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Injection molded components are consistently designed to minimize the design and manufacturing information content of the enterprise system. The resulting designs, however, are extremely complex and frequently exhibit coupling between multiple qualities attributes. Axiomatic design principles were applied to the injection molding process to add control parameters that enable the spatial and dynamic decoupling of multiple quality attributes in the molded part. There are three major benefits of the process redesign effort. First, closed loop pressure control has enabled tight coupling between the mass and momentum equations. This tight coupling allows the direct input and controllability of the melt pressure. Second, the use of multiple melt actuators provides for the decoupling of melt pressures between different locations in the mold cavity. Such decoupling can then be used to maintain functional independence of multiple qualities attributes. Third, the heat equation has been decoupled from the mass and momentum equations. This allows the mold to be filled under isothermal conditions. Once the cavities are completely full and attain the desired packing pressure, then the cooling is allowed to progress.
CHAPTER-01 1.0 INTRODUCTION:
Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which vary greatly in their size, complexity, and application. The injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold. The plastic is melted in the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold, where it cools and solidifies into the final part. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the next section.
Fig. 1.1 Injection molding overview Injection molding is used to produce thin-walled plastic parts for a wide variety of applications, one of the most common being plastic housings. Plastic housing is a thin-walled enclosure, often requiring many ribs and bosses on the interior. These housings are used in a variety of products including household appliances, consumer electronics, power tools, and as automotive dashboards. Other common thin-walled products include different types of open containers, such as buckets. Injection molding is also used to produce several everyday items such as toothbrushes or small plastic toys. Many medical devices, including valves and syringes, are manufactured using injection molding as well.
1.1 INJECTION MOLDING-OVERVIEW:
Injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity. After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, molds are made by a mold maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars.
Fig. 1.2 Schematic Diagram of Plastic Injection molding
• • • • •
PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS: Utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mold cavity Produces a solid or open-ended shape which has conformed to the contour of the mold Uses thermoplastic or thermo set materials Produces a parting line, sprue, and gate marks Ejector pin marks are usually present
1.3 HISTORY& DEVELOPMENT:
The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1851 by Alexander Parkes. He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition in London; calling the material he produced "Parkesine." Derived from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and retain its shape when cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and highly flammable. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could be processed into finished form. Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the first injection molding machine in 1872. This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today. It worked like a large hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder into a mold. The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing products such as collar stays, buttons, and hair combs. The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge demand for inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more precise control over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced. This machine also allowed material to be mixed before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In the 1970s, Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process, which permitted the production of complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight and waste. The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs and buttons to producing a vast array of products for many industries including automotive, medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys, plumbing, packaging, and construction.
Prior to the injection of the material into the mold. The molten plastic is then injected into the mold very quickly and the buildup of pressure packs and holds the material. The hydraulically powered clamping unit pushes the mold halves together and exerts sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is injected. and injection power. The time required to close and clamp the mold is dependent upon the machine . it will solidify into the shape of the desired part. During this process.0 PROCESS CYCLE: The process cycle for injection molding is very short. is fed into the injection molding machine. the two halves of the mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. The amount of material that is injected is referred to as the shot. typically between 2 seconds and 2 minutes. Each half of the mold is attached to the injection molding machine and one half is allowed to slide. and consists of the following four stages: 1. Injection . 2. However. Cooling . usually in the form of pellets.The molten plastic that is inside the mold begins to cool as soon as it makes contact with the interior mold surfaces. The packing of material in the injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mold 31 .larger machines (those with greater clamping forces) will require more time. during cooling some shrinkage of the part may occur. The injection time is difficult to calculate accurately due to the complex and changing flow of the molten plastic into the mold. and advanced towards the mold by the injection unit. This time can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine. injection pressure. Clamping . the injection time can be estimated by the shot volume. As the plastic cools.The raw plastic material. 3.CHAPTER-02 2. the material is melted by heat and pressure. However.
the scrap material that results from this trimming can be recycled by being placed into a plastic grinder. the mold can be clamped shut for the next shot to be injected. the material in the channels of the mold will solidify attached to the part. The cooling time can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the plastic and the maximum wall thickness of the part. The mold can not be opened until the required cooling time has elapsed. some post processing is typically required. Once the part is ejected. Due to some degradation of the 31 . Ejection . During cooling. 4. After the injection molding cycle. which is attached to the rear half of the mold. the cooled part may be ejected from the mold by the ejection system.and reduce the amount of visible shrinkage. such as thermoplastics. must be trimmed from the part. a mechanism is used to push the part out of the mold.1 Injection molded part. Force must be applied to eject the part because during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the mold. typically by using cutters. which regrinds the scrap material into pellets. Fig. For some types of material. along with any flash that has occurred.After sufficient time has passed. The time that is required to open the mold and eject the part can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine and should include time for the part to fall free of the mold. In order to facilitate the ejection of the part.2. This excess material. a mold release agent can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the mold cavity prior to injection of the material. When the mold is opened. also called regrind machines or granulators.
including a horizontal configuration and a vertical configuration.2.material properties. Tonnage can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons. They are also known as presses. which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can exert. Presses are rated by tonnage. injection unit.2 Injection Molding Machine. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. thus more clamp tonnage to hold the mold closed. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each square inch of the projected areas. 2. Injection molding machines have many components and are available in different configurations. regardless of their design. with the higher figures used in comparatively few manufacturing operations. they hold the molds in which the components are shaped. larger parts require higher clamping force. the regrind must be mixed with raw material in the proper regrind ratio to be reused in the injection molding process. 31 . The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the part being molded. and clamping unit to perform the four stages of the process cycle. and a heating unit. 4 or 5 tons/in2 can be used for most products. an injection ram or screw-type plunger. Fig. it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold. The required force can also be determined by the material used and the size of the part. all injection molding machines utilize a power source. mold assembly. As a rule of thumb. However.1 MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT: Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper. If the plastic material is very stiff.
The barrel contains the mechanism for heating and injecting the material into the mold. and additional heaters that surround the reciprocating screw. the material is melted by pressure.2. being powered by either a hydraulic or electric motor.34 to 1. 2.95 1. The material enters the grooves of the screw from the hopper and is advanced towards the mold as the screw rotates.15 0. A reciprocating screw moves the material forward by both rotating and sliding axially.3 INJECTION UNIT: The injection unit is responsible for both heating and injecting the material into the mold. The hopper has an open bottom. The first part of this unit is the hopper. A ram injector forces the material forward through a heated section with a ram or plunger that is usually hydraulically powered. The molten plastic is then injected very 31 . part size. thermal conductivity. and molding rate." Below is a table from page 243 of the same reference as previously mentioned which best illustrates the characteristics relevant to the power required for the most commonly used materials. friction. which allows the material to feed into the barrel. the more common technique is the use of a reciprocating screw. melting point.12 to 1.07 Melting Point (°F) 248 248 381 to 509 230 to 243 338 Table 1 Power Requirements.01 to 1. This mechanism is usually a ram injector or a reciprocating screw. While it is advanced. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide states that the power requirements depend on "a material's specific gravity.2 POWER REQUIREMENTS: The power required for this process of injection molding depends on many things and varies between materials used.965 1. a large container into which the raw plastic is poured.91 to 0. Material Epoxy Phenolic Nylon Polyethylene Polystyrene Specific Gravity 1. Today.24 1.04 to 1.
each half is fixed to a large plate.4 CLAMPING UNIT: Prior to the injection of the molten plastic into the mold. called the mold cavity. called the mold core. called a platen. The front half of the mold. which slides along the tie bars. which is attached to the rear half of the mold. Fig. is actuated by the ejector bar and pushes the solidified part out of the open cavity.2. is mounted to a stationary platen and aligns with the nozzle of the injection unit.Injection unit. the two halves of the mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. Once the material has solidified inside the mold. the screw can retract and fill with more material for the next shot. An ejection system. After the required cooling time.3 Injection molding machine . When the mold is attached to the injection molding machine. the mold is then opened by the clamping motor. The rear half of the mold. is mounted to a movable platen. The hydraulically powered clamping motor actuates clamping bars that push the moveable platen towards the stationary platen and exert sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is injected and subsequently cools. This increasing pressure allows the material to be packed and forcibly held in the mold.quickly into the mold through the nozzle at the end of the barrel by the buildup of pressure and the forward action of the screw. 2. 31 .
31 . this is not always true because crystalline materials require the opposite: a warmer mold and lengthier cycle time. inexpensiveness. minimum mold thickness.6 MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS: Injection molding machines are typically characterized by the tonnage of the clamp force they provide. However. The required clamp force is determined by the projected area of the parts in the mold and the pressure with which the material is injected.2. and availability of water. 2. a larger part will require a larger clamping force.5 LUBRICATION AND COOLING: Obviously. To cool the mold. Also. Usually a colder mold is more efficient because this allows for faster cycle times. water can be channeled through the mold to account for quick cooling times. Therefore. and platen size.4 Injection molding machine . such as shot capacity.Fig. Because of the heat capacity. certain materials that require high injection pressures may require higher tonnage machines. The size of the part must also comply with other machine specifications. water is used as the primary cooling agent.Clamping unit. 2. clamp stroke. the mold must be cooled in order for the production to take place.
6 Powerline 330 Maxima 4400 413 .50 8 . mold thickness (in.8 31.1054 133.0.55 Table 2 Machine Specifications.) Min.34 4.Injection molded parts can vary greatly in size and therefore require these measures to cover a very large range. Babyplast Clamp force (ton) Shot capacity (oz.5 Injection molding machine. Fig. and Maxima) of injection molding machine that are manufactured by Cincinnati Milacron.) Platen size (in.2.33 1. As a result.6 7.95 40.9 2.3 x 0.) 6. injection molding machines are designed to each accommodate a small range of this larger spectrum of values.0 106.5 122. 31 .) Clamp stroke (in.18 23.13 .55 x 40. Powerline. Sample specifications are shown below for three different models (Babyplast.95 x 2.
but can be split into two halves. to which the mold core is attached. in which the two mold halves form several identical part cavities. which is then fixed to the platens inside the injection molding machine.7 TOOLING: The injection molding process uses molds. and a locating ring.2.2. the sprue bushing. typically made of steel or aluminum. that will be filled with molten plastic to create the desired part. as the custom tooling. The mold has many components.6 Mold overview. When the mold is closed. The front half of the mold base includes a support plate. 31 . Fig. Each half is attached inside the injection molding machine and the rear half is allowed to slide so that the mold can be opened and closed along the mold's parting line. The rear half of the mold base includes the ejection system. to which the mold cavity is attached. in order to align the mold base with the nozzle. 2.8 MOLD BASE: The mold core and mold cavity are each mounted to the mold base. the space between the mold core and the mold cavity forms the part cavity. into which the material will flow from the nozzle. Multiple-cavity molds are sometimes used. The two main components of the mold are the mold core and the mold cavity.
The ejector pins push the solidified part out of the open mold cavity. sometimes hot runner systems are used which independently heat the channels. called runners.7 Mold base.and a support plate. Another type of channel that is built into the 31 . However. First. The ejector bar pushes the ejector plate forward inside the ejector box. carry the molten plastic from the sprue to all of the cavities that must be filled.2. the molten plastic enters the cavity through a gate which directs the flow. At the end of each runner. Additional channels. the molten plastic enters the mold through the sprue. allowing the contained material to be melted and detached from the part. The molten plastic that solidifies inside these runners is attached to the part and must be separated after the part has been ejected from the mold. Fig. 2. When the clamping unit separates the mold halves. which in turn pushes the ejector pins into the molded part.9 MOLD CHANNELS: In order for the molten plastic to flow into the mold cavities. the ejector bar actuates the ejection system. several channels are integrated into the mold design.
mold is cooling channels. Fig.2. adjacent to the cavity. and cool the molten plastic.8 Mold channels. These channels allow water to flow through the mold walls. 31 .
31 . which will require additional mold pieces. The design of the mold must also accommodate any complex features on the part. Firstly. which can form an internal undercut. the mold must allow the molten plastic to flow easily into all of the cavities. so a draft angle must be applied to the mold walls. there are many other design issues that must be considered in the design of the molds. The most common type of side-action is a side-core which enables an external undercut to be molded.CHAPTER-03 3.0 MOLD DESIGN: In addition to runners and gates. an unscrewing device is needed. and are therefore known as slides. or side-actions.1 Mold – Closed.3. To mold threads into the part. Equally important is the removal of the solidified part from the mold. such as undercuts or threads. such as internal core lifters. Other devices enter through the end of the mold along the parting direction. Fig. Most of these devices slide into the part cavity through the side of the mold. which can rotate out of the mold after the threads have been formed.
3.Fig.2 Mold . These channels allow plastic to run along them.3 Standard two plates tooling – core and cavity are inserts in a mold base – "Family mold" of 5 different parts.3. the injection mold (A plate) and the ejector mold (B plate).Exploded view. Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold. Fig. The sprue bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that are machined into the faces of the A and B plates. The mold consists of two primary components. also known as cavity. so they are 31 . the sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold.
or runner system out of a mold. then the molded part will tend to shrink onto the cores that form them while cooling. To allow for removal of the molded part from the mold. Trapped air in the mold can escape through air vents that are ground into the parting line of the mold. and cling to those cores or part may warp. If the trapped air is not allowed to escape. runner and cavities of a mold is a shot. The molded part is cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold. blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away. The amount of resin required to fill the sprue. Insufficient draft can cause deformation or damage. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the surrounding plastic material. The part then falls freely when ejected from the (B) side. also known as submarine or mold gate. The opening is machined into the surface of the mold on the parting line. it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and is squeezed into the corners of the cavity. is located below the parting line or mold surface. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the draft required. The 31 . Ejector pins. the mold features must not overhang one another in the direction that the mold opens.referred to as runners. If the skin is too thin. and draws the runner and the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and closes) are typically angled slightly with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. is a circular pin placed in either half of the mold (usually the ejector half) which pushes the finished molded product. The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens. also known as knockout pin. where it prevents filling and causes other defects as well. twist. The draft required for mold release is primarily dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity. unless parts of the mold are designed to move from between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components called Lifters). The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water) through a series of holes drilled through the mold plates and connected by hoses to form a continuous pathway. the more draft necessary. Tunnel gates. The molten plastic flows through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity geometry to form the desired part.
Some extremely high production volume molds (like those for bottle caps) can have over 128 cavities. Then the second material is injection-molded into the remaining open spaces. The part is then ejected and the mold closes. the base color material is molded into a basic shape. A mold with 2 or more cavities of the same parts will likely be referred to as multiple impression (cavity) mold. The number of "impressions" in the mold of that part is often incorrectly referred to as cavitations. This system can allow for production of one-piece tires and wheels. A mold can produce several copies of the same parts in a single "shot". This process is actually an injection molding process performed twice. called inserts. the slides are pulled away from the plastic part by using stationary “angle pins” on the stationary mold half. cavities and cores are divided into pieces. to form overhanging part features. To ease maintenance and venting. This is often referred to as over molding. The closing action of the mold causes the slides to move forward along the angle pins. In the first step. or chase blocks. These pins enter a slot in the slides and cause the slides to move backward when the moving half of the mold opens. also called inserts. By substituting interchangeable inserts. In some cases multiple cavity tooling will mold a series of different parts in the same tool. 31 . These may have sections called slides that move into a cavity perpendicular to the draw direction. Some toolmakers call these molds family molds as all the parts are related. 2-shot or multi-shot molds are designed to "over mold" within a single molding cycle and must be processed on specialized injection molding machines with two or more injection units. blocks.coolant absorbs heat from the mold (which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps the mold at a proper temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate. Some molds allow previously molded parts to be reinserted to allow a new plastic layer to form around the first part. More complex parts are formed using more complex molds. one mold may make several variations of the same part. When the mold is opened. and sub-assemblies. A tool with one impression will often be called a single impression (cavity) mold. That space is then filled during the second injection step with a material of a different color.
1.2 CORNERS: 31 .1 MAXIMUM WALL THICKNESS: • Decrease the maximum wall thickness of a part to shorten the cycle time (injection time and cooling time specifically) and reduce the part volume INCORRECT CORRECT Part with thick walls Part redesigned with thin walls • Uniform wall thickness will ensure uniform cooling and reduce defects INCORRECT CORRECT Non-uniform wall thickness (t1 ≠ t2) Uniform wall thickness (t1 = t2) 184.108.40.206 DESIGN RULES 3.
1. INCORRECT CORRECT No draft angle Draft angle ( ) 3. rather than increasing the wall thickness 31 .1.• • Round corners to reduce stress concentrations and fracture Inner radius should be at least the thickness of the walls INCORRECT CORRECT Sharp corner 3.4 RIBS: • Add ribs for structural support.2° to all walls parallel to the parting direction to facilitate removing the part from the mold.3 DRAFT: Rounded corner • Apply a draft angle of 1° .
INCORRECT CORRECT Thick wall of thickness t Thin wall of thickness t with ribs • Orient ribs perpendicular to the axis about which bending may occur INCORRECT CORRECT Incorrect rib direction under load F • • • • Correct rib direction under load F Thickness of ribs should be 50-60% of the walls to which they are attached Height of ribs should be less than three times the wall thickness Round the corners at the point of attachment Apply a draft angle of at least 0.25° INCORRECT CORRECT 31 .
INCORRECT CORRECT Isolated boss • Isolated boss with ribs (left) or gussets (right) If a boss must be placed near a corner. it should be isolated using ribs.5 BOSSES: • • • Wall thickness of bosses should be no more than 60% of the main wall thickness Radius at the base should be at least 25% of the main wall thickness Should be supported by ribs that connect to adjacent walls or by gussets at the base.1.Thick rib of thickness t Thin rib of thickness t Close up of ribs 3. 31 .
INCORRECT CORRECT Boss in corner 3.6 UNDERCUTS: • Ribbed boss in corner Minimize the number of external undercuts oExternal oSome undercuts require side-cores which add to the tooling cost simple external undercuts can be molded by relocating the parting line Simple external undercut oRedesigning Mold cannot separate New parting line allows undercut a feature can remove an external undercut Part with hinge Hinge requires side-core 31 .1.
Redesigned hinge • New hinge can be molded Minimize the number of internal undercuts oInternal undercuts often require internal core lifters which add to the tooling cost an opening in the side of a part can allow a side-core to form an internal oDesigning undercut Internal undercut accessible from the side oRedesigning a part can remove an internal undercut Part with internal undercut Mold cannot separate 31 .
Part redesigned with slot •Minimize New part can be molded number of side-action directions side-action directions will limit the number of possible cavities in the mold oAdditional 3. direction. features with external threads should be oriented perpendicular to the parting features that are parallel to the parting direction will require an unscrewing device. 31 .7 THREADS •If possible.1. •Threaded which greatly adds to the tooling cost.
Most polymers may be used. excellent creep 31 . Each material requires a different set of processing parameters in the injection molding process. Also. plumbing components. handles. Delrin. including the injection temperature. and cycle time. their raw form is usually small pellets or a fine powder. Material name Acetal Abbreviation POM Trade names Description Applications Bearings. The selection of a material for creating injection molded parts is not solely based upon the desired characteristics of the final part. injection pressure. and some elastomers. A comparison of some commonly used materials is shown below (Follow the links to search the material library). Strong. mold temperature. gears. cams. rigid. some thermosets. excellent fatigue Lucel resistance. including all thermoplastics. While each material has different properties that will affect the strength and function of the final part. Celcon. Hostaform. When these materials are used in the injection molding process. these properties also dictate the parameters used in processing these materials.0 MATERIALS: There are many types of materials that may be used in the injection molding process.CHAPTER-04 4. ejection temperature. colorants may be added in the process to control the color of the final part.
naturally opaque white. wheels chemical resistance. inhalors. vents). resistance. Rigid. Grilon fatigue bushings. valves moisture resistance. trays Cycolac. Plexiglas transparent. medium/high Polyamide 6 (Nylon) PA6 31 . cost shelves. Handles.resistance. Display stands. brittle. panels. naturally opaque. Magnum. rollers. low/medium cost Acrylic PMMA rotors. Terluran Strong. low/medium reflectors. High strength. signs. gears. optical clarity. Bearings. knobs. low friction. toys Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS Cellulose Acetate CA Dexel. light housings. gauges. low mold shrinkage (tight tolerances). low creep. Tough. lenses. chemical slide resistance. chemical resistance. low/medium cost Automotive (consoles. scratch resistant. trim. Setilithe transparent. Cellidor. panels. almost opaque/white. Oroglas. high eyeglass frames cost Akulon. guides. Ultramid. flexible. Diakon. boxes. electroplating capability. Novodur. Lucite. housings. rollers.
Makrolon temperature resistance. Air filters. PET Celanex. Lexan. Rigid. High strength. Lupox. safety helmets and shields Automotive (filters. Valox chemical resistance. Rynite. high cost Automotive (panels. containers. handles. electrical components (connectors. safety masks chemical resistance. pumps). low friction. lenses. Grilamid High strength. very high cost Polycarbonate PC Calibre. resistance. cams.cost Polyamide (Nylon) 6/6 PA6/6 Kopa. medium/high cost 31 . zip ties chemical resistance. light covers. fatigue small housings. low creep. fatigue eyeglass frames. levers. almost opaque/white. dimensional stability. bottles. bearings. heat Crastin. consoles). transparent.PBT. low friction. medium/high cost Polyamide (Nylon) 11+12 PA11+12 Rilsan. almost opaque to clear. Handles. resistance. Very tough. housings. Polyester Thermoplastic . reflectors. low creep. resistance. Radilon Zytel.
seals Polyetheretherketone PEEKEEK Polyetherimide PEI Electrical components (connectors. sheilds. tough and flexible. valves Polyether Sulphone PES Victrex. rollers.High HDPE Density Eraclene. low moisture absorption Ultem Heat resistance.sensors). Stamylan Chair seats. excellent chemical resistance. Udel Tough. natural waxy appearance.Low LDPE Density Alkathene. Novex Lightweight. clear. covers. housings. housings. and containers 31 . chemical resistance. housings. natural waxy appearance. transparent (amber color) Aircraft components. very high cost Strong. low cost Tough and stiff. Hostalen. boards. low cost Polyethylene . very Valves high chemical resistance. covers. Escorene. electrical connectors. gears. thermal stability. covers. pump impellers. abrasion resistance. switches). flame resistance. excellent chemical resistance. switches. surgical tools Kitchenware. and containers Polyethylene .
Automotive (bumpers. housings. Escorene Polystyrene General purpose . system brown. plumbing components Polyphenylene Sulphide PPS Ryton. fuel resistance. Fortron Very high Bearings. flexible. tough and stiff. high cost Automotive (housings. switches. low water absorption. natural waxy appearance. crates. very components. heat resistance. dimensional stability. handles. low cost. toys dimensional stability. heat resistance. Thermocomp. heat covers.PVC Welvic.High HIPS impact Polyvinyl Chloride . caps.GPPS Lacqrene. housings Polypropylene PP Novolen. high cost guides. Solarene transparent. strength. Cosmetics Styron. low cost Tough. covers. Varlan 31 . Electrical Polystyrene . scratch resistance. trim). Vamporan Tough. Appryl. containers. Kostil. electrical components. Electronic rigidity. panels). food toughness. pens cost Polystyrol. naturally translucent. and shields Lightweight.Polyphenylene Oxide PPO Noryl. Polystar Impact strength. flame resistance. electroplating capability. high chemical resistance. housings. bottles. Brittle. low packaging.
flame resistance. housewares. brittle. syringes resistance. heat resistance. low cost insulation. low cost Tough.1 MOLDING DEFECTS: Injection molding is a complex technology with possible production problems. high cost electrical components. flexible. transparent or opaque. Trosiplast Tough. transparent or opaque. gutters) Polyvinyl Chloride . Housewares. 4.UPVC Rigid Styrene Acrylonitrile SAN Luran. medical tubing. low cost Polycol. toys Outdoor applications (drains. often caused zone on surface of by a lack of cooling around the tool or a faulty heater brown Tool lacks venting. chemical knobs. Bushings. flexible. washers Thermoplastic Elastomer/Rubber TPE/R Hytrel. Arpylene. injection speed is too Burn marks Air Gas the part Burn/ Black or Burn/ burnt areas on the high 31 . seals. Sarlink Table 3: Materials. hydrolytically stable. shoe soles. Starex Stiff. They can either be caused by defects in the molds or more often by part processing (molding) Molding Defects Blister Alternative Name Blistering Descriptions Causes Raised or layered Tool or material is too hot. transparent. fittings.Plasticised flame resistance. Santoprene.
particle Particles on the tool surface. clamping force too low. PP in mixed with ABS. gate position or runner. turbulent flow of Injection speed set too high. you can get away with at all times) Deformed part by Poor tool design. Knit Lines Weld lines material Small lines on the Caused by the melt-front flowing around backside of core an object standing proud in a plastic part pins or windows in as well as at the end of fill where the parts that look like melt-front comes together again. Can also be caused by dirt and contaminants around tooling surfaces. like Contamination of the material e. Previous colored material "dragging" in nozzle or Delamination Thin layers mica formed check valve. or too much shear heat the part Directionally patterns burning the material prior to injection "off Injection speeds too slow (the plastic has injection speeds must be set as fast as Flow marks Flow lines tone" wavy lines or cooled down too much during injection. Can be Jetting 31 . too much injection normal geometry Embedded contaminates Embedded particulates Foreign part speed/material injected. very dangerous if the part is being used for a safety critical application as the material has very little strength Flash Burrs when delaminated as the materials cannot bond Excess material in Mold is over packed or parting line on thin layer exceeding the tool is damaged.Dieseling part located at furthest points from gate or where air is Color streaks Colour (US) streaks (UK) trapped Localized change of Masterbatch isn't mixing properly. or the color/colour material has run out and it's starting to come through as natural only.g. part wall (burnt material or contaminated material or foreign debris other) embedded in in the barrel.
Material too hot. polymer breakdown Excess water in the granules. String like remain Nozzle temperature too high. temperatures in barrel Holding time/pressure too low. not allowing the edges of the part to set up. Filling to fast. with sprueless hot runners this can also be caused by the gate temperature being set too high. Excessive material or thick wall thickness. injection speed or pressure too low. Once the mold is made and the gate is placed one can only minimize this flaw by changing the melt and the mold Polymer degradation Sink marks [sinks] temperature. Lack of material.just lines. Stringiness Stringing areas. minimized or eliminated with a moldflow study when the mold is in design phase. Point between injection 31 . Also mold may be out of registration (when the two halves don't center properly and part walls are not the same thickness). cooling (In time too short. usually when Trapping of gas in "rib" areas due to excessive injection velocity in these oxidation etc. Gate hasn't from previous shot frozen off transfer in new shot Empty space within Lack part (Air pocket) Voids of holding pressure (holding pressure is used to pack out the part during the holding time). Localized depression thicker zones) Short shot Splay marks Non-fill / Partial part Short mold Splash mark / Circular Silver streaks by hot gas around gate caused hygroscopic resins are dried improperly. excessive from hydrolysis. line Mold/material temperatures set too low Weld line Knit line / Discolored two fronts meet Meld line / where Transfer line flow (the material is cold when they meet. so they don't bond). mold too cold pattern Moisture in the material.
To maximize control in setting tolerances there is usually a minimum and maximum limit on thickness. Injection molding typically is capable of tolerances equivalent to an IT Grade of about 9–14. Molding Type Thermoplastic Thermoset Typical Possible ±0. etc. Cooling is too short.2 TOLERANCES AND SURFACES: Molding tolerance is a specified allowance on the deviation in parameters such as dimensions.008 ±0. Rough or pebbled surfaces are also possible. shapes. based on the process used. weights.008 ±0. Surface finishes of two to four micro inches or better are can be obtained. or angles. The possible tolerance of a thermoplastic or a thermoset is ±0.008 to ±0. 4.and transfer (to packing and holding) too Warping Twisting Distorted part early.002 ±0.002 Table 5: Tolerances. lack of cooling around the tool.002 inches. CHAPTER-05 31 . material is too hot. incorrect water temperatures (the parts bow inwards towards the hot side of the tool) Uneven shrinking between areas of the part Table 4: Molding Defects.
and shot capacity. Injection molding machines are typically referred to by the tonnage of the clamping force they provide. and resetting time. such as clamp stroke. The size of the part must also comply with other machine specifications. The weight of material that is required includes the material that fills the channels of the mold. The cycle time can be broken down into the injection time. By reducing any of these times. The hourly rate is proportional to the size of the injection molding machine being used. and hence the amount of material. The weight of material is clearly a result of the part volume and material density. as they require less time to cool all the way through. and a larger machine requires more time to perform these operations. however. Therefore. Several thermodynamic properties of the material also affect the cooling time. is largely determined by the thickness of the part. cooling time. A larger part will require larger motions from the machine to open. a larger part will require a larger clamping force. 5. platen size. and eject the part.3 TOOLING COST: 31 . The injection time can be decreased by reducing the maximum wall thickness of the part and the part volume. 5.1 MATERIAL COST: The material cost is determined by the weight of material that is required and the unit price of that material. and hence a more expensive machine. Lastly.5. the part's maximum wall thickness can also play a role.2 PRODUCTION COST: The production cost is primarily calculated from the hourly rate and the cycle time. Also. so it is important to understand how the part design affects machine selection. The required clamping force is determined by the projected area of the part and the pressure with which the material is injected.0 COSTING & ESTIMATION: 5. the production cost will be lowered. the resetting time depends on the machine size and the part size. close. The cooling time is also decreased for lower wall thicknesses. certain materials that require high injection pressures may require higher tonnage machines. The size of those channels.
the number of directions can restrict the number of cavities that can be included in the mold. the mold for a part which requires 3 side-action directions can only contain 2 cavities. One final consideration is the number of side-action directions. The additional cost for side-cores is determined by how many are used. APPLICATIONS: 31 . There is no direct cost added. and surface roughness.0. Any other elements that will require additional machining time will add to the cost. unscrewing devices. mold base. but it is possible that the use of more cavities could provide further savings. The cost of the mold base is primarily controlled by the size of the part's envelope. measured by the projected area of the cavity (equal to the projected area of the part and projected holes) and its depth. The stronger mold material results in a higher mold base cost and more machining time. For example. The cost of machining the cavities is affected by nearly every aspect of the part's geometry. A larger production quantity will require a higher class mold that will not wear as quickly. lifters. A larger part requires a larger. which can indirectly affect the cost. The quantity of parts also impacts the tooling cost.the mold base and the machining of the cavities. side-cores. including the feature count. The primary cost driver is the size of the cavity that must be machined. tolerance. However. more expensive. CHAPTER-06 6.The tooling cost has two main components . parting surface.
and most other plastic products available today. and polystyrene are thermoplastic. Most polymers may be used. and little need to finish parts after molding. packaging.  Common polymers like Epoxy and phenolic are examples of thermosetting plastics while nylon. including all thermoplastics. one that has exactly the right properties. and the ability to use a wide range of materials. Injection molding is the most common method of part manufacturing. automotive dashboards. bottle caps. and some elastomers. minimal scrap losses. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment investment. In 1995 there were approximately 18. potentially high running costs.1 GENERAL PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING APPLICATIONS: Aerospace components Automotive components Avionics components Cable assemblies Computer electronics Electronics components Encapsulations Engineering prototypes 31 .Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools. Some advantages of injection molding are high production rates. repeatable high tolerances. some thermo sets. Materials are chosen based on the strength and function required for the final part but also each material has different parameters for molding that must be taken into account. low labor cost. 6. and the need to design moldable parts. pocket combs. polyethylene. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object.000 different materials available for injection molding and that number was increasing at an average rate of 750 per year. The available materials are alloys or blends of previously developed materials meaning that product designers can choose from a vast selection of materials.
1 An all-electrical Injection Machine. hobby New product design & development R&D labs Test specimens 6. The electric machines have several advantages over the old design of the conventional injection machine. its operating cost is less. toys. and they are more accurate and stable. CONCLUSION: 31 .2 THE FUTURE OF INJECTION MOLDING: Some of the new tendencies and technology in injection molding are the electric injection machines and the gas assisted injection molding.6. Geophysics Instrumentation Marketing samples Material quality testing Medical & dental products Medical laboratories Model shops. Fig. It runs silent.
REFERENCES: 31 . which makes it very versatile.Injection molding is one of the most important processes for plastics and it has a very wide list of kinds of products it can produce.
plasticnews. DAVIS.66600. 1997 3. 2001 2.badgercolor.plasticsone.jp www. MarcelDekker.00. USA. Industrial Plastics. MENGES / MICHAELI / MOHREN. Cincinnati. Malasia.energyusernews. How to Make Injection Molds.1. 2001 4. NY. BERNIE A.com www.com www.com 31 . Univarsiti Mara. New York.engelmachinery. MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY..com www. P. Rao. Shah Alam. Prof.N.2584. RICHARDSON & LOKENSGARD.com www.mhi. OLMSTED & MARTIN E. Hanser.co. Delmar Publishers Inc. Practical Injection Molding.plasticstechnology.com www. Theory and Applications.com http://www.modernplastics.gasassist. USA.html • • • • • • • • www. URL: • http://www.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Ite m/0. SPE. Third Edition. Third Edition. USA. Albany.
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