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Part 1: Introduction What is Risk Assessment? It is the process of: 1. codes of practice or specifications Observations and interviews Inspection records Details of existing risk controls Health and safety audit reports Feedback from staff. What to know? • • • • • Where the work is carried out Who is doing the work What equipment is used What steps are involved What the existing control measures are • What do existing regulations and codes of practices stipulate • • • • • • • • • • • • Where to find? Plant layout plan Flowchart of processes List of work activities/trades List of chemicals. clients. A risk assessment team should be formed. machinery and tools used Records of past incidents and accidents Relevant legislations. Under the new Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management) Regulations. Risk Control . including factories. Identifying and analysing safety and health hazards associated with work 2. Risk Evaluation 3. Having completed the preparation work. should conduct risk assessments for all routine and non-routine work undertaken. Prioritising measures to control the hazards and reduce the risks Relevant information should also be collated to facilitate better understanding of the work process. How is Risk Assessment done? Prior to conducting Risk Assessment. suppliers or other stakeholders Safe work procedures and copies of previous risk assessments Why should we do Risk Assessment? Risk assessment allows us identify the hazards at the workplace and implement effective risk control measures before they escalate into accidents and injuries. adequate preparation must be done. preferably consisting personnel from the various levels of participation in the work activity. Hazard Identification 2. workplace risks may then be assessed in 3 simple steps: 1. every workplace. Assessing the risks involved and 3.
Part 2: Generic Steps of Risk Assessment 1 • • HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Identify hazards Identify potential accidents or incidents 2 • RISK EVALUATION Estimate the risk levels of the workplace hazards identified 3 • RISK CONTROL Formulate the control measures according to the Hierarchy of Controls • Prioritise the hazards to be controlled • Analyse and evaluate residual risks .
scaffolds Environmental conditions e.g. slippery surfaces. lighting. pulling and pushing Excessive exposure to chemicals e. corrosive substances Machinery e.STEP 1: Hazard Identification Hazard Identification involves identifying the hazards associated with the activity of each process and type of potential accidents or incidents. unstable soil conditions Layout and location of equipment Persons-at-risk may include: √ √ √ √ Persons directly involved in the operation Persons not directly involved in the operation Visitors to the workplace Members of the public 1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 2 RISK EVALUATION 3 RISK CONTROL .g.g. and identify the persons that can be victims of the accident or ill health. incident and ill health may include: √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Person falling from height Object falling from height Slips or falls on the same level Electrocution Asphyxiation Drowning Noise induced deafness Dermatitis Collapse of structure Fire and explosion Struck by or against object Soft tissue damage (sprains. During this phase. unguarded machines Temporary structures e. Types of accident. strains) You may wish to consider the following when trying to look for instances of hazardous work: Method of work e. brainstorm on all the possible types of accidents and ill health that can happen due to the hazard.g.g. repeated tasks and unsafe work practices Electrical and mechanical hazards Excessive manual material handling e. lifting.g. the aim is to spot hazards.
Carrying out spray painting Further expansion for step 3: .A simple way of identifying hazards for a particular work activity is to divide the work activity into the major steps of carrying out the work and analyse the steps individually for the presence of hazards.Flammable spray paint mists or vapours and ignition sources .g.Explosion from spray paint mists and vapours can result in serious injury or death of the worker and nearby people 1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 2 RISK EVALUATION 3 RISK CONTROL .Toxic solvent vapours . Moving metal drums to the spray booth 2. which are events caused by inadequate control of hazards. It is also important to differentiate between hazards and accidents or ill-health.Exposure to spray paint solvents can result in ill health . Preparing and mixing paint 3. The following chart illustrates the method of identifying hazards systematically and also gives examples for hazards leading up to certain events: Divide into Major Steps Accidents or Ill-health Arising from Hazards … … … … … … Work Activity Spot the Hazards … … … … … … e. Spray Painting 1.
the following sources of information should be considered: √ Past incident and accident records √ Industry practice and experience √ Relevant published literature RISK LEVEL may be determined once the severity and likelihood have been established.STEP 2: Risk Evaluation Risk evaluation is the process of estimating the risk levels for the hazards and their acceptability. The size of the matrix may vary according to complexity of the work conditions. The following chart illustrates how severity and likelihood come together to help determine risk level. in addition to looking at existing risk controls. the risk of the activity can be better assessed. Risk is made up of 2 parts: 1. This may be achieved by using a 3 by 3 matrix. To minimise the subjectivity of estimating likelihood. 2. Occasional or Frequent. This is used as a base for prioritising actions to control these hazards and minimise safety and health risks. LIKELIHOOD of occurance of an accident. incident or ill health may be defined as the probability that the said incident will happen and is also classified into 3 categories: Remote. or as a result of an accident. Predicted SEVERITY of the hazard and. incident or ill health taking into account the existing risk controls Factors to take into consideration: EXISTING RISK CONTROLS must be taken into account when assessing risks. LIKELIHOOD of occurrence of the accident. 1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 2 RISK EVALUATION 3 RISK CONTROL . The severity is classified into 3 categories: Minor. and the consequences of their failure. Moderate and Major. By considering the effectiveness of these controls. SEVERITY is the degree or extent of injury or harm caused by the hazards.
ill-health with temporary discomfort Injury requiring medical treatment or ill-health leading to disability (includes lacerations. major fractures. acute poisoning and fatal diseases) Determine Likelihood Remote Occasional Frequent Not likely to occur Possible or known to occur Common or repeating occurance Moderate Major Likelihood Determine Risk Severity Likelihood Severity Remote Low Risk Low Risk Medium Risk Occasional Low Risk Medium Risk High Risk Frequent Medium Risk High Risk High Risk Minor Example: If the consequence of a hazard is identified to have moderate severity and occasional likelihood. Moderate Major 1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 2 RISK EVALUATION 3 RISK CONTROL . irritation. deafness) Fatal. minor fractures. injury or ill-health requiring first aid treatment only (includes minor cuts and bruises. dermatitis. serious injury or life-threatening occupational disease (includes amputations. multiple injuries. occupational cancer. burns. the risk level may be determined to be medium. sprains.Risk Evaluation Map Determine Severity Minor No injury.
STEP 3: Risk Control How to establish methods of eliminating or reducing the risks? Based on the risk level determined in STEP 2. Substitution. Risk Level Low Medium High Acceptability of Risk Acceptable Moderately Acceptable Not Acceptable In order to prioritise the risk controls adequately. work cannot commence until the risk level is reduced to the medium level. Administrative Controls and Personal Protective Equipment. If the risk level is high. the formulation of such risk controls may take into consideration the relative risk levels of the different hazards and the cost and benefit of the controls. What risk control methods are there? Methods to control risks may be analysed according to the Hierarchy of Controls: Elimination. Following is an example of the possible control measures applicable to a spray painting activity. Engineering Controls. Reasonably practicable measures must be taken to maintain the risk level within the acceptable range. 1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 2 RISK EVALUATION 3 RISK CONTROL . It is essential for risks to be eliminated or reduced ‘at source’. risk controls should be selected to reduce or confine the risk level to an acceptable level. The following table suggests the acceptability of risk for different risk levels. Elimination of the hazard should take first priority while personal protective equipment should be the last line of defence. The residual risk after the implementation of the controls should also be evaluated.
WORK ACTIVITY Spray Painting of Article HAZARD Inhalation of toxic vapours POSSIBLE CONTROL MEASURES Alter the process plan so that the article does not need to be spray painted. For example using pre-coloured materials HIERARCHY OF CONTROLS Elimination Replace the harmful components of the spray painting chemicals with non-toxic chemicals Substitution Use automated machines to carry out spray painting. Colour the article using a different method. Enclose the article to be spray-painted. Personal Protective Equipment 1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 2 RISK EVALUATION 3 RISK CONTROL . Respirators must be fit-tested and workers must be trained to use them correctly. Administrative Controls Provide approved and adequate PPE for the spray painting activity. Engineering Controls Train workers on the hazards of spray painting and assigned competent persons to carry out the work activity.
It is a key component of Risk Management. 6 Implementation & Review Review risk assessments: Once every 3 years. Record Keeping and Implementation and Review. Prioritise the hazards to be controlled 4 Risk Control Formulate control measures according to the Hierarchy of Controls: Elimination Substitution Engineering controls Administrative controls PPE Analyse and evaluate residual risk 5 Record Keeping Keep risk assessme nt reports for at least 3 years. Together they form the Risk Management Process. will allow better understanding of the risks at the workplace and their control measures.Part 3: Risk Assessment as a Component of Risk Management Risk assessment. After any accident/incident. Whenever new information on OSH risks surfaces. A schematic diagram of the Risk Management Process is illustrated below: COMMUNICATION 1 Preparation 2 Hazard Identification Identify hazards Identify potential accidents / incidents 3 Risk Evaluation Estimate risk levels based on identified hazards. when carried out appropriately. Besides Risk Assessment. Form RA Team Gather relevant information • • • • • • • • • Risk Assessment (RA) . Risk Management also consists of other components such as Communication. When there are changes to work processes and / or.