COMPLETION

FLUIDS
Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Chapter 1 DIVALENT BRINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·1 • Calcium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·1 • Calcium Bromide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·2 • Calcium Chloride and Calcium Bromide . . . . 1·2 • Calcium Chloride, Calcium Bromide, Zinc Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·4 • Blending Tables U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·5 Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·23 Chapter 2 MONOVALENT BRINES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·1 • Sodium Chloride (Dry). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·1 • Potassium Chloride (Dry). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·1 • Ammonium Chloride (Dry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·1 • Sodium Bromide (Liquid). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·1 • Sodium Bromide (Dry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·2 • Sodium Formate (Dry). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·2 • Potassium Formate (Liquid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·2 • Potassium Formate (Dry). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·2 • Cesium Formate (Liquid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·3 • Miscellaneous Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·3 • Blending Tables U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·4 Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2·15 Chapter 3 EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3·1 Chapter 4 QHSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4·1 Chapter 5 TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5·1

ii

Chapter 6 TESTING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6·1 • RDF Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6·32 Chapter 7 DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7·1 Chapter 8 VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL . . . . . . . . 8·1 Chapter 9 CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9·1 Chapter 10 FILTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10·1 Chapter 11 SPEEDWELL* TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11·1 Chapter 12 INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12·1 Chapter 13 RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13·1 Chapter 14 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES . . . . . . . . 14·1 Chapter 15 LIST OF PRODUCTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15·1

iii

INTRODUCTION
M-I SWACO* provides a complete line of reservoir drill-in, completion and workover fluids and additives that help make oil and gas wells more productive. The company also offers fluid reclamation and filtration services complemented by a complete line of scrapers and brushes for internal cleaning of casing, liners and risers. This manual provides information and technical data to support these systems and assist in their management during well design and field operations.

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS
With the recent proliferation of horizontal wellbores and open-hole completions, many drilling and completion engineers now consider the completion operation to begin as soon as the drill bit enters the productive interval. Therefore, it is necessary to plan procedures and implement practices to reduce formation damage and maximize productivity at the earliest possible stage. Proper selection and application of the completion fluid is an integral part of this process. Completion fluid can be defined as any fluid pumped downhole to conduct operations after the initial drilling of a well. Workover fluids are those used during remedial operations after a well has been completed and produced oil and/ or gas. Clear, solids-free brine completion/ workover fluids serve to control downhole formation pressures while reducing the risk of permanent formation damage (permeability damage) resulting from solids invasion or some form of incompatibility between the completion fluid and the in situ matrix. The clear brines used for completion and workover applications are pure solutions of dissolved salt in water and must be stable at surface and downhole conditions. Depending on the application, other completion/workover fluid types are sometimes used, including solids-laden, oil-base and emulsions. For the purpose of this document, no distinction is made between completion and workover fluids and the terms are used interchangeably throughout. Packer fluids are those that fill the annular volume above a production packer. The term reservoir drill-in fluid refers to a drilling fluid designed specifically for the productive interval. Drill-in fluids are

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS
designed to minimize damage to the interval, typically by eliminating insoluble solids such as barite, minimizing the total solids content and formulating such that a thin, resilient, removable, non-damaging filter cake is placed. Among the typical operations in which clear brines are applied are well kills, fishing, perforating, washing, drilling and gravel packing and as packer fluids. In order to perform the desired function, completion fluids must control formation pressures, circulate and transport solids, protect the productive zone, be stable under surface and downhole conditions, be safely handled, be environmentally friendly or used with controlled exposure, and be cost effective. Completion fluids have no purpose within the formation and may in fact reduce the permeability. The operator has two choices: 1) minimize fluid losses to the formation and 2) use a formation-compatible fluid and accept partial losses. Clear brine completion fluids are formulated and applied in the field according to performance specifications that ensure well control with minimal permeability reduction. These specifications are not always expressly identified but should always be understood and assigned. Density and solids content (expressed as clarity — NTU) are typical performance specifications for clear brine, although selection of a particular completion fluid according to these alone can be dangerous to the productivity of a well. Proper density is necessary for pressure control. Clarity is necessary to eliminate formation plugging by solids. In addition to these, the allencompassing term “formation compatible” is

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0 – 11.33 – 9.0 – 10.2 Brine Type NaCl KCl NH4Cl NaBr NaCl/NaBr NaHCO2 KHCO2 NaHCO2/KHCO2 KHCO2/CsHCO2 CaCl2 CaBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2 ZnBr2 ZnBr2/CaBr2 ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2 CsHCO2 vii Go To Table of Contents .33 – 20.8 – 13.33 – 15.33 – 10.5 10.7 – 15.33 – 8.0 8.33 – 15.33 – 12.INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS also a requirement and must not be overlooked.2 ±12 – 19.0 8.3 8.7 8.0 8. Types and Properties The most common types of completion fluids are selected from those listed in Table 1.33 – 20.2 – 19.33 – 13.4 – 9.33 – 12.1 – 18.1 ±12 – 21.0 – 14.4 – 10. The remainder of this section provides this introductory information. Table 1 Density Range (lb/gal) 8.6 ±12.2 – 21.0 – 12.1 ±8.4 – 8.2 ±14.0 8.0 Typical Density (lb/gal) 8.3 ±9.7 8.0 – 19.33 – 11.0 ±12 – 19.0 – 12.1 19.1 8.1 8.4 – 12.5 10.3 8.9 8.1 8.2 11.2 – 19.33 – 13.7 10.33 – 11. In order to select a completion or workover fluid appropriate for the application.2 13.5 9.7 13. one must understand the various types and properties of clear brine fluids.5 8.8 8.0 ±14.

Table 2: Maximum Solubility of Salt in Water one bbl at room temperature Sol Density Specific lb Salt wt % (lb/gal) Gravity Salt Sodium 26 10.1 1.3 1.30 676.8 The data in Table 2 demonstrates that the solubility of these salts in water is extremely high.0 1. The density achieved is directly related to the amount of salt in solution.200 109 Chloride Potassium 24 9.416 198 Chloride Calcium 57 15.595 434 Formate Cesium 84 19. It is also evident that as the solubility increases. Table 2 shows the maximum solubility of standard completion-fluid salts in water at room temperature.17 2.52 SG). capable of producing densities up to 21 lb/gal (2.521 688 Bromide Sodium 50 11.7 1.0 2.164 98 Chloride Sodium 46 12.7 1. the ratio of salt-to-water viii Go To Table of Contents .INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS Density and Blending The density of clear brine is obtained by dissolving salt in water.3 1.3 Formate lb Water 311 309 288 298 277 194 235 125 128.329 231 Formate Potassium 78 13.525 245 Bromide Calcium 40 11.8 1.837 366 Bromide Zinc 78 21.

” Some salts such as NaCl and KCl are produced as dry material. Table 3 lists commercially available “stock” fluids and dry salts. In this way. Zinc bromide is produced only in the liquid form. The dry salts are obtained only after processing the liquid. Other brines like sodium bromide. This process is energy consumptive and expensive. they are mined or formed through simple evaporation. It defines much of the “special chemistry” and properties of highdensity completion fluids. In fact.e. so.INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS becomes increasingly small. This fact is extremely important. solutions prepared with these salts are generally more expensive than their all-liquid-blended counterparts.. ix Go To Table of Contents . potassium formate. the crystallization temperature is low enough as to allow storage in unheated tanks. Comparing Tables 2 and 3 indicates the stock fluids are not produced as saturated solutions. the saturated solutions of several of these systems contain more salt than water. calcium chloride and calcium bromide are manufactured as liquids. i. Commercial completion brines are often prepared with a combination of dry salts and liquid “stock fluids.

57) [78%] KHCO2 19.5 lb/gal (2.2 lb/gal (2. 3-8% NH4Cl Stock Salts NaCl.3 lb/gal (2.) 11. KHCO2 “Standard” brine tables follow that provide the necessary data to blend various clear brine fluids to a specific density.30) [53% / 23%] ZnBr2 / CaBr2 18. 3 to 8% KCl.2 lb/gal (1.20) NaCl Stock. NaHCO2. x Go To Table of Contents .3 lb/gal (1.5 lb/gal (1. Simple blending calculations are also included.INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS Table 3 Stock Fluids that are Manufactured as Liquids 11.S. NH4Cl.50) [45%] NaBr 14.20) Cesium Formate 20.1 lb/gal (1. CaCl2. consult an M-I SWACO completion fluids representative. NaBr. to blend to a lowest-cost density.46) ZnBr2 Fluids Prepared From Salts 10 lb/gal (1. KCl. CaBr2.36) [35%] CaCl2 (Europe) 12. To blend fluids to achieve a specific crystallization temperature (see TCT) or.39) [38%] CaCl2 (U.70) [52%] CaBr2 13.6 lb/gal (1.

For example.” If the solution is cooled. The concentration at which the solution is saturated is a function of its temperature. salt will precipitate from solution. xi Go To Table of Contents . at which a salt is saturated. it lowers the freezing point of the solution until the eutectic point is reached. Pressure increases the crystallization point of a brine solution when the concentration of salt is above the eutectic concentration. the temperature at which a salt solution crystallizes (TCT) is an important consideration. There are many instances where the crystallization temperature of brine is a primary selection criterion. See section 5 for a discussion of the effect of pressure on TCT. Increasing the salt concentration beyond the eutectic raises the crystallization point.INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS Crystallization Temperature (TCT) As salt is dissolved in water. As shown in Table 2. additional salt can be dissolved. That temperature. If the solution is heated. when stored in cold weather or when used offshore where the seawater may be cold. This solution is referred to as “saturated at room temperature. Figures 2 and 3 show crystallization curves for various completion fluids. is called the True Crystallization Temperature (TCT). calcium chloride is soluble in water to a final concentration of 40-wt % at room temperature. The eutectic temperature represents the lowest temperature on the saltwater phase diagram.

9 14.5 10 10.1 Eutectic pt 13.3 9. NaCl and CaCl2 Temperature (° F) 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 –60 Eutectic pt Eutectic pt Eutectic pt –80 8 8.5 9 9.1 9.7 11.5 12.3 13.INTRODUCTION TO COMPLETION FLUIDS Figure 2: Crystallization curves for CaCl2 and CaBr2 Temperature (° F) 55 35 15 –5 –25 –45 Eutectic pt –65 8.1 Density (lb/gal) TCT (CaBr2) TCT (CaCl2) Figure 3: Crystallization curves for KCl.9 10.5 11 11.7 15.5 12 Density (lb/gal) Potassium Chloride Sodium Chloride Calcium Chloride xii Go To Table of Contents .

1. DIVALENT BRINES COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 1 DIVALENT BRINES Go To Table of Contents .

392 SG) and 11. Adding the solid calcium chloride too rapidly can result in enough heat to bring the temperature of the solution to over 200° F (93. 1·1 Go To Table of Contents . Personnel protective equipment must be used when mixing brines with dry calcium chloride. The solution is manufactured at two different densities depending on the source. With addition of dry calcium chloride to freshwater. Liquid calcium chloride is the most economical form. 11.3° C). problems related to heat are generally not encountered. This material will generate dust that is hygroscopic and will also generate heat as it absorbs moisture from the atmosphere or from skin. Less heat is produced when the concentrated solution is diluted to prepare the desired density. The anhydrous (94 to 97%) form of CaCl2 is used at the rigsite to adjust fluid density. The dry form of calcium chloride contains trace amounts of insoluble contaminants that cause brines mixed on location to be more turbid than premixed brines.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride Calcium chloride is available either as a concentrated solution or as a dry powder. i. Formation waters or seawater should not be used to prepare calcium chloride completion fluids because sodium chloride and/or insoluble calcium salts may precipitate.3 lb/gal (1.. Exposure to this dust must be avoided.6 lb/gal (1. As a result. a great deal of heat is generated.e. These contaminants should be filtered out of solution before use. Safe handling must be exercised to avoid being burned by the hot liquid or equipment.356 SG).

7 lb/gal (1. When TCT and density requirements allow.813 SG) are prepared using a combination of calcium chloride and calcium bromide.404 SG) and 15. preventing the hydration and migration of swelling clays.705 SG). field-prepared brines should contain as much calcium chloride as is practical. and can be used for packer fluids or to adjust the density of other brine systems.4 to 15. pelletized calcium chloride. Calcium bromide systems exhibit lower crystallization points than the corresponding calcium bromide/ calcium chloride fluids.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide Calcium Bromide (CaBr2) brine systems are single-salt solutions used to form clear-brine workover and completion fluids with densities ranging from 8. Calcium Chloride and Calcium Bromide Clear brines having a density range of 11.812 SG).3 lb/gal (1. or solid calcium bromide powder are used in combination to prepare these brines. Liquid CaCl2. 1·2 Go To Table of Contents .704 SG) calcium bromide brine with dry calcium bromide (or water) or by simply mixing dry calcium bromide in water.2 lb/gal (1.1 lb/gal (1. CaBr2 concentrate is produced at a density of 14.404 to 1. Calcium bromide systems provide inhibition. Calcium bromide brine systems can be formulated with various crystallization points and are available for special applications and winter use. The desired density is obtained by mixing standard 14. Calcium bromide costs approximately ten times as much as calcium chloride.2 lb/gal (1. concentrated liquid CaBr2.

Environmental factors such as surface temperature. both water and calcium bromide must be added to avoid precipitation. the chloride-bromide brines are particularly sensitive because small changes in the ratio of the two salts can result in significant changes in TCT.837 SG) can be prepared using either calcium bromide or the combination of calcium bromide and calcium chloride. For example. considerable heat is released. or “freezing point. This is an important safety consideration since calcium bromide brines can be irritating to the skin and eyes. High-density. An example of this is provided at the end of this section. Unlike 1·3 Go To Table of Contents . High-density slugs are used to ensure that a dry string is pulled when coming out of the hole.” Crystallization temperature must always be considered when blending brines of any type. Care must be taken to avoid getting splashed by the hot liquid or burned by hot equipment. water depth and water temperature and the influence of pressure on the crystallization point are important considerations and must be taken into account when formulating the appropriate blend.DIVALENT BRINES Increasing the density of a CaCl2-CaBr2 blended brine by adding dry salts can cause wellsite problems unless proper blending techniques are employed. When solid calcium bromide is added to freshwater. Under these conditions. The ratio of bromide-to-chloride in any particular density determines the True Crystallization Temperature (TCT). the addition of calcium bromide powder to a saturated blend can result in the precipitation of calcium chloride. solids-free brines ranging up to 15. however.3 lb/gal (1.

the density of these concentrated liquids can decrease by as much as 0.0 to 19. When agitated in pits which are exposed to the atmosphere for as little as 4 hrs.DIVALENT BRINES calcium chloride. Zinc bromide or zinc bromide-calcium bromide solutions of up to 20.46 SG) are also available in smaller quantities for slugging or spiking purposes. this is not a problem when liquid calcium bromide is added to water because very little heat is generated.2 lb/gal (1.2 lb/gal (2.305 SG) are prepared by blending this 19.397 kg/m3).2 lb/gal (2. special blend formulations are used to achieve a specific density and TCT.305 SG) “stock” fluid with lower density calcium bromide or calcium bromide-calcium chloride brines. As with the lower density chloridebromide brines.681 to 2. Calcium Bromide and Zinc Bromide Concentrated zinc bromide-calcium bromide solutions are manufactured to a density of 19. To prevent absorption of moisture from the atmosphere. Calcium Chloride.305 SG). these high-density brines should be mixed and stored in covered tanks. The three-salt formulations are less expensive due to the presence of calcium chloride.02 lb/gal (2. A calm solution does not pick up moisture as readily and will not lose density as quickly. Solution densities between ±14.5 lb/gal (2. 1·4 Go To Table of Contents .

989 35.9443 18.394 0.8 9.389 0.111 134.6 10.5 83.153 0.3 10.994 145.9395 19.0 3.9 9.90% 47.298 TCT °F 32 32 30 29 27 25 24 22 20 18 15 13 10 7 4 1 –3 –7 –12 –16 –22 –27 –33 –39 –46 –51 –36 0.8918 29.5 9.6 131.1 10.428 260.9245 22.) Mixing dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) and water Composition for one barrel fluid Density CaCl2 Water CaCl2 @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 8.9491 16.125 228.8801 31.50% 59.4 9.9 10.221 0.9914 3.30% 19.60% 93.4 10.443 16.221 207.6 9.90% 70.182 196.4 119.3 60.9140 24.239 186.9086 26.7 10.4 26.9671 11.3 101.8 8.3 107.7 137.461 83.50% Ca+2 mg/L 0 3.3 113.9796 8.831 Continues on next page 1·5 Go To Table of Contents .0000 0.638 165.4 95.9989 1.7 77.9 144.90% 14.70% 42.675 64.8860 30.982 238.40% 36.450 0.4 0.9031 27.705 0.9 48.9537 15.1 150.20% 53.433 0.190 0.087 104.9836 6.00% 122.4 14.9 0.3 9.4 89.0 9.00% 0.30% 81.00% 0.70% 64.1 65.9 71.897 0.365 0.90% 111.6 54.6 8.9583 14.968 0.9627 13.436 0.10% 129.70% 99.9714 10.8975 28.3 8.9951 2.2 9.80% 105.333 124.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (U.20% 141.9193 23.211 74.843 0.00% 117.4 8.065 0.538 0.900 217.1 9.10% 134.S.9875 5.394 250.7 8.724 0.9296 21.20% 147.560 45.5 8.6 37.155 0.2 10.7 9.212 Cl– mg/L 0 6.657 0.9 20.886 0.658 114.641 9.391 175.218 94.10% 76.680 0.4 125.9346 20.540 25.0 31.866 54.00% 30.8 10.0 10.608 0.552 154.8 9.2 42.5 10.40% 87.70% 25.9755 9.666 0.812 0.

8227 39.433 305.2 11.0 11.90% 204.105 To calculate parts per million.644 0.1 11.8 182.757 282.5 11.957 327.2 188.8680 33.7 195.1 Ca+2 mg/L Cl– mg/L TCT °F –22 –10 2 13 22 31 38 44 50 0.6 11.2 201.970 0. 1·6 Go To Table of Contents .8293 39.8555 35.10% 178.8491 36.8 156.) Mixing dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) and water Composition for one barrel fluid Density CaCl2 Water CaCl2 @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 11.070 0.639 0.00% 197.661 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (U.4 11.969 0.7 163.20% 172.S.7 208.20% 159.20% 153.549 271.20% 166.228 0.407 315.0 169.10% 191.780 0.10% 184.105 361.8426 37.594 338.8741 32. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.8360 38.052 293.7 11.3 11.8618 34.810 349.4 175.

675 0.144 0.429 0.6 10.694 0.826 0.856 0.174 0.8 9.022 0.022 0.460 0.1 10.510 0.2 10.306 0.4 8.0 10.978 0.978 0.663 0.7 CaCl2 11.520 0.276 TCT °F 32 32 30 29 27 25 24 22 20 18 15 13 10 7 4 1 –3 –7 –12 –16 –22 –27 –33 –39 –46 Continues on next page 1·7 Go To Table of Contents .356 0.) Blending 11.887 0.736 0.203 0.294 0.083 0.233 0.6 9.9 9.368 0.6 lb/gal CaCl2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density 70° F 8.2 9.540 0.797 0.571 0.9 10.550 0.601 0.7 9.S.948 0.767 0.3 9.917 0.052 0.8 8.644 0.3 10.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (U.5 10.399 0.3 8.390 0.6 lb/gal bbl 0.325 0.5 9.4 9.580 0.6 8.264 0.420 0.724 Water bbl 0.337 0.5 8.490 0.706 0.450 0.610 0.113 0.1 9.632 0.480 0.7 8.4 10.0 9.

880 0.6 CaCl2 11.6 lb/gal CaCl2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density 70° F 10.9 11.090 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (U.) Blending 11.785 0.970 1.755 0.000 TCT °F –51 –36 –22 –10 2 13 22 31 38 1·8 Go To Table of Contents .000 Water bbl 0.4 11.215 0.8 10.910 0.030 0.6 lb/gal bbl 0.3 11.850 0.940 0.5 11.150 0.820 0.S.245 0.060 0.1 11.0 11.180 0.2 11.120 0.

90% 31.9126 28.0 1.8 10.362 0.653 114.2 90.068 0.00% 79.9992 1.40% 67.20% 73.40% 0.9461 19.756 0.391 161.80% 28.982 0.061 0.560 89.7 8.3 30.9050 30.) Mixing dry CaBr2 (95%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density CaBr2 Water CaBr2 @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 8.0 135.7 85.286 0.50% 46.9 10.30% 70.2 9.7 9.9498 18.709 66.9570 16.2 10.9534 17.50% 58.9388 21.316 0.6 47.33 8.6 9.30% 22.9425 20.6 9.417 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (U.9606 15.9351 22.80% 16.606 0.4 9.20% 10.3 68.9088 29.5 8.7 96.9164 27.8 8.50% 13.366 TCT °F 32 30 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 19 18 17 16 14 13 11 10 8 7 5 3 2 0 –2 0.6 8.50% 52.8 74.1 10.8 9.9 63.889 43.357 268.687 102.402 173.9854 6.9923 3.0 146.0000 0.0 113.0 107.266 0.9819 7.9642 13.421 0.7 36.0 124.961 0.0 14.768 54.729 Continues on next page 1·9 Go To Table of Contents .347 304.3 9.9239 25.910 7.9784 9.4 10.60% 25.329 244.4 8.80% Ca+2 mg/L 0 2.312 0.9889 5.4 57.9 11.681 0.0 3.449 125.553 0.50% 64.253 0.7 10.405 0.4 19.9 9.434 0.0 9.528 137.40% 43.343 196.433 149.0 52.1 41.9 25.50% 55.261 232.2 102.50% 49.30% 40.1 9.0 10.428 0.586 0.5 10.0 118.430 316.9713 11.20% 37.310 280.0 129.6 10.062 19.5 9.9678 12.10% 76.10% 34.0 0.866 Br – mg/L 0 8.00% 0.3 79.9749 10.9277 24.466 185.9314 23.3 10.9202 26.10% 19.267 208.270 0.022 4.9958 2.900 0.580 31.628 0.0 140.S.00% 0.713 78.307 292.50% 61.447 256.240 220.

2 12.661 0.8973 31.552 424.40% 143.8338 43.6 12.7962 49.7920 49.0 252.50% 124.0 291.0 269.4 13.0 207.8660 38.8131 46.349 0.8089 47.773 485.0 274.752 656.50% 158.8779 35.559 0.8581 39.80% 82.762 0.0 263.481 0.0 297.877 0.60% 164.0 196.00% 109.0 286.8005 48.668 413.048 ≤–30 0.0 168.40% 115.5 11.558 608.70% 100.8540 40.5 13.5 12.30% 91.394 0.0 Ca+2 mg/L Br – mg/L TCT °F –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –14 –16 –18 –21 –23 –25 –28 –30 0.8818 34.020 534.457 340.3 13.90% 97.8621 38.574 ≤–30 0.438 0.379 0.0 303.644 ≤–30 0.8740 36.8460 41.0 246.131 0.0 157.3 12.2 13.70% 112.444 388.646 620.50% 88.379 0.50% 134.152 570.719 473.8700 37.0 179.131 ≤–30 0.8 151.537 400.8047 47.8214 45.919 ≤–30 0.10% 118.139 522.4 12.0 12.698 461.0 162.888 ≤–30 0.711 449.0 218.8 11.0 213.249 ≤–30 0.80% 121.7 11.7 12.469 584.8378 42.9012 30.336 ≤–30 0.6 11.353 0.0 13.0 241.30% 152.0 229.9 12.70% 149.953 ≤–30 Continues on next page 1·10 Go To Table of Contents .90% 155.0 185.80% 140.20% 137.499 596.983 510.0 201.330 ≤–30 0.S.8255 44.20% 106.8 12.) Mixing dry CaBr2 (95%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density CaBr2 Water CaBr2 @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 11.7 13.70% 85.0 258.289 328.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (U.892 0.10% 146.10% 94.861 497.618 ≤–30 0.20% 127.8935 32.8172 46.9 13.0 190.408 ≤–30 0.389 376.8896 33.373 364.978 ≤–30 0.909 645.8857 34.0 174.2 11.240 547.4 11.758 437.50% 103.1 11.182 558.8419 42.0 235.396 352.0 224.6 13.0 280.3 11.073 ≤–30 0.8296 44.8500 40.90% 131.763 633.1 13.822 ≤–30 0.10% 161.1 12.

4 14.7877 50.7264 57.50% 199.183 682.240 0. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.0 15.0 320.7531 54.7309 57.90% 183.7354 56.0 343.30% 174.353 731.0 Ca+2 mg/L Br – mg/L TCT °F –29 –19 –10 –1 7 15 23 30 36 43 48 54 59 63 68 0.20% 167.718 0.7792 51.0 354.) Mixing dry CaBr2 (95%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density CaBr2 Water CaBr2 @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 13.50% 186.7443 55.9 15.7 14.0 314.00% 202.185 806.0 360.7398 56.7575 54.0 383.753 844.953 669.0 377.90% 177. 1·11 Go To Table of Contents .3 14.218 0.540 831.389 707.341 0.40% 180.0 326.1 15.765 756.7618 53.103 694.6 14.552 0.7749 51.350 818.50% 211.2 15.7487 55.0 331.00% 189.00% 195.0 366.931 0.693 0.927 781.8 14.0 14.7662 52.693 0.834 768.044 793.0 389.185 0.00% 208.7835 50.598 0.839 0.3 309.1 14.0 337.50% 205.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (U.359 719.125 0.9 14.370 To calculate parts per million.S.0 371.50% 192.557 0.0 349.80% 171.720 744.7705 52.2 14.264 0.5 14.

) Blending 14.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.660 0.0 9.162 0.261 0.727 0.892 0.127 0.S.028 0.6 10.177 0.693 0.810 0.9 9.744 0.4 9.33 8.5 8.2 9.111 0.8 8.777 0.244 0.643 0.592 0.295 0.2 10.3 10.430 Water bbl/bbl 1.989 0.7 9.9 10.6 9.7 10.329 0.8 10.876 0.312 0.345 0.826 0.972 0.5 10.8 9.859 0.0 0.194 0.1 10.609 0.3 9.413 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (U.396 0.840 0.2 lb/gal CaBr2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F 8.061 0.5 9.6 8.144 0.379 0.760 0.012 0.793 0.908 0.710 0.362 0.7 8.940 0.676 0.4 8.278 0.626 0.228 0.0 10.045 0.211 0.1 9.924 0.0000 0.094 0.575 TCT °F 32 30 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 19 18 17 16 14 13 11 10 8 7 5 3 2 0 Continues on next page 1·12 Go To Table of Contents .4 10.9 CaBr2 14.078 0.957 0.

438 0.757 0.247 0.2 12.843 0.722 0.472 0.386 0.6 11.403 0.177 0.369 0.142 TCT °F –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –14 –16 –18 –21 –23 –25 –28 –30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 Continues on next page 1·13 Go To Table of Contents .7 12.3 12.541 0.670 0.334 0.299 0.7 11.490 0.516 0.282 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (U.0 12.636 0.8 12.2 lb/gal CaBr2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F 11.S.1 13.550 0.774 0.584 0.739 0.705 0.9 13.0 11.533 0.1 11.351 0.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.264 0.229 0.212 0.317 0.159 0.3 11.1 12.687 0.809 0.0 13.653 0.421 0.447 0.499 0.861 Water bbl/bbl 0.9 12.481 0.8 11.2 13.567 0.3 13.4 CaBr2 14.194 0.791 0.6 12.601 0.507 0.524 0.) Blending 14.456 0.619 0.5 11.464 0.2 11.826 0.5 12.4 12.4 11.558 0.

000 TCT °F ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 ≤–30 –29 –19 –10 –1 1·14 Go To Table of Contents .8 13.9 14.1 14.0 14.) Blending 14.106 0.5 13.2 lb/gal CaBr2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F 13.2 CaBr2 14.878 0.071 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (U.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.000 Water bbl/bbl 0.053 0.982 1.7 13.124 0.895 0.930 0.948 0.913 0.036 0.018 0.089 0.965 0.S.6 13.

1 192.4 12.1 145.3 12.0 189.0 137.773 0.7 12.5 12.9 121.6 88.9 TCT °F 40 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 50 50 Continues on next page 1·15 Go To Table of Contents .3 196.5 64.4 56. dry CaBr2 (95%) and dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F 11.1 16.8 185.2 13.3 171.793 0.7 181.778 0.2 153.2 194.2 169.4 173.4 13.0 12.5 Water bbl/bbl 0.752 0.3 200.S.3 48.722 0.) Mixing water.6 80.1 24.8 11.0 13.9 12.2 12.742 0.803 0.3 198.8 12.737 0.0 165.0 129.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride CaBr2/CaCl2 Dry (U.768 0.1 13.9 13.1 167.0 162.3 40.798 0.7 11.747 0.1 12.6 12.717 CaBr2 CaCl2 (95%) (94 – 97%) dry lb/bbl dry lb/bbl 8.6 179.788 0.8 104.2 32.8 183.727 0.5 72.5 177.7 96.758 0.763 0.783 0.809 0.9 187.732 0.8 112.4 175.3 13.

676 0.8 133.645 0.1 142.7 131.8 158.9 15.658 0.7 217.5 150.0 137.7 129.696 0.691 0.686 0.6 152.6 TCT °F 52 53 55 56 57 58 58 59 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 63 1·16 Go To Table of Contents .0 249.9 135.1 140.666 0.4 14.9 242.S. dry CaBr2 (95%) and dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F 13.4 177.661 0.5 14.3 14.671 0.5 193.4 148.640 0.3 160.2 14.8 233.2 258.8 225.7 13.707 0.) Mixing water.0 14.7 209.7 14.9 14.6 154.651 0.3 146.1 14.2 282.1 Water bbl/bbl 0.3 169.7 156.5 185.701 0.1 266.681 0.8 14.8 13.0 15.6 14.2 144.6 13.6 201.2 274.712 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride CaBr2/CaCl2 Dry (U.635 CaBr2 CaCl2 (95%) (94 – 97%) dry lb/bbl dry lb/bbl 161.

2 lb/gal CaBr2 (liquid).686 0.8 11.943 0.194 0.772 0.9 12.9 61.6 12.509 0.516 0.073 0.7 0.7 54.601 0.7 25.7 12.630 0.5 12.829 0.9 14.6 lb/gal @70° F bbl/bbl bbl/bbl 11.412 0.121 0.0 12.315 0.2 39.4 76.971 0.402 CaCl2 dry lb/bbl 3.3 29.3 13.291 0.458 0.097 0.8 12.6 13.461 0.6 7.7 11.4 47.) Blending 14.744 0.485 0.146 0.4 12.915 0.886 0.658 0. 11.024 0.8 72.170 0.2 12.4 13.2 lb/gal 11.800 0.0 32.5 65.857 0.8 43.9 13.2 68.3 57.243 0.430 0.267 0.340 0.715 0.5 13.487 0.218 0.1 12.0 50.0 TCT °F 40 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 50 50 52 53 Continues on next page 1·17 Go To Table of Contents .1 21.048 0.544 0.6 lb/gal CaCl2 liquid and dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) Composition for one barrel Density CaBr2 CaCl2 lb/gal 14.364 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride CaBr2/CaCl2 (U.437 0.5 18.S.572 0.1 13.6 36.2 10.2 13.3 12.0 13.388 0.

558 0.1 97.2 lb/gal 11.6 lb/gal @70° F bbl/bbl bbl/bbl 13.655 0.851 0.373 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride CaBr2/CaCl2 (U.345 0.316 0.3 14.6 111.9 TCT °F 55 56 57 58 58 59 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 63 1·18 Go To Table of Contents .3 l05.631 0.0 108.060 0.703 0.202 0.749 0.4 14.8 115.031 0.9 15.174 0.088 0.6 83.000 CaCl2 dry lb/bbl 79.5 94.2 86.1 126.7 101.8 119.120 0.679 0.288 0.606 0.5 14.9 14.2 lb/gal CaBr2 (liquid).0 15.728 0.800 0.6 14.4 123.259 0.0 14.534 0. 11.582 0.8 14.2 14.8 13.7 14.776 0.) Blending 14.825 0.S.1 14.1 0.231 0.9 90.6 lb/gal CaCl2 (liquid) and dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) Composition for one barrel Density CaBr2 CaCl2 lb/gal 14.145 0.

180 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaBr2/ZnBr2 (U.360 0.5 16.0 15.7 15.000 0.920 0.280 0.780 0.9 15.260 0.3 15.040 0.740 0.0 16.9 16.2 CaBr2 (liquid) with 19.160 0.660 0.960 0.5 14.080 0.4 14.4 16.640 0.980 0.120 0.800 0.300 0.520 ZnCaBr2 19.560 0.540 0.100 0.1 16.700 0.380 0.840 0.400 0.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.340 0.480 TCT °F –1 –5 –11 –17 –21 –27 –31 –34 –37 –40 –43 –46 –49 –52 –55 –58 –60 –62 –58 –55 –51 –46 –42 –37 –31 Continues on next page 1·19 Go To Table of Contents .860 0.1 15.820 0.S.2 16.240 0.5 15.) Blending 14.940 0.000 0.880 0.460 0.6 14.200 0.440 0.8 14.220 0.900 0.600 0.580 0.620 0.680 0.320 0.060 0.8 15.7 14.4 15.760 0.6 CaBr2 14.420 0.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 1.2 ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 14.3 14.2 15.3 16.2 14.720 0.6 15.020 0.140 0.

600 0.820 0.4 18.1 17.2 ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 16.8 16.8 18.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.5 18.000 TCT °F –27 –23 –20 –17 –14 –11 –9 –7 –5 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 13 14 13 12 10 1·20 Go To Table of Contents .580 0.2 CaBr2 (liquid) with 19.360 0.540 0.040 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaBr2/ZnBr2 (U.480 0.0 17.6 17.5 17.2 18.920 0.3 17.3 18.7 17.440 0.520 0.500 0.220 0.900 0.280 0.460 0.420 0.060 0.260 0.780 0.500 0.380 0.840 0.680 0.800 0.340 0.720 0.8 17.940 0.9 17.860 0.1 18.400 0.980 1.320 0.200 0.6 18.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.0 18.S.7 16.640 0.140 0.760 0.020 0.1 19.7 18.880 0.160 0.0 19.080 0.240 0.560 0.180 0.100 0.2 17.960 0.2 CaBr2 14.700 0.660 0.620 0.000 ZnCaBr2 19.740 0.9 19.4 17.) Blending 14.9 18.300 0.120 0.

903 0.780 0.6 15.415 CaBr2/ZnCaBr2 19.8 16.7 16.049 0.439 0.732 0.7 15.1 16.854 0.1 CaCl2/CaBr2 (liquid) with 19.244 0.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.1 15.2 17.3 15.878 0.195 0.9 17.8 15.683 0.537 0.366 0.024 0.S.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl 1.463 0.415 0.512 0.585 0.537 0.610 0.3 16.1 17.756 0.098 0.317 0.000 0.512 0.4 17.122 0.634 0.4 16.2 16.9 16.342 0.707 0.561 0.976 0.0 17.0 16.220 0.4 15.658 0.951 0.293 0.073 0.585 TCT °F 62 60 59 58 56 55 54 53 51 51 49 48 47 46 44 42 39 34 28 25 26 28 28 30 32 1·21 Go To Table of Contents .2 15.927 0.5 15.171 0.268 0.5 Continues on next page CaCl2/CaBr2 15.5 16.390 0.2 ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 15.000 0.439 0.561 0.805 0.463 0.6 16.488 0.829 0.3 17.146 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride/Calcium Bromide/ Zinc Bromide CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 (U.488 0.) Blending 15.

7 17.927 0.390 0.073 0.195 0.268 0.829 0.854 0.0 18.293 0.0 19.049 0.2 18.634 0.951 0.683 0.9 18.5 18.3 18.659 0.976 1.8 17.317 0. 1·22 Go To Table of Contents .780 0.220 0.1 18.8 18.903 0.024 0.2 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Chloride/Calcium Bromide/ Zinc Bromide CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 (U.000 CaBr2/ZnCaBr2 19.4 18.122 0.146 0.707 0.756 0.244 0.S.1 19.171 0.097 0.341 0.9 19.1 CaCl2/CaBr2 (liquid) with 19.851 (14.610 0.000 TCT °F 34 36 38 40 35 32 29 27 25 23 21 20 19 17 16 12 10 To make 1 bbl 15.2 lb/gal CaBr2 ) + 127 ppb dry CaCl2 .6 18.732 0.6 17.2 CaCl2/CaBr2 15.1 lb/gal = .) Blending 15.7 18.805 0.366 0.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.2 ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 17.878 0.

07 1.0000 0.0 226.05 1.09 1.08 1.0 117.886 79.10 1.884 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (Metric) Mixing dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity CaCl2 Water CaCl2 (SG) kg/m3 m3/m3 wt % 1.01 1.276 30.20 1.0 240.14 1.20% 40.00% 111.9830 6.2 24.0 326.0 130.17 1.0 213.9388 19.9087 25.9583 14.374 0.0 157.031 0.02 1.30% 92.9763 9.40% 77.412 46.9895 4.50% 73.0 269.9797 8.9926 3.9468 17.24 1.40% 82.15 1.80% 121.694 0.23 1.306 129.9657 12.704 87.06 1.9220 23.9620 13.26 0.2 50.945 198.5 76.0 355.149 71.60% 17.30% Ca+2 mg/L 0 4.908 0.9693 11.4 63.299 0.301 163.045 189.741 137.12 1.10% 107.790 0.830 0.90% 26.8 90.9428 18.21 1.9305 21.960 0.9988 1.40% 12.22 1.0 255.9863 5.40% 49.992 38.0 311.0 283.936 0.0 297.9347 20.229 0.10% 0.30% 97.490 62.9177 24.00% 30.521 121.728 0.0 11.40% 54.385 0.809 112.098 14.0 0.30% 44.16 1.10% 35.11 1.196 95.00% 0.391 0.891 0.25 1.0 199.0 185.0 171.911 54.9263 22.439 172.0 103.03 1.13 1.2 37.00 1.0 340.941 215.9728 10.80% 21.9507 16.19 1.760 103.739 Continues on next page 1·23 Go To Table of Contents .254 0.90% 116.50% 68.9042 26.40% 87.689 0.096 0.9957 2.18 1.664 155.564 0.0 144.20% 102.839 0.9546 15.40% 58.50% 63.055 0.210 180.666 146.539 0.414 0.911 206.646 22.988 TCT °C 0 0 –1 –2 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –6 –7 –8 –10 –11 –12 –13 –15 –16 –18 –20 –21 –23 –26 –28 –30 –33 –36 0.012 8.9132 25.472 Cl– mg/L 0 7.04 1.

113 362.532 278.0 534.708 0.50% 194.70% 189.0 488.0 565.717 0.036 224.072 288.30% 173.36 1.8652 33.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (Metric) Mixing dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity CaCl2 Water CaCl2 (SG) kg/m3 m3/m3 wt % 1.887 To calculate parts per million.90% 183.34 1.0 428.30% 200.0 458.38 1.796 0.8995 27.27 1.189 297.0 581.50% 168.0 443.026 0.640 344.39 1.884 0.360 0.334 0.70% 163.29 1.866 0.234 334.00% 205.0 596.8440 36.8494 36.0 Ca+2 mg/L Cl– mg/L TCT °C –38 –41 –52 –45 –38 –32 –26 –20 –15 –10 –6 –2 2 5 8 10 0.8703 32.596 315. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.8754 32.70% 127.0 473.243 251.37 1.196 233.00% 152.30 1.0 550.60% 132.657 0.0 519.886 325.534 269.0 384.754 0.128 0.0 399.974 0.30% 142.594 261.8852 30.28 1.0 413.33 1.8217 40.42 369.422 243.31 1.20% 147.32 1.561 0.80% 157.50% 137.8803 31.41 1.40 1.8330 38.8948 28.10% 178.104 354.0 504.8600 34.126 0.8901 29.35 1.8548 35.8274 39.8386 37.363 306.508 0. 1·24 Go To Table of Contents .

550 0.675 0.520 0.663 0.07 1.022 0.052 0.460 0.767 0.390 0.450 0.480 0.25 1.610 0.736 0.399 0.04 1.644 0.571 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (Metric) Blending 1.264 0.490 0.356 0.000 0.01 1.09 1.632 0.29 CaCl2 1.20 1.420 0.233 0.325 0.601 0.276 TCT °C 0 –1 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –6 –7 –8 –9 –11 –12 –14 –16 –17 –19 –22 –24 –27 –30 –33 –36 –39 –43 Continues on next page 1·25 Go To Table of Contents .08 1.24 1.724 Water m3/m3 1.10 1.540 0.22 1.580 0.00 1.429 0.083 0.02 1.706 0.368 0.19 1.826 0.12 1.203 0.14 1.16 1.15 1.21 1.13 1.39 SG m3/m3 0.887 0.917 0.27 1.39 SG CaCl2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.144 0.306 0.948 0.03 1.978 0.856 0.294 0.510 0.797 0.000 0.694 0.113 0.174 0.26 1.18 1.337 0.06 1.

850 0.180 0.150 0.33 1.37 1.31 1.39 SG CaCl2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.940 0.215 0.120 0.820 0.36 1.39 SG m3/m3 0.030 0.000 Water m3/m3 0.35 1.060 0.090 0.880 0.30 1.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Chloride CaCl2 (Metric) Blending 1.245 0.910 0.785 0.000 TCT °C –46 –38 –30 –23 –17 –11 –6 –1 3 1·26 Go To Table of Contents .970 1.32 1.755 0.39 CaCl2 1.38 1.

1 87.4 0.20 1.00 1.15 1.400 244.5 49.253 –7 16.472 225.7% 41.499 7.9789 0.429 145.9818 0.0% 1.9847 0.2% 3.839 194.524 185.23 1.9521 0.0% 2.26 1.736 –10 21.705 106.17 1.065 –10 22.2 282.383 11.170 –12 23.5 152.5% 46.9461 0.24 1.09 1.0% 53.9641 0.912 254.3% 63.9612 0.074 17.9246 0.4% 4.788 –6 15.2 217.6 139.9552 0.9582 0.550 –8 18.18 1.394 –5 13.03 1.719 76.004 175.2 75.3 321.9% 56.4 165.7 126.11 1.0% 29.819 –13 25.430 205.9760 0.563 –6 14.9% Ca+ mg/L 0 2.025 4.3 191.9963 0.635 Br – mg/L 0 8.01 1.04 1.259 12.16 1.264 96.5% 5.2 256.503 –9 20.9671 0.072 155.789 –7 17.7 36.9934 0.6% 6.22 1.9991 0.812 214.789 14.02 1.9369 0.2 295.520 165.13 1.10 1.9% 9.9701 0.06 1.239 16.9400 0.9308 0.4 62.9 100.9 23.8% 39.4 334.9430 0.839 86.3 204.562 –11 22.9491 0.8% 36.774 66.005 56.0% 24.733 19.995 37.21 1.8% 8.25 1.08 1.931 –12 24.481 –5 13.7% 7.412 47.729 TCT °C 0 –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 –4 –4 11.939 27.454 –8 19.9% 34.4 178.05 1.0 10.836 –14 Continues on next page 1·27 Go To Table of Contents .3 308.491 125.9277 0.8 113.07 1.2 230.3% 48.0000 0.9% 31.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Mixing CaBr2 dry (95%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific CaBr2 Gravity Water 95% dry CaBr2 3/m3 (SG) m kg/m3 % wt 1.271 21.2 269.7% 58.055 135.191 116.19 1.12 1.0% 26.5% 61.2 243.9876 0.021 9.9730 0.9905 0.6% 44.920 234.9338 0.2% 51.14 1.

329 324.1 505.5 531.29 1.426 –22 33.48 1.254 –29 37.821 334.6 373.28 1.34 1.217 –20 31.33 1.2 571.1 426.3 624.284 475.1% 66.184 –33 39.4% 124.6% 116.7 598.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Mixing CaBr2 dry (95%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific CaBr2 Gravity Water 95% dry CaBr2 3/m3 (SG) m kg/m3 % wt 1.486 404.40 1.429 304.9214 0.42 1.469 –28 37.699 –23 34.9% 86.8468 0.281 –20 31.779 <–35 42.32 1.39 1.8929 0.7 478.0 611.8701 0.7 386.504 496.3% 99.9 413.8734 0.9183 0.44 1.266 –21 32.889 354.8% 109.8635 0.3% 91.8535 0.9057 0.082 395.021 295.2 664.383 284.848 505.517 516.5 584.709 465.068 –26 35.27 1.8864 0.617 <–35 40.9025 0.2% 106.8% 121.37 1.8767 0.9120 0.38 1.36 1.9089 0.9% 126.131 435.8% 78.0% 114.5% 129.6% 104.9% 101.083 –24 34.159 455.653 –27 36.6% 96.6% 71.45 1.47 1.4% 111.9 Ca+ mg/L Br – mg/L TCT °C 26.8434 0.52 0.5% 81.111 –31 39.466 364.6 637.1% 76.51 1.35 1.31 1.5 465.135 –30 38.49 1.8502 0.0 558.6% 88.142 –17 29.7 545.8 399.43 1.865 314.352 –34 40.46 1.8832 0.980 –15 26.468 –25 35.199 415.424 384.8961 0.2% 83.977 <–35 41.8568 0.456 264.230 –15 27.8799 0.8668 0.3 518.456 –19 30.341 344.30 1.622 –16 28.6 677.50 1.9152 0.2% 119.653 425.633 445.8602 0.8993 0.8% 68.0% 94.4% 74.4 452.419 <–35 Continues on next page 1·28 Go To Table of Contents .5 360.433 <–35 41.776 274.743 –18 29.070 375.9 651.8897 0.41 1.9 492.8400 347.2 439.882 485.

72 1.73 1.5 947.4 919.60 1.6 718.75 1.562 –30 51.66 1.7519 1015.3 704.8 879.1% 137.2% 168.2 771.835 –17 52.5 811.54 1.1% 132.7844 0.0 960.7701 0.844 629.6% 175.0 731.0 798.806 557.031 <–35 48.6 785.8091 0.8366 0.756 <–35 44.2 987.6 55.483 731.57 1.433 679.128 638.77 1.222 <–35 46.596 –10 53.62 1.961 <–35 49.209 527.65 1.6% 193.762 752.252 619.367 <–35 48.598 <–35 47.870 701.566 0.64 1.758 772.644 –3 0 3 6 0.69 1.7% 160.74 1.141 690.276 567.252 762.4 744.7951 0.7737 0.53 1.8230 0.9 852.71 1.362 –25 51.63 1.8% 150.7556 1001.766 577.043 721.1% 173.8% 155.293 <–35 45.7880 0.0% 178.045 Continues on next page 1·29 Go To Table of Contents .155 <–35 43.679 608.70 1.7629 0.8 Ca+ mg/L Br – mg/L TCT °C 43.8264 0.444 <–35 45.2% 191.573 0.8% 188.9% 183.637 784.1% 196.8021 0.7592 691.7665 0.8 906.9 933.7483 1028.9 825.3 865.276 587.3 892.7% 139.3% 152.61 1.127 598.045 546.68 1.7809 0.529 –39 50.774 <–35 47.8126 0.6% 170.4 838.8298 0.780 –6 53.8 758.473 <–35 49.617 536.55 1.7% 165.78 0.8056 0.408 659.7773 0.76 1.0 54.242 –21 52.276 710.287 742.56 1.67 1.8332 0.6% 134.758 648.2% 147.8195 0.7986 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Mixing CaBr2 dry (95%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific CaBr2 Gravity Water 95% dry CaBr2 3/m3 (SG) m kg/m3 % wt 1.2% 142.5% 181.4% 186.177 –34 50.7% 144.58 1.8160 0.7915 0.437 <–35 44.079 670.6 974.2% 162.4 54.230 <–35 46.59 1.3% 157.867 –13 52.

943 16 0.1% 209.5% 199.733 804.7446 1042.84 Ca+ mg/L Br – mg/L TCT °C 9 0.7372 1069.80 1.7409 1055. 1·30 Go To Table of Contents .174 0.366 11 0.2 56.79 1.3% 204.894 824.9 55.5% 212.7% 206.9 57.498 835.327 18 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Mixing CaBr2 dry (95%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific CaBr2 Gravity Water 95% dry CaBr2 3/m3 (SG) m kg/m3 % wt 1. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.623 14 0.775 20 To calculate parts per million.119 845.2 55.7298 1096.306 814.5 56.83 1.9% 201.82 1.7335 1083.5 57.7260 1110.81 1.177 794.

261 0.045 0.859 0.248 1.760 0.826 0.162 0.810 0.278 0.092 1.329 0.908 0.285 1.128 1.032 1.379 0.396 0.261 1.705 SG m3 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.152 1.144 0.744 0.362 0.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.693 0.989 0.413 Water m3 0.297 CaBr2 1.592 TCT °C –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 –3 –3 –4 –5 –5 –6 –7 –7 –8 –9 –9 –10 –11 –12 –12 –13 –14 –15 –16 –17 Continues on next page 1·31 Go To Table of Contents .660 0.080 1.345 0.068 1.188 1.957 0.273 1.924 0.892 0.044 1.177 0.727 0.972 0.012 0.777 0.676 0.236 1.940 0.244 0.840 0.140 1.626 0.078 0.876 0.710 0.028 0.127 0.643 0.194 0.020 1.164 1.609 0.295 0.111 0.116 1.061 0.094 0.224 1.176 1.312 0.211 0.008 1.104 1.200 1.228 0.212 1.793 0.056 1.

739 0.477 1.705 0.670 0.597 CaBr2 1.524 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.229 0.757 0.619 0.159 TCT °C –17 –18 –19 –20 –21 –22 –23 –25 –28 –28 –29 –29 –31 –34 –37 –37 –37 –37 –37 –37 –37 –38 –38 –38 –38 Continues on next page 1·32 Go To Table of Contents .490 0.533 0.177 0.447 0.501 1.575 0.321 1.465 1.550 0.264 0.541 0.381 1.194 0.453 1.345 1.558 0.282 0.573 1.386 0.687 0.481 0.472 0.456 0.507 0.369 1.441 1.489 1.309 1.430 0.516 0.561 1.212 0.653 0.357 1.585 1.369 0.549 1.421 0.333 1.537 1.393 1.601 0.567 0.705 SG m3 0.247 0.405 1.584 0.809 0.513 1.826 0.791 0.299 0.417 1.843 Water m3 0.636 0.774 0.499 0.464 0.525 1.334 0.722 0.438 0.429 1.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.403 0.351 0.317 0.

705 CaBr2 1.930 0.036 0.657 1.124 0.053 0.621 1.000 TCT °C –38 –38 –38 –38 –38 –32 –28 –26 –18 1·33 Go To Table of Contents .878 0.693 1.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide CaBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.861 0.669 1.913 0.000 Water m3 0.681 1.071 0.965 0.089 0.018 0.609 1.645 1.705 SG m3 0.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.633 1.948 0.982 1.142 0.895 0.106 0.

0 69.793 0.707 CaBr2 CaCl2 (95%) (94 – 97%) dry kg/m3 dry kg/m3 23.597 1.549 1.773 0.7 483.5 524.727 0.9 483.3 TCT °C 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 12 Continues on next page 1·34 Go To Table of Contents .778 0.1 465.417 1.798 0.6 518.8 494.717 0.561 1.4 322.768 0.633 1.1 566.5 530.525 1.1 459.1 253.3 554.477 1.3 207.441 1.758 0.732 0.585 1.4 536.737 0.0 477.712 0.9 488.1 92.5 391.6 437.2 184.429 1.1 46.7 572.747 0.4 542.7 460.4 276.5 299.609 1.3 230.763 0.465 1.573 1.645 Water m3/m3 0.5 368.2 161.783 0.809 0.2 115.803 0.2 560.6 414.537 1.6 512.621 1.489 1.501 1.3 548.7 506.5 345.405 1.752 0.513 1.742 0.788 0.8 500.1 471.2 453. dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) and water Composition for m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.2 138.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride Dry CaBr2/CaCl2 (Metric) Mixing procedure for dry CaBr2 (95%).722 0.453 1.

671 0.8 529.705 1.0 370.6 411.789 1.1 TCT °C 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 1·35 Go To Table of Contents .681 0.676 0.753 1.729 1.0 691.717 1.5 429.0 622.657 1.696 0.813 Water m3/m3 0.2 783.651 0. dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.801 1.669 1.693 1.666 0.701 0.8 387.4 435.686 0.8 737.645 0.635 CaBr2 CaCl2 (95%) (94 – 97%) dry kg/m3 dry kg/m3 506.7 405.0 711.2 806.2 760.5 423.7 399.681 1.691 0.0 668.9 376.777 1.765 1.640 0.2 447.658 0.9 381.3 441.9 599.661 0.8 393.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride Dry CaBr2/CaCl2 (Metric) Mixing procedure for dry CaBr2 (95%).5 417.8 552.741 1.8 575.0 645.

800 0.170 0.744 0.218 0.4 113.1 165.39 SG m3/m3 0.601 0.1 41.609 1. 1.513 1.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid).429 1.458 0.1 TCT °C 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 12 Continues on next page 1·36 Go To Table of Contents .645 CaBr2 1.886 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride CaBr2/CaCl2 (Metric) Blending 1.194 0.537 1.1 103.243 0.829 0.417 1.3 82.405 1.525 1.6 186.315 0.2 144.544 0.340 0.465 1.509 CaCl2 1.549 1.561 1.658 0.437 0.857 0.7 124.097 0.453 1.501 1.4 175.572 0.487 0.971 0.364 0.39 SG CaCl2 (liquid) and dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.146 0.388 0.7 62.0 134.412 0.915 0.477 1.485 0.024 0.461 0.489 1.633 1.8 217.8 93.686 0.5 206.943 0.121 0.430 0.705 SG m3/m3 0.291 0.441 1.2 196.402 CaCl2 (94 – 97%) dry kg/m3 10.0 72.630 0.516 0.048 0.8 155.073 0.6 31.573 1.621 1.597 1.4 51.715 0.585 1.267 0.3 20.772 0.

825 0.851 CaCl2 1. 1.174 0.088 0.316 0.789 1.534 0.345 0.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid).7 341.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride CaBr2/CaCl2 (Metric) Blending 1.231 0.800 0.777 1.813 CaBr2 1.3 330.669 1.657 1.0 351.7 279.801 1.120 0.3 299.9 310.749 0.655 0.606 0.705 SG m3/m3 0.4 TCT °C 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 1·37 Go To Table of Contents .582 0.776 0.631 0.202 0.259 0.373 0.693 1.145 0.000 CaCl2 (94 – 97%) dry kg/m3 227.3 237.728 0.2 319.0 289.060 0.741 1.6 362.681 1.39 SG m3/m3 0.705 1.39 SG CaCl2 (liquid) and dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%) Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.5 268.558 0.717 1.2 258.753 1.765 1.031 0.6 248.679 0.703 0.288 0.729 1.

840 1.7949 0.890 1.0886 0.3382 0.1052 0.705 1.9281 0.810 1.760 1.3715 0.31 SG m3/m3 0.9613 0.730 1.0387 0.850 1.0000 0.830 1.8615 0.8116 0.880 1.6951 0.2051 0.7117 0.6452 0.0553 0.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid) with 2.1385 0.870 1.720 1.2550 0.0220 0.860 1.8781 0.820 1.9447 0.0719 0.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaBr2/ZnBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.2217 0.1551 0.1219 0.2383 0.940 1.3215 0.7617 0.9114 0.8948 0.750 1.8449 0.6285 0.6618 0.1718 0.3548 0.780 1.770 1.2716 0.800 1.2883 0.7450 0.31 SG ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one m3 fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.705 SG m3/m3 1.3881 0.6785 0.9780 0.910 1.5953 ZnCaBr2 2.920 1.8282 0.740 1.4047 TCT °C –18 –22 –24 –27 –29 –31 –32 –34 –36 –38 –39 –41 –42 –43 –44 –46 –47 –48 –49 –51 –52 –51 –49 –47 –45 Continues on next page 1·38 Go To Table of Contents .1884 0.7783 0.900 1.950 CaBr2 1.6119 0.0000 0.7284 0.3049 0.790 1.930 1.

5786 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaBr2/ZnBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.2791 0.5212 0.070 2.060 2.5046 0.990 2.6377 0.5711 0.4289 0.100 2.190 2.180 2.970 1.5378 0.31 SG m3/m3 0.7209 0.030 2.2292 0.4879 0.8207 TCT °C –43 –41 –39 –37 –34 –32 –31 –29 –28 –27 –25 –24 –23 –22 –21 –20 –19 –19 –18 –18 –17 –17 –16 –16 –16 Continues on next page 1·39 Go To Table of Contents .4788 0.8041 0.3124 0.7708 0.200 CaBr2 1.960 1.170 2.130 2.080 2.120 2.5454 0.4954 0.5545 0.110 2.7042 0.020 2.5287 0.4214 0.1793 ZnCaBr2 2.6876 0.6044 0.5121 0.6710 0.3790 0.2126 0.3290 0.010 2.4622 0.4546 0.6543 0.705 SG m3/m3 0.6210 0.980 1.7542 0.1959 0.160 2.5878 0.5620 0.4455 0.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid) with 2.000 2.040 2.3623 0.090 2.7874 0.7375 0.4380 0.4713 0.4122 0.140 2.3956 0.050 2.2625 0.150 2.31 SG ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one m3 fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.2458 0.3457 0.2958 0.

220 2.1626 0.8706 0.1294 0.9871 TCT °C –14 –14 –13 –12 –11 –11 –10 –11 –11 –12 1·40 Go To Table of Contents .1460 0.1127 0.9705 0.290 2.705 SG m3/m3 0.0295 0.31 SG m3/m3 0.270 2.260 2.0794 0.0628 0.230 2.8540 0.8374 0.250 2.0961 0.0129 ZnCaBr2 2.280 2.8873 0.9372 0.9206 0.705 SG CaBr2 (liquid) with 2.9039 0.DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaBr2/ZnBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.0462 0.240 2.31 SG ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one m3 fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 2.210 2.9538 0.300 CaBr2 1.

83 1.01 2.024 0.31 SG CaBr2/ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one m3 fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.829 0.366 0.244 0.488 0.780 0.86 1.85 1.512 0.000 0.585 0.81 SG CaCl2/CaBr2 (liquid) with 2.439 0.268 0.10 CaCl2/CaBr2 1.87 1.537 0.634 0.07 2.03 2.98 1.415 0.658 0.04 2.683 0.537 0.439 0.171 0.293 0.561 0.122 0.951 0.05 2.610 0.317 0.878 0.195 0.91 1.95 1.31 SG m3/m3 0.707 0.97 1.049 0.463 0.89 1.92 1.561 0.02 2.220 0.90 1.93 1.000 0.073 0.81 1.81 SG m3/m3 1.756 0.976 0.09 2.488 0.463 0.84 1.342 0.415 ZnCaBr2 2.08 2.732 0.585 TCT °C 17 16 15 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 9 9 8 8 7 6 4 1 –2 –4 –3 –2 –2 –1 0 Continues on next page 1·41 Go To Table of Contents .99 2.DIVALENT BRINES Calcium Chloride/Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.903 0.927 0.854 0.146 0.805 0.098 0.96 1.512 0.390 0.

71 SG) + 57.390 0.829 0.171 0.951 0.23 2.610 0.805 0.293 0. 1·42 Go To Table of Contents .27 2.000 ZnCaBr2 2.21 2.927 0.366 0.854 0.878 0.31 SG m3/m3 0.756 0.26 2.146 0.220 0.268 0.097 0.903 0.122 0.851 m3 (1.11 2.17 2.1 lb/gal = 0.195 0.659 0.634 0.14 2.28 2.000 TCT °C 1 2 3 4 2 0 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –7 –8 –9 –11 –12 To make 1 m3 15.024 0.81 SG m3/m3 0.29 2.780 0.317 0.683 0.049 0.15 2.31 CaCl2/CaBr2 1.8 kg/bbl dry CaCl2 (94 to 97%).DIVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Calcium Chloride/Calcium Bromide/Zinc Bromide CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 (Metric) Blending 1.81 SG CaCl2/CaBr2 (liquid) with 2.19 2.073 0.244 0.976 1.341 0.22 2.31 SG CaBr2/ZnCaBr2 (liquid) Composition for one m3 fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 2.732 0.707 0.13 2.25 2.20 2.16 2.

MONOVALENT BRINES Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 2 MONOVALENT BRINES 2.

501 SG).7-kg).200 SG). It is also used at 2 to 4% as a clay and shale stabilizer.3-kg).4 lb/gal (1. Ammonium Chloride (Dry) Ammonium Chloride (dry) is a high-purity salt that can generate brine densities from 8.537 SG).000-lb (909-kg) tote bags.164 SG). 80-lb (36. It is packaged in 50-lb (22.4 lb/gal (1. densities up to 12. it can be mixed with NaCl to prepare brines with densities between 10.4-kg). Sodium Bromide (Liquid) Sodium Bromide (liquid) is a single-salt clear brine fluid.4 to 10.0 lb/gal (1. 100-lb (45. It is packaged in 100-lb (45.501 SG) can be achieved. Typically. It can be formulated for 2·1 Go To Table of Contents .008 to 1. Pure sodium bromide solutions can be prepared with densities between 8. It is used where formation waters contain high concentrations of bicarbonate or sulfate ions. It may liberate ammonia gas at pHs above 9. Ammonium chloride (dry) is packaged in 50-lb (22.0 and 12. Potassium Chloride (Dry) Potassium Chloride (dry) is a high-purity salt that can achieve brine densities from 8.5 lb/gal (1.7 lb/gal (1.164 SG).008 SG) and 12.0.008 SG) to 9. When mixed with NaBr.8 lb/gal (1.7 lb/gal (1. 110-lb (50-kg) sacks and 2.008 to 1.4-kg) sacks and 2.5 lb/gal (1.000-lb (909-kg) tote bags.4 to 9.200 and 1.7-kg) and 55-lb (25-kg) sacks.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Chloride (Dry) Sodium Chloride (dry) is a high-purity salt used in brines with a density range between 8.

571 SG). Sodium Bromide (Dry) Sodium Bromide (dry) is a high-purity salt.MONOVALENT BRINES various crystallization temperatures and for summer or winter blends. Potassium Formate (Liquid) Potassium Formate (liquid) is a single-salt clear brine fluid.008 and 1.5 lb/gal (1. Potassium Formate (Dry) Potassium formate (dry) is a high-purity. organic salt that can deliver brine fluid densities ranging from 8. Pure potassium formate solutions can be prepared with densities between 8. Potassium formate provides excellent thermal stabilization effects on natural polymers.1 lb/gal (1. Pure sodium bromide solutions can be prepared with densities between 8.330 SG). It is used where formation waters contain high concentrations of bicarbonate or sulfate ions and is packaged in 55-lb (25-kg) sacks.008 SG) to 11.4 lb/gal (1.000-kg) “big” bags.205-lb (1.501 SG). The potassium ion provides excellent clay stabilization and swelling inhibition of shales. it can be mixed with NaCl to prepare brines with densities between 8.4 lb/gal (1. It is packaged in 55-lb (25-kg) sacks and 2.8 lb/gal (1.008 SG) and 12.4 lb/gal (1.4 and 12. It is packaged in bulk-liquid quantities.08 SG) and 13.537 SG). Typically. organic salt with eventual densities between 2·2 Go To Table of Contents .1 lb/gal (1. Sodium Formate (Dry) Sodium formate (dry) is a high-purity.

but cesium formate is most often commercially available at 17.205-lb (1.10 SG) and 18.573 SG).MONOVALENT BRINES 8.3 lb/gal (2.000-kg) “big” bags. It is packaged in 55-lb (25-kg) sacks or in 2. clay stabilization and shale-swelling inhibition. Like potassium formate.1 lb/gal (1.20 SG). Cesium Formate (Liquid) Cesium formate (liquid) is a single-salt clear brine fluid.01 SG) and 20. Pure cesium formate systems can be prepared with densities between 8.40 SG).4 lb/gal (1.008 SG) and 13.4 lb/gal (1.5 lb/gal (2. Miscellaneous Blends • Sodium Chloride/Calcium Chloride • Potassium Bromide 2·3 Go To Table of Contents .0 lb/gal (2. cesium formate provides excellent thermal stability on natural polymers.

524 27.432 98.200 81.710 18.70 9.2 10.507 152.70 8.7 9.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Chloride NaCl (U.6 102.188 75.748 128.80 8.7 54.080 To calculate parts per million.000 0.60 9.0 47.350 16.919 0.060 24.6 95.071 60.50 9.3 109.6 16.933 0.0 24.7 Na+ mg/L 0 4.8 41.50 8. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.022 139.0 7.0 21.) Mixing dry NaCl (99%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal NaCl Water NaCl @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 8.2 28.310 164.052 113.5 20.135 TCT °F 32 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 16 14 11 8 5 1 –2 –6 12 25 106.576 82.810 175.910 0.90 9.0 74.5 9.4 13.895 0.992 90.586 121.6 81.258 38.0 3.3 88.60 8.4 25.200 187.40 8.662 45.20 9.981 0.902 0.90 10.S.9 15.259 59.40 9.993 0.948 0.638 31.0 1.0 1.926 0.00 0.1 34.998 0.33 8.761 38.969 0.986 0.2 22.389 68.962 0.3 61.00 9.976 0.701 70.239 116.106 48.474 Cl– mg/L 0 6.5 23.900 93.30 9.576 53.10 9.890 0.940 0.955 0.178 105.3 68.4 6.0 2.7 4.5 17. 2·4 Go To Table of Contents .1 18.133 10.7 12.80 9.

) Blending 10.941 1.505 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Chloride NaCl (U.799 0.748 0.000 0.879 0.40 9.377 0.186 0.20 9.968 0.60 8.149 0.439 0.000 TCT °F 32 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 16 14 11 8 5 1 –2 –6 12 25 2·5 Go To Table of Contents .000 0.00 NaCl 10.S.626 0.70 8.564 0.684 0.30 9.33 8.854 0.40 8.088 0.90 9.0 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.377 0.686 0.500 0.259 0.320 0.000 Water bbl/bbl 1.914 0.815 0.90 10.121 0.034 0.746 0.80 9.50 8.60 9.80 8.255 0.317 0.50 9.628 0.059 0.204 0.00 9.439 0.70 9.566 0.10 9.0 lb/gal NaCl (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 8.

86 0.70 0.6 1.43 0.49 0.000 0.60 9.0 26.60 8.26 113.22 5.350 17.917 17.060 Cl – mg/L 0 5.919 103.21 7.) Mixing dry KCl (99%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal KCl Water KCl @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl wt % 8.908 19.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Chloride KCl (U.87 124.882 23.999 0.706 113.4 76.1 91.06 0.70 8.521 49.950 10.40 8.971 44.50 8.995 0.237 28.3 11.S.317 0.977 0.745 15.147 74.40 9.303 132.658 93.876 55.0 33.943 12.932 14.0 4.04 8.079 0.95 K mg/L 0 6. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.569 To calculate parts per million.339 93.924 16.90 9.21 3.00 9.33 8.734 82.871 70.80 8.695 123.960 0.30 9.290 TCT °F 32 31 29 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 23 38 54 0.024 0.898 20.7 55.0 47.50 9.522 60.7 62.970 0.10 9.905 84.96 146.605 25.20 9.7 69.104 64.5 98.986 0. 2·6 Go To Table of Contents .4 41.6 19.171 38.890 22.47 135.592 34.59 102.8 84.00 1.

9 10.384 62.2 147.19 28.49 116.7 10.893 0.577 44.895 47.620 54.840 65.888 91.090 51.63 113.861 93.282 37.6 129.701 117.1 11.953 0.01 12.1 153.441 37.2 9.S.384 35.12 33.874 0.0 11.973 0.3 9.002 253.02 25.863 36.013 392.4 11.896 58.0 88.5 10.602 265.9 164.53 14.) Mixing dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density NaBr lb/gal Water 97% dry NaBr @70° F bbl/bbl lb/bbl wt % 9.06 Na mg/L Br mg/L TCT °F 24 23 0 21 19 17 16 14 12 11 9 7 5 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –7 –9 –11 –13 –14 –16 –18 –19 23.434 81.473 303.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Bromide NaBr (U.0 9.8 123.258 69.907 0.203 33.5 11.940 0.4 9.859 0.922 0.73 11.935 0.640 405.926 0.912 0.903 0.881 190.9 54.754 73.7 9.427 341.555 203.171 215.19 31.294 379.917 0.2 10.387 178.200 375.948 0.8 71.4 10.449 76.96 102.28 13.6 10.2 11.2 83.5 182.6 176.5 60.22 29.957 0.182 98.897 33.965 0.5 135.20 30.888 0.9 43.3 11.2 65.855 37.724 228.969 0.179 Continues on next page 2·7 Go To Table of Contents .9 117.69 21.0 158.533 26.83 22.17 32.838 291.7 174.8 10.0 10.9 11.5 77.931 0.944 0.3 10.7 94.334 129.898 0.673 83.809 141.3 141.3 106.768 329.864 0.38 19.1 10.4 48.20 18.597 40.16 27.56 20.869 0.334 240.94 24.233 153.359 30.8 9.188 87.69 108.6 9.09 26.76 109.79 16.837 166.001 354.247 105.3 9.879 0.5 100.961 0.884 0.00 17.4 188.718 35.1 9.511 94.160 316.1 111.5 9.6 0.257 278.965 80.

812 506.09 142.9 12.98 127.483 481.3 12.1 206.850 0.879 45.127 493.2 12.33 120.4 12. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.415 To calculate parts per million.6 12.) Mixing dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density NaBr lb/gal Water 97% dry NaBr @70° F bbl/bbl lb/bbl wt % 11.56 149.7 0.804 194.826 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Sodium Bromide NaBr (U.153 531.5 12.388 518.78 131.8 223.31 153.33 138.2 200.012 41.84 145.S.92 156.653 443.958 45.5 Na mg/L Br mg/L TCT °F –19 –16 –11 –5 2 10 19 28 37 46 54 38.821 0.313 417.216 40.475 44.174 456.840 0.16 123.8 11.350 543.835 0.5 235.57 134.880 468.890 430.7 11.830 43.4 241.668 42.9 217.2 247.816 0.845 0.2 252.830 0.1 12.937 39.178 43.571 39.811 0.6 229.807 0.0 211. 2·8 Go To Table of Contents .0 12.

0 10.226 0.822 0.443 0.684 0.440 0.564 0.392 0.516 0.5 lb/gal NaBr (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 9.561 0.512 0.660 0.250 0.418 0.1 10.157 0.2 9.754 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Bromide NaBr (U.5 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.180 0.) Blending 12.5 9.4 10.273 0.610 Water bbl/bbl 0.7 10.777 0.467 0.393 TCT °F 24 23 0 21 19 17 16 14 12 11 9 7 5 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 –7 Continues on next page 2·9 Go To Table of Contents .S.537 0.8 9.2 10.8 10.9 NaBr 12.344 0.492 0.3 9.708 0.368 0.5 10.3 10.585 0.203 0.488 0.0 9.845 0.637 0.6 10.540 0.1 9.800 0.296 0.9 10.613 0.416 0.7 9.464 0.320 0.4 9.731 0.588 0.6 9.

3 12.7 11.879 0.732 0.0 12.147 0.320 0.903 0.0 11.049 0.000 TCT °F –9 –11 –13 –14 –16 –18 –19 –19 –16 –11 –5 2 10 19 28 37 2·10 Go To Table of Contents .073 0.830 0.S.3 11.2 12.196 0.756 0.659 0.854 0.098 0.000 Water bbl/bbl 0.1 11.4 11.634 0.1 12.707 0.6 11.172 0.927 0.246 0.781 0.5 NaBr 12.5 lb/gal NaBr (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 11.024 0.2 11.976 1.270 0.4 12.805 0.8 11.9 12.683 0.295 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Sodium Bromide NaBr (U.369 0.5 11.221 0.) Blending 12.122 0.5 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.344 0.951 0.

29 16.872 10.321 134.0 0.58 18.992 103.880 MONOVALENT BRINES 10.1 0.9 19.57 10.6 100.3 9.627 145.725 41.494 62.3 0.6 87.861 10.797 127.877 10.2 38.123 149.294 82. Mixing dry NaCl (99%).858 2·11 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .5 74.18 8.0 104.5 57.094 164.866 10.8 78.618 172.3 95.8 0.874 10.95 20.462 166.00 0 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 187.61 12.4 0.365 TCT °F 23 24 25 26 27 27 27 26 26 Density lb/gal @ 70° F 109.58 16.61 14.635 157.17 21.2 82.Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide (NaCl/NaBr) U.42 23.2 67.0 Water bbl/bbl NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry lb/bbl lb/bbl 10.275 0.7 0.21 20.6 28.2 0.S. dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid NaCl wt % 25.42 17.69 24.6 0.863 10.906 124.080 179.51 6.807 142.9 48.5 0.869 10.9 91.6 0.37 2.75 19.49 4.1 77.

8 65.06 30.841 11.5 86.6 0.08 20.363 270.855 11.850 67.92 8.8 106.5 0.179 290.2 154.836 2·12 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .056 207.850 11.852 11.94 7.1 125.0 0.421 TCT °F 26 25 24 24 25 26 28 29 Density lb/gal @ 70° F 69.2 0.93 10.96 11.63 27.4 0.S.833 82.7 135. Mixing dry NaCl (99%).7 52.91 9.87 25.Continued from previous page Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide (NaCl/NaBr) U.97 23.9 0.844 11.285 104.4 115.40 187.847 11.26 18.692 332.01 12.4 61.3 0.0 43. dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid NaCl wt % 15.509 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 119.1 0.793 228.36 29.09 14.839 11.6 39.8 Water bbl/bbl NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry lb/bbl lb/bbl MONOVALENT BRINES 10.610 249.4 144.0 56.378 89.774 112.913 311.1 96.73 22.414 74.3 48.907 97.

67 43.3 0.18 41.336 457.429 44.819 12.830 11.0 183.9 30.584 436.10 5.58 33.828 12.4 13.8 17.5 0.346 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 59.Continued from previous page Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide (NaCl/NaBr) U.03 6.666 519.2 0. Mixing dry NaCl (99%).466 29.946 394.932 22.13 44.080 477.67 40.2 231.811 .918 7.5 26.0 0. dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid NaCl wt % 7.S.9 212.56 35.4 0.7 0.28 3.99 32.217 373.9 0.1 8.67 0.3 173.0 241.18 4.3 202.2 21.7 4.853 52.833 11.825 12.6 193.6 221.7 164.53 1.445 0 TCT °F 29 29 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 Density lb/gal @ 70° F 34.14 38.814 2·13 Go To Table of Contents 12.833 415.8 0.871 37.40 2.00 37.1 0.817 12.810 498.415 14.83 0.0 Water bbl/bbl NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry lb/bbl lb/bbl MONOVALENT BRINES 11.4 0.38 353.822 12.

800 0.1 12.618 0.1 11.546 0.6 11.9 12.628 0.8 11.400 0.080 0.6 10.560 0.680 0.800 0.608 0.5 10.639 0.280 0.2 10.600 0.640 0.480 0.525 0.3 12.4 12.120 0.8 10.9 11.603 0.623 0.4 10.551 0.400 0.4 11.960 0.320 0.7 10.588 0.960 1.560 0.040 0.530 0.440 0.0 lb/gal Gradient NaCl psi/ft (bbl) 0.440 0.577 0.080 0.613 0.160 0.650 1.200 0.360 0.040 0.541 0.000 23 24 25 26 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 24 25 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 2·14 Go To Table of Contents .840 0.600 0.1 10.562 0.920 0.640 0.000 12.120 0.760 0.720 0.840 0.000 0.280 0.0 10.2 12.633 0.880 0.7 11.5 lb/gal NaBr Brine To make one barrel Brine Density at 60° F lb/gal 10.5 11.360 0.3 11.567 0.760 0.240 0.0 12.160 0.320 0.644 0.0 lb/gal NaCl Brine and 12.520 0.920 0.5 Pressure 10.880 0.593 0.572 0.3 10.582 0.556 0.5 lb/gal NaBr TCT (bbl) °F 0.240 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr Brine Using 10.720 0.520 0.480 0.680 0.2 11.598 0.000 0.200 0.536 0.520 0.0 11.

02 1.8 4.999 0.7 7.908 0.2 19.903 72.1 167.06 1.375 22.942 0.669 44.1 14.994 0.17 1.4 246.982 0.04 1.15 1.4 199.136 100.971 0.5 2.1 308.733 22.0 0.00 1.7 230.000 0.18 1.7 1.1 214.666 40.015 166.442 89.959 119.977 0.8 13.314 81.891 0.16 1.1 73.054 65.948 0.9 9.569 34.725 91.6 16.20 0.4 58.957 59.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Chloride NaCl (Metric) Mixing dry NaCl (99%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity NaCl Water NaCl (SG) kg/m3 m3/m3 wt % 1.151 71.278 16.7 89.1 120.9 18.937 0.4 Na+ mg/L 0.954 0.1 5.830 23.2 10.07 1.03 1.09 1.249 TCT °C 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –4 –5 –6 –7 –9 –10 –11 –12 –13 –15 –17 –19 –20 –21 –11 –4 20.4 293.919 0.01 1.345 83.914 0.4 152.7 136.604 157.7 42.181 10.925 0.7 101.7 277.897 0.539 95.248 77.965 0.080 53.14 1.988 0.12 1.1 26.025 2·15 Go To Table of Contents .763 46.257 34.548 109.08 1.0 4.860 52.928 24.05 1.19 1.13 1.491 62.193 147.5 11.959 0.10 1.4 6.7 183.902 0.838 185.4 105.781 138.3 1.1 261.6 120.427 175.435 15.0 6.3 113.3 15.0 11.636 Cl– mg/L 0.931 0.370 128.846 25.0 107.11 1.472 28.

337 0.461 0.02 1.209 0.14 1.512 0.663 0.260 0.361 0.17 1.387 0.000 0.135 0.841 0.06 1.2 SG NaCl (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.20 NaCl 1.13 1.15 1.411 0.11 1.891 0.713 0.000 TCT °C 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –4 –5 –6 –7 –9 –10 –11 –12 –13 –15 –17 –19 –20 –21 –11 –4 2·16 Go To Table of Contents .085 0.791 0.07 1.236 0.16 1.2 SG m3/m3 0 0.05 1.589 0.438 0.04 1.865 0.186 0.310 0.000 Water m3/m3 1.08 1.01 1.058 0.287 0.035 0.965 0.613 0.539 0.12 1.639 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Chloride NaCl (Metric) Blending 1.159 0.109 0.562 0.09 1.764 0.942 1.740 0.10 1.690 0.19 1.915 0.00 1.814 0.18 1.488 0.03 1.

7 6.7 97.6 3.9484 0.1 4.2 148.3 165.982 0.02 1.9 19.9 235.7 31.8726 KCl (99%) dry kg/m3 4.3 217.9412 0. 2·17 Go To Table of Contents .00 1.18 Water m3/m3 0.2 7.9756 0.9 288.969 0.9882 0.03 1.2 10.5 KCl wt % 0.9983 0.1 23.9266 0.01 1.5 182.9191 0.5 253.5 1.6 15.4 24.17 1.9554 0.7 47.2 13.6 15.2 270.9623 0.9 64.7 306.7 22. divide mg/L by the specific gravity.10 1.9339 0.3 20.12 1.9115 0.7 9.7 12.14 1.8805 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Chloride KCl (Metric) Mixing dry KCl (99%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.09 1.11 1.05 1.8961 0.7 26 TCT °C 0 –1 –2 –2 –3 –4 –5 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 –11 –6 1 8 15 23 To calculate parts per million.06 1.4 114.9038 0.08 1.2 131.5 17.13 1.1 16.2 80.15 1.04 1.07 1.9942 0.16 1.9 200.8883 0.

0 15.8 22.08 1.781 76.15 1.5 25.19 1.20 1.3 27.771 70.765 67.17 1.5 326.709 34.735 49.949 0.000 130.1 270.8 395.0 18.000 250.28 1.714 37.8 21.6 24.760 64.719 40.2 257.2 354.7 Na mg/L 22.000 190.9 14.0 17.9 284.6 118.000 200.23 1.000 260.5 132.1 367.24 1.000 90.745 55.4 146.14 1.000 280.969 0.21 1.11 1.786 79.000 210.6 215.22 1.972 0.953 0.13 1.10 1.8 201.9 187.6 312.961 0.922 0.000 220.945 0.895 9.000 290.1 173.09 1.000 240.27 1.000 100.755 61.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Bromide NaBr (Metric) Mixing dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity NaBr Water NaBr (SG) kg/m3 m3/m3 wt % 1.6 0.000 120.000 150.8 298.796 85.902 0.910 0.4 26.9 12.25 1.906 0.8 10.9 19.899 0.957 0.18 1.0 28.699 28.26 1.16 1.704 31.29 104.776 73.000 170.000 160.9 29.7 23.000 110.000 230.926 0.930 0.9 381.2 160.3 340.976 0.12 1.934 0.5 229.8 11.4 243.937 0.2 28.0 18.000 140.918 0.965 0.9 20.791 82.750 58.694 25.000 180.914 0.000 TCT °C –4 –5 –18 –12 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 –11 –11 –12 –13 –14 –15 –15 –16 –17 –18 –19 –19 –20 Continues on next page 2·18 Go To Table of Contents .725 43.740 52.0 16.730 46.801 Br mg/L 80.941 0.000 270.

0 45.1 38.000 127.000 151.8 492.829 0.873 430.5 423.000 2·19 Go To Table of Contents .822 Br mg/L 300.49 1.9 672.832 0.43 1.000 142.46 1.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Sodium Bromide NaBr (Metric) Mixing dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity NaBr Water NaBr (SG) kg/m3 m3/m3 wt % 1.39 1.000 109.811 94.53 409.7 34.888 460.000 118.38 1.4 40.8 589.000 320.6 506.1 32.0 464.000 145.867 0.5 31.883 0.3 43.871 0.848 0.832 350.3 1.000 106.806 91.3 534.809 0.000 121.805 0.36 1.7 686.840 0.2 548.000 124.864 0.6 37.5 714.4 35.836 0.0 658.34 1.909 500.0 42.35 1.37 1.898 480.3 631.879 0.44 1.868 420.33 1.2 35.000 154.000 148.891 0.875 0.817 97.000 112.8 39.47 1.856 0.50 1.9 478.5 617.847 380.825 0.5 45.860 0.52 1.903 490.000 310.817 0.924 530.893 470.883 450.919 520.8 41.9 44.837 360.000 136.2 0.000 133.48 1.4 38.51 1.40 1.42 1.6 46.2 Na mg/L 88.31 1.3 32.000 115.827 340.844 0.9 33.9 575.5 520.878 440.000 139.9 36.3 437.000 TCT °C –21 –22 –23 –24 –24 –25 –26 –27 –28 –28 –28 –28 –27 –24 –21 –17 –15 –12 –7 –2 3 8 10 12 100.000 157.852 0.000 130.4 42.863 410.3 728.0 561.887 0.45 1.842 370.000 103.6 603.852 390.2 645.914 510.857 400.2 451.813 0.7 43.801 30.32 1.000 330.41 1.1 40.821 0.6 700.

634 0.731 0.273 0.393 0.128 1.516 0.261 1.613 0.226 0.200 1.273 1.321 1.152 1.285 1.488 0.585 0.345 1.684 0.467 0.157 0.777 0.080 1.392 0.416 0.357 NaBr 1.588 0.708 0.344 0.492 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Bromide NaBr (Metric) Blending 1.236 1.637 0.564 0.464 0.212 1.296 0.188 1.540 0.203 0.5 SG m3/m3 0.707 Water m3/m3 0.320 0.418 0.537 0.180 0.104 1.164 1.440 0.754 0.344 0.250 0.610 0.309 1.845 0.822 0.512 0.092 1.660 0.224 1.443 0.116 1.800 0.333 1.248 1.369 0.683 0.659 0.561 0.368 0.140 1.320 0.297 1.295 TCT °C –4 –5 –18 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 –11 –12 –13 –14 –15 –16 –17 –18 –19 –20 –21 –22 –23 –24 –25 –26 Continues on next page 2·20 Go To Table of Contents .5 SG NaBr (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.176 1.

073 0.381 1.429 1.000 TCT °C –27 –28 –28 –28 –27 –24 –21 –17 –12 –7 –2 3 2·21 Go To Table of Contents .756 0.903 0.927 0.477 1.5 SG NaBr (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.147 0.854 0.393 1.805 0.879 0.489 1.830 0.270 0.000 Water m3/m3 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Sodium Bromide NaBr (Metric) Blending 1.417 1.221 0.465 1.024 0.098 0.976 1.122 0.405 1.369 1.5 SG m3/m3 0.781 0.501 NaBr 1.172 0.951 0.196 0.732 0.246 0.049 0.453 1.441 1.

Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr (Metric) Mixing dry NaCl (99%), dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid
NaCl wt % 25.69 24.42 23.17 21.95 20.75 19.58 18.42 17.29 16.18 8.57 10.61 12.61 14.58 16.51 6.49 4.37 2.21 20,725 41,494 62,294 82,992 103,906 124,627 145,462 166,275 0.00 0 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 187,080 179,618 172,094 164,635 157,123 149,807 142,321 134,797 127,365 TCT °C –5 –4 –4 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3

Specific Gravity (SG) 311.3 298.7 286.5 273.9 261.6 249.0 236.5 224.2 211.6 220.5 192.8 165.4 137.7 110.2 82.5 55.1 27.4 0.0

Water m3/m3

NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry 3 kg/m kg/m3

1.200

0.880

MONOVALENT BRINES

1.212

0.877

1.224

0.874

1.236

0.872

1.248

0.869

1.261

0.866

1.273

0.863

1.285

0.861

1.297

0.858

2·22 Go To Table of Contents

Continues on next page

Continued from previous page

Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr (Metric) Mixing dry NaCl (99%), dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid
NaCl wt % 15.09 14.01 12.96 11.93 10.91 9.92 8.94 23.87 25.63 27.36 29.06 22.08 20.26 18.40 187,056 207,793 228,610 249,363 270,179 290,913 311,692 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 119,774 112,285 104,907 97,378 89,833 82,414 74,850 TCT °C –3 –4 –4 –4 –4 –3 –2

Specific Gravity (SG) 199.3 186.8 174.2 161.9 149.4 137.1 124.5 413.3 385.8 358.1 330.7 303.0 275.6 247.9

Water m3/m3

NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry 3 kg/m kg/m3

MONOVALENT BRINES

1.309

0.855

1.321

0.852

1.333

0.850

1.345

0.847

1.357

0.844

1.369

0.841

1.381

0.839

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Continued from previous page

Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr (Metric) Mixing dry NaCl (99%), dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid
NaCl wt % 7.97 7.03 6.10 5.18 4.28 3.40 2.53 35.58 37.14 38.67 40.18 33.99 32.38 30.73 332,509 353,217 373,946 394,833 415,584 436,336 457,080 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 67,421 59,853 52,429 44,871 37,466 29,932 22,415 TCT °C –2 –2 –2 –2 –2 –1 –1

Specific Gravity (SG) 112.0 99.7 87.1 74.8 62.3 49.7 37.4 606.3 578.6 551.2 523.5 496.1 468.4 441.0

Water m3/m3

NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry 3 kg/m kg/m3

MONOVALENT BRINES

1.393

0.836

1.405

0.833

1.417

0.830

1.429

0.828

1.441

0.825

1.453

0.822

1.465

0.819

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Continued from previous page

Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr (Metric) Mixing dry NaCl (99%), dry NaBr (97%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid
NaCl wt % 1.67 0.83 0.00 44.56 43.13 41.67 477,810 498,666 519,346 NaBr wt % Br mg/L Cl– mg/L 14,918 7,445 0 TCT °C 0 0 1

Specific Gravity (SG) 24.8 12.6 0.0 688.9 661.4 633.7

Water m3/m3

NaCl NaBr (99%) dry (97%) dry 3 kg/m kg/m3

MONOVALENT BRINES

1.477

0.817

1.489

0.814

1.501

0.811

2·25 Go To Table of Contents

To calculate parts per million, divide mg/L by the specific gravity.

MONOVALENT BRINES
Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr (Metric) Blending 1.2 SG NaCl (liquid), 1.5 SG NaBr (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid
Specific Gravity (SG) 1.200 1.212 1.224 1.236 1.248 1.261 1.273 1.285 1.297 1.309 1.321 1.333 1.345 1.357 1.369 1.381 1.393 1.405 1.417 1.429 1.441 NaCl 1.2 SG m3 1.000 0.960 0.920 0.880 0.840 0.800 0.760 0.720 0.680 0.640 0.600 0.560 0.520 0.480 0.440 0.400 0.360 0.320 0.280 0.240 0.200 NaBr 1.5 SG m3 0.000 0.040 0.080 0.120 0.160 0.200 0.240 0.280 0.320 0.360 0.400 0.440 0.480 0.520 0.560 0.600 0.640 0.680 0.720 0.760 0.800 TCT °C –5 –4 –4 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –4 –4 –4 –4 –3 –2 –2 –2 –2 –2 –2

Continues on next page

2·26 Go To Table of Contents

MONOVALENT BRINES
Continued from previous page

Sodium Chloride/Sodium Bromide NaCl/NaBr (Metric) Blending 1.2 SG NaCl (liquid), 1.5 SG NaBr (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid
Specific Gravity (SG) 1.453 1.465 1.477 1.489 1.501 NaCl 1.2 SG m3 0.160 0.120 0.080 0.040 0.000 NaBr 1.5 SG m3 0.840 0.880 0.920 0.960 1.000 TCT °C –1 –1 0 0 1

To calculate parts per million, divide mg/L by the specific gravity.

2·27 Go To Table of Contents

7549 0.8 9.83 52.9 10.8953 0.30 114.5 8.7845 0.8 10.4 9.4 8.8123 0.86 12.50 122.9055 0.00 Water bbl/bbl 0.60 90.26 106.8 8.2 9.S.3 10.31 32.9929 0.2 10.7233 0.7700 0.7068 TCT °F 31 29 27 25 23 20 18 16 13 11 8 6 3 6 9 12 15 18 22 27 32 38 44 49 54 59 70 2·28 Go To Table of Contents .92 60.36 98.7 8.10 185.1 10.5 10.6 8.0 10.9423 0.20 205.98 82.90 176.7 9.00 215.70 166.) Mixing dry NaHCO2 (96%) and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 8.6 9.9733 0.49 74.9 11.9153 0.00 148.0 96% NaHCO2 lb/bbl 5.9506 0.8847 0.71 25.5 9.0 9.9247 0.8623 0.1 9.8737 0.80 157.86 45.9585 0.30 140.8254 0.60 195.7 10.6 10.7986 0.4 10.80 131.9661 0.9337 0.23 18.8382 0.02 38.9 9.7394 0.3 9.8504 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Formate NaHCO2 (U.14 67.9867 0.9801 0.

8 16.4 TCT °F 30 29 28 26 25 23 20 18 15 12 10 6 3 0 –4 –8 –12 –16 –20 –24 –28 –32 –37 –41 –46 –50 –55 Continues on next page 2·29 Go To Table of Contents .8 7.8496 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Formate KHCO2 (U.6 32.8680 0.7087 0.7719 0.2 30.S.8862 0.6 122.9318 0.4 9.6 8.9 11.8 10.8 29.6 9.0 10.1 Water bbl/bbl 0.7 8.9 41.4 10.9696 0.0 11.2 10.2 178.4 27.6 26.0 37.2 47.0 164.7 44.8213 0.3 9.9135 0.9 9.6 10.8771 0.1 10.9 KHCO2 wt % 2.2 28.2 9.9 42.8 115.7303 0.1 150.6 95.7617 0.6978 0.6868 KHCO2 dry lb/bbl 7.0 5.4 129.6 19.5 9.0 34.4 61.7 48.9 46.8308 0.9896 0.6 22.7 36.7920 0.2 21.5 10.3 10.4 43.3 108.7196 0.8 9.7514 0.3 38.6 9.0 171.6 39.2 136.0 157.5 8.1 9.8116 0.1 23.9 207.9044 0.8402 0.) Mixing dry KHCO2 and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @60° F 8.7 10.8 8.1 20.6 75.7820 0.3 192.9 10.7 199.9410 0.6 221.8953 0.0 17.9 88.9593 0.7 9.1 12.4 11.2 214.9504 0.9 68.0 9.3 81.1 34.

9 392.5 66.2 Water bbl/bbl 0.4986 0.8 12.4 54.0 52.1 13.4213 0.6644 0.6 12.9 12.4861 0.3 12.5833 0.8 328.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Formate KHCO2 (U.1 289.5596 0.5715 0.5233 0.4 11.6416 0.8 244.7 11.8 383.4 408.8 375.5 12.S.2 53.6 67.0 12.6530 0.2 12.6 69.8 57.9 13.4 12.7 297.9 59.4077 0.4 305.5110 0.8 72.6185 0.4347 0.1 61.) Mixing dry KHCO2 and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @60° F 11.3 266.5 56.3 336.3795 KHCO2 dry lb/bbl 236.3 11.5475 0.7 12.3 251.8 73.1 344.5951 0.0 13.8 359.1 400.6301 0.7 70.0 351.8 11.4 64.5 65.9 74.8 51.3 KHCO2 wt % 49.9 282.2 11.8 417.9 TCT °F –59 –64 –69 –73 –75 –69 –63 –57 –51 –45 –39 –33 –28 –21 –15 –9 –3 3 9 16 22 2·30 Go To Table of Contents .5 11.4478 0.0 60.4735 0.8 259.7 71.1 312.6 11.1 12.2 63.3938 0.

4850 0.8 8.2238 0.2822 0.1854 0.2626 0.7 8.4435 0.5565 0.4940 0.5271 0.3418 0.8525 0.0183 0.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl Water bbl/bbl TCT °F 8.6 10.9635 0.S.8336 0.3 10.7178 0.1664 0.6782 0.4 8.1 9.6981 0.9 9.4229 0.4024 0.0 10.7762 0.5060 0.0915 0.6 9.6382 0.6 8.9817 0.3218 0.7 9.7955 0.0 0.4 9.7568 0.4642 0.1101 0.0 9.5 9.8 10.6582 0.0547 0.3618 0.4729 30 29 28 26 25 23 20 18 15 12 10 6 3 0 –4 –8 –12 –16 –20 –24 –28 –32 –37 –41 –46 –50 –55 Continues on next page 2·31 Go To Table of Contents .5771 0.0730 0.5358 0.1 lb/gal KHCO2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F KHCO2 13.6179 0.2432 0.5976 0.5 8.9270 0.4 10.2045 0.5 10.8899 0.9085 0.2 10.1 10.1287 0.3821 0.9453 0.7 10.7374 0.9 11.3019 0.8146 0.3 9.0365 0.2 9.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Formate KHCO2 (U.8 9.5150 0.) Blending 13.1475 0.9 10.8713 0.

2088 0.0000 –59 –64 –69 –73 –75 –69 –63 –57 –51 –45 –39 –33 –28 –21 –15 –9 –3 3 9 16 22 2·32 Go To Table of Contents .5 12.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Formate KHCO2 (U.4087 0.7684 0.0 12.2542 0.3871 0.8 12.9547 0.8 11.6 11.6347 0.0 13.1628 0.7009 0.1396 0.3 12.1 0.S.1887 0.5698 0.0000 0.3433 0.6 12.9309 0.5 11.3653 0.3213 0.1 lb/gal KHCO2 (liquid) and water Composition for one barrel Density lb/gal @70° F KHCO2 13.0214 0.7233 0.5484 0.4516 0.2 11.6129 0.6567 0.7 11.9072 0.7458 0.0453 0.0691 0.7912 0.8837 0.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl Water bbl/bbl TCT °F 11.2767 0.9786 1.4 11.9 13.4 12.1 11.4302 0.7 12.6787 0.8372 0.8113 0.2316 0.2 12.1 12.2991 0.3 11.9 12.0928 0.5913 0.1163 0.) Blending 13.8604 0.

000 46.7 11.7 3.134 0.3 0.S.905 0.573 0.7 102.8 153.4 33.4 133.1 122.370 0.9 31.5 25.9 13.0 204.7 5.438 0.667 0.8 46.5 43.0 53.5 11.238 0.067 0.619 0.476 0.000 0.000 0.381 0.1 215.7 11.6 32.1 Density 96% lb/gal lb/gal NaHCO2 Water KHCO2 NaHCO2 KHCO2 TCT @70° F lb/bbl bbl/bbl bbl/bbl wt % wt % ° F 11.404 0.0 12.7 20.8 36.095 0.3 11.269 0.640 0.9 71.9 41.168 0.857 0.3 174.1 10.336 0.2 26.7 9.3 17.034 0.4 75.2 81.2 11.202 0.539 0.5 143.048 0.5 29.571 0.0 0.505 0.8 12.7 7.8 1. 13.4 12.471 0.9 0.190 0.5 51.9 21.6 11.9 13.7 194.9 71.2 12.3 12.1 lb/gal KHCO2 and water Composition for one barrel of fluid 13.4 10.5 12.707 0.606 0.0 28.1 11.0 15.673 0.7 39.762 0.6 7.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Formate/Potassium Formate NaHCO2/KHCO2 (U.143 0.235 0.286 0.0 11.0 13.4 20.333 0.3 42.6 57.7 14.952 1.4 11.0 60 57 53 50 47 44 40 35 30 26 22 23 24 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 2·33 Go To Table of Contents .6 184.) Mixing dry NaHCO2 (96%).1 18.7 12.6 12.8 112.9 30.0 3.2 35.2 40.810 0.6 22.4 38.8 11.8 64.429 0.714 0.2 60.4 50.303 0.3 67.0 0.2 163.524 0.9 12.1 12.6 61.101 0.3 92.9 24.

170 0.82 17.80 1.868 0.50 14.811 0.62 1.660 0.78 1.264 0.33 13.67 14.585 0.64 1.68 1.42 14.MONOVALENT BRINES Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate CsHCO2/KHCO2 (U.774 0.019 0.42 13.17 13.528 Continues on next page 2·34 Go To Table of Contents .71 1.65 1.396 0.094 0.075 0.00 14.08 14.736 0.943 0.58 13.434 0.73 1.59 1.50 13.962 0.547 0.08 15.642 0.79 1.25 13.1 lb/gal KHCO2 Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 13.000 0.283 0.83 13.5 lb/gal CsHCO2 and 13.75 14.17 Density (SG) 1.981 0.) Blending 17.61 1.67 13.5 lb/gal CsHCO2 bbl/bbl 0.245 0.566 0.76 1.849 0.887 0.92 14.679 0.358 0.717 0.226 0.70 1.038 0.57 1.S.00 15.77 1.69 1.67 1.151 0.81 1.66 1.60 1.83 14.72 1.415 0.830 0.25 14.63 1.057 0.58 1.000 0.377 0.604 0.792 0.17 14.302 0.08 13.74 1.58 14.208 0.33 14.1 lb/gal KHCO2 bbl/bbl 1.453 0.755 0.925 0.472 13.906 0.189 0.623 0.75 1.113 0.321 0.698 0.92 15.75 13.132 0.340 0.

92 17.42 16.792 0.113 0.04 2.377 0.86 1.S.679 0.396 0.472 0.75 16.906 13.698 0.97 1.03 2.93 1.00 16.453 0.528 0.1 lb/gal KHCO2 bbl/bbl 0.88 1.358 0.566 0.170 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate CsHCO2/KHCO2 (U.151 0.00 17.491 0.08 16.340 0.811 0.98 1.208 0.25 16.283 0.) Blending 17.25 15.58 16.868 0.83 1.99 2.08 Density (SG) 1.830 0.736 0.33 15.5 lb/gal CsHCO2 bbl/bbl 0.849 0.491 0.83 15.547 0.84 1.509 0.585 0.42 15.87 1.415 0.02 2.755 0.58 15.094 Continues on next page 2·35 Go To Table of Contents .96 1.1 lb/gal KHCO2 Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 15.92 16.95 1.509 0.33 16.01 2.189 0.17 16.660 0.717 0.887 0.623 0.264 0.50 16.67 15.774 0.91 1.642 0.604 0.83 16.00 2.92 1.85 1.245 0.434 0.94 1.226 0.132 0.89 1.5 lb/gal CsHCO2 and 13.67 16.302 0.321 0.50 15.90 1.75 15.05 17.

5 lb/gal CsHCO2 and 13.06 2.1 lb/gal KHCO2 Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 17.962 0.42 17.25 17.943 0.000 13.17 17.33 17.50 Density (SG) 2.5 lb/gal CsHCO2 bbl/bbl 0.07 2.038 0.1 lb/gal KHCO2 bbl/bbl 0.08 2.) Blending 17.000 These formulations provided by CABOT.09 2.075 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate CsHCO2/KHCO2 (U. 2·36 Go To Table of Contents .S.925 0.019 0.057 0.10 17.981 1.

33 14.762 0.1 lb/gal KHCO2 Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 13.683 0.78 1.S.016 0.841 0.60 1.968 0.3 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.603 Density SG 1.222 0.143 0.889 0.) Blending 18.75 14.42 14.111 0.67 13.76 1.127 0.238 0.810 0.81 1.254 0.50 14.381 0.00 14.63 1.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl 1.61 1.67 14.92 14.095 0.57 1.72 1.65 1.286 0.68 1.302 0.778 0.937 0.3 lb/gal CsHCO2 and 13.079 0.17 13.08 15.77 1.063 0.714 0.25 14.75 13.80 1.58 14.59 1.70 1.58 13.MONOVALENT BRINES Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate CsHCO2/KHCO2 (U.08 14.698 0.333 0.667 0.032 0.69 1.635 0.952 0.730 0.175 0.33 13.746 0.71 1.83 13.17 CsHCO2 18.349 0.270 0.984 0.825 0.50 13.62 1.000 0.857 0.58 1.00 15.921 0.66 1.64 1.397 KHCO2 13.048 0.42 13.82 Continues on next page 2·37 Go To Table of Contents .190 0.75 1.317 0.17 14.92 15.159 0.25 13.08 13.73 1.619 0.794 0.74 1.206 0.365 0.873 0.83 14.67 1.651 0.000 0.905 0.79 1.

571 0.89 1.3 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.08 16.03 2.75 16.58 16.50 16.08 17.25 16.92 16.67 16.444 0.508 0.286 0.794 KHCO2 13.778 0.92 17.651 0.508 0.587 0.95 1.429 0.413 0.94 1.84 1.1 lb/gal KHCO2 Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 15.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.42 16.00 16.635 0.97 1.90 1.85 1.460 0.556 0.00 2.87 1.492 0.42 15.587 0.98 1.S.333 0.746 0.86 1.540 0.50 15.25 15.619 0.06 2.302 0.413 0.444 0.96 1.476 0.603 0.33 16.270 0.17 16.58 15.222 0.254 0.349 0.93 1.683 0.556 0.540 0.667 0.) Blending 18.04 2.397 0.317 0.429 0.02 2.92 1.492 0.75 15.07 Continues on next page 2·38 Go To Table of Contents .571 0.17 17.99 2.698 0.83 1.476 0.3 lb/gal CsHCO2 and 13.25 CsHCO2 18.83 16.238 0.524 0.206 Density SG 1.88 1.00 17.01 2.365 0.730 0.05 2.67 15.714 0.524 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate CsHCO2/KHCO2 (U.33 15.91 1.762 0.460 0.381 0.83 15.

841 0.825 0.968 0.25 18.1 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.42 17.3 lb/gal CsHCO2 and 13.12 2.75 17.33 17.3 lb/gal bbl/bbl 0.92 18.50 17.S.) Blending 18.16 2.09 2.873 0.984 1.08 18.17 18.190 0.67 17.33 CsHCO2 18.08 2.159 0.127 0.11 2.889 0.857 0.18 2.810 0.048 0.937 0.111 0.063 0.952 0.00 18.095 0.032 0.10 2.13 2.016 0.14 2. 2·39 Go To Table of Contents .143 0.15 2.000 KHCO2 13.921 0.83 17.000 Density SG 2.19 2.175 0.079 0.58 17.20 These formulations provided by CABOT.1 lb/gal KHCO2 Composition for one barrel of fluid Density lb/gal @70° F 17.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate CsHCO2/KHCO2 (U.905 0.17 2.

1 307.9379 0.06 1.6 161.8622 0.3 250.9 196.8717 0.6 387.16 1.05 111.9230 0.9306 0.13 1.01 1.0 407.8423 0.25 1.9707 0.6 178.6 449.15 1.3 127.68 63.09 1.7870 NaHCO2 (96%) dry kg/m3 17.26 32.6 TCT °C –1 –2 –3 –3 –4 –5 –7 –7 –8 –10 –11 –12 –13 –14 –16 –16 –14 –13 –11 –10 –8 –7 –4 –2 0 3 Continues on next page 2·40 Go To Table of Contents .26 Water m3/m3 0.8986 0.9070 0.9766 0.9647 0.07 1.9450 0.8100 0.24 1.9875 0.9822 0.2 288.2 232.02 95.11 1.17 1.18 1.9518 0.7 428.22 1.21 1.36 47.8211 0.4 214.3 326.9583 0.8318 0.14 1.23 79.8810 0.8899 0.12 1.8 144.8 346.20 1.7987 0.9 471.10 1.9151 0.8524 0.6 366.19 1.05 1.9927 0.6 269.03 1.02 1.08 1.04 1.23 1.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Formate NaHCO2 (Metric) Mixing dry KHCO2 (96%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.

30 1.3 TCT °C 6 8 11 13 15 20 2·41 Go To Table of Contents .7 608.28 1.4 561.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Sodium Formate NaHCO2 (Metric) Mixing dry KHCO2 (96%) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.31 1.7235 0.7750 0.5 515.8 538.27 1.7098 NaHCO2 (96%) dry kg/m3 493.4 584.29 1.7626 0.7369 0.7499 0.32 Water m3/m3 0.

4 27.1 20.8862 0.4 16.7 36.03 1.06 1.8 29.01 1.0 468.6 25.8 252.2 310.9044 0.20 1.8771 0.7920 0.9795 0.9 41.2 157.1 428.3 508.7719 0.0 138.0 488.8 7.2 368.26 1.9593 0.9135 0.17 1.2 TCT °C –1 –2 –3 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –11 –12 –13 –15 –16 –18 –19 –21 –23 –25 –26 –28 –30 –32 –34 –36 –39 Continues on next page 2·42 Go To Table of Contents .05 1.21 1.04 1.4 40.7 388.8 14.8680 0.6 9.5 60.07 1.8116 0.1 23.8588 0.27 Water m3/m3 0.1 99.08 1.0 37.24 1.02 1.6 32.16 1.11 1.0 17.14 1.9 5.18 1.0 291.8308 0.8953 0.6 214.4 80.7617 0.1 KHCO2 wt % 2.9410 0.0 26.7409 KHCO2 dry kg/m3 20.2 30.6 39.19 1.0 3.8019 0.1 12.9318 0.9504 0.0 448.8 349.6 19.9696 0.23 1.9896 0.13 1.8402 0.3 34.7514 0.3 38.22 1.8 272.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Formate KHCO2 (Metric) Mixing dry KHCO2 and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.15 1.09 1.0 33.6 22.4 408.9226 0.6 529.5 195.7 233.12 1.4 11.8496 0.8213 0.4 329.7820 0.4 176.6 119.10 1.25 1.

46 1.6 49.5354 0.5715 0.8 826.7 959.5 55.4478 0.5833 0.2 1072.7 570.43 1.32 1.53 Water m3/m3 0.7 44.2 1095.47 1.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Formate KHCO2 (Metric) Mixing dry KHCO2 and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.6 696.2 654.4986 0.4 675.2 53.7 70.51 1.3 63.4 739.5 892.2 47.5596 0.45 1.35 1.33 1.38 1.5 65.7303 0.1 61.9 718.28 1.4735 0.2 62.5951 0.5 783.44 1.7 56.36 1.8 51.39 1.8 57.5 914.9 59.1 804.6530 0.6 67.40 1.52 1.4608 0.6 936.6 68.5475 0.30 1.5 66.0 60.29 1.9 761.6301 0.4 43.2 612.9 46.0 52.7196 0.4 48.4 591.6756 0.4347 KHCO2 dry kg/m3 549.37 1.7 TCT °C –41 –43 –45 –48 –50 –52 –55 –57 –60 –61 –58 –56 –53 –50 –48 –45 –42 –39 –36 –33 –31 –28 –25 –22 –19 –16 Continues on next page 2·43 Go To Table of Contents .4861 0.6 848.6185 0.4 1003.3 KHCO2 wt % 42.42 1.6644 0.5233 0.31 1.41 1.4 54.6 69.5110 0.34 1.48 1.6416 0.6069 0.5 870.49 1.2 633.6868 0.4 64.6978 0.50 1.0 981.7087 0.8 1026.5 1049.

3938 0.1 KHCO2 wt % 71.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Formate KHCO2 (Metric) Mixing dry KHCO2 and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) 1.57 1.9 74.3795 0.9 76.6 1142.8 73.5 1215.54 1.2 1190.4213 0.56 1.3 1166.55 1.3649 KHCO2 dry kg/m3 1118.58 Water m3/m3 0.8 72.4077 0.0 TCT °C –13 –10 –8 –5 –2 2·44 Go To Table of Contents .

05 1.8903 0.7964 0.6667 0.23 1.10 1.9811 0.3004 0.3168 0.25 1.9512 0.24 1.3666 0.9209 0.3499 0.2355 0.11 1.6166 0.19 1.8280 0.0189 0.2516 0.0639 0.03 1.5997 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Formate KHCO2 (Metric) Blending 1.57 SG KHCO2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Density lb/gal @ 70° F 1.8437 0.0488 0.7484 0.16 1.0791 0.2678 0.06 1.1563 0.2195 0.09 1.8123 0.8748 0.6996 0.1407 0.04 1.7805 0.6501 0.3834 0.14 1.1097 0.07 1.3333 0.9361 0.1877 0.8593 0.17 1.1720 0.6832 0.5827 TCT °C –1 –2 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 –12 –13 –14 –15 –17 –18 –20 –21 –23 –24 –26 –28 –30 –32 Continues on next page 2·45 Go To Table of Contents .26 KHCO2 1.21 1.7322 0.7645 0.57 SG m3/m3 0.20 1.0338 0.15 1.08 1.13 1.0944 0.18 1.02 1.6334 0.2840 0.9662 0.7160 0.9056 0.22 1.01 1.4003 0.1252 0.2036 0.12 1.4173 Water m3/m3 0.

28 1.5741 0.37 1.3172 0.4860 0.5485 0.5657 0.38 1.34 1.3901 0.7572 0.7012 0.45 1.1475 0.42 1.4790 0.5313 0.8332 0.30 1.4343 0.1859 0.49 1.6828 0.5386 0.40 1.7950 0.4515 0.50 1.1282 TCT °C –34 –36 –39 –41 –43 –46 –49 –51 –54 –57 –58 –54 –51 –47 –52 –49 –47 –44 –41 –38 –36 –33 –30 –27 –24 Continues on next page 2·46 Go To Table of Contents .3720 0.1668 0.35 1.4687 0.57 SG m3/m3 0.4437 0.43 1.4081 0.5919 0.32 1.5210 0.8718 Water m3/m3 0.5140 0.7385 0.2239 0.6280 0.46 1.4259 0.31 1.6644 0.7198 0.47 1.2802 0.8525 0.2428 0.4614 0.7761 0.27 1.3538 0.2050 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Formate KHCO2 (Metric) Blending 1.6462 0.8141 0.39 1.3356 0.57 SG KHCO2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Density lb/gal @ 70° F 1.5035 0.4965 0.33 1.5563 0.48 1.2615 0.51 KHCO2 1.2988 0.29 1.36 1.6099 0.41 1.44 1.

8913 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Formate KHCO2 (Metric) Blending 1.9109 0.9305 0.9901 Water m3/m3 0.0298 0.0695 0.0497 0.9702 0.54 1.57 KHCO2 1.52 1.55 1.1087 0.53 1.9503 0.56 1.57 SG m3/m3 0.0099 TCT °C –22 –19 –16 –13 –10 –8 2·47 Go To Table of Contents .57 SG KHCO2 (liquid) and water Composition for one m3 of fluid Density lb/gal @ 70° F 1.0891 0.

0 25.900 0.068 1.4 23.0 9.990 0.860 0.819 0.840 0.1 9.S.013 1.4 17.9 Density lb/gal 8.6 8.055 1.044 1.007 1.7 8.139 lb NH4CL per bbl Brine 7 10.5 8.4 8.2 9.940 0.981 0.919 0.98 3.103 1.8 8.3 2·48 Go To Table of Contents .020 1.750 % NH4CL Weight/ Weight 1.969 0.079 1.031 1.5 14.0 5.8 33.) Composition for one barrel of fluid Specific Gravity (SG) at 60° F 1.5 19 30 42 53 65 77 88 100 135 bbl Water/ bbl Brine 0.9 9.MONOVALENT BRINES NH4Cl Brine (U.128 1.45 8.4 20.4 11.3 8.881 0.

8 32.8 36.8 NaCl lb Freshwater gal psi of ft Depth 0.3 116 1.2 88 35.8 Freshwater gal Solution Weight Using 94 to 97% CaCl2 and NaCl lb/gal at 60° F lb/ft3 at 60° F CaCl2 lb 1.21 10.3 33.28 10.529 0.2 76.8 89 1.26 10.535 0.5 78.7 80.68 62 1.05 126 2·49 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .8 36.56 29 MONOVALENT BRINES 1.22 10.55 0.8 32.55 104 1.545 0.Combination Sodium Chloride– Calcium Chloride Solutions Materials to prepare one barrel of fluid Using 77 to 80% CaCl2 and NaCl CaCl2 lb 36 64 76.4 77.8 36.3 77.532 0.6 32.1 75.4 36.05 72 1.25 76.5 36.25 10.6 79.31 52 1.1 34.524 0.23 10.5 89 110 128 143 155 41 32 25 20 54 62 70 35.7 34.7 36.24 10.555 Freezing Point °F –4 –10 –12 –15 –21 –26 –32 –38 Specific Gravity (SG) at 60° F NaCl lb 88 70 62 54 41 32 25 20 36.54 0.8 36.27 10.

32 11 82.79 135 1.Continued from previous page Combination Sodium Chloride– Calcium Chloride Solutions Materials to prepare one barrel of fluid Using 77 to 80% CaCl2 and NaCl CaCl2 lb 161 167 178 186 196 8 10 13 16 18 32.8 80.1 36.0 30.571 0.0 31.42 131 1.566 0.3 Freshwater gal Solution Weight Using 94 to 97% CaCl2 and NaCl lb/gal at 60° F lb/ft3 at 60° F CaCl2 lb MONOVALENT BRINES 1.29 10.33 11.31 10.6 NaCl lb Freshwater gal psi of ft Depth 0.558 0.561 0.576 Freezing Point °F –40 –42 –24 –12 0 Specific Gravity (SG) at 60° F NaCl lb 18 16 13 10 8 36 36.3 36.54 144 1.1 83.29 151 2·50 Go To Table of Contents 1.75 80.3 31.30 10.2 36.9 81.7 31.04 159 .

627 KBr by wt % 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Density lb/gal 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Specific Gravity (SG) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Crystallization Temperature °F 32 31 31 31 31 30 30 30 30 29 29 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 27 27 26 25 25 24 23 23 Continues on next page 2·51 Go To Table of Contents .01 Relative Specific Refractivity = 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Potassium Bromide KBr Molecular Weight = 119.

MONOVALENT BRINES Continued from previous page Potassium Bromide KBr Molecular Weight = 119.01 Relative Specific Refractivity = 0.627 KBr by wt % 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Density lb/gal 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 Specific Gravity (SG) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Crystallization Temperature °F 22 21 20 20 18 16 15 13 11 9 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 57th edition 1976–1977 CRC Press 2·52 Go To Table of Contents .

630 42.9234 0.38 85.87 1.57 112.264 TCT °F 32 31 29 27 24 22 19 15 12 7 3 –1 22 28 42 2·53 Go To Table of Contents .S.8 8.96 94.0 9.647 14.513 194.810 90.785 52.8856 0.33 32.502 36.1 9.56 52.69 103.883 124.009 67.330 20.730 75.54 60.9901 0.MONOVALENT BRINES Sodium Acetate NaH3C2O2 (U.06 17.4 9.250 26.401 5.8579 0.509 107.870 68.6 9.050 97.263 250.300 35.8720 0.674 231.92 25.9113 0.9976 0.510 55.440 3.598 14.9350 0.7 0.9 9.6 8.3 9.9517 0.5 9.8434 0.2 9.904 176.67 68.9627 0.130 61.62 121.9739 0.8987 0.592 158.556 91.7 8.710 82.010 48.8286 0.75 7.4 8.90 44.3 8.583 141.8136 1.) Mixing dry Sodium Acetate and water Composition for one barrel of fluid Sodium Density Water Acetate Sodium Acetate lb/gal bbl/bbl lb/bbl mg/L mg/L 8.436 212.95 77.5 8.

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 3 EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS 3.

Do = Density of the original fluid in lb/gal Df = Density of the final fluid in lb/gal Wo = Water fraction of the original fluid Wf = Water fraction of the final fluid So = Salt of the original fluid in pounds Sf = Salt of the final fluid in pounds Vo = Volume of the original fluid in bbl Vf = Volume of the final fluid in bbl Pounds of salt to add = ((Wo * Sf /Wf) – So) * Vo Volume gained = (Wo /Wf * Vo ) – Vo Example using CaCl2 Table on page 1·5: To weigh up 100 bbl of 9.4/0.9 lb/gal CaCl2 with dry CaCl2 Pounds of salt to add = ((Wo * Sf /Wf ) – So) * Vo Pounds of salt to add = (0. These equations apply for any single salt as long as it is the same as the base brine.9755 * 89.4 bbl 3·1 Go To Table of Contents .611 lb Volume gained = (Wo /Wf * Vo ) – Vo Volume gained = (0.0 lb/gal CaCl2 to 9. you must have blend charts that contain the pounds per barrel of salt and the water fraction.EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS Increase the Density of a Single-Salt System Using the Same Dry Salt In order to increase the density of a single salt with the same dry salt.9346 * 100) – 100 Volume gained = 4.2) * 100 Pounds of salt to add = 5.9346) – 37.9755/0.

These equations apply to both NaBr and CaBr2 additions. you must have blend charts that contain the pounds per barrel of salt and the water fraction. If using NaBr. Do = Density of the original fluid in lb/gal Df = Density of the final fluid in lb/gal Wo = Water fraction of the original fluid Wf = Water fraction of the final fluid Co = Chloride salt of the original fluid Cf = Chloride salt of the final fluid Bo = Bromide salt of the original fluid Bf = Bromide salt of the final fluid Vo = Volume of the original fluid in bbl Vf = Volume of the final fluid in bbl Wa = Water to add to start the blend (bbl) Ba = Pounds of bromide salt to add Vf = (Co /Cf ) * Vo Wa = Vo(Co * Wf /Cf) – Vo(Wo) Ba = Vo(Co * Bf/Cf) – Vo(Bo) 3·2 Go To Table of Contents . substitute NaBr in the following equations for CaBr2.EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS Increase the Density of a Two-Salt System Using Dry Bromide In order to increase the density of a two-salt system with the dry bromide.

1 * 0.6/183.EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS Example: To weigh up 100 bbl of 12.7 * 72.5 lb/gal CaBr2/CaCl2 with dry CaBr2 Vf = Co/Cf * Vo Vf = 194.7 Wa = Vo(Co * Wf /Cf) – Vo(Wo) Wa = 100(194.793) Wa = 1.7) – 100(32.030 lb 3·3 Go To Table of Contents .768/183.0 lb/gal CaBr2/CaCl2 to 12.7) – 100(0.7 * 100 Vf = 105.1/183.3) Ba = 4.8 bbl Ba = Vo(Co * Bf/Cf) – Vo(Bo) Ba = 100(183.

452 mg/L 3·4 Go To Table of Contents .000/1.019 = 29.345 = 1.5 lb/gal KCl. divide ppm by specific gravity of the fluid.000 = 30.000 ppm To convert parts per million (ppm) to milligram per liter (mg/L).2% or ~3% KCl (by weight) To convert % by weight or weight percent to parts per million (ppm) multiply by 10.EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS How to Calculate Weight % Salt To calculate the % by weight salt in a brine system.5/8.019 30. divide by density of water @ 70° F = 8. 3% KCl (by weight or w/w) = 3 * 10.6/(8. % by weight = Pounds of salt in the brine system/(density in lb/gal * 42) For example: To calculate the % by weight of an 8. To convert density into specific gravity. one must know the density and the amount of salt (lb/bbl) in the brine.000 ppm = 30.5 lb/gal * 42) % by weight = 3.000. % by weight = 11.

QHSE Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 4 QHSE 4.

There are two circumstances where this could occur: 1. table salt). calcium chloride (CaCl2). zinc bromide (ZnBr2). calcium bromide (CaBr2).4 to 20 lb/gal (1. Brines may also contain various viscosifiers. oilfield completion fluids (brines) can be hazardous to your health if not handled properly. potassium chloride (KCl). Hazardous Properties of Brines • Acidity (pH) — Zinc brines are acidic. Brines used in oil and gas well completions are formulated with sodium chloride (NaCl. sodium bromide (NaBr). sodium formate (NaHCO2). Generally. • Chemical reactions — Toxic chlorine or bromine gas can be released from brines. Brines are salts dissolved in water. Water weighs 8. corrosion inhibitors and other additives for special applications.4 SG).01 to 2.3 lb/gal (1 SG) while oilfield brines can weigh from 8. and potassium formate (KHCO2). or 4·1 Go To Table of Contents . • Absorption of water — Heavy brines contain so much salt that they will absorb water from their surroundings. When brines are exposed to the extremely high temperatures of a fire. as brines get heavier they are more dangerous to handle and are more damaging to equipment and the environment.QHSE Completion Fluids Safe Handling Guide The Hazards Like all chemicals. Brines have unique chemical properties and consequently must be handled differently from conventional drilling muds. depending upon the amount and type of salt added.

QHSE 2. • Ingestion — Swallowing brine may cause nausea. mouth and throat. you may not feel anything for several minutes or even hours after exposure. vomiting and diarrhea in addition to irritation of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. Mixing Salts • Dry sodium/potassium/ammonium chloride added to water reduces solution temperature very slightly • Dry sodium/potassium bromide added to water raises solution temperature very slightly • Dry calcium chloride/bromide added to water raises solution temperature significantly – Temperature rise depends on rate of addition • Addition of dry CaCl2 or CaBr2 can boil water Effects of Exposure • Skin contact — The acidity and/or the tendency of brines to absorb water from their surroundings means that they can be quite irritating or even corrosive to the skin. • Toxicity — Brines can be toxic if large quantities are swallowed. Wash eyes for at least 15 min after exposure and get medical attention. The irritating effect of brines is usually delayed. Swallowing large quantities may cause more serious toxic effects. When brines are exposed to strong oxidizing agents used to break viscosifiers. • Inhalation — Inhalation of brine mist or spray can be irritating to the mucous membranes of the nose. 4·2 Go To Table of Contents . Permanent eye damage may result from even short exposure to heavy brines. • Eye contact — Brines are immediately and severely irritating to the eyes. This is usually not a significant route of exposure at the rigsite.

A full face shield may be used in addition to goggles to protect the face. Body — Wear slicker suits in areas where exposure is likely. • Use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) The following special equipment is necessary for handling brines: Eyes — Wear chemical splash goggles designed to seal against the skin around both eyes and give protection against splashes from any angle. Slicker suits are hot and interfere with the body's natural cooling. 4·3 Go To Table of Contents . • Avoid exposure Avoiding exposure to brines is always the best way to protect yourself. These are more comfortable than slicker suits but do not give as much protection. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING WHEN ZINC BROMIDE BRINES ARE INJESTED. Whenever exposure is possible use the equipment. Rubber or plastic aprons may be worn for some jobs. Protecting Yourself • Read and follow the instructions on the MSDS Always have the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) available on location for all chemicals that you handle. such as carrying sacks. this is not always possible on the job. However. procedures and precautions outlined below. a slower work pace or rotating workers may be necessary. therefore.QHSE depending on the density of the brine and the additives that it contains. Read and follow all instructions on the MSDS.

Glove cuffs should be worn inside of slicker suit sleeves to prevent brine from running off of sleeves into gloves. Respiratory — Use a NIOSH-approved P95 half-mask disposable or reusable particulate mask for mist/aerosol. 4·4 Go To Table of Contents . Do not use leather gloves. is a common problem when handling brines. Feet — Wear leak-proof rubber steel-toe boots. Use a barrier cream specifically designed to protect against water-based hazards. Cloth gloves may be worn over rubber gloves to provide a better grip and protect the rubber gloves from tearing. Do not use leather boots. All respiratory protection equipment should be used within a comprehensive respiratory protection program that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1910. or skin irritation. For some jobs it may be necessary to seal sleeves over glove cuffs using tape to prevent brine from running into sleeves when hands are raised. Barrier creams should be used in addition to the PPE mentioned above. • Practice good skin care Dermatitis. not as a substitute for it. The following 3-step program is designed to help you prevent dermatitis: Protection — Before contact with brines apply a barrier cream to areas that are not easily covered by some other form of PPE.134 (OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard) or local equivalent.QHSE Hands — Wear leak-proof gloves made of natural or synthetic-rubber material.

To prevent dry. resulting in intense itching and blisters which can become infected. apply a reconditioning skin lotion after work and as needed. shaker area and mud pits. If left untreated minor skin irritation can progress rapidly. Over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream may be used to relieve minor skin irritation. use hand soap. Follow instructions and precautions provided by the manufacturer. Keep the pipe wiper below waist level so that brine will not splash into workers’ faces. not harsh industrial cleaners. Eye washes and showers should be plainly marked with signs and workers should be trained in their location and proper use. Cases of severe dermatitis. stairs and decks. Reconditioning — Contact with brines and frequent washing of the skin can result in loss of the skin's natural oils and moisture. Use non-slip surfaces on the rig floor. • Rigsite precautions Use pipe wipers when pulling pipe. • Safety equipment Emergency eye washes and showers should be installed and easily accessible in all areas where brines are used. Brines are slippery. and irritated skin. 4·5 Go To Table of Contents . should be referred to a doctor immediately.QHSE Cleaning — Wash frequently. chaffed. especially on the rig floor. especially if infection is suspected. Rinse off tools periodically to provide a better grip and prevent brine from being transferred to clothing.

North Sea Under the environmental regulations governing offshore operations in the North Sea. Care should be taken to prevent brines from entering waterways. potassium and cesium formate.000 lb (453. Completion brines containing zinc bromide brines may still be used in exceptional circumstances. with the prior approval of the government environmental body responsible for the geographical region in which the operation will take place. This includes sodium. Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act) list zinc bromide as a hazardous substance with a Reportable Quantity (RQ) of 1.QHSE Make sure that brine storage containers and seals are strong enough to hold the brine without rupturing or leaking. Heavy-duty tanks should be used for brines weighing over 13.62 SG). Contact M-I SWACO Environmental Affairs for more information. all completion brines — with the exception of zinc bromide — are considered acceptable for discharge. 4·6 Go To Table of Contents . Brines may be toxic to aquatic plants and animal life.5 lb/gal (1. Environmental Issues The Comprehensive Environmental Response.6 kg).

5. TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 5 TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE Go To Table of Contents .

In deepwater environments however. Included in the diagram is the first crystal to appear (FCTA) and the last crystal to dissolve (LCTD). the depth of cold water will impact the expansion/compression relationship such that the fluid at the mud line is heavier than that at the surface. expanding with increasing temperature and compressing with increasing pressure. This overall increase in volume results in a fluid of lower density at the bottom of the well than at the surface. The combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature can have catastrophic effects unless the fluid is properly formulated to account for this environment. Figure 5. Temperature) for various common completion fluids. i. the expansion of a completion fluid with temperature produces a more pronounced affect on volume than does pressure. Crystallization of the fluid as a result of hydrostatic pressure is referred to as Pressurized Crystallization Temperature (PCT).2 presents the phase diagram (TCT v. Figure 5.TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE Temperature and Pressure Effects on Completion Fluid Completion fluids exhibit the typical volumetric response to temperature and pressure.3 shows the impact of pressure on the 5·1 Go To Table of Contents . In a shallow water or land-based wellbore..1 represents the TCT test results of an example CaCl2-CaBr2 completion brine. Figure 5. Phase Diagrams True Crystallization Temperature (TCT) is that temperature at which the brine solution is fully saturated with respect to the least soluble salt.e.

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
TCT of a CaCl2-CaBr2 completion brine with a TCT of 40° F (4.4° C). Figure 5.1: Crystallization of a calcium chloride/calcium bromide brine

g

Temperature (° F) 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 6:05:46 6:08:38 6:11:31 6:14:24 6:17:17 6:20:10 6:23:02 6:25:55 Time FCTA TCT = 57° F LCTD

Figure 5.2: TCT diagram of various completion brines
Temperature (° F) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.3 Density (lbm/gal) CaBr2 TCT CaCl2 CT NaCl TCT NaBr TCT

5·2 Go To Table of Contents

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
Figure 5.3: Effect of pressure on TCT of a 40° F (4.4° C) TCT CaCl2-CaBr2 brine
TCT (° F) 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 0 5,000 10,000 Pressure (psi) 15,000

Hydrate Suppression
Gas hydrates are a concern when working with aqueous fluids in deepwater. They can occur during critical phases of deepwater completion (displacement, perforating, subsea BOP tests, well tests, flow back, etc.), leading to significant downtime if not suppressed in the fluid design. Hydrate formation can be prevented by reducing the gas-water thermodynamic equilibrium point. Dissolved salts, glycols and alcohols are examples of substances that perform this function. However, in most circumstances fluid properties such as density will limit the options available. For example, below about 10.5 lb/gal (1.26 SG), calcium chloride is unable to prevent hydrate formation at a pressure of 10,000 psi (689 bar) and 40° F (4.4° C). If a low-density water-based formulation is required, oxygenated solvents such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, methanol, etc. have shown

5·3 Go To Table of Contents

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
themselves to be effective inhibitors. Figure 5.4 gives an example of supplementing the hydrate inhibition of CaCl2 brine through addition of ethylene glycol. Figure 5.4: Hydrate protection of low-density brine with monoethylene glycol; thermodynamic hydrate protection of CaCl2 at 40° F (4.4° C).
Hydrate formation pressure (psi) 12,000 CaCl2 requires hydrate inhibitor (MEG) to control hydrates to 10,000 psi 11,000 10,000 9,000 5.3% 8,000 MEG 8.7% 7,000 MEG 30% 6,000 MEG 19% 5,000 MEG 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Density of CaCl2 (lb/gal)

Density Prediction
The ability to calculate the hydrostatic pressure at any point in a wellbore containing a column of completion fluid is necessary for its optimum selection. Because hydrostatic pressure is cumulative with depth and is directly related to density, which may be increasing with depth in deepwater or decreasing with depth as the temperature increases, it is necessary to mathematically predict the density of the completion fluid under the combined influence of compression and temperature. The M-I SWACO proprietary computer program VIRTUAL COMPLETION FLUIDS* (VCF*) provides the means to accurately obtain this necessary information.

5·4 Go To Table of Contents

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
Bottomhole density is calculated with use of detailed PVT data for the behavior of the fluid in question. In the absence of such data, downhole density and total hydrostatic pressure at depth can be closely approximated by using the following calculations and thermal expansion and compressibility factors provided in Tables 1 and 2. Total Hydrostatic Pressure in the Wellbore
Psih = 0.052 * Davg * TVD

(1)

Where, Average Brine Density in a Wellbore
(2000 – 0.052 * C f * TVD) * Dsurf – 10 * Ve * (BHT – Ts) Davg = 2000 – 0.104 * Cf * TVD

(2)

Ve = Temperature expansion factor, lbm/gal/100° F (Table 1) Cf = Pressure compressibility factor, lbm/gal/1,000 psi (Table 2) TVD = Total vertical depth (ft) Dsurf = Density at surface, lbm/gal BHT = Bottomhole temperature (° F) Ts = Temperature at surface (° F)

5·5 Go To Table of Contents

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
Table 1. Expansibility of Brines at 12,000 psi from 76° to 198° F
Brine Type NaCl CaCl2 NaBr CaBr2 ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2 ZnBr2/CaBr2 Density (lbm/gal) 9.42 11.45 12.48 14.13 16.01 19.27 Ve (lbm/gal/100° F) 0.24 0.27 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.48

Table 2. Compressibility of Brines at 198° F from 2,000 to 12,000 psi
Brine Type NaCl CaCl2 NaBr CaBr2 ZnBr2/CaBr2/CaCl2 ZnBr2/CaBr2 Density (lbm/gal) 9.49 11.45 12.48 14.30 16.01 19.27 Cf (lbm/gal/1,000 psi) 0.019 0.017 0.021 0.022 0.022 0.031

5·6 Go To Table of Contents

COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL
Chapter 6 TESTING PROCEDURES
6. TESTING PROCEDURES

Go To Table of Contents

References • API RP 13B-1. 3. v. viscosified brines. 6·1 Go To Table of Contents . 2. Changes in Marsh funnel viscosity can indicate that there may be polymer degradation or contamination by solids or chemicals.0.500 mL freshwater and check temperature.L.5° C). Further testing or fluid-component information is usually required to determine the cause of the viscosity change. spacers and reservoir drill-in fluids.C. 3rd Edition.TESTING PROCEDURES Marsh Funnel Viscosity Scope and Limitations The Marsh funnel is used for routine field measurement of viscosity. It provides a quick and easy procedure for monitoring viscosity of neat brines. Inspect Marsh funnel to make certain it is not dirty or damaged. December 2003 • M-I Drilling Fluids Engineering Manual. Adjust water temperature to 75 ±5° F (24 ±2. M-I L. (July 1998) Safety • Wear safety glasses • Gloves are required when handling corrosive or hazardous fluids Equipment and Chemicals Required • Marsh funnel • 1-qt receiving cup • Stopwatch • Thermometer Calibration Procedure 1. Obtain 1.1.

8. Fill Marsh funnel to the bottom of the screen with freshwater. 7. Record fluid temperature. including PV. If your results vary from this time. 4. Procedure 1. Stop stopwatch when fluid level in receiving cup reaches the 1-qt line. Fann 35 Viscosity: PV. Simultaneously remove finger from funnel orifice and start stopwatch. Take special care to clean funnel properly.5 sec. Obtain 1. Pour freshly collected sample into clean and dry Marsh funnel until the fluid level reaches the bottom of the screen.TESTING PROCEDURES 4. Additional useful information can be obtained using the Fann 35 for characterizing fluids. covering orifice with finger to prevent fluid from escaping. 5. covering funnel orifice to prevent fluid from escaping. Report result to the nearest second as Marsh funnel viscosity. 6. but these are the 6·2 Go To Table of Contents . repeat calibration process. 2. Place filled Marsh funnel in upright position over the 1-qt receiving cup. YP and 10-sec and 10-min gel strengths. 3. and to remove finger from funnel orifice and start stopwatch at the same time.500 mL sample and check temperature. YP. One qt of water should take 26 ±0. AV Gel Strengths Scope and Limitations The Fann 35 viscometer is used for measurement of viscosity. Start stopwatch and remove finger from funnel orifice at the same time.

(July 1998) • VG Meter Calibration.0.com Safety • Wear safety glasses • Do not test fluids above 180° F (82° C). fluid-loss pills and reservoir drill-in fluids. One can also detect possible presence of polymer in clear brine fluids that can impact filterability and formation damage potential. current version found at midhouhq-www01. Equipment and Chemicals Required • Fann 35A or equivalent viscometer with R1/B1/F1 configuration (standard rotor. December 2003 • M-I Drilling Fluids Engineering Manual. Job Instructions Manual. hollow bob can explode when trapped moisture vaporizes. 3rd Edition. References • API RP 13B-1. v. M-I L.C.1. These values can assist in evaluating carrying capacity and quality of viscosified brine fluids.corp.L. Western Hemisphere ISO Home Page. displacement spacers.TESTING PROCEDURES primary values described in this procedure. Use solid bob if higher temperature testing is necessary. 6·3 Go To Table of Contents .smith-intl. bob and spring) • Stopwatch • Thermometer • Calibration fluids Calibration Calibration and repair of Fann 35 viscometers should be performed by trained M-I SWACO personnel or outside vendors who are familiar with the proper procedures.

Check that the zero RPM reading of the instrument is 0 ± 0. 1. Calibration checks are quick and easy. 5.5 dial readings. and should be performed regularly to ensure proper equipment performance. 3. Procedure for Apparent Viscosity. Pour sample into thermocup. Measure temperature and viscosity at 600 RPM and 300 RPM. 2. 2. Select a viscosity standard near the viscosity of fluids normally measured.5 from the chart value. These values should be ± 1. 3. Heat or cool sample to 120° F (49° C) while running Fann 35 at 100 RPM. 4. change speed to 600 RPM by depressing gear shifter knob all the way down with motor still running.TESTING PROCEDURES Simple calibration checks can be performed by using special calibration fluids with viscosity versus temperature chart. Mix sample to provide uniformity and disrupt progressive gel structure. Compare Fann 35 reading at 300 RPM and Fann 35 reading at 600 RPM divided by 2 to the value shown for that temperature on the calibration fluid chart. Plastic Viscosity and Yield Point 1. Only change gears when the motor is running. 4. Once temperature has stabilized at 120° F (49° C). then switching the motor 6·4 Go To Table of Contents . place on Fann 35 sample platform and raise until fluid level is at the Fann 35 rotor-scribe line (above the two holes in the rotor). 100 RPM can be achieved by starting the motor in low speed (with switch down towards the back) and lifting red gear-shifter knob all the way up.

5. Record maximum value achieved as 10-sec gel strength (lb/100 ft2). Wait for a steady value and record the 300 RPM value. Quickly adjust gear knob while motor is running in preparation for taking 3 RPM reading. 4. 6·5 Go To Table of Contents . 6. Yield Point (lb/100 ft2) = 300 reading – PV 9. 3. After 10 min have elapsed. 7. Turn off viscometer and start stopwatch. 10. turn the Fann 35 on to 3 RPM and watch dial reading increase then fall off. Record maximum value achieved as 10-min gel strength (lb/100 ft2). 2. 7. 8. After 10 sec have elapsed.TESTING PROCEDURES to high speed by pushing the switch down and toward the front of the instrument. Quickly adjust gear knob while motor is running in preparation for taking 3 RPM reading. Wait for a steady reading and record. Change speed to 300 RPM by switching the motor back to low speed. Restir sample at 600 RPM for 10 sec. 5. Turn off viscometer and start stopwatch. Maintaining the sample temperature at 120° F (49° C). Apparent Viscosity (cP) = 600 reading 2 Procedure for Gel Strength 1. 9. stir sample at 600 RPM for 10 sec. turn the Fann 35 on to 3 RPM and watch dial reading increase then fall off. 6. Plastic Viscosity (cP) = 600 reading – 300 reading 8.

4. 6·6 Go To Table of Contents . References • API RP 13J. Turn on NTU meter. by following manufacturer’s instructions. The value is reported in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). This procedure does not determine size or quantity of insoluble solids in brine.TESTING PROCEDURES Turbidity Scope and Limitations Turbidity is the measurement of light scatter using an NTU meter. if necessary. December 2003 Safety • Wear safety glasses Equipment and Chemicals Required • Distilled or deionized water • NTU meter • Clean. then rinse with distilled or deionized water. Insert sample cuvette into NTU meter. 3. Clean outside of cuvette. 3rd Edition. Dry sample cuvette with lint-free cloth. Read NTU value after meter reading has stabilized. 2. 5. Insert standardizing cuvette into NTU meter and calibrate. Fill sample cuvette with brine to the appropriate level. dry sample cuvettes free from scratches Procedure 1. 6. 7.

Set up vacuum-filtration device and paper. accurate to 5 places • Dessicator with appropriate dessicant • 20 mL wide tip pipette • Aluminum weighing pans Procedure 1. 3rd Edition. This test should be run in triplicate. 2. 6·7 Go To Table of Contents . etc. December 2003 Safety • Wear safety glasses and chemically resistant gloves Equipment and Chemicals Required • Distilled or deionized water • Oven. set to 220° F ± 2° F (104° C ± 1° C) • Filters.TESTING PROCEDURES Total Suspended Solids Scope and Limitations This procedure quantifies insoluble solids in weight percent. no organic binder • Membrane filter holder • 100 mL graduated cylinder • Balance. A representative sample is important. sticks. References • API RP 13J. Place filter paper with rough side face-up. Filter 3 aliquots of 20 mL distilled or deionized water. so unrepresentative trash. 4. Rinsing the filter with distilled or deionized water after filtration is important when testing brines because soluble-solids content can contribute to erroneously high results. 3. Salt residue remaining on filter can also contribute to long drying time because the salt is hygroscopic. should be removed from sample before testing.8 cm diameter. paper.

10. and pour this rinse water through filter to remove any soluble material remaining on filter. Remove filter. Allow complete drainage of fluid before each rinse. 16. Wet paper with distilled or deionized water to provide better seal. dry 1 hr at 220° F (104° C). Continue vacuum until all water is filtered. shake brine sample for one minute to provide uniformity of insoluble solids. Remove filter paper from filtration device and dry 1 hr at 220° F (104° C) in preweighed aluminum pan. 6. 7. 14. cool and store in dessicator until needed. Weigh filter after cooling in dessicator (~20 min). 13. Repeat this process 3 times. 11. 8. 12. Filter 100 mL brine. Subtract final dried weight of filter and residue from prepared filter paper weight plus aluminum pan weight.TESTING PROCEDURES 4. Final weight must be at least 1 mg more than initial weight or sample volume must be increased and the test rerun. Calculate: TSS = Final weight (mg) – Initial weight (mg) Sample volume (mL) 6·8 Go To Table of Contents . Rinse graduated cylinder with distilled or deoinized water to collect any remaining insoluble solids. Apply vacuum until all liquid is removed from filter. Weigh prepared filter paper before filtering brine sample. 15. 9. Obtain a representative brine sample. 5.

500 to 2. 3. Fill two centrifuge tubes up to the 50 mL mark with the sample fluid. 4. The volume percent of solids is equal to the total solids from Step 5 divided by 100. 2. 5. Spin samples at 1. if present. Read this level on both tubes and add them together. 6. Shake representative sample for 1 min to provide uniformity of suspended solids.500 RPM for 10 min. 6·9 Go To Table of Contents . should form a distinct layer at bottom. open lid and remove tubes. After centrifuge has fully stopped spinning. Solids. Safety • Wear safety glasses Equipment and Chemicals Required • Bench centrifuge • 50 mL centrifuge tubes Procedure 1.TESTING PROCEDURES Solids by Centrifuge Scope and Limitations This procedure quantifies solids by volume percent.

“A New Field Method for Determining the Levels of Iron Contamination in Oilfield Completion Brine.F. This colorimetric procedure requires subjective color observations to match test vial colors to standards. December 2003 • Carpenter. cross-linking of polymers. Iron content can be measured with a test kit utilizing vacu-ampule and color comparators. Feb 18–20.TESTING PROCEDURES Iron in Zinc and Non-zinc Brine: Colorimetric Procedure Scope and Limitations Formation damage. J.” SPE 86551. Lafayette. SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium. It is important to realize that the mg/L reading must be divided by specific gravity to get a ppm value. 2004 Safety • Read MSDS before conducting test • Wear safety glasses • Dispose of vacu-ampule as sharps/broken glass waste 6·10 Go To Table of Contents . The test procedure is applicable to all brine types including zinc bromide containing brines. et al. References • CHEMets test procedure • API RP 13J. and stabilization of brine/crude-oil emulsions are some of the negative impacts of iron in brine. An alternate kit is available from CHEMets that utilizes a single analyte LED-based photometer. This test measures total iron and does not distinguish between species of iron. 3rd Edition. Iron concentrations up to 600 mg/L can be measured with good reproducibility as determined by API Round Robin testing..

6. 2. 0–100 mg/L (C-6002) • Comparator. 30 CHEMets ampules (R-6002) • Acidifier solution. package of six (A-0027) • Syringe. add 1 mL of acidifier solution to sample cup. i. 6·11 Go To Table of Contents . (Use 10 drops if the sample has 2% + organic content. in order to mix contents. 4. package of six (A-0027) • Comparator. 50 mL. and place ampule in sample cup. 3.5 mL of sample to the 50 mL sample cup. Use 1 mL syringe to add 0. Screw cap onto sample cup and shake to mix contents. 100–1. Swirl cup and wait 2 min. The ampule will fill. Add 5 drops activator solution. Mix sample to ensure sample uniformity. allowing bubble to travel from one end of the ampule to the other each time.000 (C-6012) Procedure 1. Remove cap. six 20 mL bottles (A-6002) • Sample cup. Invert ampule several times. Remove any bubbles from syringe by tapping syringe with tip pointing upward.) 5. 9. 1 mL. 7. EGMBE.e. 8. six 70 mL bottles (A-6001) • Activator solution. but will contain a small bubble of air to aid in mixing.TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment and Chemicals Required Complete Test Kit (CHEMets catalog number K-6002) contains: • Refill. but do not include non-suspended solids. Fill sample cup to 50 mL with iron-free water (distilled or deionized preferred). Snap tip by pressing ampule against the side of the cup. Using a different 1 mL syringe.

A bright-white light or sunlight is preferable to fluorescent lighting for an accurate reading. This type of electrode is recommended in API RP 13J. a. this definition does not 6·12 Go To Table of Contents . To use low range comparator. Divide mg/L reading by specific gravity to obtain ppm iron in sample. and is the API recommended procedure. Although ISFET probes are perceived as being sturdier. determine iron content by matching color to that of one of the standards. moving it along the comparator until the closest match is observed. Using the appropriate comparator. place ampule comparator in a nearly horizontal position. and is less sensitive to high salinity and solids content than most other pH probes. To use high-range comparator. b. If the color is between two color standards. pH of Brine Scope and Limitations The pH of neat brine is measured using a combination glass electrode containing a double-junction reference electrode and the corresponding meter. Place ampule between color standards. the use of ISFET probes may result in lower pH readings.TESTING PROCEDURES 10. however. make a concentration estimate. 11. Rotate comparator until the closest match is observed. pH is generally defined as the negative log of H+ activity. place the ampule flat end downward. into the center opening in the comparator. Measurement of pH on neat (undiluted) brine is more reproducible than 1:9 Brine:Water dilutions.

. Feb 18 –20. accuracy and repeatability • Double-junction combination pH probe • Commercially available pH standards. et al.TESTING PROCEDURES translate well to heavy brines.1 pH unit resolution. pH is the value measured by a pH meter and is valuable as a relative value for tracking changes and monitoring brine quality.B. December 2003 • Prasek. Lafayette. preferably color-coded for easy identification • Thermometer with 32° to 220° F (0° to 104° C). 3rd Edition. temperature compensation operable through temperature range 32° to 150° F (0° to 66° C) and ± 0. shock-resistant and portable with 0 to 14 pH range. SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium. 2004 Safety • Wear safety glasses Equipment and Chemicals Required • pH meter with digital output. 2° F (± 1° C) divisions. B.” SPE 86502. “A New Industry Standard for Determining the pH in Oilfield Completion Brines. preferably waterproof. or better precision • Beaker or sample container • Distilled or deionized rinse water • Blotting tissue • Electrode storage beaker or container 6·13 Go To Table of Contents . References • API RP 13J. For practical purposes.

5° C) before calibrating.1 recalibrate pH meter and check again.0 or pH 10. Buffer temperature should be at 75° ± 5° F (24° ± ±2. depending on anticipated sample pH. 3. After calibration recheck pH 7. rinse electrode with distilled or deionized water. 2.0 buffer. and if the meter does not read 7.0 standard. Before calibration. Calibration Procedure and Care of Electrode pH meter calibration should be checked prior to first use and at least every 8 hrs of continuous use.TESTING PROCEDURES pH meters and electrodes conforming to API RP 13J requirements are readily available through several laboratory equipment and scientific supply outlets. Clean or replace electrode if it does not pass inspection.0 standard buffer and either the pH 4. and a table of buffer values versus temperature is required if calibration is conducted at a different temperature). 1. and inspect electrode for breakage and formation of precipitation or polymer coating. 6·14 Go To Table of Contents .0 ± 0. (The pH value on the container is valid for 75° F (24° C). Follow probe manufacturer’s calibration procedure using the pH 7.

and the same temperature as buffers used in calibration. Return probe to storage container. allowing pH reading to stabilize. 8. 2. Important Considerations for pH Meter Calibration and pH Measurement • Calibration should be checked more frequently than every 8 hr if probe is getting older or if testing samples with high polymer or clay content.1 pH unit. Rinse pH probe using distilled or deionized water. oil or zinc-containing brines • Fresh pH buffers should be used every day • pH probes can often be brought back to good performance by reconditioning including 6·15 Go To Table of Contents .5° C). 7. If sample temperature is more than 20° F (–7° C) from calibration temperature.TESTING PROCEDURES Test Procedure 1. Mix sample to ensure sample uniformity. 3. pH probe should not be left in brine for over 5 min. low pH (< 2). temperature compensation is required. This usually takes less than 2 min. Immerse thermometer to level recommended by manufacturer. 6. Sample temperature should be 75° ± 5° F (24° ± 2. high pH (> 10). 4. Place electrode into sample and stir gently. 5. Read and record pH reading to the nearest ± 0. pH values are sensitive to temperature differences in highly acidic or highly basic solutions. Read and record sample temperature. Place sample in beaker or other appropriate clean container.

December 2003 Safety • Wear safety glasses 6·16 Go To Table of Contents . and to replace electrodes at least every 6 months (or as recommended by manufacturer) • If pH measurement is erratic (especially if it stabilizes when stirring is discontinued). viscosity increase and loss of density. Crystallization Point Determination Scope and Limitations The crystallization temperature of brine is the temperature at which the brine will form solids. 10 min in 0. References • API RP 13J. • It is good practice to keep a backup electrode on hand.TESTING PROCEDURES soaking 10 min in 0. Precipitation of salt crystals can cause equipment plugging. True Crystallization Temperature (TCT) is the value reported. if pH stabilization is slow with non-zinc brine. 3rd Edition.1M NaOH. then recalibrating meter • Do not allow probe to go dry. either salt crystals or ice (given enough time and nucleating conditions).1 M HCl. or if re-calibration is required on increasingly frequent basis imminent probe failure is likely. Attempt reconditioning probe. and obtain a replacement probe before failure occurs. Store in pH 4 buffer solution or as recommended by probe manufacturer.

5° C) per minute. Put a pinch of DE into the fluid and carefully stir with the thermometer. prepare a 32° F (0° C) bath by mixing an equal volume of ice and water • When the TCT is expected to be 40° F (4° C) or lower. prepare a –40° F (–40° C) bath by mixing ice with an equal volume of powdered calcium chloride. 6·17 Go To Table of Contents . Immerse the test tubes into the ice bath and carefully stir with the thermometer. Use the following guidelines when preparing the ice bath: • When the TCT is expected to be 40° F (4° C) or higher. one small enough to fit inside the other) • DE (or other seed material) Test Procedure 1. Prepare an ice bath with the appropriate temperature. 4. prepare a 5° F (–15° C) bath using an equal volume of ice and water with the water containing 25% by weight of sodium chloride • When the TCT is expected to be 20° F (–7° C) or lower. 3. The cooling rate should be no greater than 1° F (0. The test liquid level must be at the thermometer immersion level.TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment and Chemicals Required • Ice bath (with salt) • Digital thermometer with Thermistor probe • Concentric test tubes (two needed. 2. Place the fluid into the smaller test tube and insert the smaller test tube into the larger test tube. Caution: This bath can cause freezer burns.

5° C) of the expected TCT. The temperature at which the last crystal dissolves is the Last Crystal to Dissolve (LCTD). API 13J requires that Crystallization Point determination be performed in triplicate to ensure accuracy.5° C) per minute by reciprocating in and out of the ice bath. Note: The inner test tube can be placed directly into the ice bath until the solution temperature is within 5° F (2. Observe the fluid and thermometer during these changes. the corresponding temperature is called the First Crystal to Appear (FCTA) • From this point.TESTING PROCEDURES 5. The temperature will decrease to a certain point. Then place the sample test tube into the larger test tube. 7. • When crystals begin to form. Begin warming the test tube at a rate of 1° F (0. the temperature will almost immediately rise and begin to stabilize at a constant temperature. An FCTA and TCT within 5° F (2. This corresponding temperature is the True Crystallization Temperature (TCT). Wipe moisture off inner test tube first. 6. This is the value reported as the crystallization temperature. then increase and begin to level off to a constant temperature. 6·18 Go To Table of Contents .5° C) of each other is usually indicative of accurate results.

1. (July 1998) Safety • Read MSDS before conducting test • Wear safety glasses 6·19 Go To Table of Contents .C. By following both procedure A and procedure B.L. M-I L.TESTING PROCEDURES Figure 6. separate calcium content and magnesium content values are obtained. v. References • API RP 13B-1. 3rd Edition. December 2003 • M-I Drilling Fluids Engineering Manual.1 Cooling cycle Heating cycle LCTD Ambient temperature TCT FCTA Time FCTA = First crystal to appear TCT = True crystallization point LCTD = Last crystal to dissolve Calcium and Magnesium in Monovalent Brine and Formation Water Scope and Limitations Total hardness (calcium and magnesium together) is determined by following procedure A.0.

100 to 150 mL.TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment and Chemicals Required • EDTA (Standard Versenate) solution 0. 4. preferably white • Three graduated pipettes: • One 1 mL pipette • One 5 mL pipette • One 10 mL pipette • 50 mL graduated cylinder • Distilled or deionized water • Glass stirring rod • 8N NaOH or KOH solution • Calcon Indicator or Calver II • Procelain spoon/spatula • Masking Agent: 1:1:2 triethanolamine:tetraethylenepentamine: water (by volume) Procedure A (total hardness as Ca2+) 1. Add 1 mL of the water or filtrate to be tested. Add approximately 20 mL of distilled water to titration vessel. Add about 6 drops of Calmagite and mix with stirring rod. 5. 3. 2. titrate with Standard Versenate Solution. until the sample first turns to blue with no undertint of red remaining. Add 1 mL of strong buffer solution.01M • Strong buffer solution (ammonium hydroxide/ ammonium chloride) • Calmagite Indicator solution • Titration dish. Using a pipette. A wine red color will develop if calcium and/or magnesium is present. stirring continuously. 6·20 Go To Table of Contents .

Record the number of mL of Standard Versenate required as “B. Add 1 mL of 8N NaOH or KOH and ∏ porcelain spoonful (0. Calculate total hardness as Ca2+ (mg/L) = A x 400 mL of sample CaCO3 (mg/L) = A x 1.2 g) of Calcon Indicator and mix with stirring rod. 3. 5. 4.000 mL of sample Procedure B (calcium and magnesium separately) 1. Calculate magnesium (mg/L) = (A – B) x 243 mL sample 6·21 Go To Table of Contents .” 7. 6. Record the number of mL of Standard Versenate solution used as “A. Add approximately 20 mL of distilled water to the titration vessel. Titrate with Standard Versenate solution until the indicator turns from wine red to blue with no undertint of red remaining. 2. Calculate calcium (mg/L) = B x 400 mL sample 8.TESTING PROCEDURES 6. Add 1 mL masking agent.” 7. Add the same amount of water or filtrate to be tested as used in procedure A.

3. 4. Procedure 1. Gently place the hydrometer into the cylinder and spin it as you release it into the fluid. Allow the hydrometer to stabilize and read the specific gravity from the spindle. References • API RP 13J.4 mm) from the top. Take your reading from the bottom of the meniscus. This technique will prevent the breaking of the heavier hydrometers as they fall through the lighter density fluids. 2. (25. start with a lowrange hydrometer and work your way up to the correct range. Record the temperature of the sample using a Fahrenheit thermometer. 6·22 Go To Table of Contents .TESTING PROCEDURES Brine Density Scope and Limitations This procedure applies to measuring density of a brine at surface and correcting the density to 70° F (21° C). December 2003 Safety • Wear safety glasses Equipment and Chemicals Required • Hydrometer calibrated at 60° F (16° C) • Hydrometer Cylinder • Thermometer Note: If you do not know the approximate density of the fluid to be checked. 3rd Edition. Pour a sample of the fluid to be weighed into the hydrometer cylinder to within ± 1 in.

the temperature at which the hydrometer is calibrated.6 lb/gal at 70° F (21° C) 6·23 Go To Table of Contents . 2.74 = 14. Convert the hydrometer reading (specific gravity) to lb/gal by multiplying the specific gravity x 8.5 lb/gal at 100° F (38° C) Dc = 14.00363 (30) Dc = 14.5 + 0.334 x 1.00363 (100 – 70) Dc = 14. Calculate the density correction to 70° F (21° C) using the following equation: Dc = Dm+ [ CF(Tm – 70) ] Where: Dc = Corrected Density Dm = Measured Density in lb/gal CF = Hydrometer Correction Factor (see table on page 6·24) Tm = Temperature of Sample Example Hydrometer reading of 1.334.1089 Dc = 14.5 + 0.5 + 0.742 SG at 100° F (38° C) 8. This factor relates to the density of water at 60° F (16° C).TESTING PROCEDURES Calculation 1.

00344 0.00434 0.5 19. December 2003 Density (lb/gal @ 70° F) 8.0 10.5 16.5 14.5 11.00400 0. 3rd Edition.00302 0.00476 0.00374 0.0 18.0 12.00353 0.5 12.0 16.0 17.00454 0.0 6·24 Go To Table of Contents .0 13.00324 0.5 17.0 11.00291 0.00313 0.0 14.00528 1API RP 13J.TESTING PROCEDURES Hydrometer Correction Factors1 Correction Factor (lb/gal per ° F) 0.5 9.00318 0.00284 0.0 15.00337 0.0 9.00386 0.00363 0.00297 0.5 15.5 10.00330 0.5 18.00307 0.00416 0.5 13.00501 0.

The first mark below 1. The fifth mark is 1. Omitting a number can make a significant difference.802. 20 1.850 60 80 1.882 1900 Etc. The scale is read as follows: 1800 Each mark has a value of . multiply the reading on the hydrometer times 8.002.TESTING PROCEDURES It is important to read and use all of the numbers on the scale of the hydrometer when making density calculations. etc.334.826 40 1.814. 6·25 Go To Table of Contents . To calculate the density.810. the seventh mark is 1.800 is read as 1.

0 2.600 1.4 1.000–1.600–1.33– 9. so a reading of 1200 indicates an SG of 1.99 9. The scale on the hydrometer may not have a decimal point.6 1.2–2.420 or 1.66–18.66–13.33–19.66 16.200 2.400 1. Depending on the manufacturer.2 1.200 to 1. 1.2 2. i.4–1.000 2.99 Note: These are approximate hydrometer ranges.0–2.800–2.TESTING PROCEDURES M-I SWACO Completion Fluids Hydrometer Ranges Hydrometer Range 1.99 14.2–1.8–2.400 to 1.6–1.4 Density (lb/gal) 8.33 18.200 1.0–1.200–2.200–1.33–14.000–2.66 11..400–1.99–11.620.99–16.e.2.800 1.400 Specific Gravity 1.8 1.33 13. 6·26 Go To Table of Contents . the scale may overlap into the next higher range.

accessible at www. where it’s from.com (QHSE) Safety • Include MSDS with sample. Texas. or use a copy of the attached form.smith-intl.smith-intl. Section 172. and send it to the following address: M-I SWACO. 6·27 Go To Table of Contents . current version found at midhouhq-www01..pgoaccess.corp. You can either send in a hard copy or send it in electronically.TESTING PROCEDURES Submitting Samples to Technical Center Laboratories Scope and Limitations This procedure applies to submitting samples for testing at the Technical Center in Houston. Houston. Procedure for submitting and packaging a sample First you must obtain a copy of the sample submission from the Web site. current version found at midhouhq-www01. and a contact name and phone number. Please include a note with a brief description of the sample. Texas.gov\ecfr • QHSE Manual. 77072. Remember to send it to the attention of the Completion Fluids Laboratory. include an MSDS. Then package your sample. what testing is required.corp.com (R&E) • CFR 49. This form helps the various departments follow the progress of your sample. References • Sample Submission Form. 5950 North Course Dr. Label and package according to DOT.

Never label oil samples with grease pens.TESTING PROCEDURES Package and label sample according to company. depending on the test that is required. shipper and DOT requirements. Do not package oil samples in plastic containers. Section 14 of the M-I SWACO MSDS includes the DOT classification. Package the sample with some thought and it will arrive in one piece with the labels readable. 6·28 Go To Table of Contents . The packaging of samples is for the most part common sense. Environmental samples require special handling. Oil-base products will dissolve plastic. this includes bottles and bags.

TESTING PROCEDURES Name of submitter: M-I SWACO entity or Non-M-I SWACO company: Location: Phone number and E-mail: Date submitted: Report date requested: Report to: Lab master number: Sample identification: (Provide as full and comprehensive information as is available) Objective description of problem: What question(s) do you wish to have answered about the sample submitted? (Please be clear and objective) 6·29 Go To Table of Contents .

Dispose of: 3. Return (will be made to location address above unless advised otherwise): 2.) Special handling information: Is sample toxic? Yes No Please note that every field. etc.TESTING PROCEDURES Type of report required: Data only: (Define data requested) Data and discussion: (Define data required and specific issues/questions to address) Justification for report deadline requested: What will you do with the report? (Will it be provided to end-use customer? Is it for internal use?. Sample fate: 1. with the exceptions of the Lab Master Number and contract acceptance must be completed when received for the request to be accepted in a timely manner. Retain for additional testing: 6·30 Go To Table of Contents .

COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL RDF TESTING PROCEDURES Go To Table of Contents .

Methylene blue capacity and cation exchange capacity are not necessarily equivalent. Variations of the procedure used on the drilling fluid can be performed on drill solids and commercial bentonite to allow an estimate of the amount of each type of solid present in the fluid. polyacrylates. Item b) is intended to remove the effect of organic materials such as lignosulfonates. Pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide (see Procedure. lignites. Equipment The following equipment is needed to perform the methylene blue test: 6·32 Go To Table of Contents . Drilling fluids frequently contain substances in addition to reactive clays that adsorb methylene blue. cellulosic polymers. and the like. Methylene blue solution is added to a sample of drilling fluid (which has been treated with hydrogen peroxide and acidified) until saturation is noted by formation of a dye “halo” around a drop of solids suspension placed on filter paper.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES Methylene Blue Capacity Description The methylene blue capacity of drilling fluid is an indication of the amount of reactive clays (bentonite and/or drill solids) present as determined by the Methylene Blue Test (MBT). the former normally being somewhat less than the actual cation exchange capacity. The methylene blue capacity provides an estimate of the total Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the drilling-fluid solids.

5 cm3. Dry a 1. 1 filter paper.000-gram portion of methylene blue to a constant weight at 200° ±5° F (93° ±3° C). Note: The moisture content of reagent grade methylene blue must be determined each time the solution is prepared. Hydrogen peroxide: 3% solution (CAS #7722-88-5) c. Dilute sulfuric acid: approximately 5 newtons d. Whatman No.2 grams reagent grade methylene blue (C16H18N3SCl)/L (1 cm3 = 0. Methylene blue solution: 3.01 milliequivalent) (CAS #61-73-4). Stirring rod i. or equivalent Procedure Follow this procedure to perform the MBT: a. Hot plate j. To assure that exactly 2 cm3 are being added. micropipette: 0.2 g= to be taken weight of dried sample b.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES a. Make the appropriate correction in the weight of methylene blue to be taken to prepare the solution as follows: Weight of sample 3.5 cm3 or 3 cm3 e. use the following procedure: 6·33 Go To Table of Contents . Erlenmeyer flask: 250 cm3 f. Add 2 cm3 of drilling fluid (or suitable volume of drilling fluid to require from 2 to 10 cm3 of methylene blue solution) to 10 cm3 of water in the Erlenmeyer flask. Syringe (TD): 2. Burette (TD): 10 cm3. or graduated micropipette: 1 cm3 g. Graduated cylinder (TD): 50 cm3 h.

but do not allow to boil to dryness. in a 3-cm3 syringe. The initial endpoint of the titration is 6·34 Go To Table of Contents . Again. slowly discharge the syringe back into the drilling fluid. b. c. keeping the tip submerged. The syringe should have a capacity of more than 2 cm3 — generally 2 or 3 cm3. Add 15 cm3 of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0. draw the drilling fluid into the syringe until the end of the plunger is at the last graduation on the syringe (for example.5 cm3. While the solids are still suspended. Stir the drilling fluid to break the gel and quickly draw the drilling fluid into the syringe. Boil gently for 10 min. Dilute to about 50 cm3 with water. it is not necessary to remove the air trapped in the syringe.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES 1. The air or gas entrained in the drilling fluid must be removed. Add methylene blue to the flask in increments of 0. 3. swirl the contents of the flask for about 30 sec. If the approximate amount of methylene blue solution necessary to reach the endpoint is known from previous testing. it would be at the 1-cm3 line. Thus. By using a larger syringe. at the 3-cm3 line on a 3-cm3 syringe).5 cm3 of sulfuric acid. Then. remove one drop of liquid with the stirring rod and place the drop on the filter paper. larger increments (1 to 2 cm3) can be used at the beginning of the titration. Deliver 2 cm3 of drilling fluid by pushing the plunger until the end of the plunger is exactly 2 cm3 from the last graduation on the syringe. 2. 4. After each addition of methylene blue solution.

continue as before (see Item C) until a drop taken after 2 min shows the blue tint. cm3/cm3 Methylene blue. shake the flask an additional 2 min and place another drop on the filter paper. Reactive clays in the drill solids contribute to this quantity as well as commercial bentonite. d. equivalent. cm3) = equivalent. If the blue ring is again evident. cm3 Drilling fluid. the MBT can be reported as pounds per barrel bentonite equivalent (based on bentonite with a cation exchange capacity of 70 meq/100 grams) calculated as follows: 1. calculated as follows: Methylene blue = capacity. If the blue ring does not appear. 6·35 Go To Table of Contents . lb/bbl) 2. Calculation Report the Methylene Blue Capacity (MBT) of the drilling fluid. Bentonite 5 (methylene blue. lb/bbl Drilling fluid. kg/m3g. Note: The pounds per barrel bentonite equivalent (from Equations 1 or 2) is not equal to the amount of commercial bentonite in the drilling fluid. the final endpoint has been reached. cm3 Alternately.85 (bentonite = equivalent. When the blue tint spreading from the spot is detected.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES reached when dye appears as a blue or turquoise ring surrounding the dyed solids. cm3 Bentonite 2.

A set of four appropriately sized cylindrical spindles will be sent. Equipment Testing will be made using the Brookfield^ LVDV-II+ or LVDV-III digital viscometer with guard leg and cylindrical spindles (#1-4). Every effort should be made to use these procedures in order to make valid comparisons between wells. 220 or 230 volts AC and 50 or 60 Hertz frequency. These procedures are designed to negate artifacts produced from variances in test procedure.3 RPM using the LVDV-II+ or LVDV-III are: #1 to 20. Inc. The LVDV-III model has a wider speed selection and also has a programmable feature neither of which is necessary for FLOPRO applications. [82. The units are available in 115.000.000 cP. The LV prefix designates the proper spring torque for the viscosity ranges M-I SWACO desires.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES M-I SWACO Recommended Procedures for Measuring Low-Shear-Rate Viscosity (LSRV) for FLOPRO Fluids The following standardized procedures are recommended when measuring LSRV of a FLOPRO* fluid. The LVDV-II+ is the most widely used viscometer. 6·36 Go To Table of Contents .000 cP and #4 to 2.000 cP.6-mm] dia by ^Mark of Brookfield Engineering Laboratories. The spindle viscosity ranges at . #2 to 100. When ordering a Brookfield viscometer specify LVDV-II+ or LVDV-III with cylindrical spindles. Other necessary equipment includes the large OFI thermo cup (3∏-in. #3 to 400. Also input voltage and frequency should be indicated when ordering.000 cP.

Disconnect the viscometer when not in use. Plug power cord into receptacle on the back of the viscometer and plug into appropriate AC socket.6-mm] deep) and a mixing device to help heat the fluid sample evenly. Plug temperature probe into receptacle on the back of the viscometer. The fluid sample should be tested at the same temperature as the other 6·37 Go To Table of Contents . Level viscometer by rotating it slightly on the stand and/or by adjusting feet. Install gear assembly on stand with rack and insert Brookfield viscometer post in assembly and tighten clamp screw. Pour the FLOPRO fluid to be tested to within a half inch of the top of the Thermo cup and heat to desired temperature. Rig vibrations may contribute to inaccurately low LSRV measurements. Note: The DV-II+ must be earth grounded to ensure against electronic failure! This is a delicate electronic instrument. The AC input voltage and frequency must be within the appropriate range as shown on the name plate of the viscometer. Dust may damage the electronics or the bearings so a dust-free atmosphere should be located. [101. Location Locate the Brookfield where a stable power supply is available. Care should be taken to avoid power surges and frequency variations. Make sure power switch on the rear of the viscometer is OFF.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES 4-in. Use the bubble level on the top as a guide. It should also be located where vibrations from the rig are minimal. Setup Remove the viscometer from the case.

Most applications will use the number 2 spindle.” After autozeroing the screen will display “Replace spindle. press one of 6·38 Go To Table of Contents .” The screen then automatically changes to “Remove spindle. the most widely used model.” then “Version 3.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES rheological properties. The viscometer uses a gem bearing and calibrated spring. A Hamilton Beach type mixer may be used. The following screen descriptions are for the LVDV-II+ viscometer. Always replace the rubber band when not using the viscometer. Entrapped air will result in erroneous readings. Turn on the viscometer. The sample should be stirred while heating to equalize the temperature throughout the sample. Hold the shaft in one hand to prevent damage to the spring and bearing while tightening the spindle. Press any key. After tightening the spindle.” Select the appropriate cylindrical spindle for the desired viscosity.0. Press any key. Initializing While heating the sample. Note these are left-handed threads.” Press any of the yellow keys and the display changes to “Autozeroing Viscometer. Stir at a slow rate to avoid overshearing the fluid which may result in polymer degradation. Note the spindles are marked on the neck. remove the rubber band holding the viscometer shaft in place. The digital screen will display the operations as the viscometer autozeroes itself. When the power is on the screen will flash “Brookfield DV-II+ LV Viscometer. Avoid entrapping air while stirring. Attach the spindle by threading it onto the shaft. Avoid impact and twisting of the shaft.

When the correct code is found. The code for the #2 spindle is S62 and for the #3 spindle it is S63. Viscometer Display The screen will look something like this: % 0. press Select Spindle key. press Select Display key until the cP value appears. The value in the upper left corner should be <+1.000 cP = 40. Use the orange up and down arrow keys to search for the correct spindle code. M-I SWACO is using viscosity in cP (centipoise) as the standard reading. The S will blink. The default display will appear on the screen.0 % when not in use. The code allows the viscometer to correctly calculate viscosity for a given spindle geometry. If the correct code is not on the screen. To select the appropriate units. press 6·39 Go To Table of Contents . A value greater may indicate damage to the bearing or spring.5° F Values may vary according to what was last used.0 0. The upper left corner displays viscometer readings these may be in the following units: % Viscometer Torque (%) cP Viscosity (cP or mPa) SS Shear Stress (always 0 due to spindle configuration) SR Shear Rate (always 0 due to spindle configuration) The default units for the LVDV-II+ is %.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES the yellow buttons on the key pad.0 RPM S62 70. The upper right hand value is the spindle code.000 mPa·s). The SI unit mPa·s is equivalent to cP (40.

6. Centralize the Thermo cup beneath the viscometer. Boundary effects caused by eccentric placement may alter LSRV readings. 60 and 100 RPM. When the proper value appears press the set speed key.3. 1. 20. The viscometer is now ready for running a test. hold the Auto Range key while turning on the viscometer.6. 2. press the Motor ON/OFF key to stop the viscometer. To get temperature in ° C hold the Select Display key while turning on the power. Take viscosity readings at 1 min. Lower the viscometer until the recess in the spindle shaft is at the top of the fluid. 1. 30. Testing After setting up the viscometer and heating the sample to test temperature a test can be performed. The value in the lower right is temperature as noted by the temperature probe. . 50. 3. While lowering the viscometer hold up under the front to prevent excessive vibration.5. Set a timer for three minutes and turn on the viscometer motor with the Motor ON/OFF button. 2. 12.5. 10.5. press the orange arrow keys until the desired speed appears to the right of RPM. Note: The viscometer is now running. . This viscometer can test viscosity at . M-I SWACO is doing all testing at . but hold the desired speed in memory. bearings and spring.0. 2 min and 3 min while the viscometer is running. Note: In order to have SI units displayed.3 RPM. To set the speed.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES the Select Spindle key and this code will become the default code. Make sure the guard leg is in place to avoid damage to the spindle. 6·40 Go To Table of Contents .

Calibration Calibration fluids are available from Brookfield and their agents. Test sample at same temperature as other flow properties. This manual also contains more detailed information not discussed here. Wash them thoroughly. 3. The procedures are outlined in the “Brookfield Digital Viscometer Operating Instructions Manual. Use Brookfield LVDV-II+ viscometer at . The 3-min reading may actually be less than the 2-min reading. 6·41 Go To Table of Contents .” which is included with the viscometer. Remove the spindle. then the guard leg. The viscometer should be calibrated regularly. Summary The M-I SWACO standard LSRV test for FLOPRO fluids is outlined in the following steps.000 cP. Part of the first minute will involve torquing the spring. Replace the guard leg and reinstall the rubber band on the shaft. 2. Keep the viscometer away from water and dust and unplug it when not in use to avoid power surges. Cleanup Turn off the viscometer. If the 3-min reading is less than the 2-min reading the spindle is probably slipping as it “drills a hole” in the fluid. turn off the viscometer and raise the spindle above the fluid.000 cP. After the test. Use spindle 2 for LSRV <100. respectively.3 RPM. LSRV2 and LSRV3. Generally the fluid will reach its maximum viscosity within the 3-min time.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES These values should be labeled LSRV1. 1. spindle 3 for LSRV >100.

DIAL READING * FACTOR = Brookfield viscosity in cP (mPa). 6·42 Go To Table of Contents . Use OFI 3∏-in. (82. Run viscometer throughout 3-min time period.6-mm) diameter thermo cup. 5. Run test with guard leg in place. Take LSRV readings at 1-min intervals over 3 min.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES 4. 6.

Filter sample. 8. 7.RDF TESTING PROCEDURES Field Test Procedure for Drill Solids Determination Required equipment and material • Top loading balance • Hot plate with magnetic stirrer • API filter press and accessories • 250-mL beaker Required chemicals • 15% Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) — use with caution • Defoamer 1. 9. (For fluids using NaCl as the bridging material. Slowly add 50 mL of 15% HCl. place on hot plate and bring to boil (this will break down the polymer so the sample will filter). 3. add 50 mL of water to dissolve the bridging material. 6·43 Go To Table of Contents . Weigh and record weight of filter paper with solids. After all HCl has been added. 2. Add stirring bar to beaker and place on stirrer at slow speed. don’t let sample foam over. Weigh API Whatman 50 filter paper. 4. Weigh equivalent of 35 mL of mud into 250-mL beaker. This might take a few minutes. Cool sample and add to API filter cell. 5. Take out filter paper with solids and put in oven until dry. Add several drops of defoamer.) 6.

RDF TESTING PROCEDURES 10. This is reported as drill solids. Calculations For 35 mL of mud (1/10 bbl equivalent): • Weight of solid residue x 10 = lb/bbl of drill solids (Note: 9.1 lb/bbl of drill solids = 1% by volume of drill solids) 6·44 Go To Table of Contents . Subtract original weight of filter paper (step #6) from final weight of filter paper with solids (step #9).

DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 7 DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY 7.

after displacement is one measure of displacement success. In one set of conditions. or Total Suspended Solids (TSS). A guide for the cleanliness of the casing is to determine the degree of mud removal from the drill pipe when it is pulled from the hole following the displacement. depending upon the goals of the completion and the conditions of the wellbore. 7·1 Go To Table of Contents . How quickly the desired NTU or TSS levels are achieved. certain basic criteria must be met. The casing in the hole should be cleaned of mud. The volume of fluid lost to emulsified interface or solids contamination can be gauged to measure relative success based on pre-job determinations. dirty (requiring disposal) or trash fluid coming out of the hole should be minimized. a NTU >40 is an indicator that the displacement did not attain its goal. The indicators of criteria for success are variable. 80 bbl of contaminated brine may reflect good practice.DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY Drilling Mud to Brine Displacements For a mud-to-brine displacement to be successful. Completion fluid clarity can be judged by a Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). 40 bbl may be unacceptable. in another. which is quantitative. The completion fluid in the hole should cleanup quickly with common filtration practices. a relative light-scattering method. under another set of conditions. In one case. The emulsified. a displacement may succeed if the NTU after one circulation is <100. if at all.

DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY
Displacement Techniques
Displacements are designated according to the direction in which they are pumped and the fluid which follows the chemical spacers into the hole. In the Forward technique, displacing fluids are pumped down the workstring and up the casing annulus and pump pressure is applied to the workstring. In the Reverse technique, displacing fluids are pumped down the casing annulus and up the workstring and pump pressure is applied to the annulus. In the Direct method, drilling mud is displaced by cleaning spacers followed by completion fluid. In the Indirect method, drilling mud is displaced by cleaning spacers or available water (seawater or drill water) followed by a hole-volume of available water. Only later is the available water displaced out of the hole by completion fluid. The Balanced method is one type of direct displacement. In it, the spacers are weighted to balance the density of the mud so that differential pressures (between hydrostatic and formation or liner top test) are minimized during pumping of the displacement. The Staged method is a seldom-used but important technique in which the wellbore is displaced in stages, the upper portion first, usually indirectly, followed by the remaining lower portions.

Spacer Type
Displacements of mud to brine are performed using chemical spacers that are intended to remove all remnants of the mud from casing and tubulars. Muds are typically categorized as Oil-Base (OBM), Synthetic-Base (SBM) and

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DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY
Water-Base (WBM). Spacers used to breakdown and remove these three mud systems differ in their chemical composition. Water is the best solvent for WBM. A highpH solution of caustic soda in drill water or seawater is very effective at destroying the integrity of WBM. A surfactant (SAFE-SURF* W or WN) in drill water or seawater can be used to further clean the pipe and water-wet the pipe surface. A viscous pill is often used to sweep mud solids and debris out of the hole. Some combination of similarly designed spacers will suffice to clean the hole of water-base mud, always in conjunction with best displacement practices. OBM and SBM are more complex systems and more difficult to remove from pipe surfaces. Oil is the best solvent for removing either of these systems, but at some point a chemical transition must be made to water-wet the pipe surface. M-I SWACO recommends initiating this aqueous transition immediately following the base oil pre-flush. This spacer, called the transition spacer, must be based on chemistry that is compatible with the mud, the base oil and the cleaning or wash spacer that follows. Compatibility tests performed prior to the displacement determine the composition of this transition spacer and confirm that massive or complex emulsions will not form at the interfaces of the displaced and displacing fluids. Cleaning or wash spacers follow the transition spacers in sequence. They are also more difficult to determine for OBM and SBM than for WBM. Surfactants (SAFE-SURF O, E or NS) and solvents (SAFE-SOLV* OM, E or 148) are less

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DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY
effective at cooler temperatures, such as might be seen at a deepwater mudline or even in a shallow well. Higher concentrations of surfactant and solvent are required for removing higher weight OBM and SBM than for removing lower weight muds. Also combinations of surfactant and solvent will exhibit differing effects when cleaning OBM or SBM. Synthetic muds are generally more tenacious about gripping the pipe surface. Laboratory tests should be run to determine the effectiveness of these spacers prior to performing a displacement of OBM or SBM. M-I SWACO OBM and SBM displacement recommendations typically consist of a weighted, viscous transition spacer, one or two cleaning spacers (of solvent/surfactant combined or individually) and a viscous separation spacer. Regardless of mud type, following the separation spacer one drum of flocculant (FILTER FLOC*) in 100 bbl seawater or brine is often used to help carry solids to the surface. If the flocculant is added to brine in a direct displacement, the brine can be directed to the return pit with the rest of the active brine system.

Spacer Size
The lead or transition spacer in an OBM or SBM displacement should be sized to eliminate the intermixing of the fluids ahead of and behind it. (This is less of a critical issue in WBM displacements, but the same design techniques apply.) Conventional practice defines this interval as 500 to 1,500 ft (150 to 450 m) of coverage in the largest annular area, depending upon the unique experience of the design engineer. However, if two wells are compared, both with 95⁄8-in. (244-mm) casing and 4-in. (102-mm) drill

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DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY
pipe, one 8,000 ft (2,440 m) deep and the other 20,000 ft (6,100 m) deep, conventional practice suggests these two wellbores require identically sized transition spacers. M-I SWACO recommends the transition spacer be sized based on the well capacity, typically 10% of the total annular volume. This accounts for annular size as well as well depth. In this case, the 8,000-ft (2,438.4-m) well will have a 25 to 50 bbl (4 to 8 m3) transition spacer while the 20,000-ft (6,096-m) well will have a 75 to 100 bbl (12 to 16 m3) transition spacer. For logistical convenience, the spacer size is rounded up or down to fit portable storage tanks, if necessary. The size of the cleaning spacer should be determined by the total surface area to be cleaned, contact time and flow rate required for cleaning and concentration of wash chemical. It has been estimated that the average mud film on the casing and tubing wall is between 1⁄64and 1⁄32-in. (0.4- and 0.8-mm) thick. The volume of this mud film can be calculated based on the size and length of the drill pipe and casing. Since cleaning spacers will become contaminated with mud over the course of the displacement, a well-designed cleaning spacer will have a concentration great enough to provide effective chemical activity in the latter stages of the displacement. A basic design begins with enough spacer volume and wash chemical concentration to account for mud contamination up to 25%. Based on this criteria, M-I SWACO recommends cleaning spacers sized at a minimum of 4 times the estimated volume of mud film on the total area of tubing and casing, or,

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DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY
enough concentration to effectively clean when contaminated with mud at 25% volume. If that volume/concentration is sufficient to achieve the necessary contact time for effective cleaning at the displacement pump rate, no size/concentration adjustment is required. However, if pre-job spacer testing indicates more contact time or concentration is needed, spacer size/ concentration should be adjusted accordingly. Factors that may cause a further increase of cleaning spacer size are: dead space in blending pits and lines, inability to rotate and/or reciprocate, inability to get the cleaning spacer in turbulent flow in part of the wellbore or poor mud conditioning (especially stagnant mud in hightemperature conditions).

Pump Rate and Flow Regime
Pump rate for a mud-to-brine displacement should be maintained between two limits. The minimum limit is that rate required to achieve turbulent flow in the cleaning spacer. The maximum limit is that pump rate which lowers the contact time of the cleaning spacer below the acceptable level as determined by prior lab testing. It is generally recognized that the cleaning spacer will be most effective when it is in turbulent flow. Turbulence is usually attributed to a surfactant-based Newtonian fluid with a Reynolds’ Number (NRe) >4,000 (2,200 <4,000 being transitional flow). Experience in displacement implementation suggests using a higher lower-limit in design criteria, often on the order of NRe ~ 6,000 to 8,000 if possible. Factors which determine the NRe of a fluid are its density, Apparent Viscosity (AV), velocity and area

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DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY
of flow. NRe is inversely proportional to the fluid viscosity. Since cleaning spacers are nonviscous, a high NRe can usually be achieved with relative ease.

Spacer Chemicals
Spacers are designed using surfactants, solvents, viscosifiers and flocculants. M-I SWACO has developed a line of displacement spacer products that are designed to promote wellbore cleaning while minimizing rig time and material waste. This product line is called the SAFE* Series. Surfactants — SAFE-SURF W, WN and NS are surfactant blends intended for use in removing water-base mud residues. All are designed for use in freshwater or seawater and contain strong water-wetting surfactants. The pH of these blends varies from very high (W) to near neutral (WN). SAFE-SURF O, E and NS are formulated for removal of OBM and SBM. These surfactants can be blended in freshwater or seawater and are effective when blended in salt brine. pH ranges from very low (O) to moderately high (E). The products are formulated to satisfy differing regulatory requirements in various parts of the world. Surfactants are used at 3 to 20% by volume in spacer solutions. Solvents — SAFE-SOLV E, OM and 148 are solvent/surfactant blends intended for use in OBM and SBM displacements. They contain no aromatic hydrocarbons or toxic alkyl phenols. These solvents are used in displacement spacers at percentages between 3 and 35% and are pumped neat when used to pickle pipe for pipe-dope removal. SAFE-T-PICKLE* is a special

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SAFE-VIS LE.5 lb/bbl (10 kg/m3). SAFE-FLOC I is often used in brine reclamations or added on location when dissolved iron creates a clarity problem in the completion brine. SAFE-VIS is dry powder. OGS is preslurried in a synthetic carrier that passes oil and grease and static sheen tests required in the Gulf of Mexico and HDE is pre-slurried in a synthetic carrier to enable viscosification of high-density brine. It can be added at 0. DUO-VIS L. SAFE-VIS HDE is recommended between 3 and 5 gal/bbl (63 and 105 kg/m3).5 gal/bbl (19 to 38 kg/m3). DUO-VIS is unclarified xanthan. SAFE-T-PICKLE is run as a neat solvent. FLO-VIS L is liquid clarified xanthan and FLO-VIS PLUS is coated.75 to 1. SAFE-VIS*.25 to 1% by volume to the working brine system to help coagulate and then flocculate colloidal iron. LE and E are used between 0. FILTER FLOC is most often included in the first 100 bbl (16 m3) of seawater or brine that follows the displacement spacer sequence 7·8 Go To Table of Contents . SAFE-VIS is typically recommended at 3. SAFE-VIS OGS. FLO-VIS*L and FLO-VIS PLUS are xanthan polymer systems that are used to build viscous spacers. DUO-VIS*. SAFE-VIS OGS. Flocculants — SAFE-FLOC* I and FILTER FLOC are used to flocculate dispersed solids and to help bring solids to the surface. The proper product is selected based on well conditions and completion goals. SAFE-VIS E and SAFE-VIS HDE are HEC polymer systems also used to viscosify displacement spacers. Viscosifiers — M-I SWACO prefers the use of shear-thinning polymers when possible in mud displacements.DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY solvent developed for removal of pipe dope. clarified powder.

Mud conditioning may be the most understated stage of the displacement process. during that time. magnets and boot baskets that are put in-string during the casing clean-out. The M-I SWACO SPEEDWELL division provides casing brushes and scrapers. PV and YP. adhering to the pipe wall. such as mud conditioning. Refer to the SPEEDWELL tools section in this manual. i. reciprocation should be limited to one joint of pipe. In most displacement applications. This helps bring suspended solids to the surface where they can be filtered out of the working system. Mechanical Aids Mechanical aids consist of those elements which are neither chemical nor hydraulic. To keep fluid flowing on-bottom during displacement. Casing cleaning tools are an integral component of mud displacement.DISPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY into the hole. jetting tools.e. Pipe rotation is critical for hole cleaning in hole angles >30° Reciprocation also helps disturb mud . 7·9 Go To Table of Contents . a few additional hours spent properly conditioning the mud can save an extra day of hole cleaning.. rather than one stand. should be reduced to minimum values prior to displacement. Guidelines are available for rate of rotation during circulation and displacement. pipe rotation and reciprocation and cleaning tools. It is generally recommended that pipe reciprocation be performed during mud circulation and during the displacement only after the spacers have entered the casing annulus. Mud properties.

COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 8 VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL 8. VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL Go To Table of Contents .

hot wellbores. As a result. Increasing water saturation. mechanical means are either impractical or simply not suitable. Furthermore. in many cases. Consequently. adjusting the brine density requires an accurate knowledge of both the Bottomhole Pressure (BHP) and the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the brine. The density of the completion fluid is selected to provide a certain overbalance pressure in the wellbore. fluid losses are very often controlled by chemical means. i.7 bar).8 to 20. In deep. scaling and emulsion formation are examples of formation damage that can occur. Whereas both mechanical and chemical means of controlling losses are available.e. continuing with operations such as tripping in and out of the hole may not be possible. Therefore. spotting ‘pills’ of one sort or another. little margin of error is available.. often 200 to 300 psi (13. if the rate of losses during the completion process is too great. An important feature of these pills is that they control losses with the least possible damage to the productivity of the well. However. 8·1 Go To Table of Contents . Reducing the density of the completion fluid to lessen the differential pressure between the wellbore and the formation is an effective means of reducing the rate of losses. density reduction is often not allowed unless reliable data is provided that can assure that a density-cut is an acceptable option. controlling fluid losses is an important consideration when designing and carrying out the completion.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL Loss of completion fluids to permeable formations will usually impair the production of hydrocarbons.

Lower grade versions of HEC and XC. maintains viscosity under downhole conditions and can be “broken” with available breakers such as acids. these viscous pills are prepared with a polymer that is soluble in the completion fluid. reduce the rate of loss. solids-free viscous pills. the high-purity.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL Pills commonly used to control downhole losses include. Synthetic polymers that are neither acid soluble or acid compatible are not recommended unless extreme conditions warrant such use. 8·2 Go To Table of Contents . are generally not recommended. solidsfree viscous pills do not stop losses. M-I SWACO offers high-purity polymer systems within the SAFE-VIS (HEC) and FLO-VIS (XC) product lines. Typically. and Xanthan Gum (XC). sized bridging particles such as calcium carbonate or sodium chloride. viscous pills should be sheared and filtered (minimum 10 micron absolute) to eliminate “fish eyes” that will act as plugging solids and make breakers and cleanup techniques much less effective. crosslinked polymer pills and those containing soluble. enzymes and oxidizers. or non-clarified systems such as many of the guar gums and carboxy-celluloses. The most common examples include Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC). provides viscoelastic behavior. but rather. clarified versions of these polymers should be used. To be truly solids-free and to be as non-damaging as possible. the quality of its preparation. In all cases. Unlike the crosslinked and filter-cake building systems. the viscosity of the pill under downhole conditions and just as important. the differential pressure. The effectiveness of a viscous pill depends on the length and permeability of the thief zone.

The particle size distribution of the solids in these pills is selected to bridge either on the surface of the formation (OPTIBRIDGE* pills) or on the inside surface of the production screen (SEAL-N-PEEL* pills). stirred (not sheared) and pumped. No special blenders or training is required to mix these pills. SAFE-LINK pills are supplied with densities from 11 to 16 lb/gal (1.92 SG). pills that form an external filter cake are required. such solidscontaining pills use shear thinning polymers with good low-shear-rate viscosity to carry and suspend the solids and a soluble binding agent 8·3 Go To Table of Contents .32 to 1. The SAFE-LINK systems are pre cross-linked in base brine and supplied to the rig in 5-gal (18. some of which are mixed on the rig.9 L) buckets. Only soluble bridging agents such as calcium carbonate or sodium chloride should be used in these applications. The SAFE-LINK gel is simply added to a viscous HEC pill or to the base brine. These systems require knowledge of the screen type and/or formation pore size. Similar crosslinked systems are available in the industry. When the solids-free. In addition to the base brine and the sized particles. requiring special blending units and a trained technician to properly prepare. The cross-linking causes the polymer to form a 3-dimensional network which produces a gel structure with the consistency a thick gelatin. linear gel or crosslinked pills are ineffective.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL Cross-linked pills offered by M-I SWACO (SAFE-LINK*) are based on a derivatized HEC in which anionic functional groups are grafted onto the polymer backbone and cross-linked with Magnesium Oxide.

VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL
to form a low-permeable matrix in combination with the solids. Xanthan gum and starch are the most common examples of these additives. Because these pills form a filter cake of extremely low permeability, and in some cases, form an impermeable “plug” in a perforation tunnel, they can be more difficult to clean up than their solids-free counterparts and usually require a post-placement cleanup treatment. On the other hand, SEAL-N-PEEL pills seal on the production screen surface with very little matrix invasion and contain surface tension reducing agents that allow the filter cake to “peel” from the surface with minimal drawdown pressure.

HEC
Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) is a nonionic, ethyl ether derivative of cellulose. It is the most common polymer used to viscosify clear brine completion fluids. It is the only polymer soluble in all standard, non-formate completion fluids, regardless of density. Dry HEC polymer must be added slowly when used to viscosity brine; otherwise the brine immediately wets the surface of the polymer before it has a chance to disperse. This leaves a dry inner core surrounded by a hydrated outer layer (fish eyes) that is nearly impossible to hydrate further and must be filtered. Shearing and filtering is recommended when preparing HEC pills, especially if the pill is to be used for fluid-loss control. Adding dry HEC to concentrated brine will usually require heat to fully hydrate and to develop complete viscosity profile. The amount of heat required to easily hydrate HEC in high

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VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL
density brine is a function of the total salt in solution, the amount of HEC added, the shear rate of the mix and the total time. A general rule of thumb for fluid systems above about 12 lb/gal (1.44 SG) is 120° to 140° F (48.8° to 60° C), mixed for 6 to 10 hrs under high shear. Operationally, this means circulating the fluid through a centrifugal pump until the temperature is reached, slowly adding the polymer and continuing to circulate for 6 to 10 hrs or until the viscosity no longer increases with additional mixing. In order to minimize the formation of “fish eyes,” it is important to add polymer slowly and ensure that all lumps of dry HEC are completely desegregated before adding. HEC is completely acid soluble. The premium grades produce less than 0.1 wt % residue after exposure to HCl. HEC pills can be “broken” with HCl and organic acids and mild oxidizers. HEC can be stabilized at temperatures greater than 250° F (121.1° C), depending on the base brine. Contact your M-I SWACO representative for recommendations.

SAFE-VIS
SAFE-VIS is a high-grade, clarified HEC polymer. It is a glyoxylated form of HEC with an average molecular weight of approximately 1,000,000 daltons. This glyoxyl coating retards hydration until either time, temperature or solution pH (above about 7) strips the coating from the surface. This retardation allows a more controlled and full hydration. SAFE-VIS is used to viscosify freshwater, seawater or brine fluids used in workover and completion operations. SAFE-VIS is normally added at concentrations of 2 to

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VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL
4 lb/bbl (0.9 to 1.8 kg/bbl) for viscous pills and 0.1 to 0.5 lb/bbl (0.05 to 0.23 kg/bbl) for drag reduction. SAFE-VIS is packaged in 50-lb (22.7-kg) multi-wall, waterproof sacks.

SAFE-VIS HDE
SAFE-VIS HDE liquid viscosifier is a suspension of high-quality HEC polymer in water-soluble carrier. It is specially formulated for high density CaCl2, CaCl2/CaBr2, CaBr2, CaBr2, CaCl2/ CaBr2/ZnBr2 and most other divalent brines. Treatments usually range between 2 to 5 gal/bbl (7.6 to 18.9 L/bbl) of completion fluid. Special mixing procedures are required for ZnBr2 fluids in the 15 to 16.5 lb/gal (1.8 to 1.98 SG) density range. SAFE-VIS HDE is packaged in 5-gal (18.9-L) plastic cans. SAFE-VIS HDE contains 4.5 lb (2.04 kg) HEC per 5-gal (18.9-L) can.

SAFE-VIS OGS
SAFE-VIS OGS liquid viscosifier is a suspension of high-quality HEC polymer in a water dispersible, synthetic carrier. SAFE-VIS OGS liquid viscosifier is specially formulated to pass Oil and Grease, LC50 and Static Sheen Test requirements for offshore GoM use. The product viscosifies single salt CaCl2 and CaBr2 brines and all monovalent-salt brines. Treatments usually range between 0.5 to 1.5 gal/bbl (1.9 to 5.7 L/bbl) of completion fluid. SAFE-VIS OGS is packaged in 5-gal (18.9-L) plastic cans. SAFE-VIS OGS contains 16.5 to 17 lb (7.5 to 7.7 kg) HEC per 5-gal (18.9-L) can.

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VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL SAFE-VIS LE
SAFE-VIS LE liquid viscosifier is a suspension of high-quality HEC polymer in a highly purified mineral oil carrier (UK OCNS category “D” rating). SAFE-VIS LE is designed to viscosify singlesalt CaCl2 brines and all monovalent-salt halide brines. Treatments usually range between 0.5 to 1.5 gal/bbl (1.9 to 5.7 L/bbl) of completion fluids. SAFE-VIS LE is packaged in 5-gal (18.9-L) plastic cans. SAFE-VIS LE contains 16.5 to 17 lb (7.5 to 7.7 kg) HEC per 5-gal (18.9-L) can.

SAFE-VIS E
SAFE-VIS E liquid viscosifier is a suspension of high-quality HEC polymer in a highly purified mineral oil carrier. SAFE-VIS E is designed to viscosify single-salt CaCl2 brines and all monovalent-salt halide brines. Treatments usually range between 0.5 to 1.5 gal/bbl (1.9 to 5.7 L/bbl) of completion fluids. SAFE-VIS E is packaged in 5-gal (18.9-L) plastic cans. SAFE-VIS E contains 16.5 to 17 lb (1.9 to 5.7 L/bbl) HEC per 5-gal (18.9-L) can.

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VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL HEC Mixing Procedures
I. Rigsite preparation for HEC fluid-loss pills using SAFE-VIS1 (25-bbl high-vis pill with 4-lb/bbl [1.8-kg/bbl] HEC as example)
1. Prepare a 25-bbl viscous fluid-loss pill approximately 24 hrs prior to needing to pump the pill. The recommended pill loading for fluidloss control is 4-lb/bbl (1.8-kg/bbl) HEC. 2. Prepare a pill as follows: 3. Transfer 25-bbl filtered brine into Mixing Pit. 4. Open 2 bags SAFE-VIS HEC and add to brine through the hopper slowly (10 to 20 min per bag). 5. Mix at high speed and shear pill through pump and hopper. 6. Adjust pH to 8 to 9 with caustic soda (NaOH). 7. As pill begins to thicken, check Fann 35 rheology. Shear until readings level off for several samples (6/3 RPM readings should be at least 80% of 200/150 at room temperature). 8. Filter pill through 10-micron filter cartridges into pit not used for mixing pill. 9. Pill is now ready to pump. Allow it to set until needed, continued blending should not be required.
1SAFE-VIS Dry HEC should only be used for freshwater and undersaturated brines such as seawater or saltwater less than about 9 lb/gal (1.1 SG) density. SAFE-VIS HEC powder is coated with a pH sensitive anti-dispersing agent that allows its addition to freshwater or under-saturated brine without its premature hydration which leads to the formation of fish eyes. This coating is stripped off the polymer above a pH of 7, after which, hydration is rapid.

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VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL
Example rheology listed below:
6 rpm 3 rpm 170 @ 72° F 140 @ 72° F

II. Rigsite preparation for HEC pills using SAFE-VIS E/OGS/LE Liquid HEC1 (25-bbl high-vis pill with 4-lb/bbl [1.8-kg/bbl] HEC as example)
1. Prepare a 25-bbl viscous fluid-loss pill approximately 24 hrs prior to needing to pump the pill. The recommended pill loading for fluidloss control is 4-lb/bbl (1.8-kg/bbl) HEC 2. Prepare a pill as follows: 3. Transfer 25-bbl filtered brine into Mixing Pit. 4. Open 6 buckets of SAFE-VIS E/OGS/LE and thoroughly stir the contents of each bucket. 5. Dump all buckets through the hopper (1 to 2 min per can). If unable to add all cans through hopper, add cans directly into pit as close to agitator blades as possible. 6. Shear pill through pump and hopper. 7. As pill begins to thicken, check Fann 35 rheology. Shear until readings level off for several samples (6/3 RPM readings should be at least 80% of 200/150 at room temperature). 8. Filter pill through 10-micron filter cartridges into pit not used for mixing pill. 9. Pill is now ready to pump. Allow it to set until needed, continued blending should not be required.
1SAFE-VIS E/OGS/LE Liquid HEC should only be used for brines with a significant amount of “free water.” Fully saturated brines are not easily viscosified with non-water-soluble, liquid SAFE-VIS products. High shear and/or heat is required when viscosifying saturated brines with these products.

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8-kg/bbl] HEC as example) 1. Shear pill through pump and hopper. As pill begins to thicken. 2. If unable to add all cans through hopper.8-kg/bbl) HEC. 6.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL Example rheology listed below: 6 rpm 3 rpm 170 @ 72° F 140 @ 72° F III. Shear until readings level off for several samples (6/3 RPM readings should be at least 80% of 200/150 at room temperature). continued blending should not be required. 8. Open 20 buckets of SAFE-VIS HDE and thoroughly stir the contents of each bucket. add cans directly into pit as close to agitator blades as possible. Rig site preparation for HEC pills using SAFE-VIS HDE liquid HEC1 (25-bbl high-vis pill with 4-lb/bbl [1. Filter pill through 10-micron filter cartridges into pit not used for mixing pill. 4. Dump all buckets through the hopper as quickly as possible (5 to 10 sec per can). check Fann 35 rheology. 5. 8·10 Go To Table of Contents . Transfer 25-bbl filtered high density brine into Mixing Pit.5-lb (2-kg) HEC per 5-gal (18. Allow it to set until needed. 1SAFE-VIS HDE Liquid HEC can be for any brine and does not require excess shear or heat. 9. Prepare a 25-bbl viscous fluid-loss pill approximately 24 hrs prior to needing to pump the pill. SAFE-VIS HDE contains 4. 7. The recommended pill loading for fluid loss control is 4-lb/bbl (1. Prepare a pill as follows: 3. Pill is now ready to pump.9-L) bucket.

(190. cross-linked with high pH.1° C) with proprietary stabilizing agents.68 kg/L). SAFE-LINK 140 weighs 14 lb/gal (1. acetic acid. these pills can be stabilized to temperatures greater than 250° F (121.1° C). and ZnBr2 brine ranging from 8. No additional cross-linking is required on the rig. CaBr2.6 to about 16 lb/gal (1. NaBr. KCl. SAFE-LINK is pre cross-linked and packaged in 5-gal (18. however.5-mm) perforated interval. SAFE-LINK 110 weighs 11 lb/gal (1.2-m).9-L) pails. formic acid and temperatures greater than 250° F (121.2 L) of either viscosified or non-viscosified 8·11 Go To Table of Contents . virtually stopping the flow of brine into the formation. SAFE-LINK pills are designed to work in seawater. NaCl.92 kg/L). 7∑-in.92 kg/L). SAFE-LINK pills are used to control loss of clear brine fluid to the formation by applying a very viscous material across the formation face.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL Example rheology listed below: 6 rpm 3 rpm 170 @ 72° F 140 @ 72° F Cross-Linked HEC Pills SAFE-LINK 110 and 140 SAFE-LINK fluid-loss pills are comprised of a chemically modified HEC polymer. SAFE-LINK 160 weighs 16 lb/gal (1. SAFE-LINK Mixing Instructions: For a 60-ft (18. SAFE-LINK is degradable by hydrochloric acid. A fluid-loss pill is mixed by simple addition of the SAFE-LINK material to viscosified or non-viscosified completion brine. mix a 10-bbl pill as follows: Add 32 pails of SAFE-LINK additive to 260 gal (984.32 kg/L). CaCl2.

Do not over-shear the slurry. Dilution occurs in interface with brine while pumping down workstring and in annular volume between ports that pill exits workstring and top of gravel-pack packer. The SEAL-N-PEEL lift-off pressures are typically < 5-psi (0.34 bar) on average.000 psi (137. designed specifically as a contingency for all high-rate gravel-pack or water-pack completions. Stir gently with a lightning mixer or paddle mixer to slurry the SAFE-LINK additive into the brine. It deposits an impenetrable filter cake against the inside surface of the screen assembly. SEAL-N-PEEL provides superb supplemental fluid-loss control when mechanical devices either fail or are unavailable. a pill that has not been diluted with brine — must reach screens to be effective. The spacers pumped ahead of solids-laden pill are used to ensure 8·12 Go To Table of Contents . Carbonate is added to the base fluid prior to pumping the pill downhole. Pills Containing Bridging Solids SEAL-N-PEEL SEAL-N-PEEL is a uniquely engineered fluid-losscontrol pill. using production pressure and flow as the lift-off mechanism.9 bar) is not advisable. Note: Due to the SAFE-LINK additive’s crosslinking mechanism. differential pressure greater than 2.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL completion brine. A volume of intact SEAL-N-PEEL — that is. The SEAL-N-PEEL base is blended on location or at an M-I SWACO facility and transported to location in 25-bbl MPT tanks. the cake simply peels away. the slurry should be lumpy or stringy when pumped. When the well is ready to go on stream.

Pump recommended SEAL-N-PEEL base spacers ahead and behind of solids-laden pill based on the following table: Loss rate < 25 bbl/hr 25 – 45 bbl/hr > 45 bbl/hr Spacer Volume 3 bbl 6 bbl 9 bbl • Reduce loss rate to formation by filling annulus with seawater to reduce hydrostatic head. after pill in place. • Pump rate while spotting pill must be greater than loss rate. Blend at slow speed until pill is pumped. • Increase volume to 25 bbl of SEAL-N-PEEL with carbonate for extreme losses. 8·13 Go To Table of Contents .VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL that this intact pill will reach screens. SEAL-N-PEEL Mix Instructions (15 bbl) 1. pump rate while spotting pill and losses while spotting pill. • A balanced pill is recommended. Add recommended carbonate at 1 to 2 min per sack to blender. 4. volume pill with carbonate. volume spacers. • Record loss rate before pill spotted. Add 14 bbl of the SEAL-N-PEEL base gel to blender. Consult M-I SWACO technical lab for optimum formulation. 3. 2. Pump rates while pumping SEAL-N-PEEL must be greater than loss rate to formation. Blend at medium speed until smooth mixture appears (15 min maximum). • Spot pill as close to gravel-pack packer as possible. 5.

but they can also be used with potassium chloride. A fit-for-purpose blend made of either calcium carbonate or salt will effectively seal the formation. calcium bromide and zinc bromide as long as the base brine is saturated with respect to sodium chloride to prevent solubilizing the sized sodium chloride bridging solids.7° C). including maximum pore size opening and permeability and combines that input with the bridging-particle information.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL OPTIBRIDGE PILLS OPTIBRIDGE pills are designed using proprietary software that examines data from the targeted formation. Optimized particle-size distributions seal formations and completion screens over a wide 8·14 Go To Table of Contents . OPTIBRIDGE software automatically generates a target line of the optimum blend of particles that will effectively minimize solids and filtrate invasion. the ratio of bridging materials is matched to the formation characteristics. Once the optimum blend is known. These fluid-loss control systems have a unique synergistic blend of polymers which create optimum rheological and suspension properties providing long-term stability.0 depending on the base brine and concentration of bridging solids utilized.5 to 17. and contingent to the thermal extender package used they can withstand bottomhole temperatures up to 325° F (162. Sized-Salt Pills Sized-salt pills can be used in a broad density spectrum ranging from 10. Typically salt pills are mixed in saturated sodium chloride brine. sodium bromide. calcium chloride.

VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL range of permeability minimizing formation damage. Refer to sodium chloride saturation tables for each respective base brine. Add additional DEFOAM 2 as needed to control foaming.5 gal [9.6 to 31. Note: After saturating the brine with sodium chloride. the base brine must be saturated with respect to sodium chloride to prevent the bridging salt from being dissolved. it should be filtered to ensure the removal of any particles above 44 microns.46 L]) of DEFOAM 2* for every 20 bbl of fluid.8 kg]) through the mud hopper at 6 to 8 min per sack. Add the required amount of Bridgesal Ultra Superfine (50 to 70 lb/bbl [22. 8·15 Go To Table of Contents . 4. Start with the desired amount of brine in a clean slugging pit or mixing tank. Sized-salt pills can be removed with an acid soak to destroy the internal polymers and an unsaturated (with respect to sodium chloride) brine to dissolve the sodium chloride bridging agents. 3. ^Bridgesal is a mark of Texas Brine Corporation. If Ultrasal 5 or 10 is used to saturate the brine. Mixing Instructions 1. no filtering is required. Add ∑ can (2. Bridgesal Ultra Superfine Mixing Procedure Before adding Bridgesal^ Ultra Superfine. If necessary. Consult M-I SWACO technical lab for optimum pill and breaker formulation. 2. add the required amount of EVAPORATED SALT through the mud hopper at 2 to 3 min per sack for saturation with respect to NaCl.

Add additional DEFOAM 2 as needed to control foaming. If the BHT is above 250° F (121. contact an M-I SWACO representative. add 2 to 5 lb/bbl (0. 3. If additional FL-7 Plus is needed add through a hopper at 6 to 8 min per sack. Note: If a mud hopper is not available. add all products at maximum agitation as possible while circulating through a pump. Start with the desired amount of brine in a clean slugging pit or mixing tank. add the required amount of EVAPORATED SALT through the mud hopper at 2 to 3 min per sack for saturation with respect to NaCl. 7.2 kg]) through the mud hopper at 6 to 8 min per sack.5 gal [9. 8·16 Go To Table of Contents .9 to 2. 4.1° C). Mixing Instructions 1. 5. Refer to sodium chloride saturation tables for each respective base brine. Bridgesal Ultra Mixing Procedure Before adding Bridgesal Ultra. If additional FL-7 Plus^ is needed add through a hopper at 6 to 8 min per sack. Add the required amount of Bridgesal Ultra (50 to 60 lb/bbl [22. If CaCl2 brine is used. 2.27 kg) of pH buffer through a hopper at 3 to 4 min per sack. If necessary.46 L]) of DEFOAM 2 for every 20 bbl of fluid. ^FL-7 Plus is a mark of Texas Brine Corporation.6 to 27. the base brine must be saturated with respect to sodium chloride to prevent the bridging salt from being dissolved.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL 5. Allow the pill to agitate for 30 to 45 min prior to pumping downhole. Add ∑ can (2. 6.

5 to 16 lb/gal (1. 7.1° C).5 gal/bbl (1.49 to 1. circulating through a choke to generate temperature.1 1HEC polymer may be supplemented into the pill mix (at 2 to 3 lb/bbl [0. Add 0. 2. If CaCl2 brine is used.36 kg/bbl]) for initial viscosity enhancement until starches are thermally activated at bottom-hole temperatures.92 to 2.5 gal/bbl (1. add all products at maximum agitation as possible while circulating through a pump.89 L/bbl) of Hysal Activator to the brine.1 SG) 1.5 lb/gal (1.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL 6. Add 100 (45.1 16 to 17.89 L/bbl) of Hysal Activator to the brine. add 2 to 5 lb/bbl (0. Add 100 lb/bbl (45. 3. 2. for approximately 4 hrs.92 SG) 1. 3.18 SG]). circulating through a choke to generate temperature. for approximately 4 hrs. Hysal Superfine/Hysal HD Pill Hysal Superfine and Hysal HD are fluid products designed to be used in high density brines (12.2 lb/gal [1. Allow the slurry to mix. Add 0.9 to 1.9 to 2.49 to 2. If the BHT is above 250° F (121.27 kg) of pH buffer through a hopper at 3 to 4 min per sack. contact an M-I SWACO representative. Note: If a mud hopper is not available. Allow the slurry to mix.5 to 18. Mixing Procedures 12.4 kg/bbl) of Hysal HD at 6 to 8 min per sack through a hopper. Allow the pill to agitate for 30 to 45 min prior to pumping downhole. 8·17 Go To Table of Contents .4 kg/bbl) of Hysal Superfine at 6 to 8 min per sack through a hopper.

1 to 2.18 SG) Note: Formulations from 17. If the BHT is over 250° F (121.5 to 18.2 lb/gal (2. 8·18 Go To Table of Contents .5 to 18. contact an M-I SWACO representative.1° C).1 to 2.2 lb/gal (2.18 SG) should be verified by laboratory testing.VISCOSIFIERS AND FLUID-LOSS CONTROL 17.

9. CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 9 CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS Go To Table of Contents .

9·1 Go To Table of Contents . SAFE-COR should be used as the primary inhibitor for all non-zinc bromide packerfluid applications in which Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) material is used for production tubing and the maximum temperature is less than 350° F (177° C). Typical treatment level is 1 to 1.1 L/m3]). such a potassium carbonate. workover and reservoir drill-in fluid systems. An oxygen scavenger should be added at standard dosage and biocide when appropriate (less than saturated salt). Oxygen scavenger and/or biocide may be added in cases where under-saturated formate brines are used. SAFE-COR 220X is recommended for CO2 and H2S environments when the temperature is <250° F (<121° C).3% by volume (55 gal/100 bbl [13. gal/100 bbl (13.CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS M-I SWACO offers corrosion inhibitors. In such cases. SAFE-COR 220X SAFE-COR 220X is a brine-soluble amidecorrosion inhibitor comprising a solution of glycoside-amide in water. Formatebased brines for high-temperature applications do not strictly require a chemical corrosion inhibitor in the presence of CRAs. SAFE-COR SAFE-COR* is an amine-based corrosion inhibitor that forms an inert film on downhole oilfield tubulars. a pH buffer. oxygen scavengers and biocides to minimize or prevent corrosion in completion.S.1 L/m3) should be applied. The standard inhibitor treatment of 55 U. should be added to reduce the rate of corrosion.

SAFE-SCAV CA SAFE-SCAV CA is an oxygen scavenger for calcium-based brines. SAFE-COR HT SAFE-COR HT is a high-temperature corrosion inhibitor effective in ZnBr2 solutions. should be used only for carbon-steel tubulars. It is a solution of an inorganic sulfur salt in water. It helps prevent general corrosion attack on casing. SAFE-COR E is a highly concentrated product designed and packaged for use in solids-free workover and completion brines. Typical treatment level is 15 lb/100 bbl (0. tubing and downhole tools in contact with completion brines.33% by volume (55 gal/400 bbl [3. An organic salt.025% by volume (1 gal/100 bbl [0.CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS SAFE-COR E SAFE-COR E corrosion inhibitor is a modified amine-type additive formulated to protect all oilfield tubular goods.43 kg/m3). SAFE-COR HT. SAFE-SCAV NA SAFE-SCAV* NA is a bisulfite-based oxygen scavenger for non-calcium brines.24 L/m3]). which forms a protective. Typical treatment level is 0. Typical treatment level is 0. very thin film of iron-sulfide scale. 9·2 Go To Table of Contents . for solubility in clear brine completion fluids and to minimize environmental impact.27 L/m3]).

The molecular structure of these amines is such that “free” electrons are capable of forming a chemisorptive bond with metallic iron. These brines can be very corrosive if not adequately inhibited..CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS SAFE-SCAV HS SAFE-SCAV HS is a brine-soluble. Film-forming inhibitors consist of a polar group and a long.24 L/m3]). phosphorous. Corrosion rate data for non-zinc bromide brines suggest these brines are not generally corrosive. such as SAFE-COR. amine-based hydrogen sulfide scavenger. act by forming a protective barrier or film on the surface of the metal. SAFE-COR E and SAFE-COR 220X. Application of SAFE-COR Corrosion Inhibitors in Packer Fluids Corrosion inhibition is recommended when clear-brine completion fluids are used as packer fluids. Organic filming inhibitors. Zinc bromide fluids are inherently acidic. The polar group contains what is referred to as a heteroatom. Most non-zinc bromide brines show an average corrosion rate of less than 5 milli-inches per year (m.y. sulfur or more typically. The nitrogen containing molecules are most typically amines. non-polar (hydrocarbon) chain.” The strength of the adsorptive bond 9·3 Go To Table of Contents . oxygen. Typical treatment level is 0. This bond holds the molecular “head” onto the surface of the metal and the hydrocarbon “tail” acts as a “film” — thus the name “filming amine.) to oilfield grade carbon steel at temperatures up to 350° F (177° C).025% by volume (1 gal/100 bbl [0. nitrogen.e.p. i.

whereas most production chemical amines are oil soluble or water dispersible. i. reacting with the oxidized iron by a chemical reaction forming a thin. the amine is not chemically reacted or destroyed as part of the filming process and the brine contains a relatively high concentration of amine. Besides the alkaline inhibitor. the molecular structure of the chemical. The amines in packer fluids must be completely soluble in the brine. like other sulfur-based products. Bacteriacides should be added to those 9·4 Go To Table of Contents . should not be used with chrome alloys. SAFE-COR HT is an inorganic inhibitor that acts at the anodic site. corrosion inhibition should include: 1) eliminating oxygen in the brine. and 2) increasing pH where feasible. SAFE-COR HT is a thiocyanate-based inhibitor and. The primary chemical species directly involved in the corrosion process include acid and oxygen. the solubility of the material in the aqueous medium (brine). The amines used for packer-fluid applications are much different than those used in production applications. physical disruption. Other species such as sulfur.e. protective layer. no aggressive movement of fluid occurs..CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS and how long this bond lasts depends on the environment. movement of fluid across the surface. chlorides and certain bacteria also impact the corrosion process. The fact that it is a closed system. self “healing” can occur and the film should last indefinitely. etc. nor does a concentration gradient exist to allow diffusive forces to act. The ability of a packer-fluid amine to maintain its adsorbed layer is greatly enhanced by the fact that once in place.

0 lb/gal (1. These higher strengths are more prone to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) than their lower-strength counterparts. With the development of deeper. these materials are susceptible to localized H2S attack. 13-Cr stainless steel is the most common Martensitic Stainless Steel (MSS) used for its resistance to sweet acid-gas (CO2) corrosion. by alloying the iron-chromium with high percentages of molybdenum.CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS fluid systems that would allow bacteria to grow. brines with a density less than about 11. For example. hotter and higher-pressured wells.32 SG) should be treated with biocide for packer-fluid use. CRA Tubing Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used extensively in wellbore construction over the last couple of decades. localized corrosion such as pitting can lead to sudden and catastrophic cracking failure. however. new generation CRAs are being produced that possess greater Yield Strength (YS) than previous versions. such as the Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of 22%-Cr. CRA tubulars and downhole equipment are generally resistant to corrosive environments and each is selected for an application for which it is best suited. “Super” and “Hyper” grade 13% chromium stainless steels (13-Cr) achieve yield strengths of 95 to 110 ksi and above. 25%-Cr and 9·5 Go To Table of Contents . For sour-gas corrosion. As their name suggests. higher-chrome alloys. Although not specific. Depending on the amount and type of alloying elements and homogeneity of the microstructure. nickel and other alloying elements.

M-I SWACO recommends using a chloride-free packer fluid when it is placed behind >80 ksi YS 13-Cr steel at temperatures greater than about 200° F (93° C). Consequently. Thiocyanate (SCN –) decomposes at high temperature and forms H2S. such as SAFE-COR HT with 13-Cr or DSS material is used for tubing is not recommended. The other important environment identified as increasing the risk of SCC with CRA materials is chloride content. chlorides were implicated in CSCC without evidence of sulfur of any type. or even pure nickel-chrome alloys. sulfur or thiocyanate has also been identified in the packer fluid. At least in some high-strength 13-Cr cases. SCC is a corrosion phenomenon related to the metallurgy. more resistant to H2S. the role of the chloride ion (Cl– ) should not be overlooked. Whereas. internal and external stresses and the corrosiveness of the environment in which the metal resides. 9·6 Go To Table of Contents . the use of a thiocyanate corrosion inhibitor. such as Inconel and Hastelloy^ are used. For this reason. ^Mark of Haynes International. these higher alloys are prone to hydrogen embrittlement under certain conditions. Regardless of the metallurgy. Although . the higher-strength materials are always more prone to environmentally induced SCC than lower-strength materials or equal-strength lowalloy.CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS 28%-Cr. carbon steel. in most of these reported cases. Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (CSCC) of high-strength 13-Cr and even 22-Cr DSS has been reported. Inc.

238 L/m3) 5 gal/500 bbl (.3 kg/m3) Water 8. Concentration 55 gal/100 bbl (13.334 lb/gal (998 kg/m3) Water 8.5 5 lb/bbl (14.334 lb/gal Formates All densities CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS 9·7 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .238 L/m3) To pH 9.1 L/m3) 5 gal/500 bbl (.5 5 gal/500 bbl (.Fluid Type <350° F (<176° C) SAFE-SCAV NA Glute 25 Caustic Soda >350° F (>176° C) <400° F (<204° C) Standard/CRA Standard/CRA Glute 25 Caustic Soda K carbonate Standard/CRA SAFE-COR Density Temperature Metallurgy Inhibitor Pkg.238 L/m3) To pH 9.

428 kg/m3) To pH 9.1 L/m3) 15 lb/100 bbl (. Concentration 55 gal/100 bbl (13.5 Na-K/Cl-Br All densities Na-K/Cl-Br All densities Contact M-I SWACO Technical Services CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS 9·8 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .Continued from previous page Fluid Type <350° F (<176° C) Glute 25 Caustic Soda >350° F (>176°) Standard Standard SAFE-COR Density Temperature Metallurgy Inhibitor Pkg.

Continued from previous page Fluid Type <350° F (<176° C) SAFE-SCAV CA Glute 25 Caustic Soda <350° F (<176° C) Standard SAFE-COR SAFE-SCAV CA CRA SAFE-COR Density Temperature Metallurgy Inhibitor Pkg.428 kg/m3) Na-K/Cl-Br All densities CaCl2-CaBr2 All densities CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS 9·9 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .5 55 gal/100 bbl (13.1 L/m3) 15 lb/100 bbl (. Concentration 55 gal/100 bbl (13.428 kg/m3) 5 gal/500 bbl (.238 L/m3) To pH 9.1 L/m3) 15 lb/100 bbl (.

428 kg/m3) 55 gal/400 bbl (3.19 L/m3) CaBr2 All densities ZnBr2 All densities CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS 9·10 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .1 L/m3) 15 lb/100 bbl (.27 L/m3) 15 lb/100 bbl (.Continued from previous page Fluid Type >350° F (>176° C) <350° F (<176° C) SAFE-SCAV CA <350° F (<176° C) Standard SAFE-COR HT SAFE-SCAV CA SAFE-SCAV HS CRA SAFE-COR Standard Density Temperature Metallurgy Inhibitor Pkg. Concentration CaCl2-CaBr2 All densities Contact M-I SWACO Technical Services 55 gal/100 bbl (13.428 kg/m3) 5 gal/100 bbl (1.

5 to 16.428 kg/m3) ZnBr2 14.737 to 1.977 kg/m3) Contact M-I SWACO Technical Services CORROSION INHIBITION AND PACKER FLUIDS Contact M-I SWACO Technical Services 9·11 Go To Table of Contents ZnBr2 >16.5 lb/gal (>1. Concentration 55 gal/100 bbl (13.5 to 16.737 to 1.5 lb/gal (1.977 kg/m3) .5 lb/gal (1.Continued from previous page Fluid Type <300° F (<149° C) SAFE-SCAV CA >300° F (>149° C) >200° F (>93° C) CRA CRA CRA SAFE-COR Density Temperature Metallurgy Inhibitor Pkg.1 L/m3) 15 lb/100 bbl (.977 kg/m3) ZnBr2 14.

FILTRATION Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 10 FILTRATION 10.

FILTRATION 10·1 Go To Table of Contents .

Equipment Design Diatomaceous Earth (DE) Filtration System A Diatomaceous Earth (DE) filtration system includes a downstream double-pod cartridge filtration unit. the suspended materials can include weighting agents. • The plate and frame unit should have O-ring gasket plates to eliminate leakage while filtering. 10·2 Go To Table of Contents . In completion fluids. sand. etc. Fluid can then be salvaged. can damage the permeability of the formation. perforating debris. In most cases the combination of these units provides the most efficient filtration package. Two types of filtration are used in completion and workover operations: 1. By selecting the proper filtration method. Depth filtration utilizing a filter press with recessed chamber plates and DE. Surface filtration-using cartridges.FILTRATION Filtration is a process used to remove suspended materials from liquids. rust. if left in the liquid. scale. which acts as a polishing unit and a guard unit against DE bleed-through. • All drain ports in the drip pan beneath the plates of the filter press should be plugged to ensure all of the filter cake and fluid trapped between the plates is collected when the press is opened. 2. fluids can remain clean and non-damaging and the process can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner. These suspended materials. drill solids.

The trapped fluid from the hoses is evacuated back into the pit system. these units are “dual pod” constructions with interconnecting piping for either parallel. The vessels or housings hold disposable cartridges. Also.FILTRATION • Prior to the regeneration process. This equipment is desirable on lightweight fluids and small inexpensive brine cleanups. saving fluid when repositioning equipment. Portable troughs at the disconnect points are recommended. The number of cartridges per vessel may vary per manufacturer. proper blowdown with air is required to remove fluid trapped in the filter cake within the recessed chambers of the plates and within the manifold system of the press. rigging up or rigging down. Pod Cartridge Filter Unit Typically. This tank is checked for reclaimable fluid. Any fluid dropped into the drip pan of the press is pumped (diaphragm) into a MPT tank or other suitable holding vessel. which can be decanted into another MPT tank or into the rig’s active system. the lightweight and small 10·3 Go To Table of Contents . • All filtration units should have an apron running the full length of the drip pan area to above the plates on both sides of the press to eliminate potential spill while the press is opened for regeneration of DE. in-series or bypass configuration. eliminating spillage and offer maximum recovery. This allows the operator to close the valve at the disconnect point. • All hoses on the filtration unit should have ball valves that can be closed or opened during operation.

e. i... CaCl2 Expected Solids Loading Low Filtration Package Required 2.and/or 10-micron pre-filter cartridge filter Pre-filter 10-micron and/or 2-micron absolute cartridge filter or DE system and 2or 10-micron cartridge filter DE system with 2/10 cartridge filters DE system with 2/10 cartridge filters Low Low High Heavy-weight brine filter for reuse. ZnBr2 Low/High High 10·4 Go To Table of Contents .and/or 10-micron pre-filter cartridge filter 2. CaBr2. NaBr.e.e.e. pump rate... NaCl/KCl Medium-weight brine filter for reuse. i.or 10-micron absolute cartridge filters 2. i..FILTRATION footprint makes cartridge filtration more favorable over larger DE units if the cartridge unit can maintain the parameters of filtration (cleanliness. Filtration Requirement Summary Type of Fluid Comments Fresh seawater Dump on return from well Light brine Dump on return from well or filter for reuse. CaCl2 Medium-weight brine filter for reuse. K formate Very heavy-weight brine. density). i.e. i.

4-m2).135-ft2 (105. this cartridge can be constructed with metal end caps and cores for high-temperature applications.3-m2). 800-ft2 (74.FILTRATION MI SWACO Filtration Equipment and Materials All filtration presses are manufactured with backup hydraulic systems. All presses are designed to be stackable.4-m2). Filter plates are gasket sealed. With maximum recommended flow rates of 100 gal/min (378. The filter press is equipped with dual-hydraulic pumps. The M-I SWACO 65-bbl blending tanks have two impeller blades to assure proper blending action. (63. One platinum series cartridge filter is designed to replace up to ten standard 2. M-I SWACO maintains 1. Available in a variety of media. M-I SWACO also maintains stand-alone dual pod units.6-m2). All M-I SWACO slurry skids are equipped with dual downstream guard units equipped to hold five (5) platinum cartridges per pod.5 L/min) this platinum series filter is the solution to achieving optimum performance while minimizing filtration cost.600-ft2 (148. and 600-ft2 (55. These units can be loaded with every size filter available.500-ft2 (139. 1. 1. Extra filter clothes are sent out to assure operations with no downtime. The unique design of platinum cartridges uses segregated flow channels and flow chambers to maximize the effective surface area of pleated filter media within a 6∏-in.7-m2) filter presses. The tanks are equipped with chemical 10·5 Go To Table of Contents .8-mm) OD cartridge. (158.5-in.5-mm) OD standard cartridges of similar length.

The tanks have safe holding racks mounted on top of the filtration-slurry skids for safe operations. (152. M-I SWACO stocks three grades of diatomaceous material: fine grade. M-I SWACO utilizes turbo shear units to shear viscous pills and blend chemicals. These tanks are equipped with air-operated vibrators. M-I SWACO provides DE bulk tanks that hold one (1) ton of Diatomaceous Earth.3-kg) sacks at 40 sacks per pallet. They have 6-in. Hoses are labeled for easy identification. 10·6 Go To Table of Contents . M-I SWACO equipment has certified slings and uses shackles for safe transfer of equipment.FILTRATION hoppers with jetted action. Shear pumps are powered with a skidmounted diesel engine. Hoses have stainless steel connections with safely lock ears and are pressure tested and certified. Pallet boxes that hold two pallets can be loaded from the top and sides. These boxes keep products and equipment environmentally safe. 50-lb (22. medium grade and coarse grade.4-mm) slope discharges for proper discharge to connect for tank drainage. M-I SWACO has 3-bbl wet tanks with airpowered motors.7-kg) sacks at 18 sacks per pallet and 25-lb (11. DE is available in bulk tanks.

7 L/min) or less per filter for maximum life and efficiency.7 L/min) based on micron size selected and filter area.75 GPM (1.FILTRATION Flow Rates Filter life is longest at low flow rates.8 L/min) per square foot of filter area. When depth-type cartridges are used. 25.9 to 2. Serial Filtration Serial filtration will increase the life of the filters. Systems should be sized to handle maximum flow-rate conditions plus 10%. Thirty-inch (762-mm) cartridge filters should be operated at 1. Fortyinch (1. 10·7 Go To Table of Contents . A 10.to 5-micron final filters.016-mm) pleated surface filter cartridges can be operated at flow rates from 7 to 20 GPM (26.5 to . optimum flow rates should not exceed .or 30-micron absolute prefilter will extend the life of more expensive 2-micron absolute final filters. As a guide.8 bar).to 50-micron filters are generally effective prefilters ahead of 2. Filters should be changed before differential pressure reaches 40 psi (2.5 to 75.5 GPM (5.

174 10.291 4.286 12.229 9.000 lb (12.S.S.311 mm) Weight: 24. Filter Size (L x W x H): 276 x 57 x 91 (7.6 m2) 2.315 x 1.156 4.457 DE Filtration Dimensions and Specifications Plate and Frame Skid DE Units 1.874 11.886 kg) Filtration surface area: 1.4 m2) ^Mark of U. 10·8 Go To Table of Contents .343 14.400 16. Filter^ Size (L x W x H): 288 x 57 x 91 (7.FILTRATION Maximum Flow Rates Micron Size 16-element filter housing 1 3 5 10 25 50 20-element filter housing 1 3 5 10 25 50 gal/min 96 144 240 288 336 384 120 180 300 360 420 480 bbl/day 3.6 m2) Manufacturer: U.701 kg) Filtration surface area: 1. Unit size: 1.000 lb (10.114 6.311 mm) Weight: 28.4 m2) Manufacturer: U.937 8.448 x 2.500 ft2 (139.448 x 2.S.520 13.600 ft2 (148.600 ft2 (148.010 x 1. Filter Corporation.500 ft2 (139. Unit size: 1.

filtration rates decrease as the length of the pump suction increases. (3. • 1.072 kg) Filtration surface area: 800 ft2 (74. Average filtration rate is 10 bbl/min.600-. viscosity.937 x 2. Filter Size (L x W x H): 242 x 57 x 91 (6.311 mm) Weight: 20.FILTRATION 3.500.135-ft2 (148.979 kg) Filtration surface area: 1.359 x 2.448 x 2.105 x 1.3 m2) Manufacturer: U.448 x 2. Unit size: 600 ft2 (55.000 lb (9.311 mm) Weight: 22.618 kg) Filtration surface area: 600 ft2 (55.565 mm) 10·9 Go To Table of Contents .S. This is clean fluid with little or no solids.S.7 m2) All M-I SWACO DE filtration presses and slurry skids are stackable.135 ft2 (105. Maximum filtration rates are 12 to 14 bbl/min.7 m2) Manufacturer: U.000 lb (9.4 m2) 4.147 x 1.007 x 2. and solids content of the fluid. Filter Size (L x W x H): 201 x 57 x 91 (5. Filter Size (L x W x H): 211 x 79 x 100 (5.4 m2) Manufacturer: U. This takes into account solids and density. Slurry Skids 1.000 lb (8.and 1.S. 139.540 mm) Weight: 19. 1.6-. Unit size: 800 ft2 (74.and 105.4-m2) units • The slurry skids are 155 x 96 x 101 in. Mechanically. Things that effect filtration rates are: Density.3 m2) 5. Unit size: 1.438 x 2.135 ft2 (105.4.

5 lb (0.048 x 1.3 mm) in length • It takes approximately 15 min to change a set of cartridges • Each cartridge weighs 1.000 lb (3.618 kg) 10·10Go To Table of Contents . (749.3-m2) units • The slurry skids are 120 x 66 x 89 in.629 kg) • The cartridge dual pods are separate for the slurry skid • Each cartridge pod contains 19 cartridges and is 29.7-m2) units • The filter press and slurry skid are built into one skid • The total weight 19. • 600-ft2 (55.443 kg) • The slurry skids are equipped with a cartridge dual pot containing 5 platinum cartridges • Each cartridge pod contains 5 cartridges • Each platinum cartridge is 40 in.5 in.000 lb (5.FILTRATION • The weight of the slurry skid is 12.676 x 2.68 kg) • The slurry skid may be stacked on top of the filter press • Each slurry skid is equipped with a ladder and a yo-yo device for fall protection 3. (3. (1.000 lb (8. • 800-ft2 (74.016 mm) long • It takes approximately 10 min to change a set of platinum cartridges • The slurry skid may be stacked on top of the filter press • Each slurry skid is equipped with a ladder and a yo-yo device for fall protection 2.261 mm) • The weight of the slurry skid is 8.

007 x 2. (3m 152.68 kg) Pump Skids 1. ^Mark of Gorman-Rupp Company. (101.FILTRATION • The dimensions are 211 x 79 x 100 in.540 mm) • Each cartridge pod contains 19 cartridges and is 29.219 mm x 18. (749. Pump skid for all units: Engine type: Detroit 353/371-in. x 3 ft x 5 ft 5 in.3 m x 2. (5.5 in. (1.286 mm) • DE bulk tanks hold 1.722 kg) Miscellaneous Equipment and Safety DE Bulk Tanks • Tank size (L x W x H): 48 in.359 x 2.5 bbl/min at 75 psi (5.3 100hp Pump manufacturer: Gorman-Rupp^UBB60-B Pump size: 4 x 4 in.88 kg/m2) • Filtration cycles average 1 bbl/ft2 (1.71 kg/m2). x 60 ft x 90 in.6 mm) self-priming centrifugal Output: 14.5 lb (0.000 lb (2.500 lb (680 kg) of DE Material • DE bulk tanks weigh 850 lb (386 kg) empty Operational Applications • DE averages 1 lb/ft2 (4. This also depends on solids content.5 m 127 mm) Weight: 6.6 x 101.2 bar) Skid size (L x W x H): 10 ft 6 in.3 mm) in length • It takes approximately 15 min to change a set of cartridges • Each cartridge weighs 1.4 mm x 0.91 m x 1. 10·11Go To Table of Contents .

(36.8-mm) hose and 300 ft of 1-in. (50.2 m of 76.2-mm) discharge hose • Other hoses: 40 ft of 2-in. 10·12Go To Table of Contents .2 x 0.7 x 1. For safe working and operating conditions. (76. (73.2 mm) • Manufacturer: Versa-Matic (anti-freeze device) Safety Considerations • Ladders are provided with our units • Yo-yo fall protection devices are included • Hand rails are provided with slurry skids DE bulk tanks reduce risk of back injuries.500 lb (2. (91.041 kg) • Feet of hoses: 120 ft of 4-in. ^Mark of Versa-Matic Pump Company. (12.4 m of 25.6-mm) suction hose and 240 ft of 3-in.9 m) of clearance around its equipment.4)-mm) hose Waste Pump • Type: Air • Size: 3 in.9 m) • Weight: 4. M-I SWACO requires 3 ft (0.2 m of 50.6 m of 101.FILTRATION Chemical Injection Pump • Type: Air • Size: 2 in.8 mm) • Manufacturer: Versa-Matic^ (anti-freeze device) Hose Basket • Size (L x W x H): 22 x 4 x 3 (6.

SPEEDWELL TOOLS Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 11 SPEEDWELL TOOLS 11.

(2) short-trip rate in feet or meters per hour. run back to the bottom of the hole to ensure the removal of any debris adhered to the inside of the pipe. Short tripping tools — Used to pull out of the hole with the workstring far enough to brush and scrape the areas in the casing or liner beyond the reach of the previous scraper brush tool. SPEEDDRAW* tool draw program — For generating a well diagram that shows the recommended cleanup tools and the recommended tool placement based on the output data from the OPTISPEED tool utilization program.SPEEDWELL TOOLS To create synergy between chemicals and tools when cleaning a marine riser and wellbore M-I SWACO has integrated the SPEEDWELL cleanup tool product line into its total wellbore cleanup package. scale and other debris. Following are descriptions and specifications of the primary tools and support programs in the SPEEDWELL portfolio. ^Mark of Microsoft Corporation. Scraper — A tool that scrapes the inside of the casing or liner(s) to remove cement sheath. the OPTISPEED tool utilization program will calculate not only the cost of each incremental scraper brush tool in each casing section. If the operator is going to short trip the scraper brush tools in the wellbore. (3) tool cost and (4) tool makeup and breakout time. Afterwards. OPTISPEED* tool utilization program — An Excel^ spreadsheet with four variables: (1) average spread cost per day. but approximate placement of the tools as well. 11·1 Go To Table of Contents .

scrapers or magnets. Mechanical cleaning — The use of cleanup tools to clean the inside of casings. Chemical cleaning — The use of chemicals to clean the inside of casings. As opposed to the four carriers of the PUP Tool. proprietary modular casing cleaning tool. liners and marine risers. Total riser/wellbore cleanup — Using chemical and cleanup tools together with optimized hydraulics to clean the inside of casings.SPEEDWELL TOOLS Brush — A tool that brushes and disturbs mud solids and other debris adhered to the inside of the casing or liner(s). SPEEDWELL SHORTY* tool — A cost-effective. The PUP tool can be assembled with four carriers for brushes. SPEEDWELL PUP* tool — A proprietary modular casing cleaning tool that includes a tool joint at the top for ease of handling and safety. Boot Basket — Another term for a junk basket and is used to catch debris that is dislodged from the wellbore. liners 11·2 Go To Table of Contents . the SHORTY tool has two or three carriers. Magnets — Used to remove ferrous debris from the wellbore. Riser Brush — A specially designed tool to brush the inside of marine risers. liners and marine risers. Downhole debris filtration tool — A tool designed to filter debris and particulate from the fluid toward the bottom of the wellbore. BOP stack and/or riser. Jetting Tool — Used to dislodge debris by jetting or water blasting the inside of the BOP stack and/or riser.

promoting better circulation and reverse circulation for solids removal. 11·3 Go To Table of Contents . brushes. stainless steel brushes stand up to harsh operating conditions and do not rotate. magnets. Wear values have been established to ensure continuous brush contact throughout the run. Properly combining chemical and mechanical cleaning is the most effective and efficient type of cleanup.SPEEDWELL TOOLS and marine risers. all on one tool. One tool carries everything: scrapers. as well as additional items. straight-wire brushes that become brittle and break from chemical exposure and movement. as it delivers an optimum. Double-crimped. is designed for drilling cement and has no external fasteners. gauge rings and handling features in addition to providing excellent annular bypass so solids can exit the cased hole. Larger-bore mandrels allow the fluid to do its work. The modular SPEEDWELL PUP System The modular tool design eliminates the need for a pup joint rental while providing brush and scraper carriers. They outperform carbon steel. One-piece mandrel is constructed of high-yield steel. total cleanup package.

scrapers and magnets. The baskets have an unrestricted. We can also furnish bit or mill.SPEEDWELL TOOLS Centralizers rotate independently of the workstring to reduce wear on casing and liner. SPEEDWELL modular tool design allows you to run the tool with a regular box down to eliminate a bit sub. Two styles of non-rotating scraper blades: Knurled-face-style for aggressive cleaning and smooth-face-style for special requests. already made up on the tool. Non-rotating magnets can be run on the same mandrel with scraper and brush carriers. Junk basket carriers can be placed on the PUP mandrel. eliminating the need for additional tools on your next project. just like brushes. SPEEDWELL can eliminate the need for a gauge ring by placing a centralizer at drift on your PUP tool. 11·4 Go To Table of Contents . 360° opening at the top. Wear values have been established to ensure continuous blade contact throughout the run.

similar to the brushes. These baskets have an unrestricted. The mandrel pin and sub box are designed with a proprietary connection to reduce risk of mechanical failure. Tool Features PUP tools can be delivered in a variety of combinations. making short trips more effective • Double-crimped. Tool Benefits • Custom helix-design scraper blades with aggressive. They outperform carbon steel. eliminating the need for additional tools • Junk basket carriers can also be mounted on the PUP mandrel. SPEEDWELL can eliminate the need for a gauge 11·5 Go To Table of Contents . straight-wire brushes that become brittle and break from chemical exposure and prolonged movement.SPEEDWELL TOOLS The SPEEDWELL PUP Tool The modular. 360° opening at the top for easy debris collection. • Centralizers rotate independently of the workstring to reduce wear on casing and liner. knurled surfaces scrape up and down. all-in-one cleanup tool designed specifically for your application. scrapers and magnets. non-rotating magnets can be run on the same mandrel with scraper and brush carriers. stainless steel brushes do not rotate and stand up to harsh operating conditions. • Powerful.

• The tool design incorporates an integral pup joint to facilitate tool pickup with standard drill pipe elevators and slips: no drill collartype clamp required • Non-rotating. spiral brush and scraper arrangement allows unrestricted annular flow for better solids/debris removal • Interchangeable bottom sub eliminates the need for crossovers and bit subs • The large ID enhances reverse circulation for faster cleanups • The robust.SPEEDWELL TOOLS ring by placing a centralizer at drift on the PUP tool. • Cleans full strings of production casing or tiebacks to the surface • Spiral pattern of brushes provides optimum brushing efficiency as plug is pumped down the casing • Works with seawater or completion-fluid displacement • Elastomer body is easily drilled by any type of bit • Combination brush/plug is loaded and launched from “double” plug containers • Can be run with conventional bottom plug(s) • Available for several sizes of production casing 11·6 Go To Table of Contents . self-cleaning. non-rotating design allows the tool to be used while drilling cement The SPEEDWELL THISTLE* Cementing Brush Plug An alternative for wellbore clean-outs.

• Double-crimped. bi-directional scraper blades with aggressive. junk baskets. Tool Benefits • The modular design allows one tool to carry scrapers. non-rotating magnets can be run on the same mandrel with scraper and brush carriers. They outperform carbon steel. centralizers and/or gauge rings • Custom helix-design. knurled surfaces. • Powerful. Wear values have been established to ensure continuous contact throughout the run. just like brushes. stainless steel brushes do not rotate and stand up to harsh operating conditions.SPEEDWELL TOOLS The SPEEDWELL SHORTY Tool The versatile. Wear values have been established to ensure continuous brush contact throughout the run. brushes. eliminating the need for additional tools and reducing risk • Junk basket carriers can be mounted on the mandrel. magnets. Tool Features The SPEEDWELL modular design allows the completion engineer to configure a tool design for specific applications or requirements. scrapes up and down. making short trips more effective. all-in-one cleanup tool for your wellbore when economy is paramount. The baskets have an unrestricted 11·7 Go To Table of Contents . SHORTY tools can be configured in a variety of combinations. scrapers and magnets. straightwire brushes that become brittle and break from chemical exposure and movement.

• No external fasteners. eliminating the risk of having a component being dislodged into the wellbore • The large ID enhances reverse circulation for faster cleanups • The robust. SPEEDWELL can eliminate the need for a gauge ring run by placing a centralizer at drift on the tool.SPEEDWELL TOOLS 360° opening at the top for easy debris collection. self-cleaning spiral brush and scraper arrangement allows unrestricted annular flow for better solids/debris removal • Interchangeable bottom sub eliminates the need for crossover and bit subs. • Centralizers rotate independently of the workstring to reduce wear on casing and liner. non-rotating design allows the tool to be used while drilling cement 11·8 Go To Table of Contents . no risk of having a component being dislodged into the wellbore • Non-rotating.

The LTTP is designed to prevent premature setting while running in the hole and also allows a full complement of wellbore cleanup tools to be run above and below. a simple straight pickup is required to unseat the packer and re-open the bypass area. Once the test area is clean.SPEEDWELL TOOLS The SPEEDWELL Liner Top Test Packer (LTTP) Performs a positive or negative test on the liner. Tool Benefits • Large internal bypass area permits faster trip speeds and eliminates swabbing caused by element expansion 11·9 Go To Table of Contents . Running the tool while drilling the Plug Back Total Depth (PBTD) and testing the liner top reduces trip time and operating cost. closing the bypass area and sealing off the packer. SPEEDWELL recommends the use of a SHORTY Scraper-Magnet tool just below the LTTP to ensure a clean sealing area. The Liner Top Test Packer provides a generous bypass area to permit acceptable trip times. A go/no-go gauge ring can be provided to dress off the liner top. set down on the LTTP and shear the pins. Tool Features The SPEEDWELL Liner Top Test Packer (LTTP) is designed to perform a negative test on the liner top to ensure liner top integrity before changing fluids. Tool Use Choose the desired set-down weight by altering the number of shear pins used in the tool. After the test.

No torque will be transmitted below the valve. Tool Use Choose the desired shear pin rating. The operator can maintain more efficient AVs by diverting flow above the tool. Install the MACV to allow circulation above the liner top or mud motor. and pick up to open the circulating valve. 11·10Go To Table of Contents . Set down on the liner hanger to shear the pins. Tool Features The SPEEDWELL Multi-Action Circulating Valve (MACV) allows communication of fluid from the workstring to the casing annulus when increased AVs are necessary to enhance wellbore cleaning. The upper string can be rotated while the lower string remains stationary.SPEEDWELL TOOLS • LTTP is an integral component of one-trip displacement system • Easy handling around the rig floor • Easy activation is achieved by set-down weight • Easy deactivation is achieved by straight pickup • Tool design will allow reverse circulation • Robust design allows tool to be used while drilling cement The SPEEDWELL Multi-Action Circulating Valve (MACV) For bypassing fluid and increasing annular velocity.

The PUP Finger Basket’s design traps the larger debris generated when drilling/milling various types of plugs and other downhole equipment. The generous basket annulus does not impede the fluid’s ability to remove debris from the well. Tool Features The SPEEDWELL Finger Basket is designed to withstand pipe rotation and reciprocation without hampering operations. 11·11Go To Table of Contents . easy-to-use. mechanical wellbore debris-removal tool. and during conventional circulating up the annulus. The debris is captured by two events: activation of the fingers while pulling out of the hole.SPEEDWELL TOOLS Tool Benefits • No trip speed limitation • Large bypass area increases displacement efficiency • Shear weight – variable setting • Unlimited cycles • Rotation isolation • Circulation bypass valve above mud motor • Increase annular velocity in casing • Robust design allows tool to be used while drilling cement The SPEEDWELL PUP Finger Basket Cost-effective.

jetting operations. The PUP Finger Basket complements the SPEEDWELL PUP Scraper/ Brush/Magnet tool. Tool Benefits • The tool’s design incorporates an integral pup joint to facilitate tool pickup with standard drill pipe elevators and slips: no drill collar-type clamp required • Large entry and capacity allow for effective debris collection • Allows solids to be circulated out of the wellbore • When pulling out of the hole.SPEEDWELL TOOLS Tool Use Install the SPEEDWELL PUP Finger Basket in the workstring to capture and remove large debris generated during drilling of plugs and retainers. non-rotating design allows the tool to be used while drilling cement 11·12Go To Table of Contents . the SPEEDWELL PUP Quick-Trip Jetting Tool and the SPEEDWELL PUP Riser Brush. the tool captures larger problematic debris that could not be circulated out of the hole • The large ID enhances reverse circulation. chemical displacements and cleanups. complementing faster cleanup • The robust.

marine riser and/or the casing/wellhead area. 11·13Go To Table of Contents . Tool Use Place the SPEEDWELL Quick-Trip Jetting Tool in areas where debris is not easily accessible to scrapers. Tool Features The SPEEDWELL Quick-Trip Jetting Tool is a mechanical device that enhances the cleaning efficiency of the other cleanup tool assemblies by providing jetting action in the BOP stack. brushes or magnets.SPEEDWELL TOOLS The SPEEDWELL Quick-Trip Jetting Tool Removes debris from the BOP. casing and wellhead. The Quick-Trip Jetting Tool should be used in conjunction with the SPEEDWELL Quick-Trip Boot Basket or the SPEEDWELL Finger Basket to assist in the removal of contaminants by preventing debris from re-entering the clean wellbore. The SPEEDWELL PUP Riser Brush complements the jetting tool by allowing the fluid and debris to circulate freely through the tool and out of the marine riser. and where no metal-to-metal contact is desirable. Versatile design complements any drilling or completion operation.

8.6-mm) OD to maximize jetting velocities • No darts or balls required to activate or deactivate the tool • The robust. (177.through 14-in.through 355. non-rotating design allows the tool to be used while drilling cement 11·14Go To Table of Contents .SPEEDWELL TOOLS Tool Benefits • The tool design incorporates an integral pup joint to facilitate tool pickup with standard drill pipe elevators and slips: no drill collar-type clamp required • Simple design makes the tool easy and safe to handle for the rig crew • Spiral jet design ensures maximum effective coverage • Available in 7.

and it eliminates the need 11·15Go To Table of Contents .2 (40. minimizing pressure drops above and below the tool. it will reduce the effects of surge or swab while tripping. Tool Use The SPEEDWELL PUP Riser Brush can be run as a stand-alone tool. The large flowthrough area of the tool provides several advantages.000 mm2) of flow area in the brush carrier. Tool Features The SPEEDWELL PUP Riser Brush utilizes three stainless steel nonrotating brush rings to remove debris from the marine riser or inner production riser ID.SPEEDWELL TOOLS The SPEEDWELL PUP Riser Brush The robust design keeps your completion free of solids and debris. The design of the tool provides a flow path through the brushring carrier. It will not impede the fluid’s ability to lift debris out of the well while jetting the subsea stack BOP. with the majority of the flow passing through 62 in. and it is typically run in conjunction with the SPEEDWELL PUP Quick-Trip Boot Basket or SPEEDWELL PUP Finger Basket to protect the well from debris re-entering the well while jetting the BOP.

SPEEDWELL TOOLS for a junk basket above the tool.through 24-in. (339. non-rotating stainless steel brushes (synthetic brushes available) • Debris can be effectively circulated through and around the housing • The large mandrel ID enhances reverse circulation • Available in 133⁄8. non-rotating design allows the tool to be used while drilling cement 11·16Go To Table of Contents .7through 609. The workstring can be rotated and reciprocated with the SPEEDWELL PUP Riser Brush in the string. safer handling with the integral pup joint to facilitate tool pickup with standard drill pipe elevators and slips: no drill collartype clamp required • Aggressive. Tool Benefits • Easier. The non-rotating brush carriers reduce the risk of damaging the riser.6-mm) OD • Large flow-through area reduces the probability of fluid compression while tripping in the hole or pulling out of the hole • The robust.

INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 12 INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS 12.

Applications FLODENSE AP fluids are ideal for operations requiring a fluid to pass through very narrow apertures with minimum dispersion and are beneficial in combating uncontrolled release of pressure from a sealed casing string.46 SG) • Can be used as a viscous.000 times less than barite. lubricious and solids-free fluid that is engineered to fall through the annulus with minimal dispersion.1 SG) up to 20. FLODENSE AP particles have a settling rate 10.46 SG). FLODENSE AP also can be used as a viscous.5 lb/gal (2.5 lb/gal (2.5 lb/gal (2. Features • Engineered with either micron-sized particles or solids-free • Fluid passes in snakelike fashion through very narrow apertures • Can be formulated with densities up to 20. the unique WARP* FLODENSE* AP system allows for flow through the annulus with minimum dispersion and exhibits reduced sag and settlement. The fluid can be formulated for different applications with average densities between 17.INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS FLODENSE AP Description Owing to its submicron-sized particles. lubricious and solids-free fluid system • Flexible system Benefits • Reduces or controls annular pressures • Provides hydrostatic control 12·1 Go To Table of Contents .

This high-yielding biopolymer is also dispersible and imparts the LSRV without adversely affecting the overall gross viscosity of the system. environmental and economic consequences of Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP) FLOPRO CT Description FLOPRO CT is a specialized intervention-fluid system featuring hydraulically optimized rheology. sodium chloride. is responsible for the elevated Low-Shear-Rate-Viscosity (LSRV) of the system. potassium chloride. a premium-grade clarified xanthan gum. The solids-free FLOPRO CT system is ideal for removing debris from the wellbore and clearing the way for the insertion of production tools.INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS • Produces minimum dispersion when falling through the annulus • Can be used in very narrow apertures when engineered with micron-sized particles • Reduces sag and settlement compared to competing systems • Addresses the critical safety. With its relatively flexible formulation FLOPRO CT can be built with a wide variety of base fluids. sodium bromide. including deeper wells with higher angles and working in corkscrewed tubing. potassium formate and cesium formate. calcium chloride. the hole typically can be cleaned thoroughly in one trip. sodium formate. lubrication and density. Applications FLOPRO CT is ideal for a wide range of coiledtubing applications. seawater. With FLOPRO CT. including freshwater. FLO-VIS L. 12·2 Go To Table of Contents .

An aqueous. water-miscible. The fluids are formulated from an inherently low-thermal-conductivity base fluid and contain no suspended solids. while suppressing convective heat loss in the annulus. This uniquely engineered packer fluid dramatically reduces the risks associated with the formation of hydrates. SAFETHERM fluids can be formulated for densities 12·3 Go To Table of Contents . or oil-soluble fluid is designed to minimize the conduction of heat away from the production string. asphaltene and the myriad of other problems that can jeopardize production in these environments.INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS Features • Shear thinning rheological profile with high LSRV • Low coefficient of friction • Zero or minimal solids • Inhibitive fluid • Provides drag reduction • Wide density range Benefits • Reduces mechanical friction and coil wear • Promotes hole cleaning and solids suspension • Minimizes pressure loss and coil wear • Minimal reservoir damage • Enables entering higher-angle deeper wells not previously attainable • Simplified cleanup SAFETHERM Description The SAFETHERM* insulating packer fluid is custom-designed and blended for a wide range of cold-temperature production applications. paraffin.

convective heat loss • Easily mixed and pumped on the rig • Environmentally acceptable components 12·4 Go To Table of Contents . This hydraulically efficient fluid can be mixed and pumped on the rig. Features • Minimizes heat conduction.5 lb/gal (1 to 1. SAFETHERM is compatible with a wide range of fluids. As an insulating annular fluid.INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS ranging from 8. SAFETHERM is hydraulically optimized to yield low plastic viscosity with elevated LSRV and yield stress. the components of SAFETHERM were particularly selected to have minimal environmental impact. eliminating the expense associated with an adjoining pumping boat.33 to 12. In addition. It can be pumped at high rates through small tubing and orifice valves. Its flat rheological profile is what enables it to remain thermally stable from 125° to 175° F (52° to 79° C) over extended periods and is inhibitive to corrosion. The unique computer model is capable of simulating Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid behavior in an annulus to calculate temperature regression during production and shut-in. elastomers and other components. permafrost and other cold-temperature environments. The proprietary TPRO ST* computer model complements SAFETHERM and the M-I SWACO in-house thermal conductivity testing apparatus. thereby mitigating the effects of spills or other unforeseen events. Applications SAFETHERM is specially engineered for deepwater.5 SG) and is inhibitive to corrosion.

casing-string collapse • Compatible with wide range of elastomers and fluids • Production compatible with available surface processing equipment • Calculates heat regression during production and shut-in • Helps maximize production • Reduces costs 12·5 Go To Table of Contents .INTERVENTION FLUID SYSTEMS • Utilizes proprietary heat-transfer computer model • Thermally stable • pH buffered and corrosion inhibitive Benefits • Prevents production-line blockage.

RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 13 RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Go To Table of Contents .13.

13·1 Go To Table of Contents . To aid in the selection of a system for a particular application. VERSAPRO*. FLOPRO* NT. In fact. A sample screen display is shown below. M-I SWACO employs the proprietary RDFx* computer software. the type of Reservoir Drill-In Fluid (RDF) chosen can drive the entire completion decision process.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS The decision on how to drill the reservoir is critical to the success of the completion. M-I SWACO offers five primary RDF systems: DIPRO*. FAZEPRO*. and NOVAPRO*.

5 to 17. and where bottomhole pressures require 11. i..5 lb/gal (1.62 SG) range • Excellent drilling properties • Minimized formation damage potential 13·2 Go To Table of Contents . Features • Stable rheologies • Formulated from multi-functional synergistic components • Can be formulated from more economic mixed-salt base brines • Consistently low fluid loss • No pre-hydration of polymer required • Extremely low. ultra-low permeability filter cake.e. DIPRO utilizes a synergistic interaction of components to produce excellent suspension characteristics while maintaining extremely low. ZnBr2/CaBr2.38 to 2. An ideal candidate for production-zone drilling in highly deviated and horizontal wells. DIPRO can be used in high-density divalent brines. MgBr2. DIPRO typically is easy to mix at the rigsite or mud plant without specialized shearing equipment. high-shear-rate viscosities. designed for use in divalent brines. CaCl2. Optimized bridging particle selection and biopolymer-free formulations provide a removable.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS M-I SWACO RDF SYSTEMS DIPRO DIPRO is a high-density water-base Reservoir Drill-In Fluid (RDF) system. CaBr2. A temperature of 105° F (41° C) is the minimum temperature required starting a mix. high-shear-rate viscosities Benefits • Non-damaging reservoir drill-in fluid capability in >13.1 SG) densities.5 lb/gal (1. MgCl2.

20.0 lb/bbl 13·3 Go To Table of Contents .0 lb/bbl 3.96 bbl 6.0 – 35.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS • Reduced Equivalent Circulating Densities (ECD) • Designed for maximum compatibility with completion method • Enhanced filter-cake removal • Precisely controlled particle size Typical Formulation Product Divalent base brine DI-TROL* DI-BALANCE* SAFE-CARB* 2 SAFE-CARB* 10.0 lb/bbl 22.50 – 2. 40 and/or 250 Concentration ~ 0.0 – 10.0 lb/bbl 0.

viscosity pH control. CaBr2. 20.Product Functions and Descriptions Functions Density and shale inhibition Fluid-loss control. viscosity Pore-throat bridging Viscosity stabilization Base brine Starch derivative Inorganic compound Optimally sized calcium carbonate Glycol blend Description Product CaCl2. 40 and/or 250 RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS 13·4 Go To Table of Contents DI-BOOST* (optional) . CaCl2/CaBr2 CaBr2/ZnBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 DI-TROL DI-BALANCE SAFE-CARB 2. 10.

lb/gal Plastic viscosity.6 – 17 15 – 35 15 – 35 2–7 10. It is a specially processed. high-molecular-weight.000 – 40. DI-BALANCE is a fine-particle-size. highly reactive inorganic magnesium compound that interacts in a synergistic manner with DI-TROL to enhance the LSRV. DI-TROL is a unique dual-function viscosifier and filtrate reducer for the DIPRO system. lb/100 ft2 3 rpm LSRV 0. mL/60 min @ 150° F (66° C) 11. Typical DIPRO Properties Fluid density. cps HTHP.000 <5 13·5 Go To Table of Contents . branched-chain starch derivate. cP Yield point.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS DI-TROL and DI-BALANCE components work together to build Low-Shear-Rate Viscosity (LSRV) without producing high ECDs. It works in conjunction with calcium carbonate to form the basis of the filter cake. that generates elevated LSRV and functions as a fluid-losscontrol agent in divalent salt brines.0636 sec –1. DI-BOOST additive is water-miscible glycol ether that enhances the initial rheological properties of the DI-PRO system.

e. Features • Oil-base mud drilling performance • Cleans up like water-base mud • Versatility in selection of base fluid Benefits • Exhibits invert-emulsion fluids drilling performance • Can be built using diesel. the wettability of the filter cake is transformed from an oil-wet state to water wet. This can be done with acids or chelants. In addition. FAZEPRO can use any type of base oil (diesel.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FAZEPRO FAZEPRO* is unique. etc. 13·6 Go To Table of Contents . acetic. HCl. the internal phase can be made with different brines to provide the required density with minimal solids. citric. i. invert-emulsion system. By simply adjusting the pH of either the breaker solution or the completion brine. The residual filter cake is reversed from an oil-wet state to a water-wet state by creating a low-pH (<6) environment in the wellbore. in that it is the industry’s only invert-emulsion fluid that can be converted from an oil-wet state to a water-wet state through a simple reduction in pH. mineral oil and synthetic) normally used in invert-emulsion RDF systems. • Compatible with gravel-packing operations where a breaker can be placed in the gravelpack carrier fluid FAZEPRO is a reversible. mineral oil or synthetic-base fluid • Easily converted from an oil-continuous phase (oil-wet) to a water-continuous phase (waterwet) by using acid to reduce the pH to below 7 • Deposited filter cake can be removed using typical oilfield acids..

RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Typical Formulation Product Base fluid (diesel synthetic.0 – 5. VG-PLUS* FAZE-MUL* FAZE-WET* Lime ECOTROL* for high HT applications SAFE-CARB 2.368 bbl 1. NaCl.517 bbl 0. paraffin) for system CaCl2. NaCl.0 lb/bbl 1. NaBr VG-69.5 lb/bbl 60. 40 and/or 250 13·7 Go To Table of Contents .0 – 12.5 – 1. NaBr VG-69*. CaBr2.0 lb/bbl 5. 10. VG-PLUS FAZE-MUL FAZE-WET Lime ECOTROL Internal phase inhibition Viscosity Primary emulsifier Wetting agent/HTHP fluid-loss-control agent Alkalinity Fluid-loss control for temperature >250° F (125° C) Acid-soluble bridging material SAFE-CARB 2.0 lb/bbl Product Functions Product Functions Base fluid (synthetic. 20. mineral oil. Provides continuous phase mineral oil.0 lb/bbl 8. 10.0 – 9.0 – 4. 40 and/or 250 Concentration 0. 20. paraffin) CaCl2. CaBr2.0 lb/bbl 0. olefin. olefin.

cP Yield point.0 – 12. lb/gal Plastic viscosity. It also provides stable HTHP filtrationcontrol characteristics and increases the fluid’s resistance to contamination.0 80/20 – 60/40 13·8 Go To Table of Contents . For the best possible completion cleanup lower the pH to below 6. Typical FAZEPRO Properties Fluid density. FAZE-WET surfactant is the secondary wetting agent and it increases the preferential wetting of solids by the continuous. non-aqueous phase. lb/100 ft 3 rpm Pom – Alkalinity of whole mud (mL) Electrical stability (volts) HTHP. mL/30 min @ 200° F (95° C) Oil/brine ratio 9.0 500 – 800 <5.0.0 25 – 35 220 – 25 5–7 <3.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FAZE-MUL is the primary emulsifier and wetting agent for the FAZEPRO system. It has the unique ability to reverse to an oil/synthetic in-water emulsion.

The main focus is to minimize formation damage. Features • Non-damaging • Low lift-off • High return permeability • Ultra-Low permeability filter cake • Customized formulations • Precisely controlled particle-size distribution of bridging agent • Extremely low coefficient of friction • Promotes low skin values • Rheologically engineered • High LSRV • Environmentally acceptable Benefits • Maximizes production • Reduces remediation costs • Higher production rates sooner • Minimal lift-off required. faster cleanup • Minimizes solids and fluid invasion of the producing formation • Reduces pump pressures • Maximizes ROP.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FLOPRO NT FLOPRO* NT is used primarily for open-hole completions including sand control and non-sand control requirements. FLOPRO NT is purpose-built for each specific application. saves drilling time • Excellent hole-cleaning profile • Reduces cleanup and disposal costs • Works with any completion assembly 13·9 Go To Table of Contents . completion compatibility and cleanup.

FLOPRO NT is purpose-built for each specific drilling and completion application.0 – 8.0 lb/bbl 4. the utilization of “New Technologies” and component flexibility. FLO-TROL* Greencide 25G Caustic Soda.0 – 30.0 lb/bbl 4. It is a comprehensive system that begins to demonstrate its benefits while drilling the productive interval.0 lb/bbl 25. MgO. 40 and/or 250 KLA-GARD*. These benefits continue throughout the process of putting the well on production. The main focus is to minimize formation damage. KLA-STOP* Concentration 0.0 lb/bbl 0.75 – 2. FLO-VIS NT DUAL-FLO*.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FLOPRO NT is the premier M-I SWACO waterbase Reservoir Drill-In Fluid (RDF) system. 10. completion compatibility. The differences between this system and other water-base RDF systems include: product positioning.5 – 1. The system is used primarily for open-hole completions including sand control and nonsand control requirements.0 lb/bbl 13·10Go To Table of Contents .0 gal/100 bbl 0.96 bbl 0.5 – 1.0 – 8. Typical Formulation Product Base fluid (brine) — halide or formates FLO-VIS* PLUS. 20. KOH SAFE-CARB 2. maximum drillability and cleanup.

MgO. fluid-loss control. density Shale inhibitor Modified starch Glutaraldehyde Alkalinity Optimally sized calcium carbonate Amine type of shale inhibitors Base brine Premium grade xanthan gum Description Product Base fluid (brine) FLO-VIS PLUS. 10. 40 and/or 250 13·11Go To Table of Contents KLA-GARD. FLO-TROL Greencide 25G Caustic Soda.Product Functions and Descriptions Functions Density and shale inhibition Fluid-loss control Bactericide pH Bridging agent. KOH RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS SAFE-CARB 2. FLO-VIS NT Viscosity properties. 20. especially LSRV DUAL-FLO. KLA-STOP .

5 – 10. premium-grade. DUAL-FLO and FLO-TROL are both special starch derivates used primarily for filtration control.0 40.8 – 18. It imparts elevated LSRV while not having an adverse effect on the overall apparent viscosity. cps HTHP.0 13·12Go To Table of Contents .0636 sec –1. cP Yield point. xanthan gum biopolymer. FLO-VIS NT is a high-yielding.000 <5. It is both clarified and dispersible. It is non-clarified and non dispersible. clarified xanthan gum.0 12 – 20 20 – 35 10 – 15 8. mL/30 min @ 150° F (66° C) 8. They are both non-ionic and act synergistically with FLO-VIS PLUS and FLO-VIS NT to enhance the LSRV.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FLO-VIS PLUS is a high yield. lb/gal Plastic viscosity. Typical FLOPRO NT Properties Fluid density. It produces elevated LSRV and fragile gel strengths. lb/100 ft2 3 rpm pH LSRV 0. KLA-GARD or KLA-STOP reduces the swelling of sensitive shale.000 – 60.

durable. and solids plugging. high ROP and excellent wellbore stability. invertemulsion fluids used for drilling developmental wells designed for both cased and open hole completions. VERSAPRO (diesel or mineral oil) and PARAPRO (paraffin) Reservoir Drill-In Fluid (RDF) systems are non-damaging. these fluids are different from typical invert-emulsion fluids in their design and application. VERSAPRO The invert-emulsion-base VERSAPRO* reservoir drill-in fluid system features low fluid loss. The NOVAPRO/VERSAPRO/PARAPRO family of fluids is versatile. Products are carefully selected for compatibility with the reservoir and completion method to maximize 13·13Go To Table of Contents . Ultra-Low-permeability filter cake on the face of the formation. providing tremendous flexibility for numerous applications. The emulsifier/wetting agent package.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS VERSAPRO. lubricity and wellbore stability. all materials required for the job — are reviewed for the best combination of drilling and completion characteristics. Due to the higher priority of minimizing formation damage and compatibility with completion assemblies. yet retain OBM/SBM advantages — such as rate of penetration. These RDFs are designed to minimize formation damage problems such as oil wetting. The VERSAPRO system is designed to minimize formation damage by forming a thin. emulsion blocking. NOVAPRO and PARAPRO NOVAPRO (synthetic). thereby minimizing fluid and solids invasion into the formation. the type and size of bridging material — indeed.

5 – 2. VERSACOAT*. Features • Can be built using diesel. VERSAWET* ECOTROL Lime SAFE-CARB 2. 10. or mineral oil-base fluid • Exhibits all the drilling advantages of conventional invert-emulsion fluids • Designed to be compatible with completion method Benefits • Minimizes formation damage • Reduces fluid and solids invasion • Maximizes productivity Typical Formulation Component Base oil Brine internal phase VG-PLUS VERSAPRO P/S.0 – 6. 40 and/or 250 Concentration 50 – 70% vol 30 – 50% vol 0.0 lb/bbl 10.5 lb/bbl 2.0 lb/bbl 4.0 lb/bbl 13·14Go To Table of Contents .0 – 30.0 lb/bbl 1.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS productivity. 20.0 – 6.0 – 2. or mineral oil as a base fluid. VERSAPRO can be used with either diesel.

0 >300 <5. It utilizes calcium carbonate for bridging and weighting. These systems are designed to minimize formation damage. Typical VERSAPRO Properties Fluid density. VERSAPRO SF is a pill designed without solids to displace VERSAPRO from the hole when there is pre-existing filter cake only.0 10 – 40 10 – 25 5 – 15 <3.0 13·15Go To Table of Contents .RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Product Functions Product Base oil Brine VG-PLUS VERSAPRO P/S.0 – 16.20. and/or 250 Function Continuous Internal phase Viscosifier Primary emulsifier Supplemental fluid-loss control Alkalinity Acid-soluble bridging material VERSAPRO systems are non-damaging.40. It contains at least 30 lb/bbl (13.6 kg/bbl) for optimum bridging. lb/100 ft2 3 rpm Pom – Alkalinity of whole mud (mL) Electrical stability (volts) HTHP. lb/gal Plastic viscosity. cP Yield point. VERSACOAT.10. VERSAWET ECOTROL Lime SAFE-CARB 2. mL/30 min @ 250° F (121° C) – 5 micron disk 9. invert-emulsion fluids with (diesel or mineral oil as base). VERSAPRO LS provides all the benefits of a VERSAPRO system. Do not use VERSAPRO SF to drill the formation.

environmental protocol. Features • Formulated with synthetic-base fluid • Exhibits all the drilling advantages of conventional invert-emulsion fluids • Designed to be compatible with the completion method Benefits • Minimizes formation damage • Reduces fluid loss • Maximizes production • Environmentally acceptable 13·16Go To Table of Contents . and completion method to maximize productivity while adhering to environmental requirements. Products are carefully selected for compatibility with reservoir. drilling conditions. The system meets environmental requirements for synthetic based fluids. high ROP and excellent wellbore stability. The NOVAPRO system is designed to minimize formation damage by forming a thin. thereby minimizing fluid and solids invasion into the formation. durable.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS NOVAPRO The synthetic-base NOVAPRO* system features low fluid loss. Ultra-Low-permeability filter cake on the face of the formation.

0 >500 <5. 20. SUREWET Lime SAFE-CARB 2. mL/30 min @ 250° F (121° C) – 5 micron disk Function 9.0 – 4.0 lb/bbl 2. SUREMUL* NOVAWET*. lb/gal Plastic viscosity.0 – 30.0 – 8. 40 and/or 250 70 – 90% 10 – 30% 1. 20.0 lb/bbl 4.0 – 16.0 – 4. 40 and/or 250 Function Provides continuous phase for system Internal phase inhibition Viscosity Primary emulsifier Wetting agent Alkalinity Acid-soluble bridging material Typical NOVAPRO Properties Product Fluid density.0 lb/bbl 6.0 lb/bbl 10. cP Yield point.0 lb/bbl Product Functions Product Base synthetic Brine VG-PLUS NOVAMUL. SUREWET* Lime SAFE-CARB 2.0 10 – 40 10 – 25 5 – 15 <3.0 13·17Go To Table of Contents . lb/100 ft2 3 rpm Pom – Alkalinity of whole mud (mL) Electrical stability (volts) HTHP.0 – 6. SUREMUL NOVAWET. 10. 10.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Typical Formulation Base synthetic Brine internal phase VG-PLUS NOVAMUL*.

0 gal/100 bbl 0.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FLOTHRU The FLOTHRU* system is a premium water-base Reservoir Drill-In Fluid (RDF) designed to be nondamaging with enhanced flow-back capabilities avoiding the need for a chemical cleanup treatment.0 lb/bbl 25. FLOTHRU utilizes organophilic components as part of its design. this organophilic material allows oil to flow through channels in the filter cake eliminating the need for any external breakers.0 – 30. Typical Formulation Product Base fluid (brine) — halide or Formates FLO-VIS PLUS.5 – 1. 40 and/or 250 KLA-GARD. MgO.75 – 1.0 lb/bbl 13·18Go To Table of Contents .5 – 1. KOH SAFE-CARB 2.96 bbl 0. When the well is put on production.0 lb/bbl 10 lb/bbl 20 to 30% of the total carbonate blend 0.0 – 8.0 lb/bbl 4. The system deposits an impermeable filter cake on the sand face preventing the flow of aqueous fluid and solids into the formation. KLA-STOP Concentration 0. 20. 10. FLO-VIS NT THRUTROL* THRUCARB* Greencide 25G Caustic Soda.

density Shale inhibitor Base brine Premium-grade xanthan gum Organophilic starch Organophilic calcium carbonate Glutaraldehyde Alkalinity Optimally sized calcium carbonate Amine type of shale inhibitors Description Product Base fluid (brine) FLO-VIS PLUS. especially LSRV THRUTROL THRUCARB Greencide 25G RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Caustic Soda. 10. 40 and/or 250 13·19Go To Table of Contents KLA-GARD. MgO. KOH SAFE-CARB 2. KLA-STOP .Product Functions and Descriptions Functions Density and shale inhibition Fluid-loss control and supplemental viscosifier Bridging agent/fluid-loss control Bactericide pH Bridging agent. fluidloss control. FLO-VIS NT Viscosity properties. 20.

FLOVIS NT is a high-yielding. clarified xanthan gum. It imparts elevated LSRV while not having an adverse effect on the overall apparent viscosity.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FLO-VIS PLUS is a high-yield. It is used in conjunction with other sized calcium carbonate and the THRUTROL starch to form the basis of a filter cake. lb/100 ft2 3 rpm pH LSRV 0. cps HTHP. It produces elevated LSRV and fragile gel strengths. It is both clarified and dispersible. lb/gal Plastic viscosity. Typical FLOTHRU Properties Fluid density.000 <5. THRUCARB is a very fine organophilic-coated calcium carbonate. It is used to lower fluid-loss control and impart viscosity. It also helps create the organophilic channels. cP Yield point. mL/30 min @ 150° F (66° C) 8. premium-grade.0 12 – 20 20 – 35 10 – 15 8.5 – 10.0636 sec –1. It provides some of the channels for hydrocarbons to flow through. xanthan gum biopolymer.8 – 18.0 40. It is non-clarified and non dispersible. KLA-GARD or KLA-STOP reduces the swelling of sensitive shale.0 13·20Go To Table of Contents . THRUTROL is a hydrophobic-modified starch.000 – 60.

serve as potential traps for the filter cake/filter-cake debris when the well is put on production. The purpose of using a breaker is to prevent the plugging of a gravel pack or a completion assembly with filter cake/filter-cake debris by cleaning up or changing the characteristics of the filter cake itself. The net result can be lost production and/or premature decline of the well. If the percent of drill solids in the RDF is allowed to escalate then 13·21Go To Table of Contents . pre-packed liners and stand-alone screens are used to stabilize the wellbore. expandable screens.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Breakers – Chemical cleanup Why a Breaker? Most of the M-I SWACO Reservoir Drill-In Fluids (RDFs) are designed to deposit an impermeable filter cake on the formation with the intent of preventing the loss of fluid and solids into the producing or injection zone. Although these completion techniques might stabilize the wellbore they can. The maintenance of the RDF while drilling the well plays an important role in the cleanup process of the filter cake. at the same time. gravel packs. they can also impair the productivity of a well or the injection into a well if they are not cleaned up properly. In producing wells that are completed in unconsolidated formations. While these filter cakes provide a protective barrier on the formation face in the drilling phase of the well. Filter-cake cleanup allows hydrocarbons from the reservoir to flow freely into the well without being blocked by the filter-cake residue.

A large amount of drill solids will not only affect the integrity of the filter cake.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS consequently the amount of drill solids in the filter cake will also accumulate. Factors that affect Breaker Selection • Breaker carrier • Well type – Producer or injector • Type of completion – Gravel pack. etc. it will also limit the amount of the filter cake that can be cleaned up. One of the most important objectives of a cleanup treatment is the uniform degradation of the filter cake. expandable screen. • Metallurgy • Formation characteristics — Sensitivities • Environmental issues • Type of RDF used to drill the well • RDF components • % drill solids in the filter cake • MBT concentration • Amount of bridging material • Total amount of solids • Thickness of the filter cake • Type of cleanup desired • Contact area • Contact time • BHT • Delay time required • Completion equipment • Operator concerns 13·22Go To Table of Contents . This objective should be one of the basis of design when selecting a breaker treatment.

When to Use It and How Do You Get It There? What to use and when to use it depends on the factors affecting the breaker selection including the type of cleanup desired and when the cleanup is going to take place. Acids can also be used to clean up FAZEPRO. Options Post Treatment • Aggressive treatments Strong acids Oxidizers • Non-aggressive treatments Weak acids BREAKDOWN* FAZEBREAK* BREAKFREE* Treatments While Completing the Well • Aggressive treatments Chelants • Non-aggressive treatments FAZEBREAK — Delayed Chemical Options • Acids – Temperature ranges 120° to 250° F (49° to 121° C). There is also the option of placing a breaker as a component in the filter cake.RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS What to Use. or using a system that deposits a filter cake that can be cleaned up by formation hydrocarbons. Attack biopolymers and calcium carbonate components of a water-base filter cake. For example. a reversible invert-emulsion fluid. during the gravel-pack operation or post-gravel pack. 13·23Go To Table of Contents . in a gravel-pack completion there are two options when to do the cleanup.

and the reaction with clays which can generate an emulsion. cause emulsions and cause incomplete cleanup. They attack the organic polymer portion of the filter cake deposited by waterbase fluids. These enzymes break down the polymers in the residual filter cake which in effect breaks down the “cement” which bonds the filter cake together allowing the bridging solids to disperse and either flow back through the completion assembly (gravel pack). • Enzymes — Temperature ranges 40° to 200° F (4° to 94° C). or be chemically dissolved by other chemical treatments. the dissolution of silicates or micro-porous chert. • Oxidizers – Temperature ranges 80° to 200° F (27° to 93° C). Disadvantages of oxidizers include the attack on steel material. Enzymes primarily starch or polymer specific. They are used to “break” the viscosity of natural polymer-base fluids and to loosen the filter cakes of drill-in fluids. M-I SWACO Products • SAFE-BREAK* L – Oxidizer • Sodium Hypochlorite – Oxidizer SAFE-BREAK L and SAFE-BREAK S are strong oxidizers used in water-base drill-in fluids as breakers for various polymers. oxidizers may work two times faster for every 10° F (–12° C) rise in temperature. form precipitates. so that bridging particles can be produced back through sand-control liners or be more effectively acidized. Generally. 13·24Go To Table of Contents .RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS Some of the disadvantages of acid are that they can cause corrosion with downhole tubulars.

RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS M-I SWACO Products • WELLZYME* A • WELLZYME NS Both WELLZYME A and WELLZYME NS are starch-specific enzymes (Amylase) designed to degrade the starch component of the FLOPRO NT filter cake. Low pH chelants are also effective in destroying the integrity of the FAZEPRO (reversible oilbase) filter cake. but do not work in divalent brines. and the volume of the breaker system. the surface area of the filter cake. 13·25Go To Table of Contents . • Chelants — Dissolve the calcium carbonate material in both water and reversible oil-base fluids. The concentration of chelants will depend on the amount of calcium carbonate material in the filter cake. They work in monovalent carrier brines.8 • D-SOLVER PLUS pH 3.0 Both D-SOLVER and D-SOLVER PLUS are not compatible with seawater or calcium chloride or other divalent brines. Chelants are non-corrosive as opposed to acid. The optimum concentration of WELLZYME A or WELLZYME NS is 2 to 5% volume. They are less aggressive than acids or oxidizers allowing for a more even breakdown of the filter cake and a delayed break if that is desired. M-I SWACO Products • D-SOLVER* pH 4. Chelants can be used in combination with other breakers such as enzymes or acid for a more enhanced filter-cake cleanup.5 to 4.5 to 4.

• WELLZYME A or WELLZYME NS • Viscosifier (optional) — Increases delay BREAKDOWN — Enzyme/Chelant Composition BREAKDOWN is recommended for the cleanup of both the starch and calcium carbonate components of a FLOPRO NT filter cake for stand-alone and premium screen/gravel-pack open-hole completions. • Monovalent-base brines • Dispersant – SAPP* D-SPERSE* (optional) .RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS M-I SWACO Breaker Systems • BREAKFREE – Enzyme-base system • BREAKDOWN – Enzyme/chelant-base system • FAZEBREAK – Chelant-base system for FAZEPRO BREAKFREE – Enzyme-Base System BREAKFREE is recommended for the cleanup of the starch component of a FLOPRO NT filter cake where stand-alone or gravel-pack open-hole completions are used. The process of the starch destruction is slow and gentle and it prevents formation of emulsions and precipitates with formation fluids. The process of the starch and calcium carbonate destruction is slow and gentle and it prevents formation of emulsions and precipitates with formation fluids. • Monovalent base brines • Dispersant – SAPP. It also disperses bridging particles to flowback or fall out of the way. D-SPERSE (optional) • WELLZYME A or WELLZYME NS • D-SOLVER or D-SOLVER PLUS — Chelant • Viscosifier (optional) — Increases delay 13·26Go To Table of Contents .

it disperses the filter cake. The low pH of the system helps initiate the reversibility of the filter cake and the chelant attacks the calcium carbonate material. It does not completely dissolve the filter cake. • Surfactant — Water-wet carbonate (FAZE-MUL*) • Viscosifier — Delays the reversal process (SAFE-VIS) • Dispersant — Minimizes surface interactions (EGMBE) • Base brine — Density enables good placement • Chelant — D-SOLVER 13·27Go To Table of Contents .RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS FAZEBREAK FAZEBREAK is designed to clean up FAZEPRO.

COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 14 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14. ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES Go To Table of Contents .

005323 0.50 3.Oilfield Tubulars Capacity and Displacement API Drill Pipe Cap bbl/ft 0.007421 0.500 3.151 3∑ 9.69 Displ.003805 0.75 16.012871 0.75 152. lb/ft OD in.476 3.500 3.000 4.01190 0. 23⁄8 6.500 2.00 4.992 2.01190 0.003200 0.00 4.014220 0.40 2.99 134.500 4.004495 0. ID in.015218 0.49 114.015543 0.004479 0.004706 0.30 15.011737 0.004453 0.32 77. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.000 3.006800 0.002279 0.008029 0.71 70.815 27⁄8 10.875 2.500 4.019671 0.640 14·1Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .008696 0.019671 0.01190 0.019671 0.005451 0.60 20. bbl/ft Cap Displ.340 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 4∑ 13.375 1.65 2.958 3.764 2.28 65.826 3.015543 0.500 3.49 222.05 85.003204 0.85 14.003535 0.006577 0.010837 0.005479 312.20 92.50 13.602 4 11.

008200 0.024286 0. ID in.25 19.30 64.000 4.024286 52.029386 0.018875 0.015543 0.000 5.006524 0.408 4.20 Displ. lb/ft OD in.50 25.000 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 5∑ 21.778 4.276 4.70 5.029386 0. 5 16.022177 0.005410 0.90 24.021186 0.024286 0.000 5.007209 0. bbl/ft Cap Displ.670 14·2Go To Table of Contents .98 56. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.09 47.500 5.500 4.60 5.008743 0.34 45.017762 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement API Drill Pipe Cap bbl/ft 0.

500 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·3Go To Table of Contents 3 Pipe Displacement (Metal Only w/Coup.625 4.14 113.0149 0.0197 0.375 65⁄8 70.30 3.500 2.) 0. 733 .250 2.0134 200.29 50.002 ( Wt of pipe per ft with couplings)(Depth.0084 0.76 0.25 135.00 4. bbl/ft Cap Displ. ft) = Displacement of pipe in ft (Wt of pipe per ft with couplings)(Depth. lb/ft OD in.0088 0. ID in.80 6.64 89. ft) = Displacement of pipe in bbl 2.0223 0.0050 0.0260 0.000 3.0042 0.000 5∑ 57.500 2.063 4 27.0180 0.0134 0.000 2.0268 0.0108 0.750 5 49.00 238. 3∑ 23.0074 0.0064 0.30 5.0112 0.20 25.500 3.0322 0.0172 156.00 5. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.Capacity and Displacement Heavy-Weight Drill Pipe Cap bbl/ft 0.10 Displ.0092 0.20 4.0210 0.0457 0.500 3.563 4∑ 41.

20 1.380 1.001931 0.000746 0.001680 0.000611 0.957 1.315 1.000411 0.72 1.002677 0.29 I N E I U 1.49 1124.660 1.55 540.001125 0.80 2.70 1.0001069 0. bbl/ft Cap Displ.002677 0.001850 0.380 1. lb/ft Type OD in.55 540.264 0.002677 0.0001069 0.824 0.724 1.050 15⁄16 1.001850 0.660 1.001071 0.0001069 0. 1 1.33 3.001850 0.000790 0.10 2.49 935.14 1.000411 0.31 Size Weight w/Coup.002677 0.00 517.660 14·4Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .000827 0.315 1.050 1.40 2.002677 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl 1516.13 1516.13 1869.001680 0.660 1.Capacity and Displacement API Tubing and Workstring ID in.75 935.0005350 0.30 N N I U 1. 0.000827 0.410 1.0006600 0.49 935.001071 Cap bbl/ft Displ.049 1.0006600 0.000611 0.001071 0.008900 0.000611 0.660 1.380 1.050 1.55 644.049 0.049 1.000536 0.55 N E U 1.824 0.79 540.001552 0.001680 0.001680 0.30 2.315 1.000827 0.315 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 111⁄16 2.

002518 0.375 2.14 481.33 295.75 247. bbl/ft Cap Displ.004134 0.003507 0.610 1.041 1.005479 0.001613 0.76 2.001430 0.005479 0.900 1.000989 0.000989 0.063 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 23⁄8 4.867 0.002093 0.68 335.002518 0.25 I 2.375 2.001156 0.00 4.003507 0.60 4.003507 0.751 2.005479 Cap bbl/ft Displ.003386 0.002093 0.610 1.995 1.003507 0.000862 0.002518 0.900 1.95 N N E N E 2.995 1.002978 0.000989 0. lb/ft Type OD in.003386 0. 1.375 2.900 1.003866 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl 378.75 2.004047 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement API Tubing and Workstring ID in.003866 0.650 1.65 258.90 4.002076 0.867 1.14 397.375 2.002645 0.900 21⁄16 3.005479 0.33 Size Weight w/Coup.12 258.65 295.610 1.375 14·5Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .80 5. 17⁄8 2.40 2.19 I N I E U 1.11 397.005479 0.001433 0.70 5.001613 0.003507 0.900 1.14 397.462 1.

009144 0.6 8.750 2. 27⁄8 6.875 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 3∑ 7.0119 0.0119 0.323 2.875 2.875 2.004957 0.002241 0.12 136.003204 0.068 2.875 2.002787 0.992 2.005788 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement API Tubing and Workstring ID in.12 Size Weight w/Coup.441 2.76 190.0119 0.003072 0.002756 0.008029 0.4 6.20 9.37 114.002241 0.7 N E N E N E 2.500 3.003072 0.95 N N E N N E 3.0119 Cap bbl/ft Displ.004554 0. lb/ft Type OD in.0119 0.005242 0.0119 0.008696 0. 2.008029 0.76 190.323 2. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl 172.007346 0.008029 0.259 2.007346 0.004554 0.70 12.99 136.500 14·6Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .259 3.875 2.008029 0.8 7.9 8.875 2.72 109.20 12.5 7.992 2.76 201.003204 0.008029 0.750 0.003204 0.441 2.500 3.008696 0.99 114.500 3. bbl/ft Cap Displ.008696 0.72 201.005242 0.76 172.992 2.004957 0.008029 0.99 114.005788 0.70 9.30 10.500 3.500 3.002787 0.

958 3. lb/ft Type OD in.000 4∑ 12.015543 0.50 11.011737 0.476 3.015543 0.75 N E 4. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl 81.500 4.004453 0. 3.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement API Tubing and Workstring ID in.71 Size Weight w/Coup. bbl/ft Cap Displ.958 0.20 65.012229 0.500 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·7Go To Table of Contents Type: N = Non Upset I = Integral Joint E = External Upset .003314 0. 4 9.000 4.015218 0.019671 0.019671 Cap bbl/ft Displ.00 N E 4.60 12.003805 0.71 65.78 85.004453 0.015218 0.458 3.

51 50.920 3.500 4.50 4.70 64.005410 0.91 3.017762 0.006524 0.560 4.99 66.500 4.024286 0.54 62.500 2.500 4.0086960 0.019671 0.003722 0.000 4. 3∑ 9.006524 0.000 5.500 4.000 3.276 4.014927 0.60 61.052 4.920 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 5 11.004129 0.50 10.011900 114.017762 0.019671 0. bbl/ft Cap Displ.011415 0.276 14·8Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .000 5.019619 0.99 49.99 Displ.992 4 11.019671 0.34 66.015543 0.004667 0.000 5.00 15.016250 0.408 4.018875 0.00 17.014927 0.500 4.98 56.024286 0.93 18.024286 0.004127 0.30 0.494 4. ID in.04 13.020199 0.000 5.30 56.000 3.015543 87.34 4.019671 0.090 4.003421 0.50 13.024286 0.60 13.00 5.019671 0.004086 0.97 52.024286 0.015950 0.428 4∑ 9.50 11.004744 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.004744 0.003204 0. lb/ft OD in.Capacity and Displacement Casing and Plain End Liners Cap bbl/ft 0.

09 47.022177 0.95 64.021186 0.029386 0.010059 0.01 43. lb/ft OD in.950 4.005583 0.500 5.36 30.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Casing and Plain End Liners Cap bbl/ft 0.042636 0.008200 0.012 4.500 5.791 5.81 20.892 4.625 6. ID in.00 24.042636 0.010059 0.500 5. bbl/ft Cap Displ.00 15.007209 0.029386 0.049 5.40 23.007748 0.007209 0.70 31.921 5.126 4.47 62.044 4.500 5.778 4.029386 0.675 14·9Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .007092 0.035545 0.008399 0.029386 0.000 5∑ 14.015887 0.024286 0.10 5. 5 21.000 4.008743 0.023248 0.70 30.024286 0.96 Displ.024286 60.00 23.09 45.625 6.031285 0.625 6.98 42.042636 0.006138 0.778 4.024402 0.029386 0.65 28.015543 0.000 5.00 32.01 45.20 28.500 5.13 29.791 5. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.032577 0.670 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 65⁄8 20.00 5.500 5.625 6.00 19.032577 0.042636 0.34 40.011351 0.50 17.004983 0.042636 0.008580 0.016537 0.20 24.000 5.029386 0.00 6.022177 0.023802 0.625 6.00 27.034056 0.

00 23.047940 0.875 6.49 23.64 0.276 6.45 Displ.042636 0.000 7.037149 0.000 7.056479 0.08 24.37 20.0093370 0.045915 0.000 7.20 21.920 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 75⁄8 24.047600 0.765 6.056479 0.010451 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.000 7.14 26.094 6.40 26.004 5. ID in.038263 0.00 7.625 14·10 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .034045 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Casing and Plain End Liners Cap bbl/ft 0.047600 0.040489 0.056479 0.056479 0.00 29.041524 0.000 6.70 39.047600 0.044458 0.047600 0.011524 0.0093000 0.0071110 0.538 6.40 29.047600 0.70 25.013555 0.00 32.000 7.00 26.00 38.625 7.013843 0.0010.00 35.0060760 0.00 7. lb/ft OD in.969 6.047600 24.92 27.00 26.625 7.184 6.000 7. 7 17.025 6.047179 0.0085390 0.625 7.456 6.039368 0.012022 0. bbl/ft Cap Displ.047600 0.012582 0.366 6.72 28.035018 0.86 21.56 29.78 22.056479 0.000 7.047600 0.70 33.625 7.625 7.036076 0.00 20.0082320 0.

19 13. ID in. bbl/ft Cap Displ.00 8.625 8.015534 0.80 45.625 9.00 40.625 8.060949 0.075827 0.00 36.00 32.625 8.057971 0.017462 0.00 28.017 7.625 7.056479 0.625 8.02 16.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Casing and Plain End Liners Cap bbl/ft 0.25 18.921 7.41 16.375 85⁄8 24.016253 0.015424 0.81 17.825 7.014295 0.078703 0.625 6.921 8.36 24.011316 0.625 8.33 15.725 7.056479 24.014167 0.012683 0.70 16.041055 0.089994 0.089994 0.039479 0.625 9.755 14·11 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page . bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.86 25.072265 0.30 47.501 6.072265 0.077310 0.097 8.435 6. 75⁄8 42.009829 0.059481 0.625 9.001 8.10 7.00 43.040226 0.00 49.012784 0.71 12.056479 0. lb/ft OD in.625 7.43 Displ.062436 0.074460 0.835 8.25 12.30 36.089994 0.93 13.072265 0.008577 0.089994 0.00 40.072265 0.054803 0.511 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 95⁄8 32.017000 0.011291 0.063688 0.625 8.072265 0.072265 0.625 9.50 9.

50 9.192 10.625 9.070765 0.750 11.073206 0.850 9.00 53.098116 0.112260 0.950 9.112260 0.750 10.112260 0.681 8.880 10.00 54.119345 0.50 45. ID in.772 14·12 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .535 10π 32.51 8.016575 0.011352 0.750 10.750 11. bbl/ft Cap Displ.00 11.000 10.70 8. lb/ft OD in.019126 0.089994 0.019725 0.66 14.13 9.81 8.018010 0.016787 0.40 10.750 11.19 10.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Casing and Plain End Liners Cap bbl/ft 0.50 51.016087 0.134118 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.61 10.00 55.019229 0.91 10.87 Displ.014773 0.75 40.021397 0.084 11.089994 13.094250 0.750 10.760 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 11π 42.00 47. 95⁄8 47.134118 0.750 10.112720 0.100909 0.096174 0.114992 0.50 10.134118 0.050 9.750 10.112260 0.00 60.134118 0.112260 0.38 8.750 11.092536 0.014144 0.117543 0.625 8.

000 20.75 4.375 13. lb/ft OD in.730 .388570 0.021629 0.157052 0.00 16.347 16 65.00 68.019188 0.173779 0.152150 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Casing and Plain End Liners Cap bbl/ft 0.306232 0.000 20.27 2.50 18.37 6.016727 0.00 13.173779 0.50 61.000 18.85 2.030746 0.00 106.625 17.57 6.250 15.010 185⁄8 87. bbl/ft Cap Displ.388570 0.124 15.375 13.00 75.615 12.033293 0.000 16.148092 0.248685 0.047782 0.355277 0.388570 0.00 20.340789 0.00 84.715 12.350685 0.026486 0.124 19.57 3.515 12.024051 0.93 Displ.025687 0.225917 0.375 12.022768 0.154591 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size Weight w/Coup.218862 0.50 4.000 15.47 6.81 2.68 6. ID in.00 54.375 13.173779 0.173779 0.43 4.248685 0.248685 0.149728 0.00 72.222199 0.173779 6.415 12.755 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·13 To Table of Contents Go 20 94.000 19. 133⁄8 48.50 133.375 13.000 16.336979 0.037886 0.029823 0.

013661 0.35 0.2500 0.34 203.750 2.011475 0.026775 0.015543 257.024286 0.011900 457.014754 0.002186 3π 3.017546 257.009487 658.004918 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 5∏ 5.003886 4∫ 4.125 2.000 2.000 2.250 2.35 203.34 203.0000 0.001518 3∑ 3.011657 0.0000 0.2500 0.5000 0.52 0.003886 4∏ 4.34 203.012644 0. ID in.004918 4π 4.2500 0.35 0.019671 0.019368 0.0000 0.003886 4∑ 4.2500 0. bbl/ft Linear ft/bbl Size OD in.004918 5 5.016529 257.021918 0.250 2.750 1.009714 0.017000 0.2500 0.013661 457.500 1.125 1.5000 0.83 Cap Displ. Cap bbl/ft 3∫ 3.002186 4 4.021857 0.500 2.004918 14·14 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .34 0.52 0.Capacity and Displacement Drill Collars Displ.007969 0. bbl/ft 0.

007684 7∏ 7.044261 0.8125 0.8125 0.041043 0.2500 2.2500 2.34 130.500 2.250 2.041043 203.007684 14·15 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .027200 0.14 130.8125 0.2500 0.000 2.500 6.34 130. 5.037946 203.047600 0.004918 6∏ 6.036576 0.039343 0.007684 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 7 7.037946 0.004918 0.039916 0.14 0.34 0.750 6.2500 Cap bbl/ft 0. 2.750 2.054643 0.051061 0.8125 0. bbl/ft 0.000 2.500 2. bbl/ft 0.8125 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Drill Collars Displ.046959 0.036125 0.030053 0.004918 5π 5.004918 0.024468 0.029386 Linear ft/bbl 203.14 203.004918 6 6.34 Cap Displ.250 6.033359 0.250 2.030262 0.032118 203.044261 0.007684 6π 6.007684 7∑ 7.007684 6∑ 6.033028 0.14 130.004918 0.8125 0.750 2.14 0.2500 2.034971 203.34 Size 5∑ OD in.2500 0.34 130.500 ID in.043376 0.14 130.

500 3.8125 Cap bbl/ft 0.083603 0.008743 9 9.008743 .38 114.057375 0. 7.000 8.008743 8∑ 8.250 3.007684 8 8.0000 0.0000 0.000 3.38 114.0000 0.000 3.074375 0.14 Size 7π OD in. bbl/ft 0.062171 0.38 114.38 0.250 3.053428 0. bbl/ft 0. 2.38 0.0000 0.008743 8∏ 8.008743 14·16 To Table of Contents Go 11 11.066118 114.750 ID in.38 Cap Displ.078928 0.500 3.750 3.0000 0.0000 0.38 114.087671 0.14 114.0000 0.054487 0.0000 0.117543 0.058346 Linear ft/bbl 130.069943 0.088400 0.070186 114.108800 0.008743 10 10.38 114.000 2.008743 9π 9.092346 0.Continued from previous page Capacity and Displacement Drill Collars Displ.097143 0.008743 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 9∑ 9.38 114.0000 0.0000 0.007684 0.078686 0.38 0.083118 0.065632 0.050662 0.000 3.750 3.061443 0.8125 3.074375 114.062171 130.008743 9∏ 9.008743 8π 8.

02677 0.529 1.92 0.85 1 0.00064 0.372.97 0.00385 259.00394 253.78 0.9239 37.616 1 0.00207 483.00346 1.00066 0.83 0.34 0.00307 1.826 1 0.02295 0.67 0.067 0.61 0.00372 268.5733 19.508.215 151.02948 0.782 1 0.481 0.7364 35.77 0.00118 850.94 1. ID π 0.75 1∏ 0.087 0.00037 0.109 1.683.075 0.49 0.095 0.712.0007 0.00059 0.067 0.458.825 325.98 0.796 1 0.74 0.04937 1.772 0.00062 0.00069 0.6795 20.02495 0.6827 40.52 0.01548 Linear ft/bbl ft3/ Linear ft Linear ft/ft3 gal/ Linear ft Linear ft/gal 64.04 0.424.74 826.956 147.067 0.125 1.17 0.9239 34.3571 38.0802 43.2562 Size OD Wall Thickness wt/ft Calc.454 289.1 14·17 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .371 299.79 0.624.00679 0.84 1 0.05081 0.102 0.192 0.04 0.02585 0.90 0.6819 33.00055 0.5925 32.02784 0.116 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 1∏ 0.08 0.85 0.Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.00121 0.568.00334 1.0306 2.075 0.0066 1.64 0.733 1.00358 279.00409 244.866 1 0.830.85 1.85 1.81 1 0.02879 0.00073 0.

032 1∏ 0.04345 0.4 1.014 1∏ 0.09 0.12 0.0408 Linear ft/bbl 866.042 1∏ 0.17 1.102 1.27 1.104 1.00597 167.8379 24.09 1.087 1.00561 0.00097 1.00624 160.04847 Linear ft/gal 20.04584 0.076 1∏ 0.04671 0.40 1.097 1.00581 948.109 1.056 1∏ 0.35 923.00613 163.181 899.364 0.001 0. ID 1.07 1∏ 0.408 21.0136 23.4016 22.419 916.00106 0.00545 966.001.12 0.08 wt/ft 1 Calc.0443 0.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.32 0.095 1.00111 0.6509 23.04724 0.55 0.43 ft3/ Linear ft 0.8138 21.08 1.00631 158.578 168.51 Size OD 1∏ Wall Thickness 0.43 1.00115 0.00109 0.9794 22.018 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 1∏ 0.00592 940.0455 0.04195 0.923 178.33 1.00108 0.125 1.118 1.322 gal/ Linear ft 0.5 1 14·18 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .00608 164.00648 Linear ft/ft3 154.85 0.09 1∏ 0.1699 21.00103 0.046 1∏ 0.04464 0.00105 0.17 993.19 1.6296 21.156 176.322 183.04228 0.867 172.16 0.145 889.11 1.12 0.06 1∏ 0.00565 0.116 1.25 1.029.574 23.00101 0.00112 0.

798 599.88 0.03934 Linear ft/gal 25.3408 15.116.00085 0.162 111.4168 26.06706 0.34 0.109 1.036 114.6 Calc.00896 612.48 ft3/ Linear ft 0.344 120.145 1.133 gal/ Linear ft 0.0359 0.0016 0.71 1.6864 16.947 0.00503 198.31 1∑ 0.24 0.71 0.156 1.21 658.095 1.118 1.3 0.00852 0.232 14·19 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .00156 0.268 1∑ 0.9131 15. ID 0.389 1.116 1.07002 0.00877 626.282 1∑ 0.00442 226.74 1.8572 30.00526 Linear ft/ft3 190.00163 0.00147 678.938 1∏ 0.759 117.82 0.43 1.102 1.03305 0.52 1.06853 0.2442 15.169.067.134 wt/ft 1.25 1∑ 0.06375 0.06193 Linear ft/bbl 1.00155 0.00094 0.0009 0.5926 14.00152 0.175 2.97 0.0376 0.06519 0.86 0.2593 14.00916 109.841 1.00936 106.00871 0.00167 0.00079 0.264 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 1∑ 0.85 0.125 1.982 1∏ 0.01 0.358 1.559 114.84 1.00828 640.0048 208.0656 0.134 1.2824 14.1481 Size OD 1∏ Wall Thickness 0.5951 27.9 1∑ 0.62 1.82 644.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.270.98 0.96 1∏ 0.296 1∑ 0.95 1.

68 1.188 1∑ 0.09352 Linear ft/bbl 703.165 814.196 75.124 1∑ 0.09 446.0077 129.102 1.09929 0.12 1∑ 0.8 0.00122 0.99 0.00137 0.00236 0.05974 Linear ft/gal 16.01257 0.712 78.568 79.05396 0.00224 0.231 gal/ Linear ft 0.145 wt/ft 2.01304 422.04883 0. ID 1.518 1π 0.175 2.1 Calc.341 76.989 820.127 778.00128 0.81 1.6365 10.00232 0.094 1π 0.5392 20.4004 19.69 0.8 1.00689 145.02 1.73 438.0128 0.156 2.05118 0.21 1∑ 0.91 1.116 2.00653 153.05758 0.00123 0.109 1.00799 Linear ft/ft3 125.05155 0.09576 0.66 1.0715 10.00223 449.00142 0.00721 138.06 1.48 1.188 2.203 2.19 2.5331 19.09 ft3/ Linear ft 0.639 729.6928 Size OD 1∑ Wall Thickness 0.2547 10.12 79.37 0.095 1.24 1.63 1.00228 0.38 0.514 14·20 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .7407 17.09402 0.479 10.09752 0.00116 0.63 0.56 1π 0.00684 146.532 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 1π 0.15 1∑ 0.443 10.6 0.118 2.3664 18.546 1π 0.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.0125 430.01327 860.1 0.912 0.

688 101.00304 329.08437 0.01024 545.204 3.00201 0.504 101.7184 7.8933 11.32 324.88 0.6094 7.482 1π 0.17 Calc.374 1π 0.00207 0.125 wt/ft 2.51 ft3/ Linear ft 0.116 2.46 1π 0.0588 13.07703 0.438 1π 0.66 1.00985 548.739 58.00182 0.00219 0.2 1.31 1.00175 0.2 0.667 482.37 1.12956 0.145 2.489 gal/ Linear ft 0.94 1.546 497.01163 86.35 1.12753 Linear ft/bbl 457.5 1π 0.8529 12.81 0.768 14·21 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .188 3.00308 0.342 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 2 0.8411 Size OD 1π Wall Thickness 0.69 0.14 1.782 2 0.109 2.4 1π 0.01198 83.07997 0.344 1π 0.08961 0.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.19 3.00213 0.1596 11.5689 13.37 1π 0.92 0.0019 0.0918 Linear ft/gal 10.17 1.0103 97.5051 12.657 525.07658 0.807 57.08697 0.12 97.33 1.156 2.9828 13.01227 Linear ft/ft3 81.015 468.203 3.01705 569.00183 0.00982 0.134 2.00175 0.17 571.0737 0. ID 1.4984 11.49 1.01069 93.27 0.175 2.07348 0.01732 0.58 0.48 0.01128 88.46 0.

869 0.3393 9.12495 0.161 72.203 3.00284 0.12239 0.125 2.732 2 0.10367 0.156 3.2933 9.343 39.00291 0.28 0.07 1.75 2 0.118 wt/ft 2.12 336.00302 0.864 72.00246 0.134 2.13 0.8767 8.82 ft3/ Linear ft 0.37 Calc.01382 0.00256 0.87 1.145 2.31 0.6464 9.10708 0.18983 Linear ft/bbl 330.00255 0.67 1.15 0.109 2.1193 0.00297 0.12696 Linear ft/gal 7.3821 8.594 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 2 0.6707 5. ID 1.00452 221.346 69.62 2 0.00247 0.175 3.52 69.71 2 0.01438 378.348 352.9 1.02538 392.64 1.157 14·22 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .188 3.624 2 0.64 2.65 2 0.01485 67.1076 0.204 3.0028 9.688 2 0.11108 0.5 1.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.19 3.11 0.268 Size OD 2 Wall Thickness 0.0167 59.923 gal/ Linear ft 0.04 0.24 0.1705 8.91 1.01697 Linear ft/ft3 58.764 2 0.703 343.01386 0.01554 64.10341 0.25 406.592 23⁄8 0.01636 61.01595 62.41 1.14 0.01431 390.11625 0.408 361.0033 8.00264 0.67 1.602 9.16 405.00277 0.

713 45.02421 41.21 2.999 23⁄8 0.188 4.1515 Linear ft/bbl 224.204 4.99 ft3/ Linear ft 0.19 4.00388 0.759 5.1583 6.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.18424 0.17737 0.9771 6.64 0.6381 5.203 4.96 0.06 265.118 wt/ft 2. ID 2.71 1.357 5.88 0.11 2.134 3.085 23⁄8 0.995 23⁄8 0.17364 0.00398 0.176 231.1336 6.00387 0.18113 0.02171 257.15818 0.125 3 2.39 1.02236 44.025 23⁄8 0.02463 40.4278 5.969 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 23⁄8 0.224 5.03 0.292 47.967 23⁄8 0.43 1.00431 0.16239 0.0211 0.00439 0.322 6.3348 6.376 241.00361 277.15786 0.145 3.107 23⁄8 0.521 5.00376 0.6005 Size OD 23⁄8 Wall Thickness 0.00422 0.068 47.84 Calc.175 4.00413 0.883 46.074 gal/ Linear ft 0.125 23⁄8 0.16731 0.79 0.61 0.15 1.73 1.156 3.02179 251.00444 0.063 23⁄8 0.45 2.3 227.52 0.02114 0.7 2.388 49.927 14·23 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .02321 43.603 0.139 23⁄8 0.18667 Linear ft/gal 5.87 0.081 236.00377 0.02495 Linear ft/ft3 40.02371 42.02025 258.22 266.16304 0.

9771 3.58 2.0303 Linear ft/ft3 33.426 192.00439 0.00669 149.0053 0.67 2.004 gal/ Linear ft 0.02749 36.303 38.313 25⁄8 0.177 25⁄8 0.28 7.7478 5.00414 0.74 2.34 2.25 6.125 25⁄8 0.89 0.84 2.20054 0.02326 0.00477 0.335 25⁄8 0.271 188.02974 33.44 0.02823 35.603 42.713 26.11 2.00398 0.8 0.17398 0.02918 34.56 Calc.94 2.275 25⁄8 0.41 0.557 Size OD 25⁄8 Wall Thickness 0.21828 0.217 25⁄8 0.997 44.03758 227.21117 0.357 25⁄8 0.625 14·24 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .28114 Linear ft/bbl 185.7357 4.02585 209.156 4.245 25⁄8 0.22666 Linear ft/gal 4.145 3.19336 0.134 wt/ft 3.4954 4.02681 37.3 7.39 251.22245 0.204 5.175 4.2 0.02236 0.4119 4.00503 0.8631 4.0052 0.20563 0.03 241.02463 217.025 27⁄8 0.96 0.01 2.0046 0.4278 5.9867 5.45 2.18424 0.3 ft3/ Linear ft 0.19 4.687 40.25 0.0054 0.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0. ID 2.5813 4.224 5.065 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 25⁄8 0.628 0.0049 0.16731 0.4 0.27 2.379 198.609 204.1716 5.125 3.

05 2.00572 0.126 31.21866 Linear ft/bbl 151.71 0.134 wt/ft 3.87 0.79 2.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.00605 0.05 0.438 0.25398 0.53 2.204 5.14 0.7312 3.00548 0.9373 4.28 7.0207 4.427 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 27⁄8 0.03707 Linear ft/ft3 26.359 161.563 27⁄8 0.46 ft3/ Linear ft 0.82 2.175 5.03213 0.188 5.499 27⁄8 0.2773 Linear ft/gal 3.27263 0.6679 3.23014 0. ID 2.00521 192.00619 0.76 0.03477 28.03395 29.454 30.1611 4.26013 0.24831 0.375 27⁄8 0.34 2.2548 0.03644 27.077 30.5 174.212 164.8443 3.01 2.19 5.00591 0.9247 3.76 2.0272 4.92 Calc.156 4.6063 3.607 27⁄8 0.03583 27.03319 168.00592 0.203 5.0066 0.912 154.495 27⁄8 0.505 34.24872 0.25 7.08 182.03076 0.00638 0.36 0.525 27⁄8 0.23 2.4 2.469 27⁄8 0.00649 0.46 0.26801 0.5734 Size OD 27⁄8 Wall Thickness 0.84 0.02923 169.145 4.24033 0.3453 4.467 27⁄8 0.45 2.977 gal/ Linear ft 0.224 6.00607 0.758 156.03406 29.315 14·25 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .127 32.585 27⁄8 0.03325 165.

178 19.00503 0.41466 0.42619 0.175 6.65 3.38 110.42041 0.0093 0.29 0.05323 18.82 3.5114 2.00987 0.145 5.552 0.00964 0.19 6.00948 0.57 3.05214 0.00946 0.75 0.39007 0.38004 0.4116 2.48 0.68 3 14·26 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .5604 2.684 20.153 19.55 0.01001 0.00929 0.204 7.0562 17.2 3.372 103.51 107.18 3.89 ft3/ Linear ft 0.74 0.05697 17.53 0.478 101.00874 114.092 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 3∑ 0.6313 2.05309 105.05543 18.21 3∑ 0.5179 2.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.835 19.21117 Linear ft/gal 4.05221 105.12 3∑ 0.275 3∑ 0.794 98.188 6.25 Calc.15 3∑ 0.25 8.04 99.3464 2.01015 0.15 3.426 gal/ Linear ft 0.00905 0.787 18.02823 Linear ft/ft3 35.3787 2.39057 0.84 3.224 7.9 0.3672 Linear ft/bbl 198.094 3∑ 0.052 3∑ 0.0508 0. ID 2.72 3.4701 2.203 7.04909 107.39716 0.7357 2.39818 0.3 wt/ft 8.21 3.188 3∑ 0.40484 0.7233 Size OD 27⁄8 Wall Thickness 0.232 3∑ 0.67 0.156 5.134 4.124 3∑ 0.5637 2.05412 18.

09 ft3/ Linear ft 0.34313 0.204 9.4 0.68317 0.94 3∑ 0.Continued from previous page Tubular/Open Hole: Coil Tubing bbl/ Linear ft 0.28 12.31 0.62 3.6114 0.28 18.48 0.4638 1.95 122.19798 27.08467 11.63 Calc.08296 66.09132 10.3 13.03573 0.28 wt/ft 9.459 62.224 10.23 4.6528 0.801 0.08955 11.3 10.6752 Size OD 3∑ Wall Thickness 0.051 64.34 0.4928 1.052 4∑ 0.055 4.04714 Linear ft/ft3 21.48107 Linear ft/bbl 119.9 65⁄8 0.167 61.065 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·27 To Table of Contents Go 65⁄8 0.9 4∑ 0.35 4 4∑ 0.9144 1.5319 1.25 11.97 6.08726 11.35266 Linear ft/gal 2.01477 0.01595 0.3 20.27 6.20062 67.5789 1.98 0.62057 1.6663 0.03526 28.8356 2.63336 0.5008 1.66988 0.01508 0.092 4∑ 0.01554 0.94 4∑ 0.7 0.01627 0.212 gal/ Linear ft 0.04587 21.984 5.68 0.36 0.025 . ID 2.25 2.00817 0.0084 0.36 4.811 12.46 3.

5 in.96 in.Fluid Engineering Calculations Estimation of the Number of Perforations Plugged with Solids Due to Fluid Loss: # PP = (S)(VL)(9702) Vp Where: # PP = # of plugged perforations S = Volume fraction of solids (vol % solids/100) VL = Volume of fluid lost to perforations.: Volume.3 % PP = Percent of perforations that are plugged ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·28 To Table of Contents Go % PP = (shots ft)(length of perfs) # PP Note: The volume of one perforation tunnel can be approximated by considering it to be a 10-in.3 . bbl Vp = Volume of a perforation (see note). in. cylinder with a diameter of 0. Vp 1.

000 lb ∆ (454 kg) A = Cross sectional area of pipe or tubing.7854 Freepoint: Where: ∆L = Strength in inches (in. in 1.2) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·29 To Table of Contents Go (2500)(∆L)(A) L= ( ) F .Determine Stretch or Freepoint Stretch: ∆L = ( L )( F ) (2500)(A) Area of pipe = OD2 – ID2 0. in square inches (in.) L = Length of pipe from surface to point of anchor downhole (stuckpoint) in feet (ft) F = Force required to stretch pipe L distance.

Pipe is 4∑-in.7854 = 4.4) = 7.652 23 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·30 To Table of Contents Go Pipe is stuck at approximately 7. .000 lb. drill pipe with an ID of 3.826 in.000 lb. Pull 143.652 ft.Example: Hook load is 120.4 in2 ( Volume increase per bbl of fluid = ) dWM − dF ( ) dF − d1 dWM − dF L= (2500)(16)(4. W dF − d1 Weight-Up Formulas (Without H2O and salt fraction) To weight up 1 bbl of fluid with dry salt: lb of wt material per bbl of fluid = Area of pipe = OD2 − ID2 0. Mark on pipe moves up 16 in.

lb/bbl (See table on page 15·32) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES Volume of ⎡ dF − d1 ⎤ initial fluid in bbl = ⎢1 − ⎥ VF ⎣ dWM − dF ⎦ 14·31 To Table of Contents Go .To weight up 1 final bbl of fluid with dry salt material: lb of weight material W dF − d1 per final bbl of fluid = dWM − dF ( ) Where: dF = Final density d1 = Initial density dWM = Density of weight material. lb/gal (See table on page 15·32) VF = Final volume W = Weight factor.

163 18.8 23.96 Calcium Chloride 1.2 7.8 8.4 100 55 55 100 50 100 55 50 100 80 55 50 100 Sack wt/lb Weighting Agents 981 1.478 539 841 Specific Gravity Barite 4.123 672 1.919 16 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES Zinc Bromide 4.8 10.2 Ammonium Chloride 1.35 Calcium Bromide 3.3 7.54 12.174 588 696 669 758 1.6 20.91 15.470 Calcium Carbonate 2.9 Sodium Chloride 2.334) 35 lb/bbl (lb/gal * 42) 1.7 19.84 14·32 To Table of Contents Go Cesium Formate 2.988 16.2 lb/gal (SG * 8.7 Sodium Formate 1.6 Potassium Formate 1.4 12.Densities of Weighting Agents Sacks/bbl 14.6 21.2 14.4 20 .4 13.353 27.205 26.219 35.68 14 Potassium Chloride 1.9 7.0 12.0 Sodium Bromide 3.

7 15.9 2.90 10.3 19.30 2. .57 1.2 20.0 11.41 1.8 15.2 1.0 13.8 12.5 11.81 1.1 19.83 1.52 1.32 2.067 Ammonium Chloride NH4Cl Sodium Chloride NaCl Calcium Chloride CaCl2 Calcium Chloride/ Calcium Bromide CaCl2/CaBr2 Potassium Chloride KCl Sodium Bromide NaBr Calcium Bromide CaBr2 Zinc Bromide ZnBr2/CaBr ZnBr2 Sodium Formate NaCOOH Potassium Formate KCOOOH ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES Cesium Formate CsCOOH 14·33 To Table of Contents Go Note: Do not use these densities without referring to the brine tables for crystallization points.Brines and Maximum Densities 8.1 9.175 1.386 1.46 1.

ft/sec D2 = ID casing or outer annulus wall (in.Fluid Velocity (V): Pipe: Vp = 0.) Where: Pp = pressure loss in pipe (psi) Lm = measured depth or length of pipe (ft) Pp/Lm = psi/ft pressure loss fp = friction factor for pipe Vp = flow velocity in pipe (ft/sec) d = density (lb/gal) ID = ID of pipe (in.408 Q 2 2 ( ) D ) − (D ) ( ( ) 25.) . ft/sec Va = fluid velocity in annulus.408 Q ( ) Friction Loss in Pipe: Pp Lm = fp Vp d 2 Hydraulic Calculations for Non-Newtonian Fluids ID2 Annulus: Va = 0.) D1 = OD of tubing or inner annulus (in.81(ID) 2 1 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·34 To Table of Contents Go Where: Q = flow rate (gal/min) Vp = fluid velocity in pipe.

Friction Loss in Bit Nozzle: Ps = Pp + Pn + Pat Pn = 156 d Q 2 () Where: Ps = surface pressure Pp = pressure loss in pipe (D 2 n1 +D 2 n2 +D 2 2 n3 ) Depending on well configuration the accuracy of Pat may be greater by using the following equation: Pat = Ps – (Pp + Pn) Where: Pat = total annulus pressure loss Note: These pressures exist only when circulating Where: Pn = pressure loss in nozzles (psi) d = fluid density (lb/gal) Q = flow rate (gal/min) Dn = diameter of bit nozzles (1⁄32 in.) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·35 To Table of Contents Go Theoretically the surface (standpipe) pressure should equal the sum of the friction pressure losses. .

052(d) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES Where: Ph = hydrostatic pressure (psi) Lv = True Vertical Depth (TVD) (ft) d = density (lb/gal) Ph/Lv = hydrostatic pressure gradient (psi/ft) 14·36 To Table of Contents Go .Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient: Circulating pressure Pc = Ph + Pat Circulating pressure gradient Pc = Ph + Pat L L v Lm Where: Pc = circulating pressure (psi) Pc /L = circulating pressure gradient (psi/ft) L m = length (ft) or measured depth (ft) (to depth of interest) Hydrostatic pressure Ph = 0.052(d)(L v) Circulating Pressure Gradient (Bottomhole): Hydrostatic pressure gradient Ph/L v = 0.

. . + Pan Lm = measured depth or length of pipe This can also be called the total annular pressure gradient: The pressure loss is calculated for each section of annulus and the average pressure loss can be calculated as follows: Pa /L = pressure gradient. Lm . psi/ft L = measured depth or depth of interest. .Average Pressure Loss or Total Annular Pressure Gradient: Pat = total annulus pressure loss Pat = Pa1 + Pa2 + Pa3 + . . ft ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·37 To Table of Contents Go Pat/L m = (Pa1/L1) L1 + (Pa2/L2) L2 + (Pa3/L3) L3 .

1 R300 ( ) 511 np .1 R300 ( ) For 600 and 300 rpm readings: ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES ⎡R ⎤ n p = 3.5 log ⎢ 300 ⎥ ⎣ R3 ⎦ n = flow behavior index K = consistency index τ = shear stress γ = shear rate Where: np = n for pipe Where: Kp = K for pipe Where: na = n for annulus Where: R3 = 3 rpm reading Where: Ka = K for annulus 5.Power Law Model: τ = Kγ n where K and n are the values of interest Ka = 511 na ⎡R ⎤ n a = 0.32 log ⎢ 600 ⎥ ⎣ R300 ⎦ 14·38 To Table of Contents Go Kp = 5.

) The above equations assume flow in pipe to be at a higher shear rate than annular flow. and Effective Viscosity in Annulus: Vp = fluid velocity in pipe. Effective Viscosity in Pipe.Rheological Calculations for Non-Newtonian Fluids ⎡ 96 V p µ e = 100 Kp ⎢ ⎢ ID ⎣ p Effective Viscosity in Pipe: ( )⎤ n ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ p −1 Bingham Plastic.) D1 = OD of tubing or inner annulus wall (in. ft/sec Effective Viscosity in Annulus: Bingham Plastic PV = R600 – R300 (plastic viscosity) YP = R300 – PV (yield point) ( ) ⎡144 V ⎤ a ⎥ na − 1 µ e = 100 Ka ⎢ ⎢ D2 − D1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ a ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES R600 = rheometer reading at 600 rpm R300 = rheometer reading at 300 rpm Va = fluid velocity in the annulus. ft/sec D2 = ID of casing or outer annulus wall (in. 14·39 To Table of Contents Go .

annulus or hole.35 (D ) − (D ) 2 Cp in bbl / 100 ft = 2 1 ID2 10.Capacity and Displacement Calculations 2 2 Capacity of Annulus: Ca in bbl / 100 ft = 10.41 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·40 To Table of Contents Go Cp in cu ft / ft = ID2 183.294 ( D ) − (D ) Cp in bbl / ft = ID2 1029. 2 1 ( D ) − (D ) Capacity of Pipe: 1029.35 .41 2 2 Ca in bbl / ft = Ca in cu ft / ft = 183.294 2 2 1 These formulas can be used to calculate the capacity and displacement of any size pipe.

294 Ch in bbl / ft = (D) 2 1029.35 = = linear ft / cu ft in annulus OD2 − ID2 1029.41 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·41 To Table of Contents Go Ch in cu ft / ft = (D) 2 183.41 Cal = = linear ft / bbl in annulus OD2 − ID2 183.35 1029.41 Chl = = linear ft / bbl in hole D2 183.41 = linear ft / bbl in pipe ID2 183.35 = = linear ft / cu ft in hole D2 .Capacity of Hole: Cpl = Capacity of Linear ft/bbl: Ch in bbl / 100 ft = (D) 2 10.35 = = linear ft / cu ft in pipe ID2 1029.

Pump Output Use these formulas in conjunction with the pump output table to determine pump output. Note: 1. Double action pumps lose the rod capacity during ∑ of the stroke. 1 stroke (stk) = 1 complete cycle 2. 3. Cylinder and rod capacity is taken from the pump output table or calculated by using the formula below. % efficiency 100 Single Action Pumps: ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·42 To Table of Contents Go Op gal / stk = cylinder capacity × # of cylinders × ( ) .

Double Action Pumps: Op gal / stk = cylinder cap. # of cylinders is: Duplex = 2 Triplex = 3 Quintuplex = D2 l 294.126 ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·43 To Table of Contents Go Cylinder capacity or rod displacement gal = ( ) () . × # of cyldrs × ( % efficiency 100 ) [( ) ( )] For these equations. × # of cyldrs × 2 − rod displ.

gal/stk Q = flow rate. ft/min D = diameter.Pump Output in bbl/min: ⎛ gal ⎞ ⎛ stk ⎞ ⎛ 1 bbl ⎞ Op bbl / min = Op ⎜ ⎟×⎜ ⎟×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ stk ⎠ ⎝ min ⎠ ⎝ 42gal ⎠ ( ) ⎛ bbl ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞ Flow rate Q ft / min pipe or annulus = Q = ⎜ ⎟×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ min ⎠ ⎝ bbl ⎠ ( )( )( ) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·44 To Table of Contents Go (bbl/ft taken from pipe tables) Op = pump output. in. l = cylinder or rod length. . in.

bbl/min Where: H = height of fill. ft ∆P = flowing differential pressure ρ = fluid density. cp Q = flow rate. cp Q = flow rate. ft2 µ = fluid viscosity.45 Forcheimer’s Sand Height Calculation for Turbulent Flow H= ∆P K A 1279µ Q ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES Where: H = height of fill. lb/gal K = gravel permeability. darcies A = cross-sectional flow area.63ρ Q 2 K0. ft2 µ = fluid viscosity. darcies A = cross-sectional flow area. bbl/min 14·45 To Table of Contents Go .Darcy’s Sand Height Calculation for Non-Turbulent Flow H= ∆P K A 2 1279 µ Q A + 4. ft ∆P = flowing differential pressure K = gravel permeability.

000 1.7 31.4461 0.3) To Obtain Multiply acres atmospheres barrels (U.531 x 10–5 0. liquid (gal) gallons — oil (gal) millimeters (mm) microns angstrom units feet of water (ft) pounds/square inch (psi) gr.72 x 10–4 3.Conversions and Tables By 43. liquid) barrels (oil) centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters of mercury centimeters of mercury centipoise ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES centipoise cubic centimeters cubic centimeters 14·46 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .5 42 10 10.S.01 6.2) gallons — U.S.560 14.1934 0./centimeters-second pounds/foot-second (lb/ft-sec) cubic feet (ft3) cubic inches (in.06102 square feet (ft2) pounds/square inches (lb/in. x 10–8 0.

3) cubic yards gallons — U.472 35.0 x 10–3 liters (L) cubic inches (in.2 gallons — U. liquid (gal) By To Obtain cubic centimeters cubic centimeters cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet/minute cubic feet/minute cubic meters cubic meters ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES cubic meters cubic meters 14·47 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .3) cubic meters (m3) cubic yards gallons — U. liquid (gal) liters (L) gallons/second (gal/sec) liters/second (L/sec) cubic feet (ft3) cubic inches (in.31 61.48052 28.308 264.023 1.S. liquid (gal) 1728 0.03704 7.S.Continued from previous page Multiply 2.32 0.S.1247 0.642 x 10–4 1.02832 0.

228 x 10–3 feet (ft) centimeters (cm) meters (m) feet/second (ft/sec) cubic centimeters (cm3) cubic feet (ft3) cubic inches (in.785 8.01667 3785 0.785 x 10–3 3.S.0 30.3) cubic meters (m3) liters (L) pounds of water (lb) cubic feet/second (ft3/sec) cubic feet (ft3) gallons — U.3048 0.Continued from previous page Multiply 27 202 6.48 0. liquid (gal) By To Obtain cubic yards cubic yards fathoms feet feet feet/minute gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES gallons of water gallons/minute 14·48 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .33 2.1337 231 3.

54 1.2046 1.102 x 10–3 pounds (lb) pounds/cubic foot (lb/ft3) pounds/cubic inches (lb/in.06227 2.205 x 10–3 62.3) pounds/cubic foot (lb/ft3) pounds/square foot (lb/ft2) centimeters (cm) feet of water (ft) pounds/square inch (lb/in.0481 2.03527 2.Continued from previous page Multiply 8.4912 1000 2.0208 0.2) grams (g) pounds (lb) tons — short (tons) ounces (oz) cubic feet/hour (ft3/hr) By To Obtain gallons/minute grams grams grams/cubic centimeters grams/cubic centimeters grams/liter grams/square centimeters inches inches of mercury inches of mercury kilograms ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES kilograms kilograms 14·49 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .43 0.133 0.03613 0.

0 1.886 x 10–4 4.2) pounds/square foot (lb/ft2) pounds/square inch (lb/in. liquid (qt) cubic feet/second (ft3/sec) gallons/second (gal/sec) By To Obtain kilograms/cubic meter kilograms/cubic meter kilograms/square centimeters kilograms/square centimeters kilograms/square meter kilograms/square meter knots knots knots liters liters ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES liters/minute liters/minute 14·50 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .2642 1.057 5.403 x 10–3 pounds/cubic ft (lb/ft3) pounds/cubic inch (lb/in.3) pounds/square foot (lb/ft2) pounds/square inch (lb/in.22 0.Continued from previous page Multiply 0.422 x 10–3 6076 1.2) feet/hour (ft/hr) nautical miles/hour (mph) statute miles/hour (mph) gallons — U.S.S.613 x 10–5 2048 14. liquid (gal) quarts — U.151 0.06243 3.2048 1.

statute feet (ft) meters (m) 39.281 1.1516 5280 1609 feet (ft) By To Obtain meters meters meters meters/minute meters/minute meters/minute meters/second meters/second micromicrons microns miles (nautical) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES miles (statute) miles (statute) 14·51 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .05468 0.281 1.8 3.) feet/minute (ft/min) feet/second (ft/sec) miles/hour (mph) feet/minute (ft/min) feet/second (ft/sec) meters (m) meters (m) miles.37 3.0 x 10–3 kilometers (km) inches (in.281 0.0 x 10–6 1.03728 196.Continued from previous page Multiply 3.0 x 10–12 1.

02 By To Obtain millimeters millimeters ounces ppm pints (liquid) pints (liquid) pounds pounds pounds pounds of water pounds of water ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES pounds of water pounds/cubic feet 14·52 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .281 x 10–3 feet (ft) inches (in.1198 16.125 0.68 0.3) gallons (gal) kilograms/cubic meter (kg/m3) 0.45359 16 0.349 SG 0.01602 27.59 0.) grams (g) mg/L gallons (gal) liters (L) grams (g) kilograms (kg) ounces (oz) cubic feet (ft3) cubic inches (in.4732 453.03937 28.Continued from previous page Multiply 3.

1 144 0.307 2.076 x 10–3 pounds/cubic feet (lb/ft3) kilograms/meter (kg/m) By To Obtain pounds/cubic inches pounds/foot pounds/square foot kilograms/square meter (kg/m2) pounds/square inch (lb/in.9463 16.0703 0.) kilograms/square meter (kg/m2) pounds/square foot (lb/ft2) kilograms/square centimeters (kg/cm2) gallons (gal) liters (L) feet (ft) square feet (ft2) pounds/square foot pounds/square inches pounds/square inches pounds/square inches pounds/square inches pounds/square inches quarts (liquid) quarts (liquid) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES rods square centimeters 14·53 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .944 x 10–3 2.488 4.2) feet of water (ft) inches of mercury (in.036 703.882 6.5 1.Continued from previous page Multiply 1728 1.25 0.

2) square inches (in.1111 6.944 x 10–3 10.196 640 2.0 x 10–4 144 0.55 x 10–3 square meters (m2) square inches (in.Continued from previous page Multiply 0.0929 0.076 x 10–5 1.2) By To Obtain square centimeters square centimeters square feet square feet square feet square inches square meters square meters square meters square miles square miles ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES square millimeters square millimeters 14·54 To Table of Contents Go Continues on next page .2) square yards acres square feet (ft2) square feet (ft2) square inches (in.76 1550 1.155 1.788 x 10+7 1.2) square meters (m2) square yards square feet (ft2) square feet (ft2) square inches (in.

228 x 10–7 2240 1000 907.066 x 10–4 acres square feet (ft2) square inches (in.2) square meters (m2) square miles pounds (lb) kilograms (kg) kilograms (kg) pounds (lb) Pounds — troy 9.0 1296 0.Continued from previous page Multiply 2.18 2000 2430 By To Obtain square yards square yards square yards square yards square yards tons (long) tons (metric) tons (short) tons (short) ENGINEERING FORMULAS AND TABLES 14·55 To Table of Contents Go tons (short) .8361 3.

LIST OF PRODUCTS Go To Table of Contents .COMPLETION FLUIDS MANUAL Chapter 15 LIST OF PRODUCTS 15.

nondamaging WB RDF system Solids-free. non-damaging WB RDF system Organophilic filter-cake system 15·1 Go To Table of Contents .LIST OF PRODUCTS Clear Brine Systems Ammonium Chloride (dry) Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride Brine System Calcium Bromide Brine System Calcium Bromide (dry) Calcium Bromide (liquid) Calcium Chloride Brine System Calcium Chloride (dry) Calcium Chloride (liquid) Cesium Formate (liquid) Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate Brine System Cesium Formate/Potassium Formate/ Sodium Formate Brine System Potassium Chloride Brine System Potassium Chloride (dry) Potassium Formate Brine System Potassium Formate (dry) Sodium Bromide Brine System Sodium Bromide (dry) Sodium Bromide (liquid) Sodium Bromide/Sodium Chloride Brine System Sodium Chloride Brine System Sodium Chloride (dry) Sodium Formate Brine System Sodium Formate (dry) Zinc Bromide/Calcium Bromide (liquid) Zinc Bromide/Calcium Bromide/Calcium Chloride Brine System Cesium Formate Brine System Reservoir Drill-In Fluids Systems FLOPRO NT FLOPRO SF FLOTHRU Minimal solids.

biopolymerfree. nonclarified xanthan gum Premium clarified xanthan for FLOPRO NT system Sized-salt weighting agent for FLOPRO NT system FLO-VIS L FLO-VIS NT FLO-VIS PLUS FLO-WATE 15·2 Go To Table of Contents . clarified xanthan gum solution Non-dispersable. divalent brine RDF system Oil-base RDF system Low-solids oil-base RDF system Synthetic olefin-base RDF system Reversible invert-emulsion RDF system VERSAPRO VERSAPRO LS NOVAPRO FAZEPRO Reservoir Drill-In Fluids Products DI-ANTIFOAM DI-BALANCE DI-BOOST DI-INHIB DI-TROL DUAL-FLO DUAL-FLO HT FAZE-MUL FAZE-WET FLO-TROL Antifoaming agent for the DIPRO system Viscosifier for the DIPRO system Secondary viscosifier for the DIPRO system Shale inhibitor for the DIPRO system Filtration-control agent for the DIPRO system Fluid-loss additive for the FLOPRO NT system Fluid-loss reducer for hightemperature applications Emulsifier for FAZEPRO system Wetting agent for FAZEPRO system Starch derivative filtration control agent for FLOPRO NT system Pre-dispersed.LIST OF PRODUCTS DIPRO High-density.

LIST OF PRODUCTS K-52 Non-chloride potassium supplement for FLOPRO NT system Shale stabilizer Shale stabilizer Salt-free shale stabilizer Ground marble weighting agent KLA-STOP KLA-GARD KLA-GARD B SAFE-CARB Breaker Systems BREAKFREE BREAKDOWN FAZEBREAK Disperses FLOPRO NT filter cake Dissolves FLOPRO NT filter cake Disperses FAZEPRO filter cake Breaker Products D-SOLVER D-SOLVER PLUS D-SPERSE WELLZYME A WELLZYME NS WELLZYME ME Chelant Chelant Surfactant-base dispersant Enzyme breaker with biocide for WB RDF fluids Enzyme breaker meets North Sea Environmental standard Enzyme breaker. Middle East Displacement Chemicals SAFE-SOLV OM SAFE-SOLV 148 SAFE-SOLV E SAFE-SURF E SAFE-SURF NS Solvent for OBM and pipe-dope removal Solvent for OBM Solvent for OBM and pipe-dope removal General-purpose displacement surfactant General-purpose displacement solvent/ surfactant blend for North Sea Surfactant for OBM Surfactant for WBM SAFE-SURF O SAFE-SURF W 15·3 Go To Table of Contents .

nondispersible. North Sea Pipe-dope solvent Viscosifiers DUO-VIS DUO-VIS L DUO-VIS PLUS NS Xanthan gum Liquified xanthan gum. thiocynate corrosion inhibitor Brine-soluble amide corrosion inhibitor Sulphur-free oxygen scavenger Zinc-free brine soluble H2S scavenger Oxygen scavenger 15·4 Go To Table of Contents . North Sea version Liquid HEC for high-density brines Specially formulated liquid HEC SAFE-LINK 110 SAFE-LINK 140 SAFE-VIS SAFE-VIS E SAFE-VIS LE SAFE-VIS HDE SAFE-VIS OGS Corrosion Inhibitors SAFE-COR SAFE-COR C SAFE-COR E SAFE-COR HT SAFE-COR 220X SAFE-SCAV CA SAFE-SCAV HS SAFE-SCAV NA Organic amine corrosion inhibitor Organic amine corrosion inhibitor Organic amine corrosion inhibitor High-temperature. non-clarified Xanthan gum. non-clarified for North Sea use Cross-linked cellulose polymer used to control brine losses Cross-linked cellulose polymer used to control high-density brine losses Dry HEC Liquid HEC Liquid HEC.LIST OF PRODUCTS SAFE-SURF WN SAFE-T-PICKLE Water-base mud displacement surfactant.

Eastern Hemisphere only Temperature stabilizer Temperature stabilizer Specialty Systems SEAL-N-PEEL SAFETHERM SAFE-VIS HT LD FLO-DENSE AP FLOPRO CT Removable fluid-loss control pill Insulating packer fluid High-temperature. HEC-base fluid-loss pill Annular kill fluid Coiled-tubing intervention fluid 15·5 Go To Table of Contents .LIST OF PRODUCTS Specialty Chemicals FILTER FLOC SAFE-BREAK CBF SAFE-BREAK ZINC SAFE-BREAK 611 SAFE-DFOAM SAFE-FLOC II SAFE-LUBE SAFE-SCAVITE Greencide 25G STARGLIDE SAFE-CIDE EMI-530 PTS-200 Flocculant Emulsion preventer for calcium-base brine Emulsion preventer for zincbromide brines Emulsion preventer for monovalent brines Defoamer for brine systems Flocculant Water-soluble brine lubricant Scale inhibitor Biocide Lubricant for brine and water-base RDFs Triazine biocide.

4 13 69.9 18 83.0 C Phosphorus N O Oxygen F Ne Fluorine Neon Lithium Beryllium 3 23.1 7 31.0 Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te Antimony Tellurium I Xe Iodine Xenon Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium 37 132.5 12 65.8 4 24 95.8 Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Al Si P Arsenic S Cl Ar Sulphur Chlorine Argon 11 39.1 47 197.0 6 28.1 12 40.2 45 192.9 40 * 178.0 17 79.9 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Selenium Bromine Krypton Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium 19 85.1 4.0 52 (210) 53 (210) 54 (222) 6 78 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Mercur y Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Caesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 55 (223) 74 (263) 75 (262) 76 (265) 77 (266) 56 (226) 57 (227) † 72 (261) 73 (262) 7 Dubnium Seabor gium Bohrium Hassium Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Meitnerium Francium Radium Actinium Ruther fordium 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 Go To Table of Contents Continues on next page .0 18 1.9 16 79.1 3 45.9 22 91.9 5 50.6 49 204.4 29 107.8 9 58.9 36 131.2 Li Be at room temperature and pressure Those elements underlined are radioactive B 5 27.3 5 Niobium Molybdenum Rb Sr 42 183.9 25 (99) 26 101.9 9.3 N 8 32.5 10 39.5 41 181.0 Hydrogen H 13 10.6 Na Mg Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Sodium Magnesium Hg Li } 15 74.8 32 118.6 21 88.4 31 114.9 10 58.9 3 6 52.0 17 19.2 51 209.0 4 24.5 20 87.2 44 190.0 15 14.7 33 121.7 14 72.9 8 55.7 11 63.9 30 112.0 7 54.4 50 207.2 46 195.2 23 92.0 4 47.0 16 16.9 43 186.9 38 137.9 34 127.0 48 200.0 Relative atomic mass 1 14 12.9 28 106.1 27 102.8 Symbol He Helium 1 2 Atomic number 2 6.3 39 138.1 9 35.6 35 126.0 2 element is a gas element is a liquid element is a solid Aluminium Silicon Boron Carbon Nitrogen Key Those numbers appearing within brackets are the mass numbers of common isotopes 20.

5 164.2 (147) 150.3 158.0 Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Califor nium Einsteinium Fer mium † 90-103 Actinide series Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Mendelevium Nobelium Lawr encium THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Go To Table of Contents .9 144.0 140.0 157.9 167.9 162.0 175.1 Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium * 58-71 Lanthanide series Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Lutetium 58 (231) 238.1 (237) (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 (259) 71 (260) 232.Xe Rn Continued from previous page 140.9 173.3 168.4 152.

are made in connection therewith. and no warranties of any kind. including.NOTICE The information and data contained herein and all interpretations and/or recommendations made in connection therewith. have been carefully prepared and considered. Therefore. express or implied. data. subsidiaries. for the user’s consideration. investigation and verification. branches and divisions. based on or arising out of use of same. The user’s agreement to indemnify and save harmless M-I SWACO hereunder shall apply in favor of all its affiliates. without limitation. or presented orally. any user of such information. the information and data and all interpretations and/or recommendations made in connection therewith are presented solely as a guide. or injury to the well or reservoir. subsurface trespass. In these premises and in consideration thereof. death or injury. as well as to any contribution hereto to whom it or they may be liable in the absence of this notice. damages. there are many variable well conditions of and over which M-I SWACO can have no knowledge or control. to persons or property. allegedly. that in addition to the necessity for relying on facts and supporting services furnished by others. Go To Table of Contents . however. subsurface damage. It must be understood. interpretations and/or recommendations agrees to indemnify and save harmless M-I SWACO from all claims and actions for loss. whether written herein or elsewhere. whether or not such claims or actions are based upon the purported negligence of M-I SWACO in the preparation of furnishing the same.

com E-mail: questions@miswaco. All product warranties and guarantees shall be governed by the Standard Terms of Sale. CMC.0306. . ©2005 M-I L.S. Nothing in this document is legal advice or is a substitute for competent legal advice. with respect to the accuracy and use of this data.C.L.O.P. SCOTLAND Tel: 44·1224·334634 · Fax: 44·1224·334650 STAVANGER.R1 (E) 1M Litho in U.A. All rights reserved. Texas 77242-2842 Tel: 281·561·1300 Fax: 281·561·1441 www.com Technology Centers: HOUSTON. either expressed or implied.miswaco. Box 42842 Houston.0605. TEXAS Tel: 281·561·1300 · Fax: 281·561·1441 ABERDEEN. NORWAY Tel: 47·51·577300 · Fax: 47·51·570605 This information is supplied solely for informational purposes and M-I SWACO makes no guarantees or warranties.

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