Slide No 1

Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
CISCOM Training Center
Microwave Planning and Design
Slide No 2
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Radio PIanning and Link Design
ourse ontents
· PCM and E1 TDM Overview
· Digital Multiplexing: PDH and SDH Overview
· Digital Microwave Systems Overview
· Microwave links PerIormance and Quality Obiectives
· Topology and Capacity Planning
· Diversity
· Microwave Antennas
Slide No 3
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Radio PIanning and Link Design
ourse ontents (con`d)
· Radio Propagation
· Microwave Link Planning and Design
Path ProIile
LOS Survey
Link Budget
PerIormance Prediction
· Frequency Planning
· InterIerence
· Digital map and tools overview
Slide No 4
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PIanning Objectives
· MW Radio Planning Objectives
Selection oI suitable radio component
Communication quality and availability
Link Design
Preliminary site location and path proIile, LOS survey
Channel capacity
Topology
Radio Irequency allocation (planning)
Slide No 5
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PCM and E1 Overview
Slide No 6
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
'oice channeI digitizing and TDM
· %ransmission:
Voice
Data
· Voice is an analog signal and needs to be digitized before
transmitted digitally
· PM. Pulse ode Modulation is the most used technique
· %he European implementation of PM includes time
division multiplexing of 30 64 kb/s voice channels and 2
64kb/s for synchronization and signaling in basic digital
channel called E1
· E1 rate is 2.048 Mb/s ÷ 32 x 64 kb/s
Slide No 7
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PCM Coder BIock Diagram 64 kb/s
S/H S/H Quantizer Quantizer LPF LPF Encoder Encoder
64 kb/s
PCM signal
Analog
signal
Slide No 8
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
E1 History
· irst use was for telephony (voice) in 1960`s with PM
and %DM of 30 digital PM voice channels which called
E1
· E1 is known as PM-30 also
· E1 was developed slightly after %1 (1.55 Mbps) was
developed in America (hence %1 is slower)
· %1 is the North America implementation of PM and
%DM
· %1 is PM-24 system
Slide No 9
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
E1 Frame
· 30 time division multiplexed (%DM) voice channels. each running at
64Kbps (known as E1)
· E1 rate is 2.048 Mbps containing thirty two 64 kbps time slots.
30 Ior voice,
One Ior Signaling (TS16)
One Ior Frame Synchronization (TS0)
· E1 (2M) rame rate is the same PM sampling rate ÷ 8kHz. rame
duration is 1/8 kHz ÷ 125 us (Every 125 us a new frame is sent)
· %ime slot Duration is 125 us/32 ÷ 3.9 us
· One time slot contains 8 bits
· A timeslot can be thought of as a link running at 8000 X 8 ÷ 64 kbps
· E1 Rate:
64 X 32 ÷ 2048000 bits/second
Slide No 10
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
E1 frame diagram
Time Slot
0
Time Slot
1
Time Slot
2
Time Slot
31
Time Slot
30
Time Slot
29
.....
....
Time Slot
16
....
....
125us
S
i
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
S
i
1 A S
n
S
n
S
n
S
n
S
n
Frame containing
Irame alignment
signal (FAS)
Frame not containing
Irame alignment
signal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Bits
Frame Alignment Signal (FAS) pattern - 0011011
S
i
÷ Reserved Ior international use (Bit 1)
S
n
÷ Reserved Ior national use
A ÷ Remote (FAS Distant) Alarm- set to 1 to indicate alarm condition
Slide No 11
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
E1 Transmission Media
· $ymmetrical pair: Balanced. 120 ohm
· o-axial: Unbalanced. 75ohm
· iber optic
· Microwave
· $atellite
· Other wireless radio
· Wireless Optical
Slide No 12
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SM coding and TDM in terrestriaI E1
· As we know PM channel is 64Kb/s
· Bit rate for one voice G$M channel is 16Kb/s between
B%$ and B$ (terrestrial)
· One G$M E1 is 120 G$M voice channels
· %he PM-to-G$M %RAU (transcoder) reduces no of E1`s
by 4
· Each G$M radio carries 8 %Hs in the air. this equivalent
to 8x16Kb/s÷2x64Kb/s between B%$ and B$.
· Each G$M radio has 2 time slots in the G$M E1.
· Example: 3/3/3 site require 9x2÷18 E1 time slots for
traffic and time slot(s) for radio signaling links
Slide No 13
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI MuItipIexing: PDH and SDH
Overview
Slide No 14
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
European DigitaI MuItipIexer Hierarchy
· Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
· $ynchronous Digital Hierarchy ($DH )
Slide No 15
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PDH MuItipIexing
· Based on a 2.048Mbit/s (E1) bearer
· Increasing traffic demands that more and more of these
basic E1 bearers be multiplexed together to provide
increased capacity
· Once multiplexed. there is no simple way an individual E1
bearer can be identified in a PDH hierarchy
Slide No 16
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
European PDH MuItipIexing Structure
1
30
1 E1
4 x E1
16 x E1
4 x 34
Higher order multiplexing
2048 kbps
8448 kbps
34,368 kbps
139,264 kbps
Slide No 17
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
European PDH MuItipIexing Structure-used
MUX
DEMUX
Primary PM
Multiplexing
B%$
Multiplexing
Data
Multiplexing
MUX
DEMUX
MUX
DEMUX
MUX
DEMUX
MUX
DEMUX
1
st
order
2.048 Mbps
E1
2
nd
order
8.228 Mbps
E2
3
rd
order
34.368 Mbps
E3
VF
Data
mobile
Slide No 18
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PDH ProbIems
· Inflexible and expensive because of asynchronous
multiplexing
· Limited network management and maintenance support
capabilities
· High capacity growth
· $ensitive to network failure
· Difficulty in verifying network status
· Increased cost for O&M
Slide No 19
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SDH
· $ynchronous and based on byte interleaving
· provides the capability to send data at multi-gigabit rates over
fiber-optics links.
· $DH is based on an $%M-1 (155.52Mbit/s) rate
· $DH supports the transmission of all PDH payloads. other than
8Mbit/s
Slide No 20
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SDH Bit Rates
155.52 Mbit/s
622.08 Mbit/s
2.48832 Gbit/s
$%M-1
$%M-4
$%M-16
4
4
3
$%M-0
51.84 Mbit/s
$%M-64
4
9.995328 Gbit/s
Slide No 21
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
eneraI Transport ModuIe STM-N
RSOH
MSOH
Payload
AU pointer
1
9
5
3
N. 270 columns
N. 9
N. 261
SOH: Section Overhead
AU: Administration Unit
MSOH: Multiplexer Section
Overhead
RSOH: Repeater Section
Overhead
Slide No 22
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SDH MuItipIexing Structure
C-4 VC-4
C-12
C-3 VC-3
VC-12 TU-12
TU-3 TUG-3
TUG-2
AUG AU-4 STM-N
x 1
x 1 x 3
x 7 x 3
x N
C: Container
VC: Virtual Container
TU: Tributary Unit
TUG: Tributary Container Group
AU: Administrative Unit
AUG: Administrative Unit Group
Mapping
Aligning
Multiplexing
140 Mbps
2 Mbps
34 Mbps
Slide No 23
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
From 2 Mbps to STM-1
STM-1
'C-4
+ POH
+ POH
'C-12 2 Mbits
ustification)
+ SOH
SOH: Section Overhead
POH: Path Overhead
$DH
MUX
Slide No 24
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Containers C
÷
PDH
Stream
JustiIication bits
Container
Slide No 25
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
'irtuaI Containers 'C
÷
Container
Path overhead
Virtual
Container
Slide No 26
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SDH Advantages
· ost efficient and flexible networking
· Built in capacity for advanced network management and
maintenance capabilities
· $implified multiplexing and demultiplexing
· Low rate tributes visible within the high speed signal.
Enables direct access to these signals
· ost efficient allocation of bandwidth
· ault isolation and Management
· Byte interleaved and multiplexed
Slide No 27
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SDH Benefits over PDH
· $DH transmission systems have many benefits over PDH:
$oftware ontrol
allows extensive use of intelligent network management software for high flexibilitv. fast
and easv re-configurabilitv. and efficient network management.
$urvivability
ith SDH. ring networks become practicable and their use enables automatic
reconfiguration and traffic rerouting when a link is damaged. End-to-end monitoring
will allow full management and maintenance of the whole network.
Efficient drop and insert
SDH allows simple and efficient cross-connect without full hierarchical multiplexing or
de-multiplexing. A single E1 2.048Mbit/s tail can be dropped or inserted with relative
ease even on Gbit/s links.
Slide No 28
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SDH Benefits over PDH- con'd
$tandardization
enables the interconnection of equipment from different suppliers through
support of common digital and optical standards and interfaces.
Robustness and resilience oI installed networks is increased.
Equipment size and operating costs
reduced bv removing the need for banks of multiplexers and de-multiplexers.
Follow-on maintenance costs are also reduced.
Backwards compatibly
will enable SDH links to support PDH traffic.
Slide No 29
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SM BIock Diagram (E1 Iinks)
MSC1
MSC3
MSC2
BSC1
BSC2
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
SDH
PDH
Abis
Slide No 30
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Abis- Interface
· onnects between the B$ and the B%$
· Has not been standardized
· Primary functions carried over this interface are:
TraIIic channel transmission, terrestrial channel management, and radio
channel management
· On Abis-Interface. two types of information
1raffic information
Signalling information
BSC Abis-Interface
BTS
Slide No 31
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Abis- Interface
· %raffic Information
%he traffic on the physical layer needs ¼ %$ (%ime $lot)
on the E1 with bit rate ÷ 16 Kb/s
4 channels exist within one %$
· $ignalling Information
Different rates on the physical layer: 16 Kb/s. 32 Kb/s.
and 64 Kb/s
%he protocol used over the Abis-Interface is LAPD
protocol (Link Access Protocol for the I$DN D-channel)
%he signalling link between the B$ and the B%$ is
called R$L (Radio $ignalling Link)
Slide No 32
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Microwave systems Overview
Slide No 33
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Microwave system
· Equipment
E1
MUX
IF MODEM
Transceiver
n door
Out door TRU
Feeder
For n door
Co-axial transmission line
aveguide transmission line
For Outdoor
F between modem ODU Transceiver TRU)
Slide No 34
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
MODEM- DigitaI ModuIation
· P$K
2 PSK
4 PSK
8 PSK
· QAM
8 QAM
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
Slide No 35
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Protecting MW Links
· Microwave links are protected against
Hardware Iailure
Multipath Fading
Rain Fading
· Protection $chemes
1 ¹ 1 conIiguration
Diversity
Ring
Slide No 36
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Equipment Specification
· Operating requency
· Modulation
· apacity
· Bandwidth
· Output power
· Receiver %hresholds m BER`s 10
-6
and 10
-3
· M%B
· K%B
Slide No 37
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
RADIO EQUIPT ExampIe: DART
Dish diameter: 30 cm
Antenna
dish
Radio
Equipment
Slide No 38
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Slide No 39
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Radio Equipment Datasheet
Slide No 40
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave AIIocation in Radio spectrum
3 k
30 k
300 k 3 M 30 M 300 M 3 G
30 G 300 G
VL L M
VH
VH
Very low Irequency
L
Low Irequency
M
Medium Irequency
H High Frequency
VH Very High Frequency
UH Ultra High Frequency
$H Super High Frequency
EH Extremely High Frequency
UH $H H EH
· Microwave primarily is
utilized in SHF band, and
some small parts oI UHF &
EHF bands
Slide No 41
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Bands
· $ome requency bands used in microwave are
2 GHz
7 GHz
13 GHz
18 GHz
23 GHz
26 GHz
38 GHz
· %he usage of frequency bands will depend mainly on the
budget calculation results and the path length
Slide No 42
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Capacities
· apacities available for microwave links are
1 x 2 Mbps with a bandwidth oI 1.75 MHz
2 x 2 Mbps with a bandwidth oI 3.5 MHz
4 x 2 Mbps with a bandwidth oI 7 MHz
8 x 2 Mbps with a bandwidth oI 14 MHz
16 x 2 Mbps with a bandwidth oI 28 MHz
Slide No 43
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
23 Hz Band - exampIe
21224 22456
1232
1120 1120
22456
23576
Low High
2 x 2 (3.5 MHz) 4 x 2 (7 MHz) 8 x 2 (14 MHz) 16 x 2 (28 MHz)
Possible Number of hannels
320 160 80 40
Slide No 44
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ChanneI Spacing
1.75 MHz 3.5 MHz
3.5 MHz
7 MHz
7 MHz 14 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
2 E1
4 E1
8 E1
16 E1
Slide No 45
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
InternationaI ReguIatory Bodies
· I%U-%
Is to IulIil the purposes oI the Union relating to telecommunication
standardization by studying technical, operating and tariII questions
and adopting Recommendations on them with a view to
standardizing telecommunications on a world-wide basis.
· I%U-R
plays a vital role in the management oI the radio-Irequency spectrum
and satellite orbits, Iinite natural resources which are increasingly in
demand Irom a large number oI services such as Iixed, mobile,
broadcasting, amateur, space research, meteorology, global
positioning systems, environmental monitoring and, last but not
least, those communication services that ensure saIety oI liIe at sea
and in the skies.
Slide No 46
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Performance and avaiIabiIity objectives
Slide No 47
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Performance Objectives and avaiIabiIity objectives
· Dimensioning of network connection is based on the
required availability objective and performance
· Dimension a network must meet the standard
requirements recommendations by I%U
· %he performance objectives are separated from
availability objectives
· actors to be considered
radio wave propagation
hardware Iailure
Resetting time aIter repair
Frequency dependant interIerence problems
Slide No 48
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T Recs for Transmission in SM Net
· All B%$. B$ and M$ connections in G$M network are
defined as multiples of the primary rate if 2 Mbps.
· I%U-% Rec G.821 applies as the overall standard for
G$M network.
· I%U-% Rec G.826 applies for $DH.
Slide No 49
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
The ITU-T Recs (Standards)
· %he I%U-% target standard are based on two
recommendations:
ITU-T Recommendation G.821,intended Ior digital connection with
a bit rate oI 64 kBit/s. Even used Ior digital connection with bit rates
higher than 64kBit/s. G.821 will successively be replaced by G.826.
ITU- T Recommendation G.826, used Ior digital connection with bit
rates oI or higher than 2,048 kBit/s (European standard) or 1,544
kBit/s (USA standard).
· %he main difference between G.826 and G.821 is that
G.826 uses Blocks instead of bits in G.821
Slide No 50
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 some definitions
· HRX : 5ot0tical R0f0r0nc0 Conn0ction
This a model Ior long international connection, 27,500 km
Includes transmission systems, multiplexing equipment and switching
· HRDP: 5ot0tical R0f0r0nc0 Digital Pat
The HRDP Ior high grade digital relay systems is 2500 km
Doesn`t include switching
· HRD$: 5ot0tical R0f0r0nc0 Digital S0ction
It represents section lengths likely to be encountered in real networks
Doesn't include digital equipments, such as multiplexers/demultiplexers.
Slide No 51
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 some definitions (con'd)
· $E$ : S0;0r0l Error0/ S0con/8
A bit error rate (BER) oI 10
-3
is measured with an integration time oI 1 second.
· DM : D0gra/0/ Minut08
A bit error rate (BER) oI 10
-6
is measured with an integration time oI 1 minute.
· E$ : Error0/ S0con/8
Is the second that contains at least one error
· RBER: R08i/ual Bit Error Rat0
The RBER on a system is Iound by taking BER measurements Ior one month
using a 15 min integration time, discarding the 50 ° oI 15 min intervals which
contain the worst BER measurements, and taking the worst oI the remaining
measurements
Slide No 52
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 HRX Hypothetical Reference Connection
Local
Grade
Medium
Grade
Medium
Grade
Local
Grade
High
Grade
T-reIerence
point
T-reIerence
point
1250 km 1250 km 25,000 km
27,500 km
LE LE IN%
IN%
40 °
15 °
15 ° 15 ° 15 °
Slide No 53
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 some definitions
· %he system is considered unavailable when one or both of the
following conditions occur for more than 10 consecutive seconds
The digital signal is interrupted
The BER in each second is worse than 10
3
· Unavailable %ime (UA%)
Begins when one or both oI the above mentioned conditions occur Ior 10
consecutive seconds
· Available %ime (A%)
A period oI available time begins with the Iirst second oI a period oI 10
consecutive seconds oI which each second has a bit error ratio (BER) better than
10
-3
Slide No 54
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 performance & AvaiIabiIity
ExampIes
BER 10
-6
BER 10
-3
DM
ES
SES
·10s
~10s
SES
Available time (AT) Unavailable time (UAT)
DM
ES ES
ES
ES
DM DM
Slide No 55
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 AvaiIabiIity
· Route availability equals the sum of single link
availabilities forming the route.
· Unavailability might be due to
Propagation eIIect
Equipment eIIect
Note: ommonly used division is to allocate 2/3 of the allowed total
unavailability to equipment failure and 1/3 to propagation related
unavailability
Slide No 56
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-T 21 Performance Objectives
· $E$ : S0;0r0l Error0/ S0con/8
BER should not exceed 10
3
Ior more than 0.2° oI one second intervals in any
month
The total allocation oI 0.2° is divided as: 0.1° Ior the three classiIications
The remaining 0.1° is a block allowance to the high grade and the medium grade
portions
· DM : D0gra/0/ Minut08
BER should not exceed 10
6
Ior more than 10° oI one minute intervals in any
month
The allocations oI the 10° to the three classes
· E$ : Error0/ S0con/8
Less than 8° oI one second intervals should have errors
The allocations oI the 8° to the three classes
Slide No 57
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
21 Performance Objectives over HRX
Local Medium Medium Local High
0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2 1.2
1.2
0.04
4
3.2
1250 km
1250 km
25000 km
IN%
LE
SES 0.2°
(0.1°¹0.1° Ior
High and Medium
grade Ior adverse
conditions
0.05 0.05
DM 10 °
ES 8 °
I%U-% G.821. .697. .696
Slide No 58
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
P & A for HRPD - High rade
High Grade
2500
0054 °
(0.004¹0.05)
0.4 °
0.32 °
SES
(Additional 0.05° Ior
adverse propagation
conditions)
DM
ES
0.3 °
UAT
Note: between 280 to 2500 all parameters are multiplied by (L/2500)
1/10 oI HRX
I%U-% G.821. Rep 1052
Slide No 59
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
P & A for HRDS - Medium rade
Used Ior national networks, between local exchange and
international switching center
PerIormance and availability Obiectives Ior HRDS
PerIormance parameter Percentage oI any month
Class 1
280 km
Class 2
280 km
Class 3
50 km
Class 4
50 km
SES 0.006 0.0075 0.002 0.005
DM 10 ° 0.045 0.2 0.2 0.5
Errored Seconds ES 8 ° 0.036 0.16 0.16 0.4
RBER 5.6x10
-10
Under
study
Under
study
Under
study
UAT 0.033 0.05 0.05 0.1
I%-% G.821. .696. Rep 1052
Slide No 60
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
P & A for HRX - LocaI rade
The local grade portion oI the HRX represents the part between the
subscriber and the local exchange
Error perIormance obiectives are:
ER shouldnt exceed 10
3
for more than 0.015º of anv month with an
integration time of 1 s
ER shouldnt exceed 10
-6
for more than 1.5º of anv month with an integration
time of 1 min
The total errored seconds shouldnt exceed 1.2º of anv month
Unavailability obiectives Ior local grade circuits have not yet been
established by ITU-T or ITU-R.
Slide No 61
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Performance Predictions
· $ystem performance is determined by the probability for
the signal level to drop below the radio threshold level or
the received spectrum to be severely distorted
· %he larger fade margin. the smaller probability for the
signal to drop below the receiver threshold level
Slide No 62
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
AvaiIabiIity
· %he total unavailability of a radio path is the sum of the
probability of hardware failure and unavailability due to rain
· %he unavailability due to hardware failure is considered for
both the go and return direction so the calculated value is
doubled
· %he probability that electronic equipment fails in service is not
constant with time
· the high probability of hardware failure occurred during
burn-in and wear-out periods
· During life time the random failures have constant probability
Slide No 63
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
HW UnavaiIabiIity
· Unavailability of one equipment module - HW
where
MTTR is mean time to repair
MTBF is mean time between Iailures.
MTTR MTBF
MTTR
N1
+
=
Slide No 64
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
CaIcuIation of UnavaiIabiIity
· Unavailability of cascaded modules
N1 N1
N3 N3 N2 N2
Nn Nn

i
n
i
n
i
i
n
i
s s
N Ni N A N
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
= = =
L =
¦
'
+

'

L < H = =
Slide No 65
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
CaIcuIation of UnavaiIabiIity
· Unavailability of parallel modules
N1 N1
N3 N3
N2 N2
Nn Nn
i
n
i
s
N N
1 =
H =
Slide No 66
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Improvement in AvaiIabiIity in n+1 protection
· HW protection
· Unavailability of a n+1 redundant system



2 1
2
1
1
! 2 1 ! 2
1 1
+
+

¦
¦
'
+

'

+
+
=
n
n
N N
n
n
n
N
Can be approximated
2
1
2
1
N
n
N
n
+
=
+
Slide No 67
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Improvement in AvaiIabiIity in Loop protection
· HW and route protection
· Unavailability in a loop
Where,
J: Amount oI hops in loop
K: Consecutive number oI hop Irom the hub
N: Unavailability oI the hop
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

=
¯ ¯
+ = =

k i
i
k
i
i
N N N
1 1
N6 N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
N7
N÷(N1¹N2)(N3¹N4¹N5¹N6¹N7)
Slide No 68
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
HRDS - ExampIe
· HRD$: Medium grade class 3. 50 km. If the link is 5km
find UA% in º & s/d
· $olution:
From table oI HRDS, Medium grade class 3, 50 km ~~UAT ÷
0.05°
For 5 km ~~ UAT ÷ (0.05°) * 5/50 ÷ 0.005°
UAT ÷ (0.005/100) * 365.25*24÷ 0.438h/y ÷ 26min/y ÷ 4s/d
N
Slide No 69
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
TopoIogy PIanning
Slide No 70
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Capacity and TopoIogy pIanning
· apacity demand per link results from transceiver capacity at those
B%$ which are to be connected to the microwave link
· One transceiver reserves 2.5 time slots for traffic and signalling
· It is common to design for the higher capacity demand.
· or rapid traffic increase. the transmission network is dimensioned
to reserve the capacity of 6 transceivers
· %he advantage to reserve capacity
Flexibility in topology planning
New BTS s can be added to existing transmission links
New transceivers can be added without implementing new transmission links
No need Ior changeover to new transmission links in Iully operating network
Slide No 71
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Transmission Capacity PIanning-Traffic
MotoroIa-standards
· Bit rate for one voice PM channel is 64Kb/s
· Bit rate for one voice G$M channel is 16Kb/s between
B%$ and B$
· Each G$M radio carries 8 %Hs in the air. this equivalent
to 8x16Kb/s÷2x64Kb/s between B%$ and B$.
· Each G$M radio has 2 time slots in the G$M E1.
· Example: 3/3/3 site require 9x2÷18 E1 time slots for
traffic and one time slot for R$L. total is 19 time slots
Slide No 72
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Transmission Capacity PIanning-ExampIe
· Example: How Many Motorola micro-cells can be daisy
chained using one E1 at maximum?
· $olution:
Motorola micro cell has 2 radios (omni-2)
Each micrcell requires 2x2 time slots Ior traIIic and 1 time slot Ior
rsl
So each micro cell requires 5 time slots (64 kb/s time slots)
Each E1 contains 31 time slots
|31time slots| divided by |5 time slots/microcell| gives us the the
maximum no oI daisy chained microcells
So 6 microcells can be daisy chained at maximum
Slide No 73
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
TopoIogy PIanning
· Network topology is based on
TraIIic
Outage requirements
· Most frequently used topologies
Star
Daisy Chain
Loop
Slide No 74
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Star
·Each station is connected with a separate link to the MW hub.
·ommonly used for leased line connections (needs low
availability)
Slide No 75
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Star
· Advantages
Easy to design
Independent paths which mean link Iailure aIIects only one node
Easy to conIigure and install
Can be expanded easily
· Disadvantages
Limited distance Irom BTS or hub to the BSC
IneIIicient use oI Irequency band
IneIIicient link capacity use as each BTS uses the 2 Mbps
High concentration oI equipment at nodal point
InterIerence problem
Slide No 76
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Daisy Chain
· Advantages
EIIicient use oI link capacity (iI BTSs are chained to the same 2Mbps)
Low concentration oI equipment at nodal point
· Disadvantages
Installation planning is essential as the BTSs close
II the Iirst link is lost, the traIIic oI the whole BTS chain is lost
extended bandwidth (grooming)
55lication: along roa/8
Slide No 77
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Daisy Chain
· (grooming)
Slide No 78
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Tree
55lication: U80/ for 8mall or m0/ium 8iz0 n0twork
· Advantages
EIIicient equipment utilization by grooming
Short paths which require smaller antenna
Frequency reuse
· Disadvantages
Availability , one link Iailure aIIect many sites
Expansions might require upgrading or rearrangement
Slide No 79
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Loop
B1S8 ar0 conn0ct0/ onto two wa multi/ro5 cain
· Advantages
Provide the most reliable means oI transmission protection against microwave link
Iading and equipment Iailure
Flexibility y providing longer hops with the same antenna size, or alternatively,
smaller antenna dishes with the same hop length
· Disadvantages
Installation planning; since all BTSs oI a loop must be in place Ior loop protection
More diIIicult to design and add capacity
Skilled maintenance personnel is required to make coIiguration changes in the loop
Slide No 80
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
TopoIogy PIanning
· Define clusters
· $elect reference node
· hose Backbone
· Decide the topology
Slide No 81
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Diversity
Slide No 82
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Diversity
· Diversity is a method used if project path is severely
influenced by fading due to multi path propagation
· %he common protection of diversity techniques are:
Space Diversity
Frequency Diversity
Combination oI Irequency and space Diversity
Angle Diversity
Note: Irequency diversity technique takes advantage because oI the
Irequency selectivity nature oI the multi path depressive Iading.
Slide No 83
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Diversity
Diversity Improvement
· %he degree of improvement afforded by all of diversity
techniques on the extents to witch the signals in the
diversity branches of the system are uncorrelated.
· %he improvement of diversity relative to a single channel
given by:
Improvement Iactor where P reIers to BER
Diversitv
nel Singlechan
P
P
=
Slide No 84
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Diversity Improvement
10
3
20
10
-4
10
-5
10
-6
10
-7
40 30
Diversity
improvement
factor
No
diversity
diversity
Fade Depth
Slide No 85
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SingIe Diversity
· $pace diversity
Employs transmit antenna and two receiver antenna
%he two receivers enables the reception of signals via different
propagation paths
It requires double antenna on each side of the hop. a unit for the
selection of the best signal and partially or fully duplicated
receivers
Note: whenever space diversity is used. angle diversity should also
be employed by tilting the antenna at different upwards angles
Slide No 86
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Space Diversity
$eparate paths
Tx
Rx
Rx
S
1 1
1
Slide No 87
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency diversity
· %he same signal is transmitted simultaneously on two
different frequencies
· One antenna is required on either side of the hops. a unit
selecting the best signal and duplicate transmitters and
receivers
· A cost-effective technique
· Provides equipment protection . also gives protection
from multipath fading
Slide No 88
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency diversity
It is not recommended for 1+1 systems. because 50º of the spectrum
is utilized
or redundant N+1 systems this technique is efficient. because the
spectrum efficiency is better. but the improvement factor will be
reduced since there are more channel sharing the same diversity
channel
1+1 systems
Slide No 89
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Hot standby configuration
· %x and Rx operate at the same frequency. so there is no frequency
diversity could be expected
· %his configuration gives no improvement of system performance.
but reduces the system outage due to equipment failures
· Used to give equipment diversity (protection) on paths where
propagation conditions are non-critical to system performance
Slide No 90
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Hybrid diversity
· Is an arrangement where 1+1 system has two antennas at
one of the radio sites
· %his system effect act as space diversity system. and
diversity improvement factor can be calculated as for
space diversity
Slide No 91
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
AngIe diversity
· Angle diversity techniques are based upon differing angles of
arrival of radio signal at a receiving antenna. when the signals are a
result of Multipath propagation
· %he angle diversity technique involves a receiving antenna with its
vertical pattern tilted purposely off the bore sight lines
· Angle diversity can be used is situations in witch adequate space
diversity is not possible or to reduce tower height
Slide No 92
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Combined diversity
· In practical configuration a combination of space and
frequency diversity is used
· Different combination algorithms exist
· %he simple method (conservative) to calculate the
improvement factor for combined diversity configuration
I ÷ Isd + Isd
Slide No 93
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Combined diversity
Combined space and Irequency diversity
TX
TX
RX
RX
RX
RX
I1
I1
I2
S
I2
Slide No 94
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Path Diversity
· Outage due to precipitation will not be reduced by use of
frequency.angle or space diversity.
· Rain attenuation is mainly a limiting factor at frequencies above
~10 GHz
· $ystems operating at these high frequencies are used in urban areas
where the radio relay network may from a mix of star and mesh
configurations
· %he area covered by an intense shower is normally much smaller
than the coverage of the entire network
· Re-Routing the signal via other paths
Slide No 95
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Path Diversity
· %he diversity gain (I.e. the difference between the attenuation
(dB) exceeded for a specific percentage of time on single link and
that simultaneously on two parallel links
Tends to decrease as the path length increases Irom 12 km or a given percentage
oI time, and Ior a given lateral path separation
Is generally greater Ior a spacing oI 8 km than Ior 4 km, though an increase to 12
km dose not provide Iurther improvement
Is not signiIicantly dependent on Irequency in the range 20 40 GHz, Ior a
given geometry, and
- Ranges from about 2.8 d at 0.1º of the time to 0.4 d at 0.001º of the time. for
a spacing of 8 km. and path lengths of about the same value for a 4 km spacing
are about 1.8 to 2.0 d.
Slide No 96
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Antennas
Slide No 97
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Antennas
· %he most commonly used type is parabolic antenna
· %he performance of microwave system depends on the
antenna parameters
· Antenna parameters are:
Gain
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
Side and back lobe levels
Beam width
Discrimination oI cross polarization
Mechanical stability
Slide No 98
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Antenna ain
·%he gain of parabolic antenna referred to an isotropic
radiator is given by:
where:
÷ aperture eIIiciency (typical values : 0.5-0.6)
2 ÷ wavelength in meters
A ÷ aperture area in m
2
Note : the previous Iormula valid only in the Iar Iield oI the antenna, the
gain will be decreased in the near Iield, near Iield antenna gain is obtained
Irom manuIacturer
)
4
log( 10
2
2
6
L L < A Gain
Slide No 99
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Antenna ain-cont
· %his figure shows the relation
between the gain of microwave dish
and frequency with different dish
diameters
· an be approximated
Gain ÷ 17.8 ¹ 20log (d.f) dBi
where,
d : Dish diameter (m)
f : Frequency in GHz
Slide No 100
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
'SWR
· VSWR resembles Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
· It is important in the case oI high capacity systems with
stringent linearity obiectives
· VSWR should be minimum in order to avoid intermodulation
interIerence
· Typical values oI VSWR are Irom 1.06 to 1.15
· High perIormance antennas have VSWR Irom 1.04 to 1.06
Slide No 101
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Side and Back Iobe LeveIs
· %he important parameters in frequency planning and
interference calculations are sidelobe and backlobes
· Low levels of side and backlobes make the use of
frequency spectrum more efficient
· %he levels of side and backlobes are specified in the
radiation envelope patterns
· %he front to back ratio gives an indication of backlobe
levels
· %he front to back ratio increases with increasing of
frequency and antenna diameter
Slide No 102
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Beam Width
· %he half power beam width of antenna is defined as the
angular width of the main beam at -3dB point
An approximate Iormula used to Iind the beam width is:
-
3dB
÷ 35. 2/D in degrees
The 10dB deIlection angle is Iound approximately by:
-
10dB
÷ 60. 2/D in degrees
Slide No 103
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Antenna Characteristics - EIRP and ERP
· Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)
It is equal to the product oI the power supplied to a transmitting antenna and the
antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic radiator (expressed in
watts)
EIRP ÷ Power - Feeder Loss ¹ Antenna Gain
oth ERP and Power expressed in d
Antenna gain expressed in di
· Effective Radiated Power (ERP)
The same as EIRP but is relative to a halI-wave dipole instead oI an isotropic
radiator
· EIRP ÷ ERP + 2.14 dB
· Example
Transmitter Output Power ÷ 4 Watts ÷ 36 dBm, Transmission Line Loss ÷ 2 dB, and
Antenna Gain ÷ 10 dBd. Calculate the ERP
Answer: ERP ÷ 36 - 2 ¹ 10 ÷ 44 dBmd
Slide No 104
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Passive Repeater
· %wo types of passive repeaters :
Plane reIlectors
Back to Back antennas
· %he plane reflector reflects MW signals as the mirror
reflects light
The laws oI reIlection are valid here
· %he back to back antennas work just like an ordinary
repeater station. but without frequency transportation or
amplification of the signal
Slide No 105
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Passive Repeater- cont
· By using passive repeaters the free space loss becomes:
A
L
÷ A
$A
- G
R
+ A
$B
where
A
FSA
is the Iree space loss Ior the path site A to passive repeater
A
FSB
is the Iree space loss Ior the path site B to passive repeater
G
R
is the gain oI the passive repeater
Slide No 106
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PIane RefIectors
· More popular than back to back antennas due to :
EIIiciency is around 100°
Can be produced with much larger dimensions than parabolic antennas
· %he gain of plane reflectors is given by:
G
R
÷ 20 log( 139.5 . f
2
.A
R
. cos( /2 )) in dB
where :
A
R
is the physical reIlector area in m2
F is the radio Irequency in GHz
is the angle in space at the passive
repeater in degrees
Slide No 107
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
PIane RefIectors
Slide No 108
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Back to back Repeater
· Use of them is practical when reflection angle is large
· %he Gain of back to back antennas is given by
G
R
÷ G
A1
- A

+ G
A2
in dB
where :
G
A1
: is the gain oI one oI the two antennas at the repeater in dB
G
A2
: is the gain oI the other antenna at the repeater in dB
A
C
: is the coupling loss between antennas in dB
Slide No 109
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Back to back antennas
Slide No 110
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Antenna Characteristics - PoIarization
· o-Polarization
The transmit and receive antennas have the same polarization
Either horizontal or vertical (HH or VV)
· ross-Polarization
The transmit and receive antennas have diIIerent polarization
Either HV or VH
Slide No 111
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
· %ransmission of two separate traffic channels is performed on the
same radio frequency but on orthogonal polarization
· %he polarization planes are horizontal and vertical
· %he discrimination between the two polarization is called ross
Polar Discrimination (XPD)
· ross-Polarization Discrimination (XPD)
the ratio between the power received in the orthogonal (cross polar) port to the
power received at the co-polar port when the antenna is excited with a wave
polarized as in the co-polar antenna element
· Good cross polarization allows full utilization of the frequency band
Cross PoIarization
Slide No 112
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Cross PoIarization
· %o ensure interference-free operation. the nominal value
of XPD the value is usually in the rang 30 - 40 dB
· Discrimination of cross polar signals is an important
parameter in frequency planning
28 MHz
Vertical
Horizontal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1` 2` 3` 4` 5` 6` 7` 8`
Slide No 113
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
MechanicaI StabiIity
· Limitations in sway / twist for the structure of the
structure (tower or mast) correspond to a maximum 10
dB signal attenuation due to antenna misalignment
· %he maximum deflection angle may be estimated for a
given antenna diameter and frequency by using
-
10dB
÷ 60. 2/D in degrees
Slide No 114
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Antenna
Datasheet
Slide No 115
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Antenna
pattern
Slide No 116
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Antenna Pattern
Slide No 117
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Radio Propagation
Slide No 118
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EIectromagnetic (EM) Waves
· EM wave is a wave produced by the interaction of time varying
electric and magnetic field
· Electromagnetic fields are typically generated by alternating
current (A) in electrical conductors
· %he EM field composes of two fields (vectors)
Electric vector E
Magnetic vector H
· Electromagnetic waves can be
ReIlected and scattered
ReIracted
DiIIracted
Absorbed (its energy)
Slide No 119
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EIectromagnetic Waves Properties
· E and H vectors are orthogonal
· In free space environment. the EM-wave propagates at
the speed of light (c)
· %he distance between the wave crests is called the
wavelength (ì)
· %he frequency ( f )is the number of times the wave
oscillates
· %he relation that combines the EM-wave frequency and
wavelength with the speed of light is:
÷ c / f
Slide No 120
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Radio Wave Propagation
· %he propagation of radio wave is affected by :
Frequency EIIect
Terrain EIIect
Atmospheric EIIect
Multipath EIIect
All the above mentioned effects cause a degradation in
quality
Slide No 121
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency Effect
· Attenuation: Loss
· Propagation of radio depends on frequency band
· At frequencies above 6 GHz radio wave is more affected
by gas absorption and precipitation
At Irequencies close to 10 GHz the eIIects oI precipitation begins to
dominate
Gas absorption starts inIluencing at 22 GHz where the water vapour
shows characteristic peak
Slide No 122
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Terrain effect
· Reflection and scattering
· %he radio wave propagating near the surface of earth is
influenced by:
Electrical characteristics oI earth
Topography oI terrain including man-made structures
Slide No 123
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Atmospheric effect
· Loss and refraction
· %he gaseous constituents and temperature of the
atmosphere influence radio waves by:
Absorbing its energy
Variations in reIractive index which cause the radio wave reIlect,
reIract and scatter
Slide No 124
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
MuItipath effect
· Multipath effect occurs when many signals with different
amplitude and/or phase reach the receiver
· Multipath effect is caused by reflection and refraction
· Multipath propagation cause fading
Slide No 125
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave RefIection and scattering
· When electromagnetic waves incide on a surface it might
be reflected or scattered
· Rayleigh criterion used to determine whether the wave
will be scattered or reflected
· %he reflected waves depend on the frequency. incidence
angle and electrical property of the surface
Slide No 126
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave RefIections
· Reflection of the radio beam from lakes and large surfaces
are more critical than reflection from terrain with
vegetation
· Generally. vertical polarization gives reduced reflection
especially at lower frequencies
· If there is a great risk from reflection .space diversity
should be used
Slide No 127
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave RefIection coefficient (p)
· Reflection can be characterized by its total reflection
coefficient p
· p is the quotient between the reflected and incident field
· When p ÷ 0 nothing will be reflected and when p ÷1 we
have specular reflection
· reflection coefficient decreases with frequency
Slide No 128
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave RefIection coefficient-cont
ReIlection
loss (p)
-35
-5
-15
-15
-25
5
0.2 0.8 0.6 0.4
Total reIlection coeIIicient (p)
A
max
A
min
· %he resulting electromagnetic field at a receiver antenna is
composed of two components.the direct signal and the reflected
signal
· $ince the angle between the both components varies between 0
and 180 the signal will pass through maximum and minimum
values respectively
%he figure shows different
values of total reflection
coefficient. and the minimum
and maximum values
with respect to them
Slide No 129
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave Refraction
· Refraction occurs because radio waves travel with
different velocities in different medium according to their
electrical characteristics.
· Index of refraction of a medium is the ratio of the velocity
of radio waves in space to the velocity of radio waves in
that medium
Slide No 130
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave Refraction
· Radio wave is refracted toward the region with higher
index of refraction (denser medium)
Incident wave
ReIlected wave
ReIracted wave
Medium 1
Medium 2
0
i
0
r
,n1
,n2
n2 ~ n1
Slide No 131
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave Refraction
· Refractivity depends on
Pressure
Temperature
Humidity
· Refractive Gradient (///) represents refractive
variation with respect to height (). related to the earth
radius.
Slide No 132
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave Refraction and Ray bending
· Refraction cause ray bending in the atmosphere
· In free space. the radio wave follows straight line
no atmosphere
with atmosphere
Slide No 133
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
EM wave Refraction: K-Factor
· K is a value to indicate wave bending
r
e
.is the effective radius of the rav due to refraction
a .is the earth radius ÷ 6350 km
For temperate regions :
dN/dh ÷ - 40N units per Km.
K÷4/3÷1.33
Slide No 134
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
K-Factor and Path ProfiIe Correction
· Path profile must be corrected by K-factor
· Radius of earth must be multiplied by K-factor. less
curvature of earth
Slide No 135
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Formation Of Ducts- Refraction and refIection
Ground Based Duct: Refraction and reflection
· %he atmosphere has very dense layer at the ground with a
thin layer on top of it.
Elevated Duct: Refraction only
· %he atmosphere has a thick layer in some height above
ground.
· If both the transmitter and the receiver are within the
duct. multiple rays will reach the receiver
· If one is inside and the other is outside the duct. nearly no
energy will reach the receiver
Slide No 136
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Formation Of Ducts- Refraction and refIection
Earth
Elevated DUCT
Earth
Ground Based DUCT
Slide No 137
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Formation Of Ducts- ExpIanation
Refraction and refIection
Slide No 138
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Ducting ProbabiIity- Refraction and refIection
· Duct probability percentage of time when dN/dh is less
than -100 N units/km per specified month
· I%U-R issues DU% Probability ON%OUR MAP$
· %he ducting probability follows seasonal variations
· %his difference in ducting probability can be explained by
the difference in temperature and most of all by difference
in humidity
· rom the map the equatorial regions are most vulnerable
to ducts
Slide No 139
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ITU-R DUCT ProbabiIity CONTOUR MAPS
Slide No 140
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
MuItipath Propagation - Refraction and refIection
· Multipath propagation occurs when there are more than
one ray reach the receiver
· Disadvantages:
Signal strength changes rapidly over a short time and distance
Multipath delays which causes time dispersion
Random Irequency modulation due to Doppler shiIts
Delay spread oI the received signal
· Multipath transmission is the main cause of fading
· ading is explained in later slides
Slide No 141
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Diffraction
· Diffraction occurs and causes increase in transmission loss
when the size of obstacle between transmitter and
receiver is large compared to wavelength
· Diffraction effects are faster and more accentuated with
increased obstruction for frequencies above 1 GHz
· %ransmission obstruction loss over irregular terrain is
complicated function of frequency. path geometry.
vegetation density and other less significant variable
· Practical methods are used to estimate the obstruction
losses.
Slide No 142
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Diffraction Ioss
Practical methods are used to estimate the obstruction
losses
· %errain Averaging: I%U-R P.530-7
DiIIraction loss in this method can be approximated Ior losses
greater than 15 dB
A
d
÷ -20h/F1 ¹ 10 (dB) : ITU-R P.530-7
Where, A
d
: diIIraction loss.
h: height diIIerence between most signiIicant blockage and
path traiectory.
F1: radius oI Iirst Ireznal zone
Slide No 143
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Knife edge modeIs
· Knife edge approximation is used when the obstruction is
sharp and inside the first freznal zone
Single KniIe edge
Bullington
Epostein-Peterson
Japanese Atlas
Slide No 144
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Absorption
· At frequency above 10
GHz the propagation of
radio waves through the
atmosphere of the earth is
strongly effected by
resonant absorption of
electromagnetic energy by
molecular water vapor and
oxygen
Slide No 145
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Rain Attenuation
· When radio waves interact with raindrops the
electromagnetic wave will scatter
· %he attenuation depends on frequency band. specially for
frequencies above 10 GHz
· %he rain attenuation calculated by introducing reduction
factor and then effective path length
· %he rain attenuation depends on the rain rate. which
obtained from long term measurement and very short
integration time
· %he Earth is divided into 16 different rain zones
Slide No 146
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Rain Attenuation
· Rain rate is measured to estimate attenuation because it is
hard to actually count the number of raindrops and
measure their individual sizes so
· Rainfall is measured in millimeters [mm]. and rain
intensity in millimeters pr. hour [mm/h].
· $ince the radio waves are a time varying electromagnetic
field. the incident field will induce a dipole moment in the
raindrop will therefore act as an antenna and re-radiate
the energy.
· A raindrop is an antenna with low directivity and some
energy will be re-radiated in arbitrary directions giving a
net loss of energy in the direction towards the receiver.
Slide No 147
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Raindrop shape
· As the raindrops increase in size, they depart Irom the
spherical shape
· Raindrops are more extended in the horizontal direction and
consequently will attenuate horizontal polarized waves more
than the vertical polarized.
· This means that vertical polarization
is Iavorable at high Irequencies
where outage due to rain is dominant.
Slide No 148
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Fading
· %he radio waves undergo variations while traveling in the
atmosphere due to atmospheric changes. %he received
signal fades around nominal value.
· Multipath ading is due to metrological conditions in the
space separating the transmitter and the receiver which
cause detrimental effects to the received signal
Slide No 149
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Fade Margins
· ade Margin is extra power
· ade Margins will be explained in link design for the
following:
· Multipath ading
Flat Fading
Selective Fading
· Rain ading
Slide No 150
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Mutipath Fading
· As the fading margin increased the probability of the
signal to drop below the receiver threshold is decreased
· lat fading or non-selective occurs when all components
of the useful signal are affected equally
· requency selective fading occurs if some of the spectral
components are reduced causing distortion
· %otal fading
P
tot
÷P
flat
+ P
80l
Slide No 151
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Mutipath Fading
· %he impacts of multipath fading can be summarized as
follows:
It reduces the signal-to-noise ratio and consequently increases the
bit-error-rate (BER)
It reduces the carrier-to-interIerence (C/I) ratio and consequently
increases the BER
It distorts the digital pulse waveIorm resulting in increased
intersymbol interIerence and BER
It introduces crosstalk between the two orthogonal carriers, the I-rail
and the Q-rail, and consequently increases the BER
Slide No 152
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Mutipath Fading
Frequency
selective
Iading
Normal
signal
Flat Iading
P
Slide No 153
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Microwave Link PIanning and Design
Slide No 154
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Hop CaIcuIations (Design)
Free Space Loss
Gas Absorption
Obstacle Loss
Rain Iading
Multipath Iading
Link Budget
Fading prediction
PerIormance &
Availability Obiectives
Predictable
$tatistically Predictable
Always present
and predictable
Predictable
iI present
Not always present
but statistically
predictable
Slide No 155
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Path ProfiIe
· Path profile is essentially a plot of the elevation of the
earth as function of the distance along the path between
the transmitter and receiver
· %he purpose of path profile:
To check the Iree line oI sight
To check the clearance oI the path to avoid obstacle attenuation
When determining the Iading oI received signal
Slide No 156
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Path ProfiIe ExampIe
· Path proIiles are necessary to determine site locations and
antenna heights
Slide No 157
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Path ProfiIe: CIearance of Path
· Design objective: ull clearance of direct line-of-sight and
and an ellipsoid zone surrounding the direct line-of-sight
· %he ellipsoid zone is called the resnel Zone
Slide No 158
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Path ProfiIe: FresneI Zone ExampIe
Slide No 159
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
FresneI Zone
· resnal Zone is defined as the zone shaped as ellipsoid
with its focal point at the antennas on both ends of the
path
· If there is no obstacle within first resnel zone .the
obstacle attenuation can be ignored and the path is
cleared
· Equation of path of ellipsoid
2
2 1
2
= + d d d
Slide No 160
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
· irst resnel zone radius
· resnel zone - Exercise: alculate the fresnel zone radius at mid
path for the following cases
1. f÷ 15GHz, K÷4/3, d÷10km
2. f ÷ 15GHz, K÷4/3, d÷20km
· $olution:
1. F
1
(radius)
2. F
1
(radius)
f d
d d
F
L
L
L =
2 1
1
3 . 17
FresneI Zone Equation
|m|
m 10
20 15
10 10
3 . 17 =
L
L
L =
m 7
10 15
5 5
3 . 17 =
L
L
L =
Slide No 161
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
FresneI Zone Radii caIcuIations
"TabIe TooI"
4.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0
7.0 9.2 12.7 13.3 15.0 17.3 18.6
13.0 10.3 13.6 12.1 13.6 13.8 14.2
15.0 10.1 14.2 11.3 13.4 12.4 13.1
18.0 9.2 15.2 10.6 13.8 11.6 13.0
23.0 7.7 17.1 9.6 14.7 10.9 13.4
26.0 6.7 19.6 8.6 16.0 10.1 14.1
38.0 5.1 23.9 7.3 18.1 9.1 15.2
Distance in km requency
GHz
Slide No 162
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ObstacIe Loss: FresneI Zone is not CIeared
Obstacle Loss
KniIe Edge obstacle loss
Smooth spherical obstacle loss
Slide No 163
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Knife Edge Losses
0 12 20
6 0
dB
Slide No 164
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Smooth SphericaI Earth Losses
10
20
30
dB
Slide No 165
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Line-Of-Sight Survey
· LO$ $urvey
To veriIy that the proposed network design is Ieasible considering
LOS constraints
LOS
Slide No 166
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Line-Of-Sight Survey- FIowchart
LOS Survey
LOS Report
Update the
design
Network Design
Slide No 167
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
LOS Survey Equipment
Necessary:
· ompass
· Maps : 50 k or better
· Digital amera
· GP$ Navigator
· Binoculars
· Hand-held communication
equipment
· $ignaling mirrors
Optional:
· linometer
· Altimeter
· Laptop
· $pectrum analyzer
· Antenna horn
· Low noise amplifier
· %heodolite
Slide No 168
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
LOS Survey Procedure - Preparation
· Preparation
Maps oI 1:50k scale or better to be used and prepared
List oI hops to be surveyed
Critical obstacles should be marked in order to veriIy LOS in the
Iield
Organize transport and accommodation
Organize access and authorization to the sites
Prepare LOS survey Iorm
Slide No 169
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
LOS Survey Procedure - FieId
· Verification of sites positions and altitudes
· onfirmation of line-of-sight using
GPS
Compass
Binocular
And other methods in the next slide
· %ake photographs
· Estimate required tower heights
· Path and propagation notes
Slide No 170
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Other Methods of LOS Survey
· Mirrors
· lash
· Balloon
· Portable MW Equipment
· Driving along the path and taking GP$ and altitude
measurements for different points along it.
Slide No 171
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
LOS Survey Report
· $ite Data
Name
Coordinates
Height
Address
· Proposed %ower Height
· LO$ onfirmation
· Azimuth and Elevation
· Path short description
· Photographs
Slide No 172
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget
· Includes all gains and losses as the signal passes from transmitter to
the receiver.
· It is used to calculate fade margin which is used to estimate the
performance of radio link system.
Slide No 173
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget
· Link budget is the sum of all losses and gains of the signal
between the transmitter output and the receiver input.
· Items related to the link budget
Transmitted power
Received power
Feeder loss
Antenna gain
Free space loss
Attenuations
· Used to calculate received signal level (fading is ignored)
Slide No 174
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget (con'd)
Where,
Pin ÷ Received power (dBm)
Pout ÷ Transmitted power (dBm)
L ÷ Antenna Ieeder loss (dB)
G ÷ Antenna gain (dBi)
FSL ÷ Free space loss (dB) (between isotropic antennas)
A ÷ Attenuations (dB)
¯ ¯
+ = A FSL G L P P
out in
Slide No 175
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget
Tx
G
t
G
r
Rx
Output
power
Received
power
Antenna
gain
Branching
loss
Feeder
loss
Antenna
gain
Feeder
loss
Branching
loss
Free space loss ¹
atmospheric atten.
Fade
Margin
Receiver threshold
Slide No 176
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget Parameters-Free Space Loss
· It is defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave as is
propagates in a straight line through the vacuum
L
5(dB)
÷ 92.4 + 20logf
(GHz)
+ 20logD
(km)
2 2
4 4
¦
'
+

'

= ¦
'
+

'

=
c
fD D
L
p
6
2
6
where,
L
p
÷ Iree space path loss
D ÷ distance
f ÷ Irequency
ì ÷ wavelength
c ÷ velocity oI light in Iree space (3*10
8
m/s)
Slide No 177
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Free Space Loss
Tx
Rx
L
5
Link Budget Parameters
Slide No 178
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget Parameters
· %otal Antenna Gain:
G
a
÷ 20 log (D
a
) + 20 log (f) + 17.8
· Atmospheric attenuation occurs at higher frequencies .
above 15 GHz due to atmospheric gases. and given by:
here d is path link in km .
a
is specific attenuation in d/km
D
a
f
d A
a a
L =
Slide No 179
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Link Budget Parameters
· Rx Level: $ignal strength at the receiving antenna
P
Rx
÷ P
%x
-L
BRL
-+G
%x
-L
$
-L
obs
+G
Rx
- L
%x feeder
- L
Rx feeder
here. P
Rx
. received power level G
Tx
.Tx gain
P
Tx
: transmitted power level L
obs
.Diffraction loss
L
RL
. branching loss G
Rx
.Rx gain
L
FS
. free space loss L
Rx feeder
: Rx feeder loss
L
Tx feeder
. Tx feeder loss
Slide No 180
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Fading
· ading types
Multipath Fading; Dominant cause oI Iading Ior f · 10 GHz
· Flat Fading
· Frequencv Selective Fading
Rain Fading; Dominant cause oI Iading Ior f ~ 10 GHz
Slide No 181
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Fade Margin and AvaiIabiIity
· Is the difference between the nominal input level and receiver
threshold level
rom Link Budget
M ÷ Received Power - Receiver threshold
· ade margin is designed into the system so as to meet outage
objectives during fading conditions
· %ypical value of ade Margin is around 40 dB
· Availability is calculated from the ade Margin value as in .1093.
P.530-6. P.530-7. .
Slide No 182
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
FIat Fading ITU-R P30-7
P
flat
÷P
o
. 10
-/10
where:
F equals the Iade margin
P
o
the Iading occurrence Iactor
Po ÷ k. d
3.6
. f
0.89
.(1+[E
p
[)
-1.4
Where:
k is geoclimatic Iactor
d is path length in Km
f is Irequency in GHz
Ep: path inclination in mrad ÷
d
h h
E
P
2 1

=
Slide No 183
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
FIat Fading- cont ITU-R P30-7
· %he geoclimatic (K) depends on type of the path
Inland links
Plains. low altitude 0 to 400m above mean sea level
Hills. low altitude 0 to 400m above mean sea level
Plains. Medium altitude 400 to 700m above mean sea level
Hills. Medium altitude 400 to 700m above mean sea level
Plains. High altitude more than 700m above mean sea level
Hills. High altitude more than 700m above mean sea level
Mountains. High altitude more than 700m above mean sea level
Coastal links over/near large bodies oI water
Coastal links over/near medium-sized bodies oI water
Indistinct path deIinition
· %o calculate K value. refer to formulas and tables in I%U-R P.530-7
Slide No 184
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency SeIective Fading ITU-R F1093
· Result from surface reflections or introduced by
atmospheric anomalies such as strong ducting gradients
Where,
n : Probability oI oI the occurrence oI multipath Iading
W: Signature width (GHz), equipment dependent
B : Signature depth (GHz), equipment dependent
t
m
: Mean value oI echo delay
t
r
: Time delay used during measurements oI the signature curves (reIerence delay)
ns. Normally 6.3 ns
r
m

sel
P
:
:

2
20
10 3 . 4 L L L L =

Slide No 185
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency SeIective Fading ITU-R F1093
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

L
=
4 / 3
0
100
2 .
1
P
e
5 . 1
50
7 . 0
¦
'
+

'

L =
d
m
:

=
2 /
2 /
20
10
w
w

c

Where,
P
o
: The Iading occurrence Iactor
Where,
d : Path length (km)
Where,
B
c
: Signature depth
Slide No 186
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency SeIective Fading ITU-R P30-7
Where.
W
x
: Signature width
B
x
: Signature depth
t
x
: The reIerence delay used to obtain signature in
measurements
x: Denotes either Minimum phase (M) or Not Minimum phase (NM)
¦
¦
'
+

'

L L + L L L L =

NM r
M

NM
M r
M

M sel
NM M
P
,
2
20
,
2
20
10 10 15 . 2
:
:
:
:

Slide No 187
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Space Diversity Improvement ITU-R P43
Where,
s : Vertical separation between antennas in m
f : Frequency in GHz
d : Path length
F : Fade Margin
: The diIIerence in antenna gain between the two antenna in dB
P
o
: Irom the Iormula oI Ilat Iading
10
100
10 34 . 3
10 1
04 . 1
48 . 0 12 . 0 87 . 0 4
G M
P
d f s
o
e

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
¦
¦

=

P P

P
P
sel flat mp
mp
div
+
= =
G
Slide No 188
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Rain Attenuation ITU-R P30
· Rain Intensity in mm/h
The reIerence level is the rain intensity that is exceeded .01° oI all the time (R
0.01
)
· %he attenuation due to the rain in .01º of the time for a given path
may be found by:
where
v
R
: SpeciIic rain attenuation (dB/km)
d
eff
: EIIective path length, km
k and a are given in the table
eff
R R
d A . =
a
R
R k L =
Slide No 189
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
UsabIe path Iengths with rain intensity
exampIe: 1 Hz
Slide No 190
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Rain zone contours (Americas)
Rain zone contours (Far
East)
Rain zone contours
(Europe and Africa)
I%U-R presents the cumulative distribution of rain
intensity for 15 different zone as shown below
Slide No 191
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Rain Fading ITU-R P30
· The relation between Iading margin and unavailability Ior the path
is given by:
Where
A
R0.01
: Rain attenuation exceeded 0.01° oI the time
F: Fade margin
°
Slide No 192
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency PIanning
Slide No 193
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency pIanning
· Objective of frequency planning
EIIicient use oI available Irequency band
Keep interIerence level as low as possible
· requency plan must consider interference
C/I Obiectives
· Note: the requirements depends on
Equipment
Frequency
Bandwidth
For adiacent channel interIerence
Slide No 194
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency PIanning
requency Allocation
· rom operator`s point of view. it is best to get a block of
frequencies or several adjacent channels from each
frequency band
Installation and maintenance oI microwave radio is less complicated
InterIerence analysis is only needed between operators own hops
· It is recommended to assign the available channels or
frequency block to certain capacities so that 2X2. 4X2.
8X2. 16X2 will not interleave.
· Normally in 18-38 GHz. four hops using the same channel
can arrive at star if they are at 90 degrees angle from each
other
Slide No 195
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency PIanning
Interference
· Interference needs more concern at star points because several
microwave radios transmit and receive are close to each other
· Don`t use higher transmitter output power than required
· requency planning in star points is trivial if multiple channels are
used (inefficient use of channels)
· Re use same channel (efficient use of channels)
All stations at star transmit either high or low, while high-low alteration must be
applied in chains.
Good angle separation
Cross polarization gives extra discrimination
Note: Rain has greater attenuation on horizontal polarization thus use horizontal
polarization Ior shorter hops
Slide No 196
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Frequency PIanning
· %he radio spectrum is allocated to various services by
I%U`s Administrative Radio onference (WAR)
· I%U-R is responsible for providing R channel
arrangement
Alternated channel arrangement
Co-channel arrangement
Interleaved arrangement
Slide No 197
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
AIternated ChanneI arrangement
· Every channel will have opposite polarization to the
adjacent channels
· %his arrangement is used(neglecting co-polar adjacent
interference) if the below rule holds
PDmin¹NFD 3)~C/)min
NFD÷adi. Ch. Received power / adi. Ch. Power received after filter
· Advantage:
Easilv filfilled bv standard antenna to radio equipment
· Disadvantage:
Limited spectrum effective
Slide No 198
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Co-channeI arrangement
· In this arrangement every radio channel is utilized twice
for independent traffic on opposite polarization for the
same path
· %he following demand must be fulfilled
|10log(1/(1/10`((XPD ¹ XIF)/10) ¹1/10`((NFD-3)/10)))| ~ (C/I)
here.
NFD .Net Filter discriminator
F .is PD improvement factor
Slide No 199
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ChanneI Capacity and Separation
apacity hannel $eparation
2 X 2 Mbps 3.5 MHz
4 X 2 Mbps 7 MHz
8 X 2 Mbps 14 MHz
16 X 2 Mbps 28 MHz
Channel separation
Slide No 200
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Co-channeI Interference - Far
Tx/Rx Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Tx ÷ f
1
Rx ÷ f
2
Tx ÷ f
1
Rx ÷ f
2
Tx ÷ f
2
Rx ÷ f
1
Tx ÷ f
2
Rx ÷ f
1
Slide No 201
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Co-channeI Interference - Near
Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Tx ÷ f
1
Rx ÷ f
2
Tx ÷ f
2
Rx ÷ f
1
Slide No 202
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Adjacent ChanneI Interference
f
Rx
f
Tx
InterIerence
Slide No 203
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Receiver ThreshoId Degradation
· Presence of interfering signals will give a receiver threshold
degradation
· %he degraded receiver threshold level
10l
is calculated from:
· A Rule of %humb
%hreshold Degradation < 3 dB


10 /
10 1 log 10
R Te
L C L
Te Tel
L L
+ +
+ + =
Slide No 204
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ThreshoId Degradation
Receiver
threshold,
dBm
-82
-84
-86
-88
-80
-78
-76
-72
-74
-70
14 19 17 16 18 15 21 20 22
23
Signal to InterIerence ratio, dB
3dB
Slide No 205
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ChanneI pIan
Tx÷4A
Rx÷4B
Tx÷4B
Rx÷4A
1A
7A 6A 5A 4A 2A 3A 7B 6B 5B 4B 3B 2B 1B
Low sub-band High sub-band
Duplex distance
Slide No 206
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
High / Low Tx ChanneI AIIocation
H
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
H/L
L
Near interIerence
Slide No 207
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
High / Low Tx ChanneI AIIocation
H
H/L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
InterIerence
New
Irequency
band
Rings with odd number oI sites should be avoided
Slide No 208
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ChanneI PIan
7 Channels
28 MHz
(17x2 Mbps)
f
1A
7A
6A 5A 4A
3A 2A
Slide No 209
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ChanneI PIan
28 MHz
(17x2 Mbps)
f
14 MHz
(8x2 Mbps)
11 Channels
Slide No 210
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ChanneI PIan
28 MHz
(17x2 Mbps)
f
14 MHz
(8x2 Mbps)
15 Channels
7 MHz
(4x2 Mbps)
Slide No 211
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Output Power
High output
power
High output
power
High output
power
InterIerence
Only High output power
Slide No 212
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Output Power
Low output
power
High output
power
Low output
power
No InterIerence
High and low output power
Slide No 213
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Interference
Slide No 214
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Systems and BER
· Performance of digital transmission system can be
evaluated by BER. Bit Error Rate
· %elephony BER degradation versus audible degradation:
10
-6
: Noise not audible
10
-5
: Barely audible
10
-4
: audible, understandable
10
-3
: disturbing
More than 10
-3
: sync loss, link loss
· Data and in particular multimedia media application
require a very low BER
Slide No 215
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Noise in DigitaI Systems
Noise can originate from a variety of sources. and many of
these sources are man-made so they can be eliminated
· %hermal noise
· Noise actor and Noise igure
· $/N Ratio
· Receiver %hresholds
Slide No 216
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
White Noise in DigitaI Systems
· %hermal noise is generated from random motion of
electrons due to thermal energy
· P
n
÷K1B (W) where :
k÷Boltzmann`s constant
T÷temperature in Kelvin
B÷bandwidth oI noise spectrum
· %ypical values are : %÷300 K . b÷ 6MHz . -106 dBm
Slide No 217
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Noise Factor and Noise Figure
· Noise actor and Noise igure are figures of merit used to
indicate how much the $/N deteriorates as a signal passes
through a circuit or series of circuits.
· Noise factor:
Is deIined in terms oI signal to noise ratio
· Noise igure
NF ÷ 10 log(F) (dB)
output at ratio power S/N available
input at ratio power S/N available
= F
(unitless)
Slide No 218
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Noise in DigitaI Systems
· $ignal to interference ratio defines the minimum
difference between the signal and the interferer levels. It
depends on bandwidth. modulation and manufacturer.
· Usually for digital system signal to interference ratio 15-
25 dB
Slide No 219
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Receiver ThreshoIds
· %hreshold (10
-3
): Received level at BER 10
-3
· %hreshold (10
-6
): Received level at BER 10
-6
Threshold ÷ White noise ¹ Noise Iigure ¹ S/N
%hreshold
$/N
N
White noise
Slide No 220
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ThreshoId Degradation
Receiver
threshold,
dBm
-82
-84
-86
-88
-80
-78
-76
-72
-74
-70
14 19 1
7
16 18 15 21 20 22
23
Signal to InterIerence ratio, dB
3dB
· A Rule of %humb
%hreshold Degradation < 3 dB
given that the required
signal to interferer is not
violated
Slide No 221
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Cross PoIar Interference XPI
· Both multi path- and rain fading can result in severe
degradation of XPD level
· ross Polar interference ancellers (XPI) in the receiver
remove the unwanted signal that has leaked from the
opposite polarization into the wanted one
%he quantitative
Description of cross-
Polar interference XPI
d
E
E
Log P
21
11
. 20 =
d
E
E
Log PD
12
11
. 20 =
Where E
11
and E
12
are
given in the next Iigure
Slide No 222
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Cross PoIar Interference
· Depolarization auses
Scattering or reIlection Irom land or water surIaces
ReIlection Irom an atmospheric layer
Tropospherical turbulence
Slide No 223
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Cross PoIar Interference
E
1
E
2
E
11
E
22
E
21
E
12
Dual polarized system suIIering Irom XPI
Slide No 224
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Ways to incIude interference in
performance caIcuIation
· %he interference calculation are performed by calculation
the interference level and determining the receiver
threshold degradation
· $tart from allowed interference level at the input of the
disturbed receiver and then comparing it with level of the
interfering signal
· %he degradation receiver threshold level


10 /
1
10 1 log 10
L C L
Te Tel
R Te
L L
+ +
+ + <
Slide No 225
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Interfering waves propagation mechanisms
· Long-term interference mechanisms:
DiIIraction
Troposcatter
Line-oI-site
· $hort-term interference mechanisms:
Ducting: layer reIraction/reIlection
Hydrometeor scatter
Slide No 226
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
SeIecting Interfering Stations
· Before performing interference calculation the possible interfering
station must be selected in the area of interference
· o-ordination area are the area around given station where
possible co-channel interference from near site are situated
Co-ordination area Ior oII-
key hole region
Key hole
region
Slide No 227
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Propagation in Interference CaIcuIations
· $elect interfering site by calculating coordination area
· $elect minimum interference levels
· Predict interferer signal level
Decide whether an average year or worst month prediction is required
Assemble the basic input data
Derive the annual or worst-month radio meteorological data Irom maps
Analyze the path proIile, and classiIy the path according to the path geometry
IdentiIy which individual propagation models need to be invoked
Calculate the individual propagation predictions using each oI the models
identiIied in the previous step
Combine the individual predictions to give the overall statistics
Slide No 228
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Interference CaIcuIation
· Undesirable R coupling between radio channels
Cross polarization: occurred in channels operating on opposite
polarization
Adiacent channel:the channel Iilter at the receiver and the width oI
the transmitted spectrum determined the interIerence level
Front to back:The interIerence level is mainly a Iunction oI the
antenna Iront-to-back ratio
Over shoot:II the paths are aligned , interIerence due to overshoot
is critical. Use oI opposite polarization or change oI radio channels
is recommended.
Slide No 229
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
ExampIes of Interference RF coupIing
· Examples
V
H
ross Polarization
Adjacent channel
f
2
f
1
f
1
ront-to-Back
f
1
f
1

Over $hoot
f
1
f
1

f
1
Slide No 230
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Interference CaIcuIations- cont
· Preconditions
Network diagram: drawn to scale and angle, includes all radio-relay
circuits within the Irequency band concerned
Network data : antenna types and radiation patterns, transmitter
output power
RL equipment interIerence data, normally given as diagrams
· Digital to digital interIerence diagrams
· Digital to analog interIerence diagrams
· Analog to digital interIerence diagrams
· Adiacent-channel attenuation as a Iunction oI channel spacing
Antenna radiation patterns: Ior all types oI antennas used in the
network
Slide No 231
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
Interference CaIcuIations- cont
· Interference evaluation on digital network
It is necessary to check each antenna discrimination in the nodal
stations Ior all disturbances
In the beginning, only the most critical interIerence path has to be
examined
As a start, standard perIormance antennas are used, and no level
adiustments are made to reduce interIerence problems, this case is
worst case
Co-polar operation
Cross-polar operation
Slide No 232
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Map and TooIs Overview
Slide No 233
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Maps
· Digitized Geographical data is needed
· Maps sampling (examples)
Urban: 20 to 50m
Suburban: 50-100m
Open: 100m
Slide No 234
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Maps-eographicaI Databases
· %he choice of the geographical databases depends on the
propagation model used
· A compromise has to be reached between:
Cost
Accuracy
Calculation speed
The chosen conIiguration
· Geographical databases types are:
Vector data (Linear)
Altitude
Clutter (land use data)
Slide No 235
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Maps - 'ector Data (Linear)
· $uccession of points describing:
Highway
Roads
Railways
Rivers
Borders
coastlines
Slide No 236
Microwave Radio Planning and Link Design
DigitaI Maps - AItitude
· One altitude value per each pixel
· Each point of the pixel is assumed at the same altitude
· %wo categories of altitude databases
Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
Digital Evaluation Model (DEM)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful