work that suggested that African Americans and Hispanics read less regardless of income or education (DiMaggio & Sorrowed 1992). The recent growth of African American “chick-lit” suggests that black women’s reading may move closer to that of white women (Lee 2004). Reading starts early. Two thirds of Americans report that they started reading by age seven (Gallup Org. 1990, question 42). Parents read to their children even during their first year of life; most have started this reading by the time their child is three, and often continue (or even begin) during the years when the children can read by themselves (Gallup Org. 1990, questions 44, 48). A national survey of children’s media use conducted by Roberts and the Kaiser Family Foundation looked at the media habits of 1090 young (2–7) children and 2014 older (8–18) children (Roberts & Fehr 2004). They found that children averaged 45 minutes per day in recreational reading, which included being read to for the younger group. Most kids—between 80% and 90%—read at least some every day, and a good percentage (49% for 2- to 7-year-olds and 42% for 8- to 18-year-olds) read more than 30

minutes each day. Recreational reading drops in the late teenage years (ages 15–18) down to 34%. But by ages 15–18, more than half of kids are looking at a newspaper for at least 5 minutes, and a comparison with past research shows that “the proportion of U.S. children and adolescents who do so [read newspapers] has remained fairly constant over the past 50 years” (Roberts & Fehr 2004, p. 99). Overall reading time declines with age, and this decline is entirely due to a drop in reading books. As youngsters move from elementary school into middle and high school, they are typically asked to engage in a good deal more school-related reading than was formerly the case, a factor that probably reduces both desire and time to read outside school. In addition, during late adolescence, myriad additional activities vie for young people’s time—sports, extracurricular activities, social events, earning a driver’s license, part-time jobs, dating. . . . As seems to be the case for no interactive screen media then, leisure time print exposure is also related to available time, and available time is related to age (Roberts & Fehr 2004, pp. 100–1). They note that it makes sense that book, which require a relatively large commitment of time, would be affected more than magazines or newspapers (which actually increase). A strong association exists between parents’ education and their children’s print exposure. Taking all ages together, Roberts & Fehr (2004) find that “statistically significant differences related to education emerge for each of the three individual print media. Youths whose parents completed no more than high school spend less time with all print, particularly books” (p. 103). Figure 1 shows that the primary difference in print exposure is between children whose parents have a high school education or less and children whose parents have at least some college education. Roberts & Fehr (2004) conclude that both physical and social environments are related to youth reading, with the social environment being the more powerful. The physical environment includes access (printed materials in home, magazine subscriptions) and income. The social environment includes parents’ education (most important) and television orientation (negative relation to print use). “Finally, in spite of claims to the contrary . . . there is little evidence that young people’s leisure reading has changed much over the past half-century. . . . If anything, the averages we found are a bit higher than those that seem to have held for some time. Perhaps the increasing number of magazines aimed at children and adolescents and such children’s book phenomena as the recent Harry Potter craze may be helping reading gain a bit” (Roberts & Fehr 2004, p. 112). The same seems to be the case in England. A 1994 survey of 8000 English children ages 10, 12, and 14 found that since 1971, reading for most categories of children had either increased or remained steady (Hall & Coles 1999). They found that the children’s attitude toward reading was positive, and most reported them to be good readers. Two thirds of the sample reported doing some reading

the previous evening. As in the United States there was a relationship between socioeconomic background and number of books read; more advantaged kids read more. If they receive the same education (which is often not the case, especially in many African and Muslim countries), girls read more and better than boys. This gender advantage seems to be true universally. Research comparing children’s reading in 32 countries shows girls to be consistently ahead of boys in their reading abilities (Wage maker 1996, table 7, p. 34). A survey of British children shows gender differences appear very early. When the survey asked, “How often do you read story books?” to very young children (ages 4–7), 67.6% of girls but only 55.5% of boys responded “very often” or “often”; by ages 7–11 the responses had gone up for both sexes, with 80.5% girls and 68.6% boys claiming to read often or very often (Children’s Lit. Res. Cent. 1996, p. 60). Reading by both sexes declined in the early teenage years, but the decline in boys’ reading was sharper as they moved into adolescence. When 11- to 13-year-old children were asked, “How often do you read fiction?” 65.8% of girls and 52.6% of boys reported often or very often; by ages 14–16, the girls had dropped to 56.5% and the boys to 38.6%. Another survey of English children suggests that reading increased significantly for all 10year-olds and for 12-year-old girls between 1971 and 1994, whereas reading for 14-yearold boys had decreased significantly (Hall & Coles 1999). Alarming reports suggest, however, that reading may be in decline. Although this has been a concern for decades, a recent study commissioned by the NEA that compared reading in 1982, 1992, and 2002 shows a steady decline in reading, especially the reading of literature and especially among young adults (NEA 2004; for earlier evidence of the small proportion of readers who do “literary reading”— poetry, drama, serious fiction— see Zell & Wangle 1990). A comparable long-term study in the Netherlands paints a similar picture (Knurls & Kraaykamp 1997, 1998). Survey data in that country over four decades (1955–1995) shows a steady decline in leisure reading, contrary to expectations of those who predicted reading would go up with increased education. While the percentage of Dutch who read books during the week declined, “the people who did read newspapers and books in 1995 . . . spent more time doing so than the larger group of readers two decades earlier. This demonstrates that especially newspaper and book readers who spent relatively little time reading have dropped out” (Knulst & Kraaycamp 1997, p. 137). The same concentration effect is found in the NEA study: Heavy readers read as much or more than ever, but more casual reading has declined. The Dutch study suggests that heavy readers are aging and not being replaced. Younger cohorts (post–World War II) read less at all ages; moreover, they do not read more as they grow older the way previous cohorts did. Knulst & Kraaycamp (1997, 1998) see television as the major reason (their study ended in 1995, before the Internet had become ubiquitous). All groups, regardless of education, have seen an increase in television viewing and a decrease in reading. There is a generation gap—older, highly educated people hang on to the reading habit, but younger ones do not. Now the group

of heavy readers “largely consists of people with an intermediate and higher degree of education from the pre-war cohorts.” Educated people still do the most reading, but in war younger cohorts the reading of the highly educated has declined much the same as that of ducated their less-educated peers.

CHILDREN’S AND YOUNG PEOPLE’S READING HABITS AND PREFERENCES
THE WHO, WHAT, WHY, WHERE AND WHEN PICTORIAL DESCRIPTION
FIG. 2.1: READING ENJOYMENT ENJOYMENT:
Very much (22.3%) not at all (10.9%)

Quite a lot (28.7%) 28.7%) A bit (38.0%)

When asked how often they read outside of school, the majority of pupils stated reading “Every day or almost every day”, while a third of pupils read outside of school Once or twice a week” (see Figure 2.2). Roughly a sixth of pupils reported that they Never or almost never” read outside of school, while a similar proportion of children only read outside of school “Once or twice a month”.

FIG. 2.2: HOW OFTEN DO YOU READ OUTSIDE SCHOOL?

EVERY DAY OR ALMOST EVERYDAY

38.1%
ONCE OR TWICE A WEEK

31.8%
ONCE OR TWICE A MONTH

14.7%

NEVER OR ALMOST NEVER

15.4%

Pupils were also asked whether they thought that they were reading enough (see Figure 2.3). Almost half the pupils felt that they were reading enough. Moreover, a hired of pupils felt that they were not currently reading enough but would like to read ore. However, a fifth of pupils believed that they were not reading enough but they also did not want to be reading more.

FIG. 2.3: DO YOU THINK YOU READ ENOUGH?

YES

47.2%

NO, BUT I WOULD LIKE TO

32.3%

NO, AND I DON’T TO

20.1%

Pupils were asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement with nine attitudinal statements on a scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree; see Figure 2.4). Agreement with the statements that reading is important, that they read outside school, and that they would not mind receiving books as presents was generally high. By contrast, pupils tended to disagree with the statement that reading is more for girls than boys, which is contrary to some studies that show that boys perceive reading to be a female activity (e.g. Wragg, 1997). Pupils also disagreed with the statements that reading is boring, that reading is hard, that they cannot find books that interest them, and that they do not read as well as other students in their class.

FIG. 2.4: ATTITUDES TOWARDS READING?
READING IS FOR GIRLS

READING IS BORING READING IS HARD READING IS IMPORTANT NO INTERESTING BOOKS READ OUTSIDE SCHOOL LIKE LIBRARIES BOOKS AS PRESENTS

OTHERS READ BETTER 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

Strongly Disagree

Neutral

Strongly Agree

In addition, they were asked to indicate which of 12 activities would prompt them and others to read more (see Figure 2.5). Designing websites/magazines, meeting authors/celebrities and reading games were the most frequently chosen reading promotion activities. Rating books and writing book reviews were the least frequently chosen activities.

FIG. 2.5: WHICH ACTIVITIES WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO TO HELP YOURSELF AND OTHERS READ MORE?

Designing websites Meeting authors Reading games Helping children Prizes/Competition Reading groups Designing lib displays Reading for charity Choosing library stock Talking about books Writing book reviews Rating books

51.3% 40.9% 40.0% 39.6% 36.4% 32.9% 30.1% 28.4% 28.1% 26.8% 20.9% 18.5%

Boys estimated that they have more books at home than girls (see Table). However, more girls than boys stated having books of their own and having access to magazines (see Figure 2.6). These results are in line with previous studies, which have shown that more girls than boys report owning their own books (e.g. Hall and Coles, 1999). Both boys and girls reported equal access to a computer, a desk of their own, and a daily newspaper.

Table: Estimated number of books in the home by gender

Books At home None 1-10 11-50 51-100 101-250 251-500 >500

Boys 1.6 8.1 17.9 21.4 21.3 16.2 13.5

Girls 0.8 7.7 21.4 23.5 21.0 14.2 11.4

FIG. 2.6: ACCESS TO RESOURCES
91% 91% 73% 73% 87% 92% 70% 72% 82% Magazines 87%

Computer

Desk of your own

Books of your own Daily Newspaper

BOYS

GIRLS

Boys

FIG. 2.7: I WOULD READ MORE IF……
I had more time I enjoyed it more Books were cheaper About interesting subject Books had more pictures I knew what to read Libraries were better Stories were shorter Libraries were close I found reading easier My friends read more My school encouraged me My family encouraged me Someone read aloud to me I had better eyesight 26.9% 25.0% 20.9% 20.1% 18.3% 15.8% 16.1% 13.3% 12.8% 12.7% 10.2% 47.4% 40.4% 37.4% 36.5%

Figure 2.7 shows that almost two in five pupils also said that they would be more likely to read if they found subjects that were of interest to them. Better eyesight and someone reading aloud were the least frequently chosen options. Other research has shown that secondary pupils in particular believe that timeconstraints, caused by pressures such as homework, interfere with their opportunities to read (e.g. Pearson, 2003). Indeed, there was a small positive association between age and choice of this option (r = .141, p = .000). However, it could also be argued that referring to a lack of time is an excuse. In support of this, there was a negative association in this study between reading enjoyment and ticking time constraints (r = -.285, p = .000), indicating that those who enjoy reading were less likely to tick this option than pupils who do not enjoy reading. Thus, this suggests that pupils will make time for an activity they enjoy.

CONCLUSION:
It is very difficult to make an ultimate speech about “THE READING HABIT AMONG THE YOUTH OF POPULATIONS”. Through the whole survey we are ten members team faced a lot of worries within different types of students in different regions. Students show their verities problems that weren’t fulfilled, really they want. I already mentioned all the causes though bar graphs in the discussion part. But one thing is clear that as per times rolling up pupils have lot of tendency to meet with new strategy, at that situation DIGITAL AGE is more affective to turn around the mind into new technology. Other thing I lost to mention that everything has both advantages side by side disadvantages, so at that moment television (today technology refers 3D picture quality which is more attractive for teen eyes.) play a major rule to abuse the lifetime. Some TV serials matured the mentality of the teenagers and they lost their mind into the reading books though they show they are in the books, but their mind isn’t there it busy into past spend times. Similarly though computer is a advanced part of our life some programming like- Gaming, make a huge waste of time, if we thought is it our destiny then result easily comes out, but we don’t do so because our miser mind doesn’t give permission. Actually we lost our reading habit is our failure. Reading habit is our identity. To maintain balance with time authority and media should be concerned about the modern demands, because this is the only way to return the reading habits among the youth. Today students are very advanced and they never depend on one criterion, so at that situation my personal opinion refers e-learning method.

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