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Chapter outline 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 Introduction Functions of an organization chart Organization chart of a hotel Organisation chart of a food and beverage department Organisation chart of a kitchen Organisation chart of a beverage department Organisation chart of a restaurant Responsibilities of various positions in a restaurant

Objectives of this chapter At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to: • • • • • • • Describe the functions of an organization chart List the divisions and departments within the organization chart of a large hotel List the positions within the organization chart of a food and beverage department List the positions within the organization chart of a kitchen List the position within the organization chart of a beverage department List the position within the organization chart of a restaurant Describe the responsibilities of various positions in a restaurant


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1.1 INRODUCTION An organization chart is a visual representation of the departments and hierarchy of staff positions within an organization. 1.2 FUNCTIONS OF AN ORGANISATION CHART An organization chart shows the: • Division of work within an organization The organization chart visually illustrates the relationship of the various departments within a hotel, division or department. It also classifies departments by the type of work they do and their respective areas of responsibilities, e.g. Finance, Food and Beverage, Human Resource, Rooms Division, and Sales and Marketing. • Chain of command and communication An organization chart does not only show the various departments within a hotel but also the relative staff positions within each department. This chain of command facilitates the flow of informing up and down the hierarchy and helps eliminate incidences of “double bossing”. It also allows all employees to see:      • their span of control, if any the correct line of communication where they belong within the organization who their superiors, peers and subordinates are the hierarchy of positions within other departments

Possible career path for employees An organization chart allows employees to plan a career path in their chosen professions. Thus, a waiter knows that in order to become an Assistant Restaurant Manager; he must first work towards the position of Captain before he may aspire to the position of an Assistant Restaurant Manager.


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Figure 1.1

Organization Chart of Large Hotel General Manager’s Office

Finance and Accounting Division Executive Assistant Manager’s Office

Food & Beverage Division
Banquet Operation

Rooms Division

Sales & Marketing Division
Room Sales Catering Service

Human Resources Division
Employee Welfare Personnel Department Security Department Training Department


Beverage Department Bars

Front Desk


Public Relations


Mail Room

Kitchen Room Service Department


Business Center Engineering Department Housekeeping Department

Stewarding Department


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Figure 1.2

Organization Chart of Food & Beverage Division in a Large Hotel

Food & Beverage Director
Food & Beverage Controller

Sales & Marketing Division Chief Steward Executive Chef

Human Resources Division

Beverage Manager

Bar Managers

Restaurant Managers

Room Service Manager


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Figure 1.3 Organization Chart of an Outlet Kitchen Brigade

Executive Chef

Sous Chef

Chef de Partie Commis –I Commis - II Commis - III

Chef de Partie Commis –I Commis - II Commis - III


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Figure 1.4 Organization Chart of a Beverage Outlet

Beverage Manager Bar Manager Assistant Bar Manager Senior Bartender Manager Bar Tender Barboy

Bar Captain Server Commis Server


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Figure 1.5 Organization Chart of a Restaurant

Assistant Director – Food & Beverage Restaurant Manager Assistant Restaurant Manager


Captain Server Commis Server



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1.8 RESPONSIBILITIES OF VARIOUS POSITIONS IN A RESTAURANT The following positions are usually found in a restaurant: • Restaurant • Hostess Manager • Captain • Assistant • Wine Butler Restaurant • Waiter Manager • Busboy 1.8.1 Restaurant Manager The Restaurant Manager’s position is referred to as the Director de Restaurant in the traditional French restaurant service brigade. A Restaurant Manager is in charge of the overall operation of a food and beverage outlet. He or she is responsible for the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Supervising staff in the dining room Selling and promoting restaurant Maintaining good staff and customer relations Maintaining set standard for food, beverage and service quality Performing table side preparation (especially in fine dining restaurants) Developing the annual operation budget for the restaurant. Controlling the expenses of the restaurant (payroll, F&B cost, etc.) Approving duty rosters for service staff Conducting and co-coordinating training for the restaurant Working with the Human Resource Department (HRD) in the recruitment and development of staff according to the policies of the hotel Overseeing daily roll-call / pre-service briefing Attending Food and Beverage operations meetings and conducting departmental meetings to disseminate information to staff in the restaurant.

List the responsibility of Maitre d’hotel or Restaurant Manager? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 9

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______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ________________________

1.8.2 Assistant Restaurant Manager The Assistant Restaurant Manager is also known as, Premier Maitre d’ hotel, in the traditional French restaurant brigade. The Assistant Restaurant Manager provides support and assists the Restaurant Manager and takes over the Restaurant Manager`s duties in his or her absence. The Assistant Restaurant Manager is also directly responsible for the following: • • • • • • • • supervising Staff selling and Promoting Restaurant maintaining good staff and Customer Relations checking on food, beverage and service quality performing table side preparation (in fine dining restaurant) drawing up the duty rosters for the restaurant staff conducting on–the–job training for the restaurant staff overseeing daily roll-call / pre-service briefing

1.8.3 Hostess The position of Hostess is usually filled by females but having a male Host is not unheard of. The main role of the 10

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Host or Hostess in a restaurant is to greet and seat customers. Key responsibilities include: • • • • • • • keeping menu stock and maintains menu cleanliness ensuring that floral arrangements are changed regularly by the flower department taking and maintaining customers records for restaurant reservations assisting customer seating to each station greeting , welcoming and seating customers maintaining customer`s history record assisting in presenting menu, and where necessary taking orders for food and beverage items.

List the information that might be included in a customer history record in a restaurant.

___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________ 1.8.4 Captain The Captain’s position in the traditional French restaurant service brigade is called Chef de rang. A Captain is normally in-charge of smaller sections within a restaurant and is responsible for 5 to 8 tables covering approximately about 20 to 36 seats. Key responsibilities of a Captain include: • • supervising, directing, assisting and cocoordinating service staff(waiters / stewards) within the station recommending or suggesting food and beverage items to customers and taking the orders for food and beverage


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• • •

checking customers satisfaction with quality of food, beverage and service provided attending to customer complaints and requests checking and presenting bills

Captains may also assist the Hostess, Assistant Restaurant Manager or Restaurant Manager in the following: • • • welcoming and seating customers performing table side preparation overseeing the restaurant in the absence of the Manager or Assistant Restaurant Manager

1.8.5 Wine Butler The Wine Butler is also known as Wine Waiter, and is referred to as Sommelier in the traditional French service brigade. This position specializes in the recommendation and service of wine and other beverages. This is a specialized position usually found only in a fine dining restaurant. The Wine Butler’s duties include: • • • • • • Recommending selecting wine and formulating or revising the wine list. Preparing the mise-en-place for wine service (wine glasses, wine buckets and stand, decanters, wine baskets) Recommending appropriate wines to match customer’s food order. Presenting, uncorking and serving wines. Maintaining the inventory of wines in the restaurant through requisitions and daily physical inventories Training staff in wine knowledge and wine service techniques

1.8.6 Waiter


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This position is known as Commis de rang in the traditional French service brigade and are also sometimes referred to as “Servers”. A Waiter is required to perform the following tasks: • Preparing the mise-en-place for the restaurant’s operation, for example: drawing, stocking and laying table linen folding napkins for use in service setting tables with tableware, glassware and chinaware stocking side stations with linen, glassware, and chinaware cleaning and refilling salt and pepper shakers or mills, oil and vinegar bottles and other condiments, if applicable

• • •

Serving food and beverage to customers patronizing the restaurant Clearing soiled tableware from restaurant to the back-of-house Re-setting table for ‘new’ customers when tables are re-sold during the course of the same meal period (i.e. when a turnover occurs)

1.8.7 Busboy This is an entry level position in most restaurants and is usually held by an inexperienced, freshly hired individual. ‘Busboy’ is an American term which in Singapore is also referred to as a Commis server or Junior Waiter .In the traditional French service brigade the position is known as Commis de’barrasseur. The main duties of this position are: • • • Collecting food and beverages from the kitchen into the restaurant Collecting beverages from the bar Bussing (collecting and clearing) soiled dishes from the dining room to the back- of-the-house to the stewarding wash-up point 13

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Assisting a waiter to serve the customers if need arises.

Chapter outline 2.1 2.2 2.3 Support service Internal support services External support services

Objectives of this chapter At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to: • • • • • List the two types of support services Explain what are internal support services List the various internal support services provided by departments within a hotel Explain what are external support services List the various external support services coordinated by departments within a hotel


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2.1 SUPPORT SERVICES Support services are any services which are required by a department within a hotel such as restaurant in order to operate efficiently. Such services may be required on a regular or ad-hoc basis. There are two forms of support services: 1. Internal support services 2. External support services 2.2 INTERNAL SUPPORT SERVICES Internal support services include those which are provided by a department or area of operation within the organization or hotel to a food and beverage department. The departments within the organization or hotel that provide such services are known as internal support departments. The following are internal support departments within a hotel: • • • • • • • • Housekeeping Department Engineering Department Front Office Department Security Department Finance / Accounts Department Human Resource Department Sales and Marketing Department Other departments within the Food and Beverage Division


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2.2.1 Housekeeping Department The Housekeeping department provides the following internal support services to food and beverage outlets: • • Cleans public areas including food and beverages outlets; Maintains public area facilities by replenishing customer support such as soap and toilet paper in areas such as rest rooms used by customers of food and beverage outlets; Maintains the hotel’s Lost and Found Departments; Operates the laundry department, linen and uniform room and thus provides linen and uniform to food and beverage outlets; and Provides flower arrangements and fresh flowers as table centerpieces to food and beverage outlets.

• • •

2.2.2 Engineering Department Often referred to as the ‘maintenance’ department, the Engineering Department is responsible for more than general maintenance of equipment in restaurants. The following are some of the services and facilities in food and beverage outlets that are the responsibility of the Engineering Department: • • Maintains water, steam, electrical and airconditioning facilities and equipments Fabricates, maintains and repairs furniture, fixtures and equipments.

2.2.3 Front Office Department The Front Office Department provides the following support services to food and beverage outlets by: • • • directing customers to food and beverage outlets providing information about the hotel’s food and beverage facilities issuing meal vouchers to tour groups to facilitate meal arrangements


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• • •

handling the distribution of mail and messages to food and beverage outlets maintaining customer room folio accounts and ensuring the settlement of bills incurred in food and beverage outlets operating the telephone department and re-routing telephone calls and messages for in-house customers who are dining in the hotel’s food and beverage outlets

2.2.4 Security Department Customers who use any hotel’s food and beverage facilities expect and must be provided with a safe, friendly and comfortable environment. Food and beverage outlets must therefore depend on the hotel’s Security Department to:

• • •

Ensure the safety of staff, customers and the security of their belongings Maintain security within the hotel premises Handle emergencies such as fires and if necessary, evacuation of customer and staff.

2.2.5 Finance/ Accounts Department 17

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The financial status of the hotel’s various food and beverage outlets are recorded and analyzed by the Finance /Accounts Department. Thus, the Finance or Accounts Department provides the following support services to food and beverage outlets by: • • • • • Handling of staff payroll Maintaining the food and beverage outlets financial records Generating timely reports and analysis of financial performance Providing cashiering services at food and beverage outlets point-of sales Providing purchasing services (which includes receiving, storing and issuing items).

2.2.6 Human Resource Department The Human Resource Departments in hotels serve three basic functions: personnel-related matters, staff welfare and development of its employees. Food and beverage outlets therefore depend on the Human Resource Department for the following: • • Recruiting, orienting, training, evaluating, motivating ,disciplining ,promoting and communicating with food and beverage staff; and Overseeing the welfare and employee benefits of staff.

2.2.7 Sales and Marketing Department The Sales and Marketing Department generates business for the hotel by marketing the hotel; its services and facilities. It is usually made up the following department: • • • • Marketing Public relations Catering sales Room sales

The Sales and Marketing Department thus provides support services to food and beverage outlets by:


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• • • •

Generating catering (banquet) sales; Generating convention sales with food and beverage arrangements; Increasing room sales and thus maintaining a high occupancy of in –house customers who are likely to use the food and beverage outlets; and Promoting hotels food and beverage outlets through advertisements, by soliciting publicity and generating good public relations.

Other departments within the Food and Beverage Division The other departments within the food and beverage departments or division are also a source of internal support services to a food and beverage outlet. Food and beverage outlets receive support from the Food and Beverage Manager’s office or administration, Stewarding Department, Beverage Department, Kitchen and other food and beverage outlets. These support services usually include: • Secretarial support; • Maintenance of equipment inventory; • Provision of manpower from other restaurants; • Cross-selling of outlet by other food and beverage outlet; and • Provision of cleaning services to the food and beverage outlets

2.3 EXTERNAL SUPPORT SERVICES External support services are those which are not available within the hotel but are required for the smooth operation of good and beverage outlets. Such services may be


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required on a regular or ad-hoc basic and include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Laundry Contract cleaning of back-of-the-house areas such as kitchens General maintenance of customer areas Fabrication, maintenance or repair of furniture and equipment Landscaping services Supply of floral arrangements Contracted security services Printing and graphic design work Catering of staff meals Catering for specialized meals (Muslim Halal meals, vegetarian, etc.) Provision of props and decorations for banquet function rooms Photography and video-taping services Rental of audio-visual equipment e.g. karaoke equipment Entertainment services such as musicians, magicians, disc or karaoke jockeys, dancers (cultural, modern, ethnic or non-ethnic), master of ceremonies, etc.

2.3.1 Co-coordinating external support services Due to the wide range of external support services required by the food and beverage department, some form of co-ordination is required when dealing with external support service. The following lists the likely departments within the hotels and food and beverage department which are responsible for the co- ordination of these external support services: • Housekeeping Department The Housekeeping Department may co-ordinate the following external support services:  laundry services;


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 florist, landscaping and gardening services; and  General maintenance of public areas. • Food and Beverage Manager’s Office / Administration

This area within the departments serves to coordinate the following:  printing of menus and promotional materials;  graphic design for menus and promotional materials like brochures ;and  Provision of `live` entertainment, e.g. a string quartet for the New Year’s Eve dinner in a restaurant. • Banquet Operations

Customers using the hotel’s Banquet services may require items, services or equipment which are not readily available within the hotel. As such, the Banquet Department may be required to co-ordinate the following external support services: hiring of entertainment services; rental of audio-visual equipment; arrangement for photography or videtaping services; and Provision of large scale props, signs, banners and decorations.


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The following external support services are coordinated by the kitchen: staff meals e.g. on the hotel’s family day; and catering for food and beverage items which cannot be prepared in house.

It may not be feasible for a hotel to prepare all the items required on a menu. Such menu items may require specialized skills, equipment or conditions. Foe example, Halal or Kosher meals must be prepared under very specific and strict religious requirements. Thus it may be feasible to have such food items prepared outside of the hotel by registered caterers who specialize in in such meals. Menus items may require specialized skills which are not found in the hotel. For example, Vegetarian food, roast sucking piglets, satay, Nonya kueh,etc. may not be possible to produce in the hotel due to lack of manpower, equipment, space, knowledge or skills. Such items may instead be purchased for either a particular function or as a regular (daily) purchase.


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Stewarding Department

Besides the regular daily cleaning of the kitchen areas, equipment such as cooker hoods, ovens, gas ranges, grills and griddle tops must also be cleaned


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on a regular basis if hygiene and sanitation standards are to be maintained. However, the specialized tools, chemicals, knowledge and skills required are usually not available in the hotel. The Stewarding Department may therefore co- ordinate contract cleaning services for the back- of-the-house areas and equipment.

Front Office Department

The Front Office usually co-ordinates contracted security services for the hotel. Hotel may choose to hire the service of forms providing security for several reasons: - higher operating costs; lack of available and trained manpower; and In-house security staff becomes too familiar with other staff to prove effective.


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Engineering The Engineering Department may not be equipped, knowledge or skilled enough to fabricate, maintain or repair all existing equipment. Thus, the department may instead coordinate the provision of external support services equipment, furniture and fixtures.


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Chapter Outline 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Restaurant 3.3 Theme Restaurant 3.4 Types of bar set-ups 3.5 Types of beverage outlets 3.6 Other food service operations

Objectives of this chapter At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to: • • • • • • Outlets the criteria used to classify restaurants List the different types of restaurants as classified by the level of service provided Outline the characteristics of restaurants classified by the level of service provided Explain what are theme restaurants Outline the two different types of bar counter set- ups List the different types of beverage outlets


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• •

Describe the characteristics of the different types of beverage outlets Describe the characteristics of other food service operations



Food service operations range form food and beverage outlets that are operate in and out of hotels to those found in locations which are not primarily designed for the service of food and beverage. 3.2 RESTAURANTS

There are several criteria that may be used to classify restaurants, including: • • • • Nature of the operation (chain or independent); Type of management concepts (owner-operated, franchise agreement or management contract); Use or absence of a theme; and Level of service provided (fine dining, coffee house, etc.).

The most common basis for classifying restaurants is the level of service they provide. Restaurants classified using this criterion includes: > > > > Fine dining restaurants Brasseries Coffee houses Quick service restaurants


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Fine dining establishments are full- service restaurants traditionally associated with five- star luxury hotels though such restaurants may also be operated independently. Excellence in all aspects of the operations of such outlets is a pre-requisite because the prices charged are usually very high. In hotels, these restaurants act as ‘showcases of excellence’- where the service, food and beverages offered are the very best that the hotel can offer. Listed below are the characteristics found in most fine dining restaurants:  Seating capacity

They are limited in capacity by the high level of service they provide. They usually seat no more than 100 guests.  Atmosphere

These restaurants provide a comfortable and elegant atmosphere and are often describe as being romantic, 30

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classy and exclusive. The décor in these restaurants is usually elaborate with top-quality furniture, furnishing and may include expensive works of art and antiques. Seating is kept relatively sparse and effort is made to provide customers with a greater sense of privacy than in most restaurants. In some fine-dining restaurants private dining rooms may also be made available. These private dining rooms are used to cater to larger groups of diners and help isolate the noise that these large groups of diners are likely to create as well as providing these groups with a greater sense of privacy. In traditional fine dining restaurants, a dress code might also be enforced. Such dress codes usually require male diners to wear a tie and jacket. Such dress codes may apply to one or both meal periods but is more likely to be enforced more strictly for dinner rather than lunch  Operational hours

Fine dining restaurants usually operate only two meal periods: lunch and dinner. However, some fine dining rooms might also operate for breakfast, specifically to cater to selected customers such as those staying on the hotel’s Executive Club Floor and suite rooms.  Range of food and beverage offered

Fine dining restaurants cater to a very specific group of diners–food connoisseurs and gourmets. Thus, food items and delicacies such as foie gras, truffles, fresh oysters, caviar, veal sweetbreads, etc. are likely to be found on the menus of fine dining restaurants. The menus in these restaurants feature a relatively small selection but are changed quite often when compared to other types of restaurants. Great care and effort is made to ensure that the menu items are presented and served in a visually stunning and pleasing manner. Expensive, fine, rare wines and spirits from the top notch producers, shippers and vintages are offered in these restaurants.


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Target market

The clientele in fine dining restaurants are mostly made up of business men and women who work or entertain over lunch, while dinner is more likely to draw food connoisseurs and gourmets.  Staff and service

Service staffs working in fine dining restaurants are highly skilled in restaurant craft. They are knowledgeable, experienced individuals who pay a great deal of attention to details in every aspect of their work. Customers can expect efficient, attentive, personalized and yet unobtrusive service. Service staffs in such restarurants have learnt the art of anticipating the needs of customers, e.g. water and bread is offered and replenished without customers having to ask for it. In addition, specialized positions may exist in these restaurants. Sommeliers are usually only found in finedining restaurants and are on-hand to advise diners on their choice of wines and beverages. The chefs who work in these restaurants are highly skilled, creative and innovative as they must provide diners with an ever-changing fare on the restaurant’s menus. Staffs in these restaurants work on split-shift rosters. Though they may be financially compensated for the inconvenience and long hours associated with such shifts, it is usually a strong sense of commitment that sees them through. • Service equipment

Service equipment used in such restaurants is usually high quality and expensive. Cutlery is often silver or silverplated, glassware may be crystal and chinaware may be fine bone china. The linen used in these restaurants are usually pure linen or a linen-cotton mixture rather than the cheaper cotton-polyester variety. • Entertainment concept


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The music in such restaurants tends to be classical or semi-classical in nature and is played over a sound system or presented as live entertainment in the form of a pianist, harpist, flautist, a strolling violinist, etc. • Pricing

The average food and beverage check in these restaurants are comparatively high.

Casual upscale dining
Fine-dining restaurants are in a general decline in recent times. Customers now favour casual, upscale restaurants which offer popular foods in a setting that is mere appealing than most mid- scale restaurants while offering better value than fine-dining restaurants. Examples of casual upscale dining establishment include Compass Rose Restaurant, Morton’s of Chicago and Lawry’s The Prime Rib.


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3.2.2 BRASSERIES ‘Brasserie’ is a French term and originally referred to restaurants which served beer, as opposed to fine-dining restaurants which did not. The term has, however become one used to refer to any restaurant providing a level of service that is higher than a coffee


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L’Absinthe Brassiere- Restaurant house but below that provided by a fine dining restaurant. Listed below are the characteristics found in most brasseries: • Seating capacity

The restaurants range widely in seating capacity, from smaller versions seating less than a hundred to larger to restaurants seating as many as 450. • Atmosphere

Brasseries are designed to be more functional than a fine dining restaurant. They are geared for quick turnovers and are noisy with relatively dense seating and are generally less formal than a fine dining establishment. • Operational hours

In Singapore, most brasseries operate only during lunch and dinner only. They may also be opened for customers staying in the suite rooms or Executive Floors in hotels. In Paris, some brasseries open for breakfast and close late, often after 11.00 p.m. • Range of food and beverage offered

The menus in brasseries usually have a larger selection than fine dining restaurants but are also revised less frequently. Traditional French brasseries are likely to serve regional specialties like French Onion Soup, Bouillabaisse, Quiche Lorraine, Coq au vin or Boeuf Bourguignon. However, modern brasseries may serve Asian, American or other European cuisines. A comprehensive range of wines may also be offered in brasseries though the range is likely to be less extensive than fine dining restaurants. • Target market

The clientele in brasseries are mostly made up of business people who may work or entertain over while dinner is more likely to draw diners who are out for an evening of entertainment and fun rather than a culinary experience.


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Staff and service

Service staffs in brasseries are fairly skilled and knowledgeable, though the selection criteria for staff may be less stringent than fine-dining restaurants. The staff in these restaurants is likely to work on a split shift or a 2shift roster. Fast and efficient services are provided despite a lower staff to customer ratio when compared to fine dining restaurants. The combination of this and a higher table turnover results in a level of service that is lower when compared with a fine-dining restaurant. • Service equipment

The functional atmosphere of traditional brasseries is reflected in the equipment used in the restaurant. Stainless-steel cutlery and glassware are used rather than silverware and crystal. The chinaware in these restaurants may be ceramic or stoneware but seldom fine china. Linen is usually a polyester-cotton mix rather than the more expensive linen-cotton or pure linen. • Entertainment concept

The entertainment format usually reflective of the adopted theme of the restaurant. Traditional French-Parisian brasseries might present French accordion music while modern brasseries may play pop music over the sound system. • Pricing

The average food and beverage check in brasseries ranges widely but is generally lower than fine dining restaurants.

Brasserie or not?
Some restaurants might include the term ‘brasserie’ in their names but most do not fit the characteristics stated here as the level of the service provided is more typical of coffee houses.


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3.2.3 COFFEE HOUSES Coffee houses are also known by many other names: • Cafés • Bistros • All day dining rooms • Family restaurants • Popularly-priced restaurants

The level of service is less attentive than that expected in a brasserie or fine-dining establishments. Some of the characteristics of such restaurants are:


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Seating capacity

These restaurants range widely in capacity, with smaller restaurants seating slightly less than a hundred customers while larger restaurants can seat as many as 500. • Atmosphere

The original cafés were basically small informal places which served coffee and originated in Paris, France. Coffee houses are functional but comfortable and are designed to feeding large numbers of people quickly. Coffee houses become very crowded and noisy but that is it’s very nature. Coffee houses are geared for quick turnovers and seating is often very dense with tables close to each other, offering little in terms of privacy. • Operational hours

These restaurants are likely to operate 24-hours, though some restaurants are closed during specified, off-peak periods (e.g. 2.00 a.m. to 6.00 am)-when the volume of business makes it uneconomical or unnecessary to stay open. • Range of food and beverages offered

Coffee houses offer a range of food that is often described as being ‘international’ in nature. Thus, the menus feature anything from a Grilled T- bone steak to Mexican Fajitas, Italian pasta, Thai Tom Yum, Indonesian Nasi Goreng and local hawker fare like Hokkien Prawns Noodles or Satay. Menus and beverages lists in coffee houses offer a large selection but these are changed less frequently (a once a year change is not unusual). Different menus may also be used for each meal period the restaurant operates. Coffee houses in hotels are often the only restaurants open for breakfast and usually offer breakfast buffets in addition to an a la carte menu. Buffets might also be


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offered for other meal periods such as lunch, high-tea, dinner and supper. Alcoholic beverages are offered in coffee houses, but the only alcoholic beverage that is significant in terms of sales is beer. The sales of wines and spirits are usually negligible and the range offered is seldom extensive. • Target market

The clientele in coffee houses are mainly made up of inhouse customers at breakfast while lunch attracts office workers. Dinner is more likely to draw larger groups such as families while supper attracts late–night diners who come in after going to night spots and clubs. These outlets are also likely to attract family groups, especially if they offer buffet brunch or tea on weekends. • Staff and service

Service staffs in coffee houses need to work fast and their skills lie in maximizing efficiency as they often work with a very low staff to customer ratio. Though generally lessskilled than service staff in fine dining restaurants and brasseries. Service staffs in coffee houses are able to work fast and handle large volumes of customers at one seating. Their fast and efficient style of service may often be viewed as being impersonal in nature. Working on a 3shifts roster, staffing in coffee houses is also very likely to be supplemented with part time staff. • Service equipment

The functional nature of coffee houses is reflected in the choice of equipment used in the restaurant. Stainless steel is often used for cutlery while chinaware is often hard wearing, rolled-edged chinaware. Glassware is functional and durable in design while linen is seldom used. Instead paper napkins are offered while table mat are made of paper or laminated in plastic. If linen tablecloth and napkin are used, they are often made of a polyester-cotton textile. • Entertainment concept


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Piped-in instrumental music or a juke box is the usual form of entertainment in a coffee house though some rare exceptions feature live music. • Pricing

Coffee houses have relatively low average food and beverage checks when compared to brasseries.


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Pre- teens, teenagers, students and families with young children are the main target of these restaurants which provide food in a casual atmosphere and are relatively inexpensive. These food and beverage operations offer a limited menu selection as speed is an important consideration.

Pre-teens, teenagers, students and families with young children are the main target of these restaurants which provide food in a casual atmosphere and are relatively inexpensive. These food and beverage operations offer a limited menu selection as speed is an important consideration. Most of these operations offer over-the-counter service and customers must bring food from individual’s counters to the dining tables. Quick service restaurants include: o Cafeterias o Delicatessens


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o Fast- food outlets o Snack bars



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Also known locally as food courts, these food service operations offer a variety of food and beverage served over-the counter at a series of counters operated either by different business entities or a single operator in a common location. Diners may take-away the food and beverage items but may also dine on site. Seating is provided at common tables (those which may be used by anyone patronizing the food court).


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Delicatessens originated form the Jewish community of America and are basically take-away counters where cold cuts, sausages, salads cheeses, pastries and freshly baked


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breads were sold. Later, these ‘delis’ started to cater to their customers different tastes by making these sandwiches and salads to order. They may also offer limited seating for diners who prefer to consume the food and drinks on premise.


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Fast-food outlets

Customers at fast-food outlets place their food and drink orders with the server-cum-cashier at the counter. The food is wrapped in disposable grease proof paper or Styrofoam boxes. Once the order is assembled by the counter staff, customers either carry the food on trays to the table to eat or away-away the order.

Seating is provided and is usually dense with tables and fixed swivel chairs allowing the seating capacity to be fully maximized. As most of these outlets cater to families, children’s play area or room and facilities such as baby chairs are usually made available. Waste bins are


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also located throughout the outlet to allow customers to dispose of leftover food and disposable packaging.


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Snack bars

Snack bars are small eateries that operate in hotels, shopping centres or as free-standing kiosks. These outlets cater to busy office workers on to short lunch break and to hungry shoppers looking for a quick, inexpensive meal. Service is fast and often impersonal-due to the low staff to customer ratio and a relatively high turnover. Service is usually over- the-counter or plated service and take- away counters are common. Staff must be well-trained to handle properly and food sanitation and hygiene is very important as the food is pre- cooked.


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Restaurants may also be classified by the use or absence of a theme. Themes are varied and can be based on almost anything. Theme restaurants are often elaborately decorated in a motif that is easily identifiable. These restaurants are also likely to carry the theme through to the menu, service style, uniforms and the ambience.


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Commonly used themes are: • Comic characters e.g. Garfield, Snoopy, Marvel Mania • Environment e.g. Rainforest Café • Ethnic restaurants e.g. Cha Cha cha, Bice, Lei Garden,Sanur Food themes e.g. Imperial Herbal Restaurant, Lingzhi • Lifestyle e.g. Planet Hollywood • Movie genres e.g. Jekyll and Hyde Club • Music e.g. Blues café, Hard Rock Café • Period themes e.g. Billy Bombers • Personalities e.g. Kenny Roger’s Rosters, Steven Spielberg’s Dive !, House of Mao I and II, Bruce Lee Café • Sports e.g. Theatre of Dreams (Soccer – Manchester United), Official All Star Sports Café and Sportopia

Non-theme restaurants These are restaurants without an identifiable theme. Restaurants like Jack’s Place, Denny’s Restaurants as well as most hotel-based coffee houses tend to be non-theme restaurants.


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There are two basic types of bar set-ups: o Display bars o Service bars A display bar is one that is located in a beverage outlet. These bars are likely to serve customers directly and provided seating at the bar counter. A service bar is also known as a dispense bar. These bars do not serve customers directly and dispense drinks to service staff who in turn serve the drinks to customers. They are therefore basic and functional in design and provide no seats at the bar counter. These bars are likely to be located in the back- of –the –house but are also found in banquet function rooms, Chinese restaurants and coffee houses


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Types of bar counters: There are two basic types of bar counters:

Entry &


BAR COUNTER Island Bar Counter


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Entry & Exit

WALL Traditional Bar Counter LEGEND Door flaps that allow bartenders to move in and out from behind the bar counter Storage areas with locks


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Island bar counters are those that are located in the middle of the beverage outlet. As such, they are able to serve drinks from all sides of the counter and are commonly the main feature in the outlet. Traditional bar counters are those located against a wall in the beverage outlet. These bar counters occupy less space but are also less visually prominent than Island bar counters.


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There are several types of beverage outlets:          Cocktail bars Pubs Lounges Discotheques Night- clubs Pool- side bars Micro- breweries Wine bars Gourmet coffee bars and tea houses

Traditionally, these beverage outlets had specific characteristics which could be used to identify them. However, in recent times, beverage outlets have undergone great changes, often becoming ‘multi-concept’ outlets, thus making a clear classification of these outlets increasingly difficult. 3.5.1 Cocktail bars

The passage of the Volstead Act, the Eighteen Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of


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America, had prohibited the manufacture, sales and distribution of alcoholic beverages. It began that era in American history known commonly as the Prohibition (1920-1933). During these times, a new type of bar was spawned- the ‘speakeasy’ These places were often operated by criminals who sold ‘bootleg’ liquor- spirits illegally produced or smuggled into the country. The spirits sold then were often of very poor quality. By sweetening and flavouring the spirits with strongly flavoured liqueurs and fruit juices, the operators of these illegal establishments sought to disguise the poor quality of their products. Such drinks eventually became popularly known as cocktails. Many of the classic cocktails of today like the Manhattan, Rob Roy and Dry Martini cocktail were invented in those times. Cocktail bars:  Serve a wide range of sprits and feature a wide variety of cocktails.  Also serve a limited range of beers and wines.  Provide tray or counter service.  Have relatively large bar counters designed for volume and often use the bar counter as their main decorative feature.  Provide entertainment which varies from background music to live performances.  Have comparatively little seating at the bar counter and may provide small side counters near the walls for patrons to place their drinks

3.5.2 Pubs The word ‘pub’ originates from the term ‘public house’ and is a bar concept from the United Kingdom. Also known as taverns, pubs were originally small bars located in villages and small towns where the locals gathered at the end of the day to socialize over drinks.


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Pubs:  Have limited seating away at the bar counter.  Provide seating with furniture that is often rustic and basic (wooden tables, benches or chairs)  Are usually small in size are thus provide a cozy, intimate atmosphere, often with wood paneling on the walls.  Also often serve food, termed ‘pub grub’, such as sausages with mash potato known by the English as bangers and mash. 60

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 Features tray and counter service.  Requires a relatively small number of staff to carry out service.  Offer a wide range of beers, ales and stouts while Irish whiskey, Scotch whisky and gins were the main spirits on sale.  Traditionally did not provide entertainment aside from indoor games like darts, chess sets and draughts. Modern pubs are larger, noisier and best described as ‘fun pubs’. These are likely to feature entertainment as such live bands, small dance floors and have more in common with cocktail bars than the original pub concept.

Irish pubs are a variation of the pub which have become popular in Asia. These pubs feature a more traditional pub atmosphere and are likely to offer a wide variety of beers and stouts on tap.


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3.5.3 Lounges:


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• • • •

Are larger, more elaborately decorated than pubs. Practice tray and counter service. Requires a relatively higher staff to customer ratio than pubs. Feature cocktails as well as sprits, wines and beers.

These days, the term lounge brings to mind beverage outlets found in hotel lobbies and many Singaporeans prefer these outlets as they are a quiet venue where one is able to hold a conversation. Modern lounges in Singapore: • • • • • Are larger in capacity than the traditional lounge. Have fairly comfortable seating- sofas seats with low coffee tables. Include karaoke lounges which feature facilities that play recorded music on laser discs that allow patrons to sing along with displayed lyrics. Commonly have private rooms for groups- with their own private karaoke facilities. May also feature live performances and small dance floor.


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3.5.4. Discotheques and Clubs Discotheque is a French word that refers to a place that plays recorded music from a record or disc. Also known as discos, these beverage outlets were widely popular in the 1970’s and early 1980’s. In recent times, the term ‘club’ has been used to refer to similar beverage outlets. Discotheques and Clubs:

 Feature music from pre- recorded sources  Provide dance music from expensive hightech sound systems with elaborate effects such as lasers, strobe lights and smoke machines.  Have large dance floors which are the main feature of the outlet.  Have functional dispense bars with against the wall bar counters with little or no seating provided at the bar counter.  May be designed with more than one bar counter, especially in larger establishments.


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 Serve beverages using tray, counter service and bottle sales service.  Cover charges may be levied and membership concepts may apply.  May also provide Velvet service to customers who are entitled to be seated in ‘member’s section of the outlet.  Requires a relatively large number of staff to take and serve drink orders.  Live entertainment such as bands may be provided in between period where recorded music is not being played.  Bottle sales are more likely to take place as it often results in easier entry to the outlet (especially if the disco is a popular one and long queues exist at the entrance 3.5.5 Night-Clubs


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Night-clubs originate from the London of the 1920’s and 30’s. Gambling in public is illegal in the United Kingdom but is allowed in private. Since entry to a club is restricted to members only, criminals who were keen to get into the gambling scene legally began to open such clubs. However, since their clientele were only likely to patronize these clubs at night, they became known as ‘night- clubs’. In the Asian context, night-clubs are also known in the trade as ‘Latin bars’ and are regarded as being fairly sleazy. These outlets often provide these bars usually also feature booth seating to provide greater privacy.


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Features of Night-Clubs: • • • • • • • • • • Have functional dispense bars with against the wall bar counters. Are likely to have bottle sales as their customers tend to come in larger groups. May apply a higher age limit than other beverage outlets as entertainment provided maybe of an adult nature, e.g. topless performances. Have a higher staff to customer ratio than most other beverage outlets. Serve drinks using Velvet service and bottle sales service. Have décor that is often elaborating such velvet upholstery, chandeliers, etc. Provide private rooms with karaoke facilities. May feature female companionship in the form of `hostess` for an hourly fee. Also engage `mama-sans` who oversee the activities of the hostesses. A small dance floor with a stage featuring live music or other cabaret performance.


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3.5.6 Pool-side bars These bars are located in ‘open- air’ areas, near or in swimming pools. For example, those with ‘sunken bars’ may be located in the swimming pool to allow bartenders to work at waist level to the water in the pool outside of the bar. A bridge or gangway over the water in the pool allows the access to the bar in the pool. See illustration below.

Bridge to and from Bar


Pool- side bars: • • • • • • • Cater to customers seated around or having a swim in the pool. Serve drinks using tray and counter service. Use plastic ‘glassware’ for safety reasons. Offer a wide range of exotic tropical cocktails and long drinks. May also serve snacks if the bar counter is not part of a sunken bar. May feature entertainment in the form of pre- recorded music or live entertainment. With sunken bars usually have seats at the bar which are made up of fixed mosaic-covered concrete stools in the water along the bar counter.


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3.5.7 Micro-breweries

Micro- breweries produce beers on site in the outlet. Thus, these outlets often occupy a substantial area, often requiring high ceiling or occupying two or more floors. Beer is brewed and matured in tanks and when matured/ ready, the beer is fed through a pipe using gravity to a lower tank where it is held and drained for sale and consumption as illustrated below.

Brewing and maturing tanks Upper floor

Lower floor

Tanks for holding beer meant for sale Tanks for holding beer meant for sale


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Micro-breweries:  Offer a small but exclusive range of specialty beers which are brewed, matured and sold on site in the outlet itself.  Require large floor areas to accommodate the brewing equipment.  These outlets may also offer dining facilities.


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3.5.8 Wine bars

Wine bars originate from Paris where these beverage outlets are referred to as ‘vinotheques’. Wine bars: • • • Offer little or no entertainment other than background music. Features a wide range of wines, many of which are available by the glass. May use specialized wine dispensing systems to prevent spoilage of open bottles.


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• •

Usually offer finger foods such as cold cuts, hot snacks but may also have more elaborate dining facilities. May feature wine buffets where an unlimited amount of wines and snacks are served for a fixed price.

3.5.9 Gourmet Coffee Bars and Tea Houses

These outlets do not serve alcoholic beverages and thus may not strictly be considered a beverage outlet and could be classified as cafes. However, these outlets generally do 72

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not feature food as the main attraction and thus are perhaps more appropriately classified as a beverage outlet. Gourmet coffee bars and tea house are a recent and increasingly popular world wide trend in the food and beverage scene. They specialize in gourmet coffees and teas rather than alcoholic beverages. Gourmet Coffee Bars: • • • • • • Feature a wide range of blends of gourmet coffee beans (e.g. Blue Mountain Kona, Java Arabica), infusions and teas served as hot or cold drinks. Usually also offer ready made sandwiches, cakes, pastries, tarts and cookies. Serve drinks and food using counter service only. Generally tend to use modern décor with both airconditioned and open-air (alfresco) seating. Offer little or no entertainment other than background music and a range of newspaper and magazines as reading material. Are outlets where take- away orders form a large part of the business volume.


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Tea Houses: • • • • • • Often offer seating at low tables where customers seat on clean, polished wooden floors (Note: shoes may have to be taken off near the entrance): Features a wide range of Chinese black and green teas (e.g. Oolong , Long Jing) which are brewed at the table. Serve tea by providing the tea pot, cups, hot water and tea leaves but allow customers to brew and serve the tea themselves. May offer snacks in the form of bite- sized traditional Chinese pastries like lotus seed buns. Provide little in terms of entertainment except Chinese instrumental background music and light reading material or board games such as Chinese checkers. Often try to ‘educate’ its customers on how tea is best brewed and appreciated.

In addition to traditional tea houses, there exist tea houses that serve `bubble tea` or `tea shakes` which are known as `pao-pao cha` in Mandarin. This concept originates from Taiwan and offers sweet, dessert-like drinks which use tea as a base for preparing a variety of mock tails (nonalcoholic cocktails).


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3.6 OTHER FOOD SERVICE OPERATIONS Food service operations outside of the hotel and restaurant context include the following: • • • • • • Airlines Cruise Ships Luxury Trains Institutions Home Delivery Off-premise Catering

3.6.1 Airlines


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Serving food and beverage on board an aircraft is very different from other forms of catering. Catering aboard a commercial flight is dependant on a centralized kitchen at each destination. In this centralized kitchen, menu items are prepared in a mass production assembly line to the specifications of each airline. The food items are partially cooked, packaged, cooled, transported to and loaded onto the aircraft prior to a flight. The food is then re-heated on board the aircraft before being served to passengers.

Catering on board a commercial aircraft thus has rather unique characteristics: • • • • • No cooking takes place on board yet there is a need to serve hot food hot. Space constraints in the cabin restrict the storage, re-heating and serving of food and beverages. Meals are served in surroundings that are designed for purpose of air travel rather than dining. Meals are served as part of an all-inclusive package when the ticket is purchased. A relatively limited choice of items on the menu. E.g. economy class passengers are only allowed to chooses between two different ``main course`` items in an otherwise set meal.


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As a distinction between each of its seating classifications, different menus are offered for first, Business/ Executive and Economy class. Business class and First class passengers get to choose from a small and limited a` la carte menu that ranges between 3 to 4 items for starters as well as main course items. These main course items may include caviar, roast beef or other more elaborate offerings.

While chinaware and crystal-ware is used in the first and business class, passengers in the economy class are served their refreshments in plastic cups and trays. Service staff has little to do in terms of suggestive selling and taking food or beverage orders but are generally very productive in the number of customers they actually serve. On international flights, menu items served must take into considerations the wide range of ethnics, religious and cultural attitudes amongst passengers. Advanced notifications needed for special diets for diabetics (who must watch their sugar intake), vegetarians and those with medical conditions (low salt, low cholesterol).

3.6.2 Cruise Ships


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The purpose of the vessel dictates the type of food and beverages items and service offered. If the purpose of the ship is to transport cargo, the items served would hardly be elaborate or of a very high quality. Short pleasure cruises are available in the local the waters around the southern islands of Singapore. These boats range from modern catamarans to old restored Chinese junks. These boats cater to small groups of passengers who choose to hold private functions off shore. Some of 78

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these services also offer a daily ‘cruise to no where’ during lunch, afternoon tea and dinner respectively. However, on board luxury passenger liners, elaborate menus and beverage selections may be expected. In addition, a Captain’s table would be a feature for any important passengers on board. Turnover in restaurants is needed as luxury liners can only accommodate half of the passengers at each seating. The type of food and is beverages that may be served on board a cruise ship would therefore have the following features: The menu needs to change constantly as journey could take up to 2 weeks otherwise passengers would get very bored eating the same food prolonged periods. Price of passage would include complimentary food and beverages while on board. Both a limited a la carte menu and daily buffet menus may be changed daily. Nutritionally balanced meals need to be served for long journeys to prevent illnesses and to keep passengers healthy. 3.6.3 Luxury Trains


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Like ships, the types and quality of food and beverages for to passengers are dictated by the type of train service in question. Passenger trains that travel over long distances are more likely to make provisions for serving food and beverage for its passengers than fright trains. Luxury passenger trains are those which provide travellers with luxurious, well appointed accommodation on board a train where upscale dining facilities exist. Amongst some of the best known luxury train services are: • • • • • Spain’s Andalusia Express India’s Maharaja on Wheels Russia’s Trans-Siberian Express South Africa’s Blue Train (between Johannesburg and Cape Town) and The Eastern and Oriental Express (between from Singapore to Bangkok)

The most famous of these luxury train services is the Venice-Simplon Orient Express which travels between London to Venice, passing through some of the major cities in Europe. Luxury train services usually have fairly elaborate food and beverage selections as their passengers are likely to be demanding and would have paid high prices for passage on board these train services. A trip on board the Eastern and Oriental from Singapore to Bangkok would cost S$ 2,300 per passenger for a one way trip. Train carriages are rather narrow, limiting the size of food storage areas as well as the kitchen on board. This results in a rather limited menu selection and thus only a certain number of people can be served each meal period. Meal period on board these trains may thus be staggered to accommodation all passengers. Luxury trains services would have the following features: • • Limited a` la carte menu available. Set menus made up of items from the a` la carte menu.


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• •

Small but high quality wines and beverage usually offered complimentary to passengers. Less restricted in terms of cooking facilities than an aircraft as danger of fire is less crucial and thus allows the use of stoves, microwave, electrical ovens and deep- fryers to cook and heat food.


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Institutions The following institutions may have facilities for the preparation and service of food and beverages to their staff, students, patients or inmates. Factories and offices Schools, colleges and universities Prisons Military Hospitals, Nursing homes and other health care institutions

     •

Factories and offices

Meals may or may not be part of the employees` benefits package. In some cases, the price of the meal may be subsided and thus employees pay only a nominal amount. Such food and beverage facilities may range from a cafeteria for rank and file staff to exclusive dining rooms for executives. Such dining facilities are offered because:  Traveling to and from the factory or office for a meal might be inconvenient and time consuming as the factory or office may be located away from urban centers.  It may be part of the employees’ benefits. The following are some aspects of catering in factories and offices:  The meal periods are fairly short as the employees usually have only an hour or less for their meals.  The nutritional aspect is important as employees may be ‘captive consumers’-those who have no choice


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but to eat in the same location on a daily basis.  Menu planning can help eliminate boredom as well as to for allow nutritionally balanced meals to be prepared for the employees.


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Schools, colleges and universities


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Students studying in boarding schools, colleges and universities may live in hostels or dormitories located on the grounds of these institutions while other may commute to the institution. Thus, a wide range of food and beverage facilities may exist in schools, colleges and universities and can range from cafeterias or snack bars to dining rooms or halls. The following are some aspects of catering in factories and offices:  The cost of meals served in boarding schools may be included in the tuition fees in some cases.  Menu planning is important to ensure that menu is varied enough to avoid boredom.  Nutrition plays an important role as the students are “captive consumers”. • Prisons


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Prisons are institutions where the diners are truly ‘captive consumer’. Though the quality of food may be a prime issue, nutrition and boredom must still be considered.

The following are some aspects of catering in factories and offices:  Menu planning is important to ensure that menu is varied enough to avoid boredom.  Nutrition plays an important role. • Military


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Soldiers and other armed forces personnel living on military bases and camps must be fed. The large numbers involved often means mass catering and as a result the quality of food produced often something to be desired. The following are some aspects of catering in the military:  Menu planning is important to ensure that menu is varied enough to avoid boredom.  Nutrition plays an important role.


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Hospitals, nursing homes and other health care institutions

Dietetics, as a hospital service, had it beginning at the time of the Crimean war (1854-1856). It was during those those times that Florence Nightingale, pioneer of nursing care and dietetics, established a diet kitchen to provide clean, nourishing food for the ill and wounded. Until then, foods or questionable quality were poorly cooked in unsanitary conditions and served at irregular intervals. The need for nutritionally balanced meals and special diets is a crucial to the care and recovery of patients as the young, the aged and the sick cannot plan their own meals.


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The following become important considerations:  In the case of hospitals and nursing homes, a dietician is usually on hard to plan meals for patients and in-mates.  Dietary concerns would include special diets for medical conditions, ease of digestion, nutrition and providing a balanced meal.  Patients due for surgery must be starved prior to the operation because of possible complications if food is vomited during surgery as a result of a reaction to being under anesthesia.  Post-operation patients and orthopedic patients (those who must be immobilized) are likely to be ‘placed on drip’, that is fed by the use of an intravenous solution of glucose and saline.  In Asia, mothers in post-delivery convalescence are given specified food items that are traditionally recommended for convalescing mothers. Such social needs must thus also be catered for when catering for such patients.  Older patients in the geriatric wards may require special meals- those which are easily digested and soft as many may not be able to chew well.  Children in pediatric wards must be provided food that is likely to be eaten and thus ice cream, cream soups and other ‘child- friendly’ dishes must be offered. 90

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 Day care centers provide care for children and elderly persons who would otherwise be unsupervised, isolated and lonely. Nutrition is thus a prime concern in catering at these centers.


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Home delivery

Home delivery has become an increasingly important aspect of catering as less households prepare their own meals. Though the option of eating out is a popular and convenient one, many would prefer to spend time with their family members over a meal at home. Home delivery thus combines the best of both world’s convenience and the option of having a meal at home. In home delivery the selection of menu items is crucial since not all food items are suitable as the time frame between production and consumption is quite different from a restaurant setting. The home delivery business includes those services offered by restaurants as well as specialized home delivery services. Restaurants may choose to provide a home delivery service as it allows them to reach wider market. With little additional costs, the restaurant is able to increase its sales. Examples of restaurants that provide home delivery include Burger King, Pizza Hut, Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald’s. In these restaurants delivery is only provided if the location for delivery is within a certain radius of one of their restaurants. This is necessary as there is no way to keep the food hot for long periods despite the use of insulated bags and containers to hold the food.


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Specialized home delivery services are those which only provide home delivery services. Examples include: Domino’s Pizza and Food Runners. Domino’s Pizza does not actually have restaurants. Instead they only provide pizza as a home delivery service and are able to provide pizza at a lower price as there is obvious saving made on labor as well as rentals. Food Runners is a food delivery firm that does not even have a kitchen. Instead, it locates itself in the Holland Village area and taps on the area’s existing restaurants. It makes a profit by charging a mark-up on the prices of menu items from these restaurants. Thus, such businesses actually serve two markets- the restaurants are able to increase their sales while the customers are able to avail themselves to the menu of their favorite restaurants.


Off-premise catering


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Off premise catering allows a restaurant or hotel’s banquet department to cater food and beverage to its customers away from its production and dining facilities. The following are characteristics of off- premise catering: • • Higher operating costs due to need for manpower to transport and set up furniture and equipment. More than sufficient food, beverage and equipment must be supplied for the function as there is no more margins for error. Most caterers would tend to have these additional items on stand- by. Charges may be levied in addition to the meal or event if the customer requires manpower for service e.g. bartenders. The menu selection is limited as cooking facilities are not likely to be available and the meal is most often a buffet arrangement. Only a limited bar serving beers wines and a small selection of spirits and mixers is normally made available In off- premise catering situations, disposable items instead of crockery and cutlery might be used.

• • • •


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Chapter outline 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Types of operating equipment 4.3 Cutlery 4.4 Ceramics 4.5 Glassware 4.6 Linen 4.7 Purchasing operating equipment 4.8 Setting operating equipment par stocks

Objectives of this chapter At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to: • • • • • • • • • • List the advantages and disadvantages of using large operating equipment Identify commonly used food and beverage equipment Differentiate between the polishing and burnishing processes Outline the characteristics of the seven types of ceramics. Outline the characteristics of quality ceramics. Outline the step in carrying out the Thermal Shock Test for ceramics. Outline the steps in carrying out the “Wetability” test for ceramics Outline the eight factors that determine the strength of ceramics Outline the characteristics of the four types of glassware Outline the five methods used in strengthening glassware 96

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• • • • • •

Outline the characteristics of poor quality glassware List the types of table linen commonly used in food and beverage outlets Outline the characteristics of the four types of fabrics used for table linen List the criteria used when selecting fabrics for table linen Outline the seven factors used in the selection of operating equipment Outline the six factors used to determine the par stocks for operating equipment

4.1 INTRODUCTION Restaurant operating equipment requires large amounts of capital and thus a great deal of thought must be given to their selection. Operating equipment may be divided into two broad categories: • • Large operating equipment Small operating equipment

4.2 LARGE OPERATING EQUIPMENT Large operating equipment includes those items which are large, bulky but portable pieces of equipment used in dining rooms and include the following: • • • • • • • • Guéridon Room service Trolley Cold appetizer Trolley Carving wagon Flambé trolley Dessert trolley Chafing dishes Coffee urns


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4.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of using large operating equipment Using large operating equipment may be advantageous to a restaurant because they: • • • • • • Enhance the restaurant’s ambience Increase sales of food and beverage items Increase profit margins Allow the display of showmanship skills Speed up service Enhance the restaurants ambience

A well maintained piece of equipment like a carving wagon can add to the overall ambience of a fine dining restaurant.


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Increase sales of food and beverage items

When placed at strategic locations in a restaurant, such as that near the entrance a well decorated trolley can increase the sales of food and beverage items. Customers often end up ordering items which hey originally did not intend to order but were tempted after viewing the items. This can increase the average check and revenue. • Increasing profit margins

Restaurants can charge higher prices for menu items sold from a dessert trolley or carving wagon and can increase the profit margin of the restaurant. • Allow the display of showmanship skills

Carving a side of beef on a wagon or preparing a flambé item shows a definite level of skill attained by the restaurants service staff. • Speed up service

Certain pieces of large operating equipment can increase the speed of service. Cold appetizers served directly from on antipasto trolley takes only a few minutes to plate and serve instead of having to wait for the item to be plated in the kitchen an then picking it up to serve. Other pieces of large operating equipment the also help to speed up service include the following:     Carving wagon Cheese trolley Dessert trolley Digestif trolley

Using large operating equipment may be disadvantageous because they are: • • Very expensive Bulky and take up valuable seating space in the dining room.


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4.3 SMALL OPERATING EQUIPMENT These are smaller pieces of equipment which may be directly used by the diner. Small operating equipment includes the following: • • • • Tableware Ceramics Glassware Linen

4.3.1 Tableware Tableware is a term that refers to all items that are used by the diner at the table and is a collective term that includes cutlery and hollow-ware. Cutlery is a general term used to refer to knives, spoons and forks. Hollow-ware is a term that refers to equipment which have a depression or hollow. Examples of hollowware include sauce boats, flambé pans, wine buckets, stands and baskets, food covers, food platters, finger bowls, coffee and tea pots. Material used for cutlery and hollow- ware may include silver, stainless steel, or copper-lined with tin. • Cutlery


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Most cutlery is either made of stainless steel or are silver plated. Stainless steel resists staining and corrosion to a far greater degree than ordinary steel. These resistant properties come from the presence of chromium and chromium nickel in the alloy. The oxides of these elements form an extremely thin protective film on the steel surface. This very thin oxide film is invisible and adheres tightly to the surface. This oxide film is inert, impermeable to and insoluble in water. As long as this film remains intact and tightly adherent to the stainless steel surface, the steel is protected from corrosion. The oxide film is also self-repairing- any break or rupture in the film quickly reforms if the clean, dry surface is


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exposed to oxygen of the atmosphere for a sufficient period of time. If the ruptured film is prevented from repairing itself, the steel then begins to corrode. Under normal usage, them oxide layer is complete and protects the stainless steel cutlery. Over time this protective film becomes susceptible to removal by a number of chemicals, many of which are naturally present in foods. • Silverware


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Silverware refers to items made from or plated in silver. It is sometimes used wrongly used to collectively refer to all cutlery, including stainless steel items. Silverware items found in restaurants include- knives, forks, spoons, goosenecks, platters, wine buckets, wine baskets, etc. Except for sterling silverware (pure silver), most silverware is normally plated silver. Sterling silver is actually an alloy of silver, copper and other metals, but must have a minimum fineness of 925; has a silver content of 92.5%. In plated silver, the base metal (or ‘blank’) is a nonferrous alloy containing 60-65% copper, 10-18% nickel and 17- 24% zinc. The silver is then electroplated onto the base metal in a uniform layer. The production of silver-plated items follows the same procedure for stainless steel except for the inclusion of electroplating with silver. In both processes, buffing (polishing) to the desired sheen or finish constitutes the final manufacturing process. • Caring for silverware


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Silver and silver-plated items require some maintenance to preserve its lustrous appearance. Burnishing and polishing are two very different processes which are used to keep the silverware shining. A burnishing machine is basically a revolving drum with a safety shield. It may either be connected to a source of running water or portable with water being poured in be manual means or a hose. The burnishing machine drum is half full of numerous small ball-bearings. Water is introduced into the drum until it covers the ball-bearings. Specialized soap power is added and the item to be burnished is placed into the drum and is ‘immersed’ in the mass of ball-bearings. The lid is then clamped down. When the machine is switched on, the drum revolves the mixture of water and soap powder acts as a lubricant between the silver and the ball bearings. This has two effects:  It breaks down the oxide layer on the silver, cleaning off the tarnish, and  Compresses the silver plating, causing it to shine. Care should be taken to ensure that all burnished items are allowed to cool before and that the machine is always left with the soap solution covering all the polishing balls, to prevent rusting. However, due to the size of the burnishing machine (often about the size of a large clothes washing machine), larger pieces of silver or silver-plated equipment cannot be burnished and hand polishing with an appropriate commercial brand of an abrasive-type polish like ‘Silvo’ may be necessary. Polishing which involves the use of abrasive substance to remove the tarnish by an abrasive action on the metal while burnishing accomplishes similar results but without abrasive action. Long term polishing of this nature actually wears down the layer of silver plating and shortens the life-span of the equipment unless it is electroplated again.


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Ceramic is a general term for all items made of backed clay. If the clay is heated until it has fused or melted into a solid, uniform mass, the ceramic is then said to have been vitrified. This process makes the end product stronger and less permeable to moisture and food stains.

There are seven types of ceramics: • • • • • • • • Earthenware Pottery Stoneware Fine china Porcelain Bone china Restaurant chinaware Earthenware 106

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Also known as “terra cotta”, this is made from the same porous materials is used to make bricks and flower pots. The clay is baked at a relatively low temperature into an unverified, soft, porous, opaque and coarsely-finished product. It may be glazed or left unglazed. The product is not as strong as stoneware or chinaware and lacks the resonance of those products when stuck; giving a dull should as it is unvitrified. • Pottery

This term refers to clay products made of unrefined clays and includes all fired clay-ware and is generally thus often


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brick-coloured. Ceramics acquire strength through the application of heat. Primitive pottery often baked in the sun and composed of one or mere unrefined clays has little strength and is quite porous. The end product looks similar to ‘plaster-of –Paris’. The clay used for pottery is more refined than that used for earthenware and the the product is baked at higher temperatures (at about 800 degrees Celsius). • Stoneware

This is a non-porous ceramic made of unprocessed clay or clay with additives and then baked at high temperatures which vitrifies the material, giving it added strength. Highly vitrified stoneware can be made into fine ceramics. Stoneware is relatively durable but lacks the translucence and whiteness of chinaware. Stoneware is resistant to chipping and has a clear ring when struck. It differs from porcelain chiefly in that it produces colors other than white which result from the natural contents or impurities inherent in the clay. • Fine china


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This term is applied to a thin, translucent, vitrified product made from very fine white clay called ‘kaolin’, originally form China. Baked at relatively high temperatures twice; first, to mature the materials; second, to develop the high gloss of the beautiful glaze. This is the highest quality chinaware possible. Produced mainly for domestic-use, fine china may sometimes be used in fine dining rooms though their fragile nature and price makes this an expensive choice.



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This term is used frequently in Europe for fine quality chinaware. Porcelain has a hard, non-absorbent, strong body and is white and translucent. Porcelain is most commonly used for producing domestic-use items and seldom used in food and beverage outlets. • Bone china


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A specific type of fine china manufactured primarily in England. The base material of this ceramic contains a high proportion of bone ash which produces greater translucency, whiteness and strength in the finished product. Like fine china, it is made primarily for domestic use but have in some instances been used in fine dining restaurants. • Restaurant chinaware

This is a unique blend of fine china and porcelain and is designed specifically for use in commercial operations. The body is developed to give it great impact strength and durability, as well as extremely low absorption which is required of ceramics used in dining rooms. Decorations are applied between the body and the glaze, thereby protecting the decorations.

Signs of quality ceramics
High quality ceramics have the following characteristics: • Ability to withstand thermal shocks

When a ceramic is heated and cooled very quickly, it may crack as a result of the sudden change in temperature. God quality ceramics are able to diffuse the heat without crazing or cracking. Crazing in ceramics takes place when fine hair line cracks appear under the glaze. The ceramic is still intact despite the hair line fractures as the glaze holds the ceramic together. The following steps detail test used to check the ability of the ceramic to thermal shocks: 1. Heat the ceramic to 175°C in a dry oven. 2. Remove the ceramic and plunge it into 20°C water bath. Note that the water bath should have a volume eight times that displaced by the ceramic. 3. Dry the ceramic and plunge it into a concentrated dark-coloured dye. 4. Remove, wipe off the dye and dry. 5. Examine the ceramic. It should show no sings of cracking or crazing.


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6. The same piece of ceramic should survive the test at least five times. • Good “wet ability”

A well made piece of ceramic wets evenly and thoroughly. To test the quality of a piece of ceramic, the following steps are carried out: 1. Wipe the entire surface of the ceramic with a cotton wool soaked in alcohol to remove any grease or stains that will interfere in the test. 2. Allow the ceramic to dry completely. 3. Immerse the ceramic in clean 20 degree Celsius Water. 4. Remove the ceramic and note how the water adheres to the and falls away from the surface. A ceramic that wets well will have an thin, even film of water covering the entire glaze. • Well glazed

A well glazed ceramics has a clear, even, unpitted glaze that completely seals the entire ceramic. A high quality ceramic in constant use will last for 4 to 5 years before losing its glaze. • Strength

The strength of ceramics is determined by the following: • Quality of the clay Fine, smooth clay results in an air-free clay paste which when processed, shape and vitrified will produce high quality ceramics. • Resilience Resilience describes the ability of the ceramics to withstand physical shocks. The use of strengthening compounds such as aluminum oxide and the degree of vitrification add to the resilience of the ceramic. • Thickness Doubling the weight of the clay in a ceramic increases the strength of the ceramics by 75% 113

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• Fashioning Ceramics that have a rolled, scalloped rim or edge helps protect it against chipping when the edges collide against other ceramics or hard surfaces. • Well strength The amount of clay that is put into the centre or well of each piece of ceramics determines its strength. Ceramics with more clay in the well are thus less likely to shatter or crack. • Design A compact shape is less likely to break that one that flares outwards. • Aluminum oxide Aluminum oxide (a malleable metal) when added to clay gives the ceramics strength. Products made with aluminum oxide can thus be made thinner and finer. In addition, the aluminums oxide also helps the glaze adhere to the finished ceramic.


The glaze, which gives shine to ceramics, is made from a substance known as boro-silicate, a compound of aluminum and sand. This seals in the chinaware, preventing it from coming into contact with food placed on it, adds luster, waterproofs it and protects the chinaware from scratches. A well glazed ceramic is also made stronger as a result.


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GLASSWARE Glassware is a collective term to all items made from glass or crystal. These re four types of glassware:

Common glass The cheapest and most common type of glass is known as lime glass. It is made from a combination of sand, soda lime and cullet (recycled broken glass). The lime and soda is added to clarify the glass and to give it sparkle. When combined with a metal known as boron, common glass becomes more resistant to breaking and chipping.


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This is made from sand with potassium silicate and lead oxide. The potassium silicate gives clarity to the crystal while lead oxide makes the product stronger strength.

Corning ware


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This glass contains boric oxide which allows the glass to withstand high temperatures as well as sudden and drastic changes in temperature. • Pyroceran

Originally developed for the nose cone of space going rockers, this type of glass has the ability to withstand sudden and drastic change in temperature and is made from clay, silica and rare metals. This is the most 118

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expensive type of glass and is most commonly found as oven-proof cookware. 4.5.1 Strengthening glass There are five methods to strengthen glass: • Thickening This process adds more glass at strategic points of stress to strengthen the glass. The rolled edge on a glass rim, extra thick stem to bowl joints and bases are two ways of strengthening glassware. • Shaping Glasses with curved sides are much stronger than those straight sided. Glasses with rims that flare out and tall glasses with thin stems are all weaker as a result of their designs. • Annealing In annealing, hot molten glass is cooled very gradually. The slow cooling process gives extra strength to the glass as any stress on the surface is eliminated. • Heating In this process, hot molten glass is first annealed and then reheated to melting point. It is then treated with a blast of cold air which shrinks the surface of the glass forming a ‘skin’ while the glass inside is still molten. As the molten glass cools, it shrinks and pulls in the outer surface layer strengthening the glass. The end product is extremely strong. However, as the process creates a great deal of stress on the glass, production costs increases as the rejection and damage rate is high. • Compounds Glass may be strengthened by the addition of compounds. Pyroceran is an example of glass that is stronger through the addition of a compound.

4.5.2 Poorly made glass The following are characteristics of poorly made glassware:


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• • • • •

Glass that is dull with no luster Dirt specks trapped within the glass Glass with irregular or bumpy edges Small air bubbles trapped within the glass Poorly designed glassware which are top heavy and which tips over easily

4.6 LINEN Linen is both a type of fabric as well as a general collective term referring to all items made of synthetic or natural thread. Article of table linen found in restaurants include: • • • • • • Table mats Glass cloths Waiters cloth Rags Napkins Table skirting

Table mats 120

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Glass cloths

Waiter’s cloth


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Table skirting


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Tablecloths (including silence cloths, overlays and runners) Fiber is a long, thin strand or thread of material. Fabric is a cloth material made by weaving or knitting threads together. Fabrics used to produce restaurant linen include: • • • • Linen Cotton Synthetic fibers Combination fabrics • Linen


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(Flax fiber are contained within the stalk surrounded by a fine layer of bast) These are nature fibers obtained from the flax plant. It produces an absorbent fabric with a smooth appearance. It has a fairly stiff texture and creases easily and is generally difficult to iron out unless heavily starched. Fabrics made from pure linen are relatively very expensive. • Cotton


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Less expensive then linen, cotton has good absorption, weight and when starched and ironed, has a good appearance. However, pure cotton fabric creases easily and has a shorter life-span when compared to combination fabrics. • Synthetic fibers


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Synthetic fibers like viscose, rayon are made from regenerated cellulose. The smoothness of the fabric results in the fabric slipping or being blown-off tables unless weighted down. Such fabric is also not absorbent and very sensitive to heat. Their main use as restaurant linen is as material for table skirting as they are often brightly colored, shiny and relatively inexpensive. Polyester fabrics like Terylene have a rougher, more solid texture than viscose rayon. However, this synthetic fabric is rather elastic and stretches, resulting in warping after some time. In addition, the inability of Terylene to absorb moisture and their sensitivity to heat make it necessary to combine it with natural fibers for use in the catering industry. The most widely used kinds of synthetic fibers are nylon (polyamide), polyester, acrylic, and olefin. • Combination fabrics 127

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Polyester-cotton fabric Combination of synthetic and natural materials like polyester-cotton produce a relatively inexpensive restaurant linen that has elasticity, good moisture absorption, weight, and which when starched, irons and hangs well. These materials are the most widely used fabric for linen tin the catering industry. Unfortunately, linen items are very commonly misused and easily damaged. The following are some guidelines for linen care: • • Do not use napkins to clean or polish cutlery as the cutting edge shreds the fabric. Do not tie napkins or tablecloth in a bunch as this irreparably stretches and warps the linen.

4.6.1 Selecting fabrics for table linen


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When selecting fabrics for table linen, it is crucial to ensure that the material is: • • • • • • Heat and fire retarding. Easy to repair (mending) Resistant to soling and staining Color fast and resistant to fading. Suitable for starching, if required. Pre- shrunk (as there is often a 5 to 10% shrinkage factor in cotton-based linen).



When selecting operating equipment, consider the following: • • • • • • • • Price, quality and usage Long term saving versus short term costs Continuity of stock Lag time for reordering Choice of patterns/designs Budget constraints Required operating equipment par stock Price, quality and usage

When buying equipment, the price paid should be related to the quality and the eventual use of the equipment. Thus, a fine dining room is more likely to purchase an expensive show-plate as it wants to project an image of quality and elegance. Show-plates are unlikely to be broken or damaged as they are usually removed after the serving of the amuse bouche. • Long term saving versus short term costs

Decisions should also consider the long term saving that may be associated with the purchase of the equipment, e.g. a coffee house is likely to purchase chinaware that are


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hard wear in with rolled edges if they are relatively expensive. Such chinaware would last relatively longer that a cheaper alternative. Thus, savings are made in the long run by purchasing more expensive but durable chinaware. • Continuity of stock

Knowledge of how recent the pattern or design of the equipment must be considered when buying equipment. Older designs might become obsolete, making replacements impossible in the long term. Assurances or information about how long a design is likely to be continued in production may sometimes be available from the suppliers. Thus, it might be more advantageous to purchase equipment from well established, larger suppliers r producers than from smaller or less established one. • Lag time for recording

Equipment stocks from suppliers are available on an ‘exstock’ or indent basis. ‘Ex-stock’ is a term that means the required stock is held in stock (and thus, existing stock) and therefore readily available. Items available on an indent basis are those that are not readily available or in stock and must be ordered and takes time to be delivered from the producers-sometimes from overseas. Thus, the recorder often indents item may take some time to process. • Choice of patterns /designs

Hotels with more than one restaurant may need to decide if they want to provide individual restaurants with specific patterns or designs for equipment. The alternative is for all or some of the restaurants to use equipment with similar patterns/designs. Hotels may decide to use different patterns/designs for equipment for each of their restaurant because:  items such as tableware can give individual restaurants their own unique identity, thus adding to its ambience


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 It is relatively cheaper to switch patterns or designs if needed as such changes may then only affect one restaurant rather than several.  It is easier to take an accurate inventory since the equipment are restaurant specific. Hotels that decide to use a single pattern or design for equipment do so because of the following:  It allows greater flexibility to share equipment amongst different restaurants as and when the need arises and thus allows for an overall lower amount to be put in use in each restaurant.  Creates little or no problems in the sorting out of equipment in areas such as a common Stewarding wash- up point.  Cost savings from economies of scale as items are purchased in bulk.  There is overall saving in space for storage.  May be able to convince producers to make the chosen design/ pattern one that is specific to the hotel or chain since the orders are likely to be substantial.

4.8 SETTING OPERATING EQUIPMENT PAR STOCKS The operating equipment par stock is a predetermined amount of equipment to allow the efficient operation of the restaurant. In the industry, many tend to use a rule-of-


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thumb technique when establishing par stocks for food and beverage operations. In this technique, the number of each type of equipment is decided upon by multiplying the number of seats in the restaurant by an arbitrary number:  Glassware 2 times the number of seats  Chinaware 1.5 times the number of seats  Cutlery 2 times the number of seats However, such estimates often prove unreliable, resulting in either insufficient or an excess of equipment. Instead, the following should be considered when establishing the par stock for operating equipment:  Type of operation, nature and expected volume of business.  Usage of the equipment.  Flexibility of stock transfers.  Structure of the menu, wine and beverage list.  Stewarding ‘turn-around time’.  Life-span of the equipment and budgeted operating costs for replacement. 4.8.1 Type of operation, service ad expected volume of business A coffee house ( type of operation) serving a buffet (type of service) will require higher par stocks for items like dinner plates if it expects to be busy (volume of business) whereas a similar same piece of equipment in a fine dining restaurant might need a much lower par stock.


Usage of the equipment

Items that have a wider range of uses, like a side plate, require a higher operating par stock because of their ‘usefulness’. Other items like sugar bowls or tea pots are used relatively less and thus require a much lower operating par stock. 4.8.3 Flexibility of stock transfers 132

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As previously mentioned, having a similar pattern or design for a particular item of operating equipment allows the movement of these items to different areas of operating according to their needs and results in a overall lower equipment par stock. 4.8.4 Structure of the menu, wine and beverage list

A wine bar with a list featuring a large selection of champagnes requires a higher operating par stock for champagne flutes while a beverage list for a bar that boasts of a wide selection of vodkas might have a higher stock of shot glasses. 4.8.5 Stewarding ‘turn-around time’

The efficiency of staff at the stewarding wash-up point may be used to help determine the operating equipment for the restaurant. The shorter the turn-around time for the equipment (that is, the time required wash, clean, sort and dry the equipment), the lower the overall equipment par stock. 4.8.6 Durability of the equipment and budgeted costs for replacement The life-span and thus, durability of the equipment also determines the amount of stocks kept aside for replacement. In addition, the budget allocated for the replacement of lost or damaged equipment also affects the operating par stock for the restaurant.


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Chapter outline: 5.7 Types of beverage service 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Types of food service styles 5.3 Table service 5.4 Assisted service 5.5 Self-service 5.6 Single point service Objectives of this chapter At the end of this chapter, the reader shall be able to: • • • • • List the five broad types of food service Outline the seven types of table service Outline the service of food using assisted service Outline the two types of self-service for food Outline the service of food using single point service


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• •

Outline the service of food using specialized or in situ service Outline the four types of beverage service



Food and beverages may be served in many ways. The selection of the service method to be employed is dependent on several factors: • • • • 5.2 Type of establishment Expectation of customers Expected turnover Type of menu featured TYPES OF FOOD SERVICE

In practice, there are five broad categories of food service: • • • • • Table service Assisted service Self-service Single point service Specialized or in situ service


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In table service, food and beverage is brought and served to customers who are seated at a dining table. There are seven variations of table service in food and beverage operations: • English platter service 136

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• • • • • •

French platter service Simplified gueridon service Russian gueridon service French gueridon service Plated service Family service


English platter service

Also known as Silver Service or service a’ l’anglaise in French, English platter service is carried our in the following sequence: 1. A heated dinner plate is placed on the table in front of each customer, from the right of each customer. 2. The platter of food is presented to the host from the right for hi or her approval. 3. Server stands on the left side of each customer’s and serves the food items from the platter onto each pate with service gears. 5.3.2 French platter service

Also known as Butter or French Service, French platter service is carried out in the following sequence: 1. A heated dinner plate is placed on the table, from the right of each customer.


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2. The platter of food is presented to the host from the right for his or her approval. 3. Server stands on the left side of each customer and positions the platters so that the customers can help themselves to the food on the platter using the service gears placed on the platter. 5.3.3 Simplified gueridon service

This form of gueridon service is carried out in the following sequence: 1. A gueridon is wheeled to and parked next to the customers table. 2. The food is plated in the kitchen and brought to the gueridon on a tray. 3. The plates may or may not be transferred onto the gueridon. 4. Each plate is then served to each customer from the right. 5. If the plates are covered with a food cover/cloche, these are removed simultaneously only after the entire table has been served.


Russian gueridon service

Also known as Russian gueridon service or service a la russe in French, Russian guerison service is carried out in the following sequence: 1. A gueridon is pushed to and parked next to the customers table. 2. A tray is used to carry th pre-heated dinner plates and the platter of food to the gueridon. 3. The platter of food and plates are then transferred from the tray onto the gueridon. 4. The platter of food is presented to the host from the right for his or her approval. 5. Server returns to the gueridon, portions and plates the food onto hot dinner plates. 6. The plated food is then served to each customer from their right.


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7. Any remaining food on the platter is kept hot on a rechaud for second helpings. 5.3.5 French gueridon service


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French gueridon service is carried out in the following manner: 1. A gueridon or a flambé trolley is placed next to the customers table. 2. A tray with the complete mise- en-place (all required equipment and ingredients) is brought to the gueridon, carving wagon or flambé trolley. 3. Food may be de-boned, carved, flamed or finished (such as mixing a salad). 4. The service staff then portions and plates the food onto hot dinner plates. 5. The plated food is then served to each customer from their right. 5.3.6 Plated service


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A known as American Service, plated service is carried out in the following sequence: 1. The food is portioned and plated in the kitchen. 2. Food may be served to customers from the right or left of the customer depending on house policy.

Food served using plated service is usually carried out from the left of the guest in America and Europe. However in Asia the food is usually served from the right. Why? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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Family Service

Family service is carried out in the following sequence:

1. A pre-heated dinner plate is placed on the table from the right side of the customer. 2. The service staff places dishes of food in the middle of the table, each with a pair of service gears. 3. Customers help themselves directly to the food and the dishes of food may be passed around the table by the host. 5.4 ASSISTED SERVICE This is a combination of table service and self-service. This form of service is commonly found in restaurants offering “part-buffets” where part of the meal (usually the main course) is served to seated customers while others parts of the meal (such as appetizers, salads, soups, and desserts) are collected by the customers.


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SELF- SERVICE Self-service may take two basic forms: • • Buffet service Cafeteria service


Buffet service


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A buffet is also known as a ‘smorgasbord’, a term that originates in Scandinavia. In general, there are three types of buffet service: • Self-service buffet

Customers help themselves to food placed on a buffet table without the assistance of any service staff.


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Service staff only carries out beverage service and the clearing of soiled chinaware and cutlery.

Assisted-buffet service

Service staff position themselves behind the buffet table and dish the food onto the customers’ plates. This form of service allows a large number of people to e served in a shorter time span and allows some measure of portion control. It also serves to keep the buffet table more presentable throughout the service. • Plated buffet service

Popular in Chinese restaurants, this form of service is also known as “a’ la carte buffets’ (which is a misnomer). These buffets feature a selection of items on an a’ la carte-style menu, except that the entire meal is for a fixed price. Customers may order unlimited portions of plated food, which is then served to then at the table. In addition, a buffet table may also be used to serve dessert items. In some restaurants, more expensive items such as shark’s fins soup may also be included in the meal though customers will find that these items are served only one to a person. 5.5.2 Cafeteria service

In cafeteria service, the customer is offered a choice of food and beverage by a single operator who offers a


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range of refreshments. The customer uses a tray to collect portions of food and carries the tray to a table for consumption. There are two basic forms of cafeteria is service:   Counter Free-flow

• Counter In cafeteria counter service, customers form a queue past a service counter and choose their food and beverage in stages and load them onto a tray. Payment is then made at the end of the queue. • Free-flow In cafeteria free-flow service, customers move at will to random service points and may only form a queue at those points. Customers exit the service area via the cashiering point(s) to reach the dining area. 5.6 SINGLE POINT SERVICE

Customers are served at a single point and food and beverages may be either consumed on premises or taken away for consumption elsewhere. There are four basic forms of single-point service: • • • • 5.6.1 Fast food and take-away counters Vending machines Kiosks Food courts Fast food and take-away counters

This form of service serves a limited range of food and beverage from single point and includes snack bar and delicatessen counters, drive-through counters, and fast food operations. The principle is straightforward: the customer approaches the service counter where a menu is is played showing prices and places the order with the counter staff, who then assembles the order from pre-cooked items, totals the amount, takes the cash, and hands the order to the 146

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customer. The customer then has the option of eating inside the establishment or may be take away the food and eat it off the premises. 5.6.2 Vending machines

Food and beverages is served via automated retailing. Prepackaged snacks, hot and cold beverages and hot soups are commonly served through vending machines. Where in use, vending machines are commonly located in office buildings, airports, and train stations. 5.6.3 Kiosks


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These free-standing food and beverage stations are usually located in high-pedestrian traffic locations. They commonly dispense a limited range of beverages and precooked and /or packaged snacks such as sandwiches, hot dogs and ice cream. Some may also offer limited seating for consumption of the refreshments on site. 148

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Food courts

In food courts, food and beverage is served over the counter at a series of autonomous counters operated by different business entities but house in a common location. It is fairly similar to the free-flow cafeteria service previously mentioned. However, in food courts, the 149

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difference is that the individual counters are operated independently and collect payment directly from the customers rather tan have the customers pay a common cashiering point. The autonomous counters pay the main operator of the food court a rental fee as well as maintenance fees for shared cleaning and stewarding services provided to all counters operating within the food court. Equipment such a plates, bowls, trays, and cutlery are provided by the main operator and are shared by all food stalls. Marketing and promotional activities are undertaken by the operator and the cost of these services may be either borne entirely by the main operator of collected from the operations of the individual counters. 5.7 SPECIALISED OR IN SITU SERVICE

This form is service allows food and beverage to be served in areas that are not primarily designed for food service. Specialized service is also known as in situ service (in situ is Latin for ‘in position’) and refers to the delivery of food and beverage to the customer in areas which are not specifically designed for the purpose of dining. Specialized or in situ service includes the following: • • • • 5.7.1 Tray service Trolley service Home delivery Drive in and/or drive through Tray service

Tray service refers to the service of whole or part of a meal to customers in situ such as patient’s wards in hospitals, meeting rooms, hotel guest rooms and executive lounges in hotels and on board aircraft. Tray service is also commonly used at cocktail receptions where canapés and other finger foods are offered to customers at a standing cocktail reception. 5.7.2 Trolley service


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In trolley service a trolley is used to transport whole meals or snacks on specially designed trolley to customers who consume the refreshments away from a dining area. This service is used o board trains, in customer rooms meeting and executive lounges in hotels and on board aircraft.


Home delivery

In home delivery, food and beverages are order through the telephone, facsimile machine or the internet. Food is then delivered to customer’s homes or place of work. The menus offered in this form of service may be restaurant specific such as that offered by a pizza or fast-food restaurant. However, more elaborate menu selections may be offered by specialized food delivery services who do not operate food and beverage facilities but work in conjunction with several restaurants. In this business arrangement, the delivery service makes a profit by marking up the price of the food items offered by the restaurants whose menus are featured. They may also receive commissions from the featured restaurants through discounted pricing. Drive- in and/ or drive-through outlets In drive-in outlet, customers park their motor vehicles and servers approach the customers in their vehicles and serve the food and beverages which are then consumed by


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the customers in the vehicles. This form of service was a fairly popular feature at fast food restaurants in America in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Drive- through outlets allows customers to pick-up and take away food while remaining in their cars. They first place their order through an intercom system at the entrance of the car park/driveways and then drive to a special counter window where the packed order is handed over and payment is made.


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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009



There are four types of beverage service; • • • • Counter service Tray service Velvet service Bottle sale service

Counter service


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The drink is prepared by a bartender who takes the order, prepares the drink and places it in front of the customer who may be seated or standing at the bar counter.

Tray service


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A prepared drink is placed on a tray and carried by the server from the bar counter to the customer table or directly to the customer (as in the case of a stand-up cocktail reception where there are no tables). 5.8.3 Velvet service

This form of beverage service is also referred to as ‘Club service’ and is considered the highest possible form of beverage service. It is usually performed in fine dining restaurants, hotel lounges and clubs. A gin and tonic served using Velvet service would be carried out in the following sequence: 1. A measured portion of gin is poured into a glass along with a slice of lime and ice cubes and placed on a beverage tray. 2. A bottle or can of tonic is opened or a portion of tonic is dispensed into a decanter from a bar gun and placed on the tray. 3. A drink coaster, a cocktail napkin and a stirrer is also placed on the tray. 4. The service staff then carries the tray to the table and performs the service. 5. The drink coaster is placed on the table and the glass is placed on the coaster. 6. The service staff picks up the tonic and asks the customer how much tonic he would like with the gin. 7. The required amount of tonic is poured in and the mixture stirred with the stirrer. 8. The cocktail napkin is left next to the drink. 9. The stirrer may or may not be removed from the table. If left on the table, it is usually left in the glass. 10. Any mixer left over may or may not be left at that able. If it is left on the table, the decanter, can or bottle of mixer is placed on an additional coaster. 5.8.4 Bottle sales service


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This form of service is usually performed in discotheques, clubs, lounges or pubs. It is fairly similar to Velvet service except that the spirits in question are sold by the bottle.

A bottle of Scotch whisky served using Velvet service would be carried out in the following manner: 1. Sufficient glasses for all customers is prepared and brought to the table along with sufficient coasters, cocktail napkins, garnishes and stirrers. 2. A pre-determined number of bottles or volume of mixers is included in the price for the bottle sale. Bottles or cans of mixers are opened or a portion of the mixer is dispensed into a large decanter from a bar gun brought to the table along with a bucket of ice cubes. Subsequent orders of mixtures or soft drinks are charged accordingly. 3. The selected bottle of Scotch is brought to the customer’s table and opened upon approval by the host. 4. Drink coasters, cocktail napkins and stirrers are placed on the table for each customer. 5. A free-poured measure of the Scotch is poured into each glass along with the garnishes and ice cubes by the server. 6. The service staff then asks each customer how much mixer he would like with the Scotch and the required amount of tonic is poured in and the mixture stirred with the stirrer.


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7. The cocktail napkins are left next to the drink and the stirrers are usually left on the table. 8. The ice may also be replenished and left in a bucket with ice tongs for the customers to help themselves. 9. Service staff may serve subsequent round of drinks or customers may also choose to help themselves to the drinks. 10. A tag or numbered sticker will be used to identify each bottle. These tags or stickers record the name and signature of the customer who purchased the bottle. These tags or stickers are also used to record volume of sprit remaining bottle. These tags or stickers are also used to record volume of sprit remaining after each time it is ‘used’ to prevent any misunderstanding. 11. A counterfoil or card is issued to the person who purchased the bottle as proof of ownership. Most discos or clubs that carry out bottle sales usually impose a specified time span in which the bottle of sprit must be consumed (normally a period for to 3 months). Should the customer not be able to consume the sprit in the specified time frame, the sprit is confiscated and may be sold of f by the club. The counterfoil or card issued to the person who purchased the bottle as proof of ownership may be used to gain entry on the next visit and may allow the purchaser to avoid having to queue at the entrance. As most clubs extend this form of ‘temporary membership’ to these customers, bottle sales are popular at well patronized clubs and discos. However, such privileges are only valid if there is some sprit remaining in the bottle from a previous visit.


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Chapter outline:


Introduction Sequence of courses in a classical French menu Types of menus Menu planning considerations Objectives of this chapter At the end of this chapter, the reader shall be able to: • • • • • • • List the sequence of courses in a classical French menu Outline the two main types of menus Outline the characteristics of a la carte menus Outline the characteristics of the five types of table d’hote menus Outline the characteristics of children’s menus Outline the characteristics of festive and promotional menus Outline the considerations used in planning a menu


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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009

6.1 INTRODUCTION The word ‘menu’ is derived from the Latin words ‘minor’ or ‘minutes’: meaning a document that previews a performance, similar to the minutes of a meeting, except that it provided such details before the actual event. Menus were thus initially provided by hosts when holding large, elaborate feasts in ancient Greece and Rome. They enabled invited customers to plan how much of each course they should eat so as to make room for the rest of the meal. Written menus on clay tablets were already being used but it was more common at such feasts, to have someone- either the host or a specially instructed slave- to point our and provide information on each dish or wine served. Written menus were in use in ancient times in restaurants as a form of advertising or “bill of fare”- a list of what available. Today, menus are still commonly described as “silent salesmen” helping restaurants sell their food and beverage items. 6.2 SEQUENCE OF COURSES IN A MENU A typical menu in the time of legendary chef Georges Auguste Escoffier was about 15 to 16 courses- already a reduced version of the hundred odd- course meals that were served by Crème. This “classical” French menu appears below: Classical French menu course equivalent 1. Hors d’ oeuvre appetizers 2. Potage 3. Oeufs hot) 4. Farineaux (pasta or rice dishes) 5. Poisson 6. Entrée (includes anything expect a roast) 7. Intermezzo (sorbet) Hot or cold Soups Eggs (served Farinaceous Fish course Entrée Intermission Modern day


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8. Releve (piece de resistance) joint e.g. roast meat joints 9. Roti game or poultry 10. Legumes vegetables 11. Salade 12. Buffet froid poultry, ham or seafood items 13.Entremets sweets 14 Savoureaux items such as mushrooms on toast 15. Fromages cheeses 16. Dessert fresh or candied fruits and nuts 17. Café 18. Petit four or mignandises servings of sweets e.g. pralines •

Butcher’s Roasted Hot or cold Salads Cold meats, Hot or cold Savoury Selection of Choice Coffee Small of

Tea was not widely available or consumed as a beverage in those times. TYPES OF MENUS


There are two basic categories of menus: • A la carte • Table d’hote 6.3.1 A la carte

‘A la carte’ is a French term that means ‘by the list’ and is used to describe ordering food and beverage items individually listed in a menu. Every restaurant is likely to have an a la carte menu unless they exclusively serve buffers or set meals only.


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An a la carte menu has the following features: • Items are listed and priced individually to allow customers to choose items they prefer and combine these in a meal to suit their personal budget, tastes and appetite. Items are prepared to order (described as being cooked ‘a’ la minute’) and thus generally take longer to prepare than items in a set menu. Table d’hote 163


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‘Table d,hote’ means ‘table of the host’ in French. This is a set meal sold at a fixed price which it is sometimes also referred to a ‘prix fixe’ menu. The following are features of table d’hote menus:

• •

They offer a fixed number of courses as a complete meal at a fixed price. If choices are offered in the meal, the price of the meal may vary according to the items chosen.

Offered by restaurants when there is a need to speed up the service of a meal (e.g. during lunch) or when there is a need to limit the range of food being prepared in the 164

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kitchen (during very busy mal periods such as New Year’s Eve dinner). There are several variations of the table d’hote menu: • Plat du jour • Carte du jour • Menu degustation • Buffet • Banquet • Plat du jour

The French phrase means ‘plate of the day’ and indicates a single-course menu item, usually a main course item featured as a ‘daily special’. There are three variations to a plat du jour:  A menu item that is quick to prepare and offered to customers in a hurry.  A specially created menu item using the freshest available ingredients available for that day and thus charged at a higher price.  An item selected from the usual a’ la carte menu and priced lower than normal just for that day or meal period. • Carte du jour

Table d’hote menus may also be known as ‘carte du jour’, a French term which translates to mean ‘menu of the day’. Where this term is used, the set menu is likely to be changed on a daily basis. This differentiates it from the table d’hote menu which may remain unchanged for a few days. • Menu dégustation

In French, menu dégustation refers to a tasting menu. This elaborate set menu offers small tasting portions and allows customers to sample a wide variety a of menu items without overeating. Such menus are normally offered in fine dining restaurants and feature the following:


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

 Only offered in fine dining restaurants  Menu dégustation is usually only offered at dinner.  The menu usually consists of 6 to 8 courses of small tasting portions.  Choices are seldom offered for each of the courses except the main course. Cold Appetizer Soup * Hot appetizer ( or entrée) Sorbet Main course Cheese Dessert Coffee or Tea with petits fours

*Note: Menu items 3 & 6 are not featured if the menu dégustation features a 6 course menu. A menu dégustation may be created by offering:  Smaller portions of selected items from the a la carte menu; or  Items specially created for the menu dégustation and thus not found on the a la carte menu. Buffet menus

A pre-selected menu where a variety of dishes are offered ad a complete meal and where customers may choose to eat whatever menu items they prefer. Such menus offer customers’ unlimited serving for customers to help themselves.  A part-buffet is one where salads, cold appetizers and desserts are offered together with a small a la carte selection of main courses. The price of such a meal depends on the main course selected.  Restaurants which serve food family style may offer ‘a’ la carte buffets’. Such buffets offer diners an unlimited serving of food from a small ‘a’ la carte’ menu for a fixed price. However these restaurants usually


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specify that such menus are applicable for those who dine in groups of twin or more.

Banquet menus

A banquet menu is a menu that is pre-selected by the organizers of the meal. Banquet menus may offer anything from cocktail snacks, coffee and tea breaks to set meals which range from simple two- course set meals to elaborate events offering many courses or a buffet. 6.3.3 Children’s menu


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These menus are specially created to cater to families with young toddlers. Thus, these menus usually have the following characteristics:  Usually an a la carte menu that lists smaller portions of food with a corresponding lower price.  Offers child-friendly food, that is, food that is likely to be popular with children, e.g. French fries, ice cream, spaghetti, fried chicken, etc.  A colourful format with cartoon characters and may include colouring activities or puzzles to occupy the children’s attention.


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Festive and Promotional menus


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Festive menus  These menus are specially created for festive occasions such as St.Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas, Chinese New Year, etc.  Such menus are used for short periods onlyfrom a single evening to a fortnight  These menus may take the from of an a la carte, a set or buffet menu.


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Promotional menus


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 These menus are specially created for adhoc occasions that may feature famous chefs (e.g. Chef Alain Ducasse) or the seasonal availability of a food item (e.g. asparagus season, Shanghai Hairy Crab).  Such menus are used for specified periods only- anywhere from one evening to a month  These menus may take the from of an a’ la carte, a set or buffet menu


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The Verbal Menu Menus may also be verbally presented. In fine-dining restaurants service staff may verbally inform customers of daily specials. A prime example of a verbal menu is that used in Morton’s of Chicago- an upscale specialty steakhouse concept from America. In this restaurant, servers use a gueridon and verbally present selection of different raw meat cuts as well as fish, live Maine lobsters and vegetables to diners. After the presentation, the servers leave the customer with a copy of the a la carte- just in case they forget what was said!