Module 7: Patent Administration and Management

Patent Drafting
Karl Rackette
Freiburg, Germany 2006@rackette.de
EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II)

He who asks questions, cannot avoid the answers.
Cameroon Proverb
Patent Drafting
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Basic Idea underlying the Patent System
• In exchange for a limited-term right to exclude others from making, using or selling an invention in a country, • the patent applicant must provide according to the laws of that country • a complete and accurate public description of the invention and • define in a set of valid claims the scope of protection requested. • This provides others with the ability to use that information to invent further, thus pushing technology forward for the benefit of society.
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Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 4 .Patents Patents reward disclosure rather than secrecy.

Where do inventions come from and go to? • Where do inventions come from? – – – – single inventors alone or in cooperation production and service companies of all sizes private and public research laboratories University research laboratories • Where do inventions go to? – „down the drain“ (published too early or abandoned) – kept as secret know-how (sometimes best strategy) – disclosed to at least one patent office in order to apply for exclusive patent protection – enter the market as new products Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 5 .

Patent Drafting as the Important Step Failure? Success? Enforcement Commercialization Grant and publication of the patent Prosecution of the patent application Drafting and filing of a patent application Crystallizing the idea behind the invention Finding a solution for a technical problem Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 6 .

For drafting patent applications it is important • • • • To understand the invention Find the gist of the invention Find the right embodiments Find the right words. terminology and sentences to describe the invention (WORDS are POWER) • Have imagination how competitors could avoid the claimed invention but still take advantage of its teachings (foreseeing the future) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 7 .

Claiming an invention • What is the new invention? • Claims must contain the technical features essential for solving a particular objective problem • What is the desired scope of protection? • (Where is the protection needed?) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 8 .

it must include – the background and – a description of the invention.Patent application (1) • The first step in securing a patent is the filing of a patent application. as well as – an indication of its technical field. in clear language and enough detail that an individual with an average understanding of the field could use or reproduce the invention. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 9 . • The patent application generally contains – the title of the invention.

..) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 10 . • Abstract • Other formalities (request. or diagrams to better describe the invention. • The application also contains various "claims". plans. designation of inventor . fees. information which determines the extent of protection granted by the patent.Patent application (2) • Descriptions are usually accompanied by visual materials such as drawings. that is.

Disclosing an invention to a patent office in view of patent protection requires: • Spotting the invention or inventions • Generalizing each (new and promising) invention • Finding the right words to define each novel generalized invention => claims • Describing in detail each invention (with words and drawings) in such a way that the reader skilled in the field to which the invention belongs could copy and make use of the invention => description. abstract Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 11 . drawings.

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 12 .

Hair Dryer with Travel Iron Step 1 and Step 2 Spotting and Generalizing the Invention What is the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 13 .

Hair dryer with travel iron (prior art) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 14 .

Hair dryer with travel iron (prior art) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 15 .

Inventor‘s travel iron (perspective view) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 16 .

Attachment (perspective view) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 17 .

Attachment (top view) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 18 .

Attachment (bottom view) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 19 .

Attachment (side view) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 20 .

Step 1: Spotting the invention • Before taking the steps necessary to protect a particular invention. • What the inventor brings to you is only an example (embodiment) of his/her invention. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 21 . • The inventor generally does not really know what the invention is – usually the inventor thinks the prototype/embodiment is the invention. • It is not uncommon for there to be more than one invention within a single prototype/embodiment . but it is not! • If you are to protect his/her invention. you need first to identify what that invention is about. you need to find that particular invention.

find. isolate. perceive. most substantial or most unexpected one)? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 22 . discern. distinguish. identify.Step 1: What is the invention? • What are the differences between the closest prior art and the invention that you can spot? (or catch.) • What are the technical effects of the differences identified? • Which specific difference has the technical effect that seems to be the most important one? (most significant. make out. single out etc. pick out. detect. discover. notice. recognize. determine. locate.

Step 1: How to spot the invention. • But not every new feature in the example is useful to define the invention. • If there is a novel invention (only novel inventions are worth considering). example) from what is already publicly known. it must involve at least one feature which distinguishes the prototype (embodiment. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 23 . You need to identify the new feature(s) or combination of features which provide the “trick” of the invention (inventive step requirement).

• Find a sole new feature • Find a new combination of known features – the hard part is deciding which few elements of the combination are needed to get the desired benefit. the combination A+B+C is novel. • Identify what problem did the inventor intend to solve and what problem he did objectively solve. – Note: If A.Step 1: How to spot an invention. B. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 24 . & C are all already known in the art but have previously only been used individually.

Step 1: Look for the trick of the invention. advantage or benefit which the invention provides over the closest prior art. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 25 . • Identify the most commercially important advantage(s) of the invention? • What needs to be there to achieve that advantage. • What is the “trick” of the invention – how would you summarize the invention in one or two sentences? • The “trick” or “gist” of the invention is related to the technical effect. • It is sometimes helpful to use a finger to show where in the drawing (picture) the important feature of the invention can be seen.

• If different advantages come from some quite distinct sets of features. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 26 . You need to consider carefully the accuracy of what the inventor says. then they are likely to belong to separate inventions.Step 1: What provides the benefit or trick? • Generally the person drafting the patent application has to analyze the prototype to see which of its features work together to provide the benefit. • If there is more than one advantage you need to consider if they are due to the same distinct set of features.

• We need to generalize the important feature(s) and crystallize what we think the general idea underlying the invention is. • It is important to generalize the concept of the invention by concentrating on the essential features. • This can be done once a narrow main claim has been drafted and is reviewed (several times). Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 27 . broad language and by avoiding unnecessary limitations.Step 2: Generalizing the embodiment of the invention • Once we have spotted the specific feature or combination of features important for the invention we are still not quite ready to draft our main claim. by using broad technical concepts.

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 28 .

Side view of the travel iron with one plate 2a (1rst embodiment) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 29 .

Side view of the travel iron with two plates 2a and 42 (2nd embodiment) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 30 .

Bottom view of the attachment Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 31 .

Top view of the attachment Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 32 .

Steps 3 and 4: Drawings • Drawings are required when they are necessary for the understanding of the invention. via intermediate drawings to those that show the details of the invention. • Flow sheets and diagrams are considered drawings. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 33 . it is good to have a sensibly ordered set of drawings which move from a broad overview. • To make patent drafting easier.

Hanger Spotting and Generalizing the Invention What is the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 34 .

Hanger (Prior art 1) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 35 .

Hanger (Prior art 2) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 36 .

Hanger (invention) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 37 .

Hanger (invention) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 38 .

Hanger (invention) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 39 .

Hanger (invention) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 40 .

Hanger (invention)

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Exercise to spot and generalize (identify) an invention in order to prepare the drafting of broad claims for a patent application A Tea pot ?

EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II)

Tea pot with one spout

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Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (1) • Did you or anyone else make a written or oral publication or disclosure regarding any aspects of the? (prior publication may destroy novelty) • Did you test the invention? • Can you tell me what you have invented? • Do you have a photo or drawing of your invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 44 .

Tea pot with two spouts and two cups Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 45 .

Tea pot with two spouts ??? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 46 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (2) • What prior art does exist concerning the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 47 .

Tea pot 1 Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 48 .

Tea pot 2 Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 49 .

Tea pot 3 Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 50 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (3) • What single piece of prior art is the closest to the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 51 .

Tea pot 1 Tea pot 2 Tea pot 3 Tea pot of the inventor Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 52 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (4) • Why tea pot 2? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 53 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (5) • What is the difference between the closest prior art and the invention? (Novelty?) • Could you explain your invention? • How is it constructed? • How does it function? • How is it used? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 54 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (6) • What arguments do we have in favor of inventive step? • Are there any other applications of the invention? • What is the aim of the invention? • What technical problem was solved by the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 55 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (7) • How does the invention solve that problem? • Due to what technical feature the problem underlying the invention is solved? • What are the technical effects caused by the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 56 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (8) • Is there another way to arrive a the technical effect caused by the invention? • What are the advantages of the invention in comparison to the prior art? • What are the important and/or critical features of the invention? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 57 .

Questions to the inventor in view of the identification of the invention (9) • How was the problem solved in the past? • What is it that you want your competitors not to be allowed to do? (Strategic defense) • How could a competitor design around the contemplated patent claims? (Strategic defense) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 58 .

Questions to the Inventor for Identifying the Invention (10) • Do you intend to use the invention in your own business? (Revenue generation) • Are you planning to sell or license your invention? (Revenue generation) • Where do you want to get a patent? (Filing) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 59 .

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 60 .

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 61 .

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 62 .

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 63 .

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 64 .

instead of copper wire it might be electrical conductor) • Use dictionaries and/or published patent documents downloaded from the internet Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 65 .g. • Write down (together with the inventor) next to the figures of drawings what they show • Write down next to each element shown in each of the figures how these elements are called by the specialist and how they could be named in broad terms (e.Step 5: Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention • When writing the description it can be helpful to have a set of drawings to hand which you have labeled with the names of the parts shown in the drawings.

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 66 .

They shall be fully supported by the description.Step 6: The Claims The claim or claims shall define the matter for which protection is sought. Claims shall be clear and concise. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 67 .

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 68 . usually following the description. Each claim consists of one sentence starting with a capital letter and ending with a full stop. that define the invention and establish the scope of the monopoly conferred by the patent.Claims A series of numbered statements in a patent specification.

• The first independent claim may be called the main claim Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 69 .Independent Claims • At least one such statement (usually the first) will be self contained .this is known as an independent claim.

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 70 ..Dependent Claims Claims that refer to previous claims using wording such as ”. as claimed in (or as defined by..” .. or according to) claim 1 or claim 2.these are known as dependent claims..

The Claims • The number of the claims shall be reasonable in consideration of the nature of the invention claimed. they shall be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. If there are several claims. • Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 71 .

In particular.. of the drawings.. in respect of the technical features of the invention. on references to the description or drawings. of the description. rely.The Claims Claims shall not. except where absolutely necessary." Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 72 .. they shall not rely on such references as: "as described in part ." or "as illustrated in figure ..

the technical features mentioned in the claims shall preferably be followed by the reference signs relating to such features. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 73 . it should not be made. the reference signs shall preferably be placed between parentheses. (they may be inserted later after having drafted the detailed description) When used. If inclusion of reference signs does not particularly facilitate quicker understanding of a claim.The Claims Where the patent application contains drawings.

Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 74 .Manner of Claiming The definition of the matter for which protection is sought shall be in terms of the technical features of the invention.

are part of the prior art. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 75 .Manner of Claiming Whenever appropriate. claims shall contain: (i) a statement (preamble) indicating those technical features of the invention which are necessary for the definition of the claimed subject matter but which. and (ii) a characterizing portion. in combination.

it is desired to protect." or any other words to the same effect— • and states concisely the technical features which." "characterized by. in combination with the features stated in the preamble. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 76 ." "wherein the improvement comprises.The characterizing portion of a claim • is preceded by the words "characterized in that.

if possible at the beginning.Dependent Claims • Any claim stating the essential features of an invention may be followed by one or more claims concerning particular embodiments of that invention • Any claim which includes all the features of one or more other claims shall do so by a reference. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 77 . to the other claim or claims and shall then state the additional features claimed.

and all dependent claims referring back to several previous claims. • All dependent claims referring back to a single previous claim. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 78 .Dependent Claims • Any dependent claim shall be construed as including all the limitations contained in the claim to which it refers or. if the dependent claim is a multiple dependent claim. shall be grouped together to the extent and in the most practical way possible. all the limitations contained in the particular claim in relation to which it is considered.

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 79 .

• to disclose and teach the invention. • to provide the basis for interpretation of the claims. • to support the claims. • to provide a context within which to view the claims. and • to provide basis for future amendment of the claims (during prosecution or litigation). Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 80 .Step 7: Purpose of the description.

• describe in detail at least one way of carrying out the invention claimed.The description • shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art. • this shall be done using examples where appropriate and with reference to the drawings. if any Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 81 .

(The terminology might be based on the notes made earlier on the drawing copies or on the claims cf.Reference signs (numerals) • When drafting the detailed description with reference to the figures in the drawings it is good practice to compile a parts list making sure that for each feature shown in the figures always the same reference numeral and same terminology is used. Step 5) • Later reading of the description is made easier if each feature when mentioned for the first time in the description gets a higher number • It is possible to start with a number higher than the highest figure number and use only odd or only even numerals (in case features were overlooked) Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 82 .

• This means that you should describe the context of the invention. set out your material as though you were telling a story. • Start with the big picture and work into the detail of the invention. before you start to describe small details of the invention or a particular embodiment. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 83 .The description • In order to make it easier to describe the invention and in order to facilitate understanding. then the main structure.

lead the reader progressively along a logical path with no sudden changes of direction. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 84 .The description • When you describe the invention. ensure that you give its context. • Do not throw the reader right into the heart of the invention . Start with the big picture and work into the detail of the invention.

• If you want to get broad claims granted and for them to be enforceable. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 85 .Support • When you are drafting a patent remember that this is the only chance to put information into the description. disclose the invention across the whole scope of your claims. If you have broad independent claims. • Now is the time to add basis for later claim amendments as well as support for the claims as they are first written. bear this firmly in mind.

• The description should.Alternatives. • When writing the description. rather than doing this while notionally describing what is shown. however. • Describe what is shown and only then refer to alternatives. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 86 .g. you should describe a concrete embodiment (e. be written so as to be intelligible without looking at the drawings. what is shown in a drawing).

No matter can be added after filing • The effective scope of the claims will also be influenced by what you have said. So what you say right at the start of the patenting process is very important. especially in your introduction. will influence the patent office examiner and the prosecution of the application. • The description is the source of all allowable amendments during prosecution of the patent application – no matter can be added after filing. not just the introduction. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 87 . • What you say in your description.

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 88 .

Step 8: Inserting the reference numerals in the claims • When the detailed description is finished it takes only a little time to insert the reference signs or reference numerals into the claims drafted earlier. • The parts list made during the drafting of the description can help to avoid errors or omissions Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 89 .

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting 1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 90 .

• indicate the background art which. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 91 . as far as known to the applicant. preferably.Step 9: Introductory part of the description • The description shall first state the title of the invention • specify the technical field to which the invention relates. and. cite the documents reflecting such art. can be regarded as useful for the understanding. searching and examination of the invention.

in such terms that the technical problem (even if not expressly stated as such) and its solution can be understood. as claimed. of the invention with reference to the background art. if any. and state the advantageous effects.The introductory part of the description • disclose the invention. • briefly describe the figures in the drawings. if any. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 92 .

• If you make this narrow. • This and the title should be consistent with the preamble of the independent claim. • If you make this broad. you will not broaden the claims beyond what they seem to cover. you will similarly limit the independent claim (at least in Court) possibly to less than the claim seems to cover. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 93 .Technical field. but the patent office should search across the entire field exposing you to more prior art during examination.

Background or prior art discussion. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 94 . make this clear. • Consequently. • The way in which you describe the problems with the prior art influences the way in which the invention will be understood. make it clear if the invention only solves some of the problems. • If you identify problems in the prior art. It is often better not to mention problems which remain unsolved. the assumption is that your invention solves them all. • If you reduce a problem but don’t (always) eliminate it. So. something which does not solve all the problems may be considered not to be covered by the claims of the patent.

• You should not suggest that the invention always provides all the advantages.Advantages of the invention • The identification in the description of advantages of the invention can be very helpful in showing the invention in a good light. unless you want to restrict the protection of the patent to things which do this. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 95 . • Associate the advantage(s) with the features which give that advantage(s).

The 10 steps involved in patent drafting
1 Spotting the invention 2 Generalizing the invention 3 Drawing one or more figures showing the invention 4 Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence 5 Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention 6 Drafting the claims 7 Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals) 8 Inserting the reference numerals in the claims 9 Writing the introductory part of the description 10 Writing the abstract using the reference numerals
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Step 10: The abstract
• Intended to help searchers know what the patent is about. • 150 words maximum. • Often based on the main claim, but this is not always helpful. • Unlike the other parts of an application, does not contribute to the disclosure of the invention.

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Following Step 10: Review
• When you have finished your specification (complete description, claims, drawings, abstract) review it, particularly with reference to the language of the claims. • Are all the features mentioned in the claims also present in the description? • Have you explained how the embodiments or elements of the invention interact or can be used together?

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Cake Cutter Exercise Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 99 .

Cake made of several layers Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 100 .

Cutting a cake into horizontal slices Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 101 .

a single straight thin metal wire adapted for cutting horizontally through a freshly baked cake .an inverted U shaped metal frame made out of a thick wire and being provided with a handle in the middle .Prior art Prior art 1: Using a string or a knife to cut horizontal slices Prior art 2: A cake cutter comprising .the frame having two legs with notches near its free ends for engagement with connector provided at the ends the thin wire Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 102 .

Invention as explained by inventor: Cake cutter with two wires cutting through cake Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 103 .

Cutting through the cake Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 104 .

Three slices before using whipped cream Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 105 .

Drawing made by the inventor Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 106 .

Photo: twisted cutting wire Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 107 .

Photo showing connector of lower cutting wire and cap on end of one of the legs of the frame Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 108 .

Photo: cutting wire section Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 109 .

• Use a piece of paper (flip chart. You can see patterns in your collected thoughts that you would not see if you filtered your thoughts before you capture them. blackboard or laptop) to capture your thoughts before you test them. Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 110 . • When “invention spotting” it is a very good idea to capture your thoughts as they occur to you.Capture your thoughts. whiteboard.

What did we find? • What are our choices? • What can we reject? • Which of the ideas looks most promising? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 111 .

• the inventive solution of the problem and • the advantages of the claimed invention – A detailed description explaining the drawings Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 112 . • the problem to be solved by the claimed invention.Please prepare: – Some drawings useful to explain the invention – One independent claim defining the invention – Several dependent claims defining fall back positions – An introductory part to the detailed description • explaining the background and the prior art.

Thank you for your attention! What are Your Questions? Patent Drafting EC-ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Co-operation Programme (ECAP II) 113 .

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