Power is the single most important necessity for common people and industrial development of the nation. Electricity can bring a sea change in the quality of life style. Gamut of operating the power plant specially large thermal units having very sophisticated technology and complex control, need to be managed and experience shared by the trained and developed human resources. The Simulators are computer based training tool that are modeled mathematically to provide practical on-job training at real time environment, improve retentivity levels to more than 75%, tuned considerably for high confidence level, over and above the training is completely risk free. The Simulators have been developed to function as the replica of power plant (200MW of Korba unit) and they give the feeling of operating real power plant in a clean and pleasing environment without making use of the auxiliary equipments. NTPC firmly believes that the engineers and the officials operating or having intensions to manage the power plant should be trained regularly through Simulators having features as above. The operation manuals provide the adequate reference information to augment systematic hands-on training. The operational manuals of 200MW Simulator in two volumes (Vol-I & Vol-II) should prove valuable to all the participants of the Simulator Institute, be they the fresh executives under the Executive Trainee schemes of the Company or the experienced power plant engineers particularly operating the power stations or working in the power projects under construction and commissioning phase. It will provide a direct appreciation of basics of thermal power plant operations and encourage them to take on such responsibilities far more sincerely and effectively. The manuals in your hand have been revised suitably based on the feedbacks received from various participants who have undergone training in our Simulator Institute. The revised volume I & II bring together the information from manuals of original equipment manufacturers, theory and course materials & texts from Instruments and Control suppliers/manufactures, efficiency related power plant literatures, water treatment and chemical plants etc. I appreciate the time spent in making the manuals and the exhaustive efforts in bringing these out within the shortest time by the Simulator In-charge, Senior Managers, Faculty Members and the office staff of the Central Simulator Training Institute, KORBA. I hope the readers of the operational manuals will find the contents stimulating and helpful in understanding and managing thermal power plants especially in the operation activities. I believe that in spite of all sincere efforts and care, some areas of improvement might have remained. The suggestions and comments are welcome.

General Manager



Few words from HOD Simulator & EDC

It has been our endeavour to ensure that the persons responsible for operation of Power Plant should have accessibility to all technical information as presently only running the machine is not enough, but running it efficiently and economically will always give an edge over other power utilities. One of the thrust areas of NTPC management has been skill up gradation and imparting every possible knowledge to concerned employees, which will take the organization into brighter tomorrow. Training gets the utmost priority in our organization. With a view to make the learning easy and spontaneous, need was felt to consolidate the 200MW Power Plant Operation manual in the soft form. At present, Computer and E-Communication have become our essentialities and we have adapted ourselves to it. As a first step towards making our operation engineers equipped with knowledge of operational aspect of power plant and using, it as a knowledge-refreshing tool and making the information available in a CD was thought of. I am pleased to present this CD, the operational manuals of 200MW Simulator in two volumes (Volume I & II), to the personnel who are associated with power plant activities. I sincerely hope that the contents are going to be helpful in upgrading the knowledge and skill of Power Plant employees.

Dy. General Manager












meter/recorder indications etc and updated dynamically. The trainee operator quickly gains experience in normal. THE PROCESS OF SIMULATION The Simulator creates a realistic representation of any process in an interacting manner.FEATURES OF THE SIMULATOR Studies on technical feasibility and economical viability of fossil power plants have led to the construction of gigantic sized units equipped with sophisticated control schemes. The computer in accordance with the math models calculates the output parameters and the effects are displayed on the panel in the form of lampoutputs. Training simulator plays a vital role by not only training the operator but also by tuning his reflexes in a real time environment. In a highly automated plant. BENEFITS OF TRAINING SIMULATOR Power plant simulator is an effective training tool. It displays the parameters and provides the necessary alarms or protective system action when plant limits are approached or exceeded. annunciations. Emergency conditions can be inserted at any time during an exercise or prior to the start of the exercise. Conventional on the job training hitherto imparted has become impracticable and inefficient to develop the skills of a reliable. Shared Memory. confident and efficient operator demanded by these modern units. Simulation is based on predicted plant design data. Input-Output System and the UCB panel. abnormal and emergency operation of power plant through Simulator Training. As our power plant operation becomes more sophisticated with complex controls. Operator confidence is increased. All the processes and interlocks of the unit are defined by the math models and are iterated by the computer. The hands-on training in a highly realistic environment provided by the training Simulator cannot be substituted by any other form of training. The simulator responds dynamically to all changes in the process from within or imposed from outside. resulting in improved efficiency of power plant operating personnel. Increased protection and safety for reliable and efficient operation of these units at the same time ensuring the maximum availability has thrust tremendous responsibility on the operating personnel. the problem of running a plant profitably and safely becomes critical. A welltrained operator runs a plant safely and expensive downtime caused by operator error is significantly reduced. KORBA SIMULATOR 9 . better equipped to respond to problems and emergencies. with which the actual characteristics of a power plant can be generated through real time execution of mathematical models of various systems on a computer. The main hardware elements of the simulator system consist of two Main Computers. It is used for computation of various simulation parameters. The computer used for the process simulation is called the Master computer. The inputs from the UCB panel are scanned at a very fast rate and transmitted to the Master computer by the input-output system through a highspeed data link. refresher training on Simulator also helps experienced operators to maintain a high level of proficiency. The operator is the key to efficiency and safety. All the engineering systems of power plant are programmed in a computer in the form of mathematical models.

The system software consists of the operating system (MPX-32. which are written using FORTRAN-77 and Assembly.5 C 2 Nos. The simulation executive software controls the rate of execution of math models and helps in debugging process by tracking the execution sequence. Instructor station software and DAS software.Simulator design includes equipments.. The various modules are: Computer system software. The DAS computer has access to this memory and uses this data for calculation of various parameters. file manager. GOULD / ENCORE COMPUTER CORP. System level services like management of computer memory. Simulation executive software and Application software.5C) and utilities like text editors. 200MW SIMULATOR: COMPUTER SYSTEM Computer Supplier Software Supplier 32 bit. 1. transient and emergency operating conditions except where specifically noted. group displays of DAS points. The simulation software is structured and organised in well-defined modules and levels. USA. This enables an operator to function in all modes of the specified coal fired power plant operation including normal. which provide various facilities like Mimic diagrams. The Plant simulation software consists of various math-models and subroutines.. The DAS software enables the functioning of its various facilities and features. GOULD SEL . The Application software is further consists of plant simulation software. All the important parameters are displayed and updated dynamically on various CRTs by means of CRT controllers. video trends etc to the trainee operator. GOULD /ENCORE COMPUTER CORP. bar charts. instrumentation and controls. Responses resulting from operator actions. USA KORBA SIMULATOR 10 .32 Rev. This computer also executes several other programs. The instructor station software enables the operation of instruction station through which simulation is initialised and various facilities of the same become available. The data needed for computation of DAS parameters is stored in a common memory called shared memory. Rev 1. debugger etc.32/77 MPX . The computer used for DAS is called the Slave computer. automatic plant controls and inherent operating characteristics are copied realistically so that the operator cannot observe any difference (within limits of performance criteria) between the simulator control room indicators and those of the actual power station. processor time etc is provided by the operating system.

Several functions are available to the instructor by which he can utilise the training potential to the Simulator to a maximum. All the Switches. Two 32-bit Computers (GOULD SEL-32/77) are the driving force behind the 200MW Simulator. Indicating Lamps and Instruments.HARDWARE FEATURES OF THE SIMULATOR Full size Replica Control Room The control panel exactly resembles that of the actual plant. Instructor Station This is the place from where the instructor is able to control the training process. SCOPE OF SIMULATION Following are the systems covered in simulation: • Condensate and Feed Water System • Air and Flue Gas System • Fuel System (Oil and Coal) • Furnace Safeguard and Supervisory System (FSSS) • Steam Generator System • Turbine System • Automatic Turbine Run-up System (ARTS) • Cooling Water System • Electrical Unit Distribution System • Hydrogen and Seal Oil System • Analog Control System (ACS) • Main Generator and Auxiliaries System KORBA SIMULATOR 11 . inject malfunctions. Annunciations are located precisely at the same position on the simulator control panel as in the real plant. monitor and analyze the trainee’s performance. Computer Complex The heart of the Simulator is the Computer and its associated software. Push Buttons. He can create a number of plant conditions. One Computer is used for the simulation of plant system and the other is for Data Acquisition purpose. Recorders. (200MW: unit-I of Korba). Computer Interface This consists of an Input / Output System by means of which data can be transferred from the Computer to the control Panel and vice versa at extremely high speeds.

Remote Operator Functions The instructor serves as an auxiliary operator in providing the operation of manual valves etc. Instructor can select either slow time or fast time. which can be chosen for starting simulation. Real time expansion is slow time. There are fifteen initial conditions. the instructor can implement following training features: • • • • • • • • • • • Initial condition Snapshot Remote operator functions Freeze/Run Malfunction activation and removal Programmable Response Time (Real time. located outside the main control room and other controls not provided on UCB panel. The feature of snapshot allows storing the plant status at a given instant during simulator operation for later use as initial condition. Programmable Response Time Normally simulator runs in one to one correspondence with real time. Slow time and Fast time) Backtrack Record/Replay Remote control Computer Assisted Exercise (CAE) Trainee Proficiency Review (TPR) Initial Condition/Snapshot It is a programmed status of the plant from where simulation is to start. Instructor introduces them in the process from the console or hand-held remote transmitter. Freeze/Run This feature allows all dynamic actions to be suspended during the simulation status remaining intact. Malfunction Activation and Removal Malfunctions simulate fault conditions. which can occur within the plant. This gives the instructor time to discuss the frozen simulated plant condition. simulation provides an apparent increase in time for fast changing phases of plant operation KORBA SIMULATOR 12 .SIMULATOR OPERATIONAL FACILITIES From a remote console.

plant status condition will occur at a time interval of one minute for a period of 60 minutes. This feature is known as backtrack. for uniformity of performance testing.such as feed water process. KORBA SIMULATOR 13 . Real time compression is fast time simulation providing an apparent decrease of time intervals for less dynamic phases of plant operation such as turbine warm up which usually takes long intervals. When activated all math models are called at one tenth their normal rate causing all apparent operations to slow to one tenth real time rate. Record/Replay This feature permits the status of the control panel displays and indications to be saved during operation for future replaying by instructor. characterised by short time constants. Trainee Proficiency Review (TPR) TPR permits automatic monitoring of instructor selected parameters for their deviations during operation. Up to one hour of simulator can be saved. unit trip sequences. Computer Assisted Exercise (CAE) CAE permits the instructor to develop and store training scenarios. above or below the selected/set limits of safety and efficiency and also the time for which the parameter remained out of contact can also be computed and recorded. including malfunctions and remote functions. Backtrack In automatic snapshot of the simulator. This feature allows the instructor to select any one of these past 60 selected set of conditions and initialise the simulator at that specific backtrack time. Some of the models run at ten times the normal rate under this condition.




we are measuring the casing temperature for BFP and these points are directly coming to the DAS. We can calculate the difference between the upper and lowercasing temperature to get the casing differential temperature. • Thermocouple inputs. We can also add the economiser outlet FW temperature left and right and divide by two to get the average economiser outlet FW temperature. This means that the person on desk can get readily available information about the different process parameters on different display devices as well as on the printers but he cannot use the DAS system for the control of any parameter. Any input with only two states namely OPEN/CLOSE. DAS system is not used here for process control. ON/OFF. which are not directly coming from the process but are derived from the inputs coming from the process. • All other inputs of analog nature as may vary from plant to plant. Miscellaneous Calculation Inputs Calculated inputs are of two types. In addition to these process inputs. ANALOG INPUTS The number of analog inputs in the case of Simulator is of the order of 650. These inputs are called Calculated Inputs. • 4-20 mA inputs. Digital Inputs Digital inputs have only two states. PROCESS INPUTS Process inputs to the DAS system are fundamentally of two types: Analog Inputs and Digital Inputs. These are the direct inputs coming from the process. Also we can add the coal flow of all the mills per hour and get the total coal flow per hour.DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (DAS) Data Acquisition System (DAS) in the case of 200 MW units is for monitoring of process data. • RTD inputs. Say for instance. there are some more inputs of analog type. HIGH/LOW etc falls in this category. One type of calculation is mostly averaging or differentials. TRIP/ NORMAL. KORBA SIMULATOR 17 . Analog Inputs The types of analog inputs are as follows: • 0-10 volt analog inputs.

3.DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (DAS): BLOCK DIAGRAM Thus we can derive the following three derived inputs which can be treated as DAS inputs but which are not directly coming from the process. Tons of coal fired/hour. Turbine efficiency. Performance Calculation Inputs This consists calculation Inputs • • • • Terminal temperature difference of different heaters. Excess air percentage. These are: 1. KORBA SIMULATOR 18 . This type of calculation is called Miscellaneous Calculation. Economiser outlet FW temp. Boiler efficiency by different methods. 2. BFP casing differential temp.

2HI or 2LO. both for high as well as low. They are 1 HI. Beyond this (3HI or 3LO) there is a digital status. ANALOG SCANNING. To avoid this. 30 sec and 60 sec corresponding to each analog input. Heat rate deviation from standard. The alarm appears whenever the value goes beyond high or low limit but the alarm stays so long as the value does not come below the dead band value. each point having alarm associated with it is provided with a dead band. 2 HI. which has already been discussed. For that we have variable limit of alarms. So some means are required to avoid these alarms. which will see the digital status of the equipment before displaying the alarm. Alarm comes when the value increases beyond 1HI or 1LI. Variable Limit Alarms However. feeders. which have only high limits and not low limits and vice versa. one high and the other low. If a high or low limit is kept at a defined value then if the analog input varies very near to that limit and oscillate. The value between 2 HI & 1 HI or 1 LO & 2 LO is called repeat increment. 2 sec. The 3HI or 3LO alarm comes when the value deviated further from the normal value. there are cut out equations. The different rates of scanning of analog inputs are 1 sec. 2LO. KORBA SIMULATOR 19 . All analog points which are having alarms have three types of alarms. The total number of calculated input in the case of analog point is approximately 200. Alarm Cutouts Let us consider a case where BFP-C is not running & BFP-C flow is 0. 3 HI or 1 LO. even though this is not an alarm. This is a condition where BFP flow low alarm will appear. For that. there may be analog point whose alarm value is dependent on the load. etc.. which will cause tripping of the particular device if of course. The alarm will be displayed only when that equipment is running. It is of course not necessary that each and every analog input will have both high as well as low limits. there are two limits. on different display devices at one time and vanish at the next time. The alarm described above is 1HI or 1LO. this will cause the alarm to appear. That means the alarm value will change depending upon the MW generated. This is more important for mills. This includes both miscellaneous calculation and performance calculation.• • Cycle efficiency. tripping is provided for that device. BFPs. 12 sec. This load dependent variable limit. 3LO. ALARMING The analog inputs coming from the process are scanned by the computer at various rates depending upon the criticality of the parameter and the computer capability. calculations are also part of miscellaneous calculations. There are some inputs.

For example.PERFORMANCE CALCULATION The performance calculation points are treated in a different way than miscellaneous calculation points. Heating value of fuel oil. To elaborate. if we want the boiler efficiency. past ten minutes value of the points that are used for the performance calculation is stored in the memory. Tons of coal fired per hour. and pressure). RH outlet enthalpy (function of RH outlet steam temp. all in the above are process points. Point 4 is a miscellaneous calculation point is obtained by adding the coal flow through each feeder. It is not required to store each and every scanned value of past ten minutes but a number of values. Heavy oil return flow Except point 4. 6. Cold reheat flow. For performance calculation. The miscellaneous calculation points are scanned all the time at the same rate as the normal process points. 4. we need the following information: Blow down flow. In addition to the above. SH outlet enthalpy (Function of SH outlet temp. and pressure) Blow down enthalpy (function of drum pressure). and pressure) HPT exhaust enthalpy (function of RH outlet steam temp. these values are averaged and this averaged value is used for the calculation. FW enthalpy at economiser inlet (function of FW temp. then all the input scanned points required for this calculation are averaged for last ten minutes and this averaged value is then used for the calculation. Heat added other than chemical. take the example of boiler efficiency measurement by input. and pressure). output method. Heavy oil supply flow. The inputs for this calculation are: 1. Whenever the operator asks for the log of performance calculation points. KORBA SIMULATOR 20 . The scanned values of the above points are stored and whenever the calculation is demanded. first the averaging of past ten minutes is done for all the above points. 5. 2. Heating value of coal. Reheat spray flow. FW Flow. 3.

LOLO-NOT LOLO. This scanning goes on until there is no change in status of the high-resolution digital inputs for a period of two minutes. The example is: SF005. the scanning of these points are much faster than the analog points. ET005. FT003. it is not necessary that all inputs will have an alarm associated with it. the set point for digital is set at a value slightly higher than the corresponding analog value so that the engineer comes to know about alarm in advance and takes necessary action. it should be noted that all the above calculations. The next three numeric characters represent whether it is an analog point or a digital point. The AV points are averaged values of the process points. All the points. These inputs are different from other inputs in that if anyone of the above inputs goes to the alarm states then all high-resolution digital inputs are scanned at a much higher rate of 5-milli sec. which are high-resolution digital inputs. ON-OFF. Of the process points there are some two hundred inputs. If it is KV. In the above case (SF005). if the first two characters are KC or KV then they are calculated points. DIGITAL INPUTS The number of digital inputs is of the order of 1300. So the calculation is not done below 30% load. which are used in the performance calculation. These are the process inputs coming directly from various equipments like pipes. HIHI-NOT HIHI. All digital points under normal circumstances are scanned at every one see. In the digital. which are entered by the engineer and remains constant unless changed and the computer does enthalpy calculation from the steam table entered. However. LOW-NORMAL. In the above. for performance calculation points. two alphabets followed by three numerics. F represents feed water point and T represents turbine point. Since the digital points are having two states. Thus in the above SF005 and FL003 are analog points where as ET501 are digital points. which are used for performance calculation. a BFP off is not an alarm state. For instance. which start with KN. then they are miscellaneous calculation points. Whereas number of analog points scanned per sec. In general. is of the order of 110. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SIMULATOR DAS Any DAS point in the case of NTPC 200 MW unit consists of five characters. Any points whether analog or digital. ducts etc. are valid only from 30% to 100% load. If the first two characters are KC. any points from 001 to 449 are analog points and 500 to 999 are digital points. E represents electrical point. S represents the steam generator point. After that it gives a sequence of events recording on printer. which is only analog point. which are done on the basis of performance test code. KORBA SIMULATOR 21 . The second letter represents the parameter measured. TV501 The first two characters represent the system. F represents vibration. TRIP-NORMAL. In NTPC philosophy. The different type states in the case of digital points are HI-NORMAL.The first four are the constant point. are constant points. it is performance calculation point.

Group display of any point analog/digital Turbine message display Display graphics of various systems Acknowledge of alarm In the DAS system. GRAPHICS The system can display the P&ID diagram in the form of graphics with dynamic capabilities. There are previous page and next page buttons through which we can go to any page of alarm. if it is a communication between operator & CRT. However. the value and the status of the graphic displayed are updated continuously and it is not necessary to call the graphic every time to get the latest information. Point detail of any point digital or analog. In the graphics arrangement.e. will blink as long as alarm is not acknowledged. acknowledging. New alarm appears on the top of the first page pushing the previous alarms down the page. But if all eight pages are full with alarms and new alarm comes. With the latest DAS software modifications. In total there are eight pages of alarms. b. status of various equipments. for the output purpose. that communication is possible only through OPCON 1 and OPCON 2 and not through any other CRT. Dynamic capabilities mean. valves. There are two keyboards. That means this CRT is dedicated for alarms only and no other display is possible on this CRT. d. It may be noted that other than compressing. The number of alarms in each page is 20. One is on the unit controller' desk and the other with the OPCON 2 CRT i. pipe ducts. there are four colour CRT' and two s printers.e. The CRT on the unit controller' desk is called operator console-1 or in s short OPCON 1. dampers etc are shown by different colour. s The alarm CRT is dedicated to alarms. which cross its normal limits or the digital points. which are flashing. f. which are having an alarm. The new alarm will come on the top of the first page. section 2. alarm CRT can be used for display. there is no other control of the alarm CRT. When the alarm acknowledge button on any of the two keyboards is pressed. But if while going to previous page or next page. e. c. The alarm compress button on the keyboard can be used to compress the empty space. get acknowledged and the flashing stops. If an alarm returns normal. Review of analog or digital points. the alarms which returned to normal value vanishes. When the acknowledge button is pressed. The analog points. The other CRT' can be s used for any display. the last alarm in the last page vanishes creating space for the subsequent alarm to come down so that the latest alarm appears on the top of the first page. next page and previous page. a new alarm comes. it reverts back to the first page. then its colour changes to green. There is a fourth CRT in UCB section 3. called as ALARM CRT. For KORBA SIMULATOR 22 . then all alarms.CAPABILITIES OF THE SIMULATOR DAS SYSTEM The Simulator DAS system is having the following capabilities: a. The one on the UCB section 2 i. on the middle of the UCB panel is called OPCON 2 and the one on UCB section 1 of is called the UTILITY CRT.

the status of equipment can be ascertained. Boiler start-up and turbine start-up logs are automatic in the sense that they start automatically. turbine.example colour of the ducts are yellow when there is flow of air through it and it is half intensity white when there is no flow. feed water. Most of the logs are automatic which causes these logs to come after a specified event or after a specified time interval. Example for the logs are: Boiler run-up log. To enable or display post trip log. performance log etc. Thus. To display analog parameter in the form of bar chart. A valve open is shown in red colour and a valve closed is shown by green colour. get the display on CRT. we can assign any point to a group and also we can assign any group to any log. To display any analog parameter in the form X-Y plot. When boiler is lighted up. boiler water. Alarm Paging Supervisor Using the function menu. red when running and white when tripped. FUNCTION MENU The functions of this menu are: • • • • • • • To update the time of the Computer To bring any alarm page from alarm CRT to any other CRT. collections for boiler start-up log start and it gives printout after desired number of collections. The operator in the ‘fill in the blanks’ format can insert the present date and time. hourly log. circulating water. water steam cycle. which starts when the turbine rolling starts. Log Supervisor By this we can get a point out of a log group in the printer. instead of taking the log on printer. We can. first one will have to select a system. Through log supervisor. To assign any analog parameter to the trend recorders. Update Time This is a communication format by which the operator can enter present date and time. KORBA SIMULATOR 23 . coal mill. For selecting graphics. just by seeing the colour. we can go to this supervisor through which by fill in the blanks format the operator can select any page of alarm CRT to appear on any other CRT. condenser. summary log. boiler steam. namely: boiler air. There are ten systems here. The same is the case with turbine run up. A log consists of some 6 to 7 groups each having some 20 points. The colour of a PA Fan is green when off. Display points of different groups on CRT. Turbine run-up log. boiler gas. Turbine Generator diagnostic log.

In all nine analog variables can be assigned to all the nine pens at a time. Under normal conditions the bars are green. which are of similar type if it is a vertical bar and or any type if it is a horizontal bar. The plot of the variable is for past ten minutes. will give a print out of all points of the post trip log when the unit trips. which are important ones and which gives a clear picture of parameters changed from 3 minutes prior to tripping to 5 minutes after tripping. Each display consists of seven points plotted with respect to time. The vertical bars are included in the graphics in the case of Simulator DAS whereas horizontal bars are under chart supervisor. Post Trip Supervision Whenever a unit is started. Thus post trip log print out comes only after trip occurs and it gives ten values for all variable starting from five minutes before tripping five minutes after tripping. From function menu through group supervisor. Each plot is identified from the other by the colour because each variable plot colour is different from other. When a trip occurs considering that to be zeroth time values of all these variables are collected up to a time five minute after tripping. Post trip log points are all analog points. Then the printout of post trip log starts. The DAS gives a facility to assign any analog variable required to be assigned to any of the nine pens. In one page there can be 8 particular variables. Bar Chart Supervisor The bar chart supervisor is to display bars in the form of horizontal or vertical. of a group of points. if the value exceeds beyond high or low limit then the colour change to red and dead band is shown in yellow colour. In each display gross generated MW is plotted. are of such type that any time 5 values of all the variables of last 5 minutes are always available. we display any group on the selected CRT. enabling post trip log through this supervisor. Post trip log is having some 100 analog points. We can go to bar chart supervisor through function menu. We can assign any point to any group or a number of points to the same group. In all we have 40 groups. The assignment may be changed as and when required by the operator through man machine communication format. All the points. which are coming in this log. which are assigned to a group. which will dynamically update. X-Y Plot Supervisor This supervisor is to display a process variable with respect to time and with respect to total generation. This is an important function because we can display both analog and digital parameters on the CRT.Group Supervisor There are a number of points (16). Trend Pen Supervisor The recorders on the Panel are assigned to some particular analog variables. KORBA SIMULATOR 24 .

. This is an added feature and included because the ATRS console in KWU turbine does not give the description of the criteria in the step. These keys are for selecting the particular CRT to which subsequent instructions are to go. in the same review and in the same sequence can be obtained. This gives a brief idea of DAS system in general and the DAS system in the simulator. SYSTEM MENU This is also another means to display graphics. calculated analog & digital points and constant points along with the limit set for all scan and calculated analog points can be seen in the display and in the printer. pressing this button gives the criteria not satisfied in a step with description. The point detail of a point gives much more information. The keyboard operation described pertains to the simulator DAS system that may vary from system to system. scan analog & digital points. Instead of selecting the system by the keys say mill or boiler air etc. The status changes dynamically in the display as in the case of group review and this can be displayed in any of the three CRTs. we can go to system menu and select the system and then through display list or display diagram we can display graphics. Here values of both analog and digital. KORBA SIMULATOR 25 . ANALOG SCANNING. Step Next Point When we are in point details then pressing step next point button causes the display of the next point in analog/digital in alphanumeric sequence. Utility CRT.POINT REVIEW FUNCTION Unlike the group supervisor and the log supervisor the point review gives the points display in the alphanumeric sequences. There are some more keys: OPCON 2. but they are not relevant to the operator. POINT DETAIL The point details function is to get the value information about a particular point. This gives one-shot value of the points in either CRT or printer. The values of all points. ALARMING The analog inputs coming from the process are scanned by the computer at various rates depending upon the criticality of the parameter and the computer capability. TURBINE MESSAGE DISPLAY When turbine is rolled.




the casing components are O' provided with exchangeable casing wear rings in the arc of impeller necks. A combined thrust and radial bearing is installed as support bearing to absorb residual thrust. a bearing bush is installed to guide the shaft of pump. For internal sealing of individual stages. consisting of the pump body. Pump bearings consist of bearing sleeve. the can. The shaftprotecting sleeve is sealed off from shaft by ' rings. A thrust bearing located in the motor stool absorbs residual axial thrusts. These bearings do not absorb any axial forces. Axial load is transmitted to the distributor casing via the thrust bearing plate. In each guide vane casing. of guide vane housing. The intermediate shaft is guided in bearing spider and shaft sleeve. rotating with the shaft and bearing bush. Impellers are single entry type. A radial bearing attached to the bearing is installed in an enclosed housing and is splash lubricated by oil filled in the enclosure. The rotor is guided in bearings lubricated by the fluid pumped. During operation. They are lubricated by condensate itself. the packed stuffing box reduces the leakage flow in the clearance between shaft protecting sleeve and stuffing box housing.CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP (CEP) INTRODUCTION The condensate extraction pump (CEP) is a centrifugal. To prevent air entry during O' standstill operation or during reduced pressure operation as well as for cooling stuffing box sealing water is fed into the stuffing box via lantern ring. Rotor The pump impellers are radially fixed on the shaft by keys. Built-in cooling coils in the bath and cooling water control oil temp. KORBA SIMULATOR 29 . the thrust bearing and bearing housing. Bearings In each guide vane housing the shaft is guided by a plain bearing. the distributor housing and the driver lantern. mounted in guide vane housing. The pump body is arranged vertically in the can and is attached to the distributor body with the rising main. Casing components are bolted together and sealed off from one another by ' rings. semi-axial and hydraulically balanced by means of balance holes in the shroud and throttle sections at suction and discharge side. The arrangement of bearing corresponds to the bearings of pump shaft. The shaft exit in the driver lantern is sealed off by one packed stuffing box. Connecting line to suction relieves the shaft-sealing chamber. The impellers are fixed in position axially by the bearing sleeves and are attached to the shaft by means of impeller nut. is also provided. which is located in the bearing pedestal in the driver lantern. Shaft sealing The drive shaft passage in the distributor casing is sealed off by packed stuffing box with lantern ring. vertical pump. Casing It is split on right to the shaft and consists of suction rings and 4 no. A rising main of length depending upon NPSH available. is suspended from the support bearing.

CEP CONNECTIONS Coupling The pump shaft coupling is connected to the driver shaft by a rigid clamp coupling. A flexible claw coupling is used to transmit the torque from driver to drive shaft. KORBA SIMULATOR 30 . The pump bearing is a thrust-cum-journal bearing sub-merged in an oil bath. From the pressure relief line a partial flow is branched off as sealing fluid. Pump Lubrication System Motor bearings are grease lubricated. which might interfere with smooth running of pump. with an isolating valve. This is to vent the pump off any gas formation. Venting/sealing/cooling fluid lines A vent line connects the suction compartment to the top of suction vessel. The oil is cooled by clarified water.

190 M 402 KW Water at 40 oC 3.5 M 3 Overload 1480 710 m /hr 170 M 429 KW 3 470 KW 6. 50 Hz. 51 Amps.85 lag. 610 m /hr. F CONDENSATE SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 31 . 3-phase. PF=0.6 KV.TECHNICAL DATA Pump Design Type Speed Discharge Capacity Head Power Temperature of medium handled NPSH Motor Power Supply Current Speed Class of Insulation WKTA 200/4 1480 rpm. 1480 rpm.


The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and non-drive end by Crane mechanical seals.BOILER FEED PUMP (BFP) INTRODUCTION The weir type FK8D30 pressure stage pump is an eight stage horizontal centrifugal pump of the barrel casing design. (two coolers per seal. The flushing water is cooled by passing through seal coolers. each seal being flushed by water in a closed circuit and the water is circulated by the action of the seal retaining ring. and each seal cooler being circulated with clarified cooling water. which can be easily removed for maintenance without disturbing the suction and discharge pipe work. BFP CONNECTIONS KORBA SIMULATOR 33 . one working and one standby). or the alignment of the pump and the turbo coupling. The rotating assembly is supported by plain white metal lined journal bearings and axially located by a Glacier double tilting pad thrust bearing. The pump internals are designed as a cartridge.

85 95. KW BFP MOTOR Output Current Supply Power factor Efficiency Speed Type of cooling 3 173. m Flow rate. m 2018 Design 3500 KW 361 A 6.86 0.906 161 15.TECHNICAL DATA BOILER FEED PUMP Manufacturer Pump Serial Number Type No of stages Direction of rotation viewed at drive end Liquid pumped Design S. at suction temperature Suction temperature oC Suction pressure. 0. 3 phase.8 .904 163 14.5% 1485 rpm.6 KV. m /h Speed.7 NPSHA above impeller eye. Kg/cm 2 2 2 : Weir Pumps Ltd : 11723-001/9 : FK8D30 : 8 : Anti-clockwise : Boiler feed water Duty 0. Kg/cm Differential pressure.42 212.G. RPM Power. 50 Hz.0. Closed air circulation KORBA SIMULATOR 34 .32 188.54 1918.66 198.8 381 4750 2542 Discharge pressure. Kg/cm Differential.9 101.8 96.24 2196.

Two radial holes drilled through the periphery provide outlet connections for balancing chamber lead off to pump suction. A suction guide closes the drive end of casing and it is located on the inner casing by a spigot. For prevention of leakage between suction annulus and barrel casing a MS gasket is located between the suction guide spigot and casing inner face. nuts and dowel pins. A spring disc is located between the last stage diffuser and discharge cover balance drum bush to provide force required to hold ring section assembly in place against the drive end of the barrel before start up. allowing expansion. The drive end bearing housing to be attached to bearing jacket secured to the outer face of suction guide by studs. Diffusers are dowels and spigot KORBA SIMULATOR 35 . washers and holding down bolts. A discharge cover closes the non-drive end with an ' ring secured to O' base plate pedestals by spacer pieces. Non-drive end bearing housing is attached to bearing bracket secured to outer face of discharge cover by stud/nuts and dowel pins. Suction Guide It closes the drive end of casing and forms the suction annulus. secured to the casing O' by studs/nuts. sealing being effected by metal to metal joint faces and ' rings with back-up O' rings located in grooves in the ring section spigots. The drive end water jacket and mechanical seal housing close the suction guide. the discharge cover and the spring disc hold suction guide against an internal shoulder in the casing. which do the non-drive end water jacket and mechanical seal-housing close. allowing for expansion. Discharge cover is in close fit in casing bore and is held in place by a ring of studs/nuts. Transverse key on the drive end feet and longitude keys under the casing transfer moments and thrust to the base plate. Ring Section Assembly The ring section assembly consists of seven ring sections which locate one to another by spigots and are secured to each other by socket head screws in counter-bored holes. An ' ring is also provided on the periphery of suction guide for O' preventing leakages. Two tapped holes are provided in the suction guide for cooling water connections to water jacket. Last stage diffuser can slide freely over the balance drum bush which is shrunk on to the discharge cover bore to minimise flow of liquid to balance chamber. Leakage between suction annulus and the drive end is prevented by an ' ring and gasket located on the insert ring. Ring section assembly. Two similar holes are provided for cooling water connection for water jacket. After starting the discharge pressure assists the spring disc in holding the ring section in place.BFP DESCRIPTION Pump Casing It consists of forged steel barrel with welded suction discharge branches and mounting feet. Discharge cover It also forms the balance chamber.

Provisions are made to inject oil for removal of drum and tapped holes are provided for withdrawal. Other leakage paths are sealed with ' rings. and the last stage diffuser is secured to the last stage ring section with socket head screws in counter bored holes. held in split ring positioned on each side of thrust collar. balance drum. The balance drum is keyed and shrunk onto the shaft and held in position against shaft locating shoulder by balance drum nut and lock washer. Each seal consists of rotating tungsten carbide seat mounted in a carrier. The carrier rings are prevented from rotating along with shaft by dowel pins in each ring. The seal is designed to O' recirculate the pumped product through seal water coolers to maintain acceptable temperature in the region of seal face. Journal and thrust bearing The rotating assembly is supported at each end of the shaft by a white metal lined journal bearing and a tilting pad double thrust bearing mounted at non-drive end of pump carries the residual thrust. KORBA SIMULATOR 36 . Seal sleeves are keyed to shaft and are clamped in position by seal sleeve nuts and lock nuts. running against a stationary carbon face. thin wall type and are split on horizontal plane through the shaft axis. keys per impeller are being alternately fitted on diametrically opposite sides of the shaft to maintain balance. impellers. The rotating parts of mechanical seals are fitted to the shaft where it passes through the seal housing. Thrust bearing is fitted in non-drive end bearing housing and has eight white metal line tilting pads. These prevent recirculation of pumped liquid between stages. Ring sections and diffusers form transfer passages from the impeller outlet of one stage of the pump to other impeller inlet of next stage. Impellers are of single entry shrouded inlet type and are keyed and shrunk onto the shaft. The hub of each impeller butts against a split abutment ring fitted in a groove in the shaft. Mechanical Seals They comprise a seal body assembly secured to seal housing. Chromium plated shaft at each end is supported by journal bearings and its diameter increases in increments from the non drive end towards drive end to facilitate fitting and removal of impellers. Thrust collar is keyed to the non-drive end of shaft and is secured against a shoulder on the shaft by the thrust collar nut locked by lock washer. white metal lined. keys rotating parts of mechanical seals. Packing rings are shrunk into bore of ring section and grub screws locate diffusers. Thrust pads are retained on the carrier rings by special pad stops screwed into the rings. Rotating Assembly Dynamically balanced rotating assembly consists of shaft. which contains rotating components of seal. abutment rings.located to ring sections and to the suction guide. Inner end of drum is recess and the bore of recess is a close fit over the last stage impeller hub. which engage in slots in the bearing top half. shaft nuts. thrust collar and pump half coupling. Contact between the face and seal is maintained by hydraulic pressure during running and by spring pressure during start-up. Journal bearing shells are of mild steel.

Hydraulic balance Due to differential pressures acting on the impeller the rotating assembly is subjected to axial thrusts. The hydraulic balance arrangement operates as follows. an orifice is fitted at the oil outlet. Flexible coupling Between the turbo coupling (hydro-coupling) and pump shaft. The thrust caused by the suction pressure acting on the area inside the wear ring on inlet side of each impeller is overcome by much greater thrust caused by the discharge pressure acting on the equivalent area on the outlet side of each impeller. This can accommodate a certain amount of misalignment between turbo couplings and pump shafts to which hubs are fitted. The cross sectional area of the balance drum is sized to give a small residual thrust towards the drive end of the pump. Two ports in the discharge cover allow the product to be piped back to the pump suction side. To ensure thrust bearing remains flooded. The pressure differential across the balance drum is therefore equal to that across the impellers. The main components of hydraulic balancing arrangement are the balance chamber machined in discharge cover. is provided. The resultant thrust is therefore towards drive end of pump. The pumped feed water passes from last stage of the pump between the balance drum and the bush and enters the balance chamber at a pressure approximately equal to the suction pressure. consisting of two hubs flexibly connected through laminated steel elements to a tubular spacer. The balance drum located at the non-drive end is designed to keep these forces neutralised and only the residual thrust remains. a flexible coupling.A split floating oil-sealing ring is located in the groove in the thrust bearing housing to restrict the escape of lubricating oil from the thrust-bearing chamber. which is taken up by thrust bearing. Thrust force varies with load on the pump but hydraulic balance arrangement will reduce its effect enabling residual thrust to be taken by fitting pads of thrust bearing. the balance drum secured to the shaft and balance drum bush fitted in the bore of discharge cover. KORBA SIMULATOR 37 .


fabricated guard. The pump shaft is sealed at drive and non-drive end by Crane mechanical seals.855 Differential pressure. lub oil pressure etc. at suction temperature Suction temperature oC Suction pressure. in each case through a Torsiflex spacer type flexible coupling. motor and turbo-coupling is mounted on its own base plate and on a common grillage. Each pump.G.263 2 2 S.904 163 7. The bearings in booster and main pump and in motor are lubricated from the forced lubricating oil system incorporated in the turbo coupling. Kg/cm 15.07 16. axial split casing type. each coupling being enclosed in a split. having the suction and discharge lines on casing bottom half.906 161 7. The pump set is provided in each case. Kg/cm KORBA SIMULATOR 39 . with instrument panel and instrumentation for monitoring feed water pressure. thus allowing the pump internals to be removed without disturbing suction and discharge pipe work on the alignment between the pump and driving motor. The booster pump is a single stage horizontal. The drive is transmitted.BFP BOOSTER PUMP Introduction Each pump set consists of a weir type booster pump directly driven from one end of the shaft of an electric driven motor and a weir type pressure stage pump (Main Pump) driven from the opposite end of motor shaft through a VOITH type variable speed turbo-coupling. which are cooled by a supply of clarified water. Kg/cm 2 Duty 0. temperatures. Each pump set is supplied with a metallic suction strainer. The rotating assembly is supported by plain white metal lined journal bearings and axially located by a glacier double fitting pad thrust bearing.95 Discharge pressure. bearing temperatures. TECHNICAL DATA PUMP Manufacturer Pump Serial Number Type Direction of rotation viewed at drive end Liquid pumped Weir Pumps Ltd 11723-010/018 FA1F56 Anti-clockwise Boiler feed water Design 0. a NRV on main pump discharge pipe and minimum flow recirculation system comprising a pneumatic valve and a non-return valve.02 7.118 7.

seal sleeves. Mechanical Seals The drive and non-drive end stuffing boxes are fitted with mechanical seals located within seal cooling jackets to prevent feed water escaping along the shaft. m /h Leak-off flow. Journal & Thrust Bearings The rotating assembly is supported at each end of the shaft by a white metal lined journal bearing and residual axial thrust is taken up by a tilting pad double thrust bearing mounted at the non-drive end of the pump.4 78 1485 104. KORBA SIMULATOR 40 . rotating part of mechanical seals and pump coupling. thrust collar. The bottom half pump casing has the suction and discharge branches and support feet cast integrally. A flanged air vent connection is provided on top half casing for initial venting of air during line-up.2 75.4 The cast steel pump casing is of double volute type. Connections are also provided on suction and discharge pipes for pressure gauges and drain. Clarified water flow is maintained through cooling water jackets. m /h Efficiency. keys. nuts.85 381.5 88 16. m Flow rate.5 99.6 95. RPM Power.Differential. m NPSHA above impeller eye. impeller. Rotating Assembly The dynamically balanced assembly consists of the shaft. The double entry impeller is keyed to the shaft and is located axially. split on horizontal centre line. % Speed.0 346. KW DESCRIPTION Pump Casing 3 3 87 16. The bearings are supplied with lubricating oil from forced lubrication oil system.



single drum. to remove the fly ash from flue gas before it enters ID Fans.e. KORBA SIMULATOR 43 . half of the portion. Flue Gas heat recovery System The economiser is non-steaming continuous finned type arranged between the LTSH and air heater section.BOILER: GENERAL DESCRIPTION Steam generator is radiant reheat. which has been located in the horizontal pass of boiler. top supported type. balance draft. 120o is occupied by the secondary air and the rest (i.. direct fired. The forced draught system provides the air required for combustion of fuel. The flue gas occupies (1800). has provision for firing coal as the principal fuel and is of Combustion Engineering. scanner air fans and steam coil air pre-heaters. and induced draught system expels the flue gases through stages maintaining balance draught. This system also supplies air to scanner cooling and for lighting up ignitors. the system includes various ducts and dampers required for maintaining the desired flow. Draught System The draught system includes two induced draught fans. the low temperature superheater (LTSH) the radiant platen superheater and final superheater. ignitors. The complete second pass of the boiler up to economiser has been covered with steam cooled superheater wall sections. forced draught fans.e. ESP passes comprises seven collecting zones. Super-Heater / Re-Heater Section The super heater steam system has mainly three sections. dry bottom. 600). is occupied by primary air. The complete reheater is in one section. pressure of air or the flue gas depending on demand. Two axial flow impulse type induced draught fans are provided to evacuate the flue gases from boiler. Two axial flow reaction type forced draught fans are provided to supply the necessary secondary air for combustion. An emergency reheater de-superheating unit has been provided at the inlet of reheater. In addition to above. semi outdoor type. in between platen and final superheater sections. Four electrostatic precipitators are provided in each flue gas path. The boiler has two numbers regenerative air heaters of the trisector type for the last stage of heat recovery. The SCAPHs are to be charged to maintain cold end temperature of air heater to avoid cold end corrosion. Two numbers of de-superheater have been provided in between the LTSH and platen superheater (in the connection links) for controlling the superheated steam temperature over a wide load range. i. Two steam coil air pre-heaters are also provided in each of FD Fan discharge ducting to heat up the secondary air prior to entering LUNGSTORM Air Pre-heaters. USA design. natural circulation.



R. coal nozzles with tilting tangential firing system. 8. The entire burner assembly for all four KORBA SIMULATOR 46 . 9. which comprises of raw coalbunkers. 2. Bowl Mills. Each mill supplies the pulverized coal to all the four corners of an elevation. primary air fans and seal air fans. Thus there are six tiers of coal burners and in all twenty four coal burners. 5. 4. PLATEN SUPER HEATER FINAL SUPER HEATER REHEATER BURNERS IGNOTORS FRS (FEED REGULATING STATION) FUEL FIRING SYSTEM The boiler has direct pulverised coal firing system. discharge piping. 11. 3.C Feeders.1. 6. 10. 12. ECONOMISER BOILER DRUM DOWN COMERS WATER WALLS WATER WALL PLATEN PRIMARY SUPER HEATER 7.

The ash removal is done continuously. stop and control the complete firing system from remote control panels. Fly ash is collected in each of the ESP. basically for controlling the steam temperature and particularly the hot reheat temperatures. and conveys it to trenches in slurry form. Cold and hot primary air dampers are provided to regulate the flow/ temperature of the primary air. LOCATION OF RADIANT AND CONVECTION SUPER-HEATER ASH DISPOSAL SYSTEM The bottom ash handling system for each unit is capable of removing bottom ash at a rate not less than 15 T/Hr. Boiler is equipped with sophisticated flame sensing scanners mounted on all the four corners at three different elevations. the fuel firing system is equipped with Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System which facilitates single operator to start.corners can be tilted in the vertical plane (+ 30o) by a burner tilting arrangement. In the bowl mill. In order to cool these scanners. scanner air fans are provided. pre-crushed coal is pulverised to desired fineness and is further directed by the primary air. reliability and care in operation. KORBA SIMULATOR 47 . and economiser and stack hopper. To ensure increased safety. The flushing equipment serves to mix the ash with low-pressure water and discharge the ash in the form of slurry into the ash slurry pit for further disposal by means of slurry pumps. Both side slag baths are provided with continuously moving feeders for transferring the wet slag ash to the respective clinker grinders and is then discharged with the aid of the high-pressure water jets. air heaters.

5 to 7.2 m has a 108 mm OD lance. such probes are known as basic start-up probes. which travels into and out of the gas passage. Model TFP-1E for travel from 1. This standard furnace probe is equipped with ChromelAlumel thermo-couple installed in a lance tube (with air cooling).BOILER DRUM AND DRUM INTERNALS FURNACE TEMPERATURE PROBE It is an electro-mechanical equipment for positioning a thermo-couple element in the furnace gas steam for temperature measurement. For this reason. The lance travels approximately two meters per minute while extending and retracting. continuous measurement of gas temperature is possible and thereby the danger over-heating of tubes can be reduced. 48 KORBA SIMULATOR . By using the furnace temperature probe. The thermo-couple is fixed to the tip of a lance tube.3 m has a 76 mm outer diameter (OD) lance Model FTP-11E for travel from 7.4 to 12. The thermocouple can be retracted manually in case of an emergency. The furnace temperature probe can also be used to obtain gas temperature during low load operation of boiler. Flue gas temperature in the area just before platen superheater or reheater elements at the exit of furnace can be critical during boiler start-ups before steam circulation for the cooling of SH and RH tube material is sufficiently established. Both model probes are available with or without air-cooling.

IGNITOR FAN 11. WIND BOX 9. STACK 14. COAL BUNKER 2. 815 oC (1500 oF) with lance cooled by air. COAL FEEDER 3. PA FAN 5. BURNER 7. SCANNER AIR FAN 10. SEAL AIR FAN KORBA SIMULATOR 49 .The probe may be operated in furnace gas temperature up to 537 oC (1000 o F) and for very short period of time in gas temperature as high as 565 oC (1050 oF) without air-cooling. AIR PRE-HEATER 6. The temperature probe can be used to measure furnace gas temperature up to max. ESP 12. ID FAN 13. FD FAN 8. ARRANGEMENT OF BOILER AUXILIARIES 1. COAL MILL 4.

single drum. reheat. balanced draft and direct fired. semi-out-door. SA-229 53340 mm 15000 mm approx.3 mm 40 oC.5 T (including RH) Fusion welded walls. mill load with oil support Total water content of boiler Furnace Type Water walls Front Wall (EPRS) Side walls (EPRS) Real Walls (EPRS) Roof (EPRS) Total heat surface (EPRS) Tube material Outer Diameter x Thickness Design metal temp. Resident time of fuel particles in furnace Drum Material Elevation of Drum Overall length Shell thickness Design metal temp. Differential Temp between any parts of drum. horizontal 5400 KW at 91% MCR 40% MCR 321. Tilting.5 Sec. CE (USA).BOILER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS General: Manufacture Type Type of firing Type of SH Total Aux. Permissible max. Normal Operation 55 oC Accelerated start 55 oC 25 Sec Water capacity with MCR condition between normal & lowest water level permitted KORBA SIMULATOR 50 . Design Radiant. 2. Surface area 618 cm2 757 cm2 620 cm2 122 cm2 2117 cm2 SA-120. platen. 170/135 mm (Bi-hickness) 354 oC BHEL. Gr. A1 63.5 mm x 6. natural circulation. tangential Pendent. power Min.

SA213 TB.m 3 Maximum Gas side Temperature LT SH Platen SH Final SH SHH Specification Material Design Pres.000 Kg/hr. 176. SA335 P22. 810 Sq. Total Weight Super Heater Attemperator Type Stages Position of spray in steam circuit Spray type mixing 1 LTSH→Attemperation→Platen SH SA210 Gr.m. at 60 % MCR KORBA SIMULATOR 51 . SA209 T1 SA213 T11 SA213 T11. 823 Sq. SA335 P12. SA213 TB SA 213 T22.m. B.Super Heater Heating surface LTSH PLATEN SH FINAL SH No of stages Material LT SH PLATEN SH FINAL SH Type of flow LT SH Platen SH Final Counter Parallel Parallel SA210 GrA1. 347 HH 6490 Sq.8 Kg/cm 2 4900C 5700C 5890C 68 Ton SH temperature between 60% and 535 oC 100% MCR load Maximum Spray 15.

1 Kg/cm 310 oC 2 2630 m2 1 SA 269T. A1 44. 3 SA 335 P22 46.100% MCR RH Emergency Temp.0 Kg/cm2 550 oC 550 oC + 30 degree Power tilting Cylinder 540 oC Spray type mixing 1 In CRH line SA . SA233T T22.Reheater Total heating area Number of stages Material Max gas side metal temp. RH Headers Material : Inlet Outlet Design Pressure Design metal temperature: Inlet Outlet Reheater Temperature Control Angle of tilt Type of tilting RH steam temp. SA-106 Gr. Control Type Stages Position in steam circuit Material Maximum water flow Economiser Material Outer Diameter x Thickness Maximum gas side temp. B 22 T/Hr. 60% .5 mm 295 oC KORBA SIMULATOR 52 .106 Gr. Headers Material Design Pressure Design metal temp.5 mm x 4. SA213TP 304 H 585 oC. B 181. SA 210 Gr. SA106 Gr.

3 670.4 131.5 Fuel (Coal) 167.7 27.0 600.9 57.6 144. WATER.9 121. LTSH outlet c.4 TEMPERATURE OF STEAM.6 90.8 7.5 371. Sat temp in drum b.2 670.0 598.9 557.7 3.0 394.0 363. Economiser outlet 386 KORBA SIMULATOR 53 .2 603. R/H outlet Water: a.7 193.4 870.0 540.2 519. AIR AND GAS (in 0C) Description MCR 0C NCR 200 MW 0C Cont.7 792. load 120 MW 0C HPHs out & Load 200 MW 0C Steam: a.Boiler Parameters Description MCR Flow (T/Hr) NCR 200 MW T/Hr T/Hr Conti.0 533.7 547.5 56.1 816. R/H inlet f.4 43.7 402. Final S/H outlet e.7 537.3 70. SH platen outlet d.4 135. Load 120 MW T/Hr HPHs out & Load 200 MW T/Hr Steam Superheater outlet Reheater outlet Water Feed Water Spray Air 179. Economiser Inlet 243 241 284 223 270 164 234 349 426 520 540 344 540 348 421 520 540 339 540 344 417 523 540 328 540 346 435 518 540 345 540 b.8 571.4 611.

vol.87 5.) Oxygen in gas at APH outlet (by dry vol.6 76. APH outlet (prim.87 5.) c. APH inlet h. R/H front inlet (Furnace exit) c.22 28 4.69 6.) and EXCESS AIR (in %) Description MCR NCR 200 MW % Cont.Air: a. LTSH inlet f. CARBON DIOXIDE (Dry Vol.4 14.3 6.) Max leakage of air across APH in % Total air to gas leakage in T/Hr.8 76.2 14.56 8. CO2 in gas at Eco outlet (by dry vol) Excess air in gas Eco outlet 3.56 25 KORBA SIMULATOR 54 .88 11.6 14. e. load 120 MW % HPHs out & Load 200 MW % a. outlet (by dry.5 71. APH outlet (Corrected) 1135 1024 922 758 671 470 354 136 1132 1025 917 750 661 462 343 134 1080 945 837 682 603 433 312 124 1129 1008 907 747 660 467 307 121 50 325 318 50 318 313 50 297 294 50 282 277 OXYGEN. Ambient b. Oxygen in gas at Eco.94 22 4.56 8.3 14. APH outlet (sec. Final S/H inlet e. f. Economiser inlet g. R/H rear inlet d. S/H platen outlet b.94 22 3. c.) Gas: a. b.01 8.13 77. d.

Oil circulating system is provided to supply support bearings with a bath of continuously cleaned oil at proper viscosity. It may also be used to control speed of the rotor during water washing of heating surface. is provided with duct connections at both ends and is adequately sealed by radial. To accomplish this. even if power to electric motor is interrupted.AIR PRE-HEATER DESCRIPTION The boiler is provided with two number of tri-sector type re-generative air pre-heaters by which the primary and secondary air heating is done. BEARING LUBRICATION Support bearing sump is kept filled up with lubrication oil for flood lubrication of Mitchell type thrust bearing. which are. An air motor is connected at auxiliary high-speed shaft extension of drive unit. The air motor ensures the continued operation of the air pre-heater. Air pre-heater consists mainly of rotor housing. The heating elements of specially formed plates from the baskets. the bearing oil supply is circulated by means of a motor driven screw pump through an external filtering system. auxiliary air motor drive with over-running clutch. arranged compactly in three layers and within twelve sectors shaped compartments of radially divided cylindrical shell called rotor. primary air and flue gases. It is lubricated and cooled by oil filled in the bearing housing. air and gas duct access doors etc. Guide bearing is a double row cylindrical roller type. guide and support bearings. soot blower system. KORBA SIMULATOR 55 . The complete rotor is supported by a thrust bearing at the bottom and guided by the radial bearing at the upper end. circumferential and axial sealing members forming passages. mounted on the rotor shell. Each air heater is capable of meeting 60% maximum continuous rating of steam generator. for secondary air. The housing surrounding the rotor. stationary washing devices. cylindrical cellular rotor. utilising the waste heat from flue gases. oil systems for guide and support bearings. A pinion attached to the low speed shaft of power driven reduction gear engages a pin rack.


0 KW 1500 RPM 5. Carbon steel. / 27 VI (T) 80" (72 o) 365 oC 9. Airflow area. Speed of air heater Length hot end/cold end Material hot/cold end Total Wt.9 m2 21. KORBA SIMULATOR 57 .42 RPM 864/305 mm Corten ' /Corten ' A' A' 130000 Kg / heater.6 m2 1.TECHNICAL DATA Air Heater Number per boiler / size Max operating temp 0C Max air leakage % Bearing guide & support Rotor Effective heating surface.0 HP : : : : : : : : : 9000 m2 (per heater) 23.3 % Radial / SPH Roller thrust. Carbon steel ' A' : : : : 2 Nos. Gas flow area. of elements Material-shaft Material Seals Motor Power Speed Power of Air Motor : : : 11.


which are connected by means of angular joints to a central ring. A manhole is provided in the suction chamber for checking up the inlet of the fan. The lubrication pipe as KORBA SIMULATOR 59 . ID Fan mainly consists of a suction chamber. A control lever is connected to the ring. which is operated by pneumatic power cylinder. diffuser bearings and flexible coupling. It is bolted to the flange welded on the hollow shaft. Flue gas interconnection is provided with dampers before Electrostatic Precipitator in order to maintain balanced flow through both the air preheater and second pass when only one I. non-profiled. these blades can be replaced one by one. For fans handling hot gases. impeller. These guide vanes serve to direct the flow axially and to stabilise the drift flow caused in the impeller. inlet vane control assembly. The ring is guided by a set of roller and spring assemblies. solid blades. with welded on. The impeller casing is of undivided type by the conical connection piece connected to the casing is split horizontally such that the top half can be removed for removal of the impeller. The impeller is supported in between the bearings. The outlet blades for fans handling dust-laden gases are of removable type from outside. Fan is provided with inlet regulating vanes (IGVs) for controlling the loading on fans and inlet and outlet shut-off dampers for isolation to facilitate startup and maintenance of fan. The core of the diffuser houses the inner bearing. which is supported by all the outlet blades. Suction Chamber The suction chamber is of welded sheet steel construction and is split horizontally for easy assembly and dismantling.INDUCED DRAUGHT FAN DESCRIPTION OF FAN Each I. Impeller The impeller body is welded sheet steel construction. outlet guide vane assembly. Outlet Guide Assembly The outlet guides are fixed in between the core of the diffuser and the casing. During operation of the fan. A peephole is provided in the casing for checking the wear on impeller. Inlet Guide Vane Control Flue gas entering suction chamber passes through the number of inlet axial aerofoil vanes before reaching impeller. The core of the diffuser is provided with a manhole with access from diffuser casing so that the bearing can be checked even during the operation of the fan. Fan is running. The axial inlet vanes fixed to individual shafts. The inlet vane control assembly is split to facilitate handling and dismantling. The impeller is dynamically balanced at the works. the diffuser cores are insulated inside.D. Inlet guide vanes adjust the angle at inlet with respect to impeller blade depending on the inlet vane angle setting. Diffuser Diffuser is of welded sheet steel construction with a core inside.D.

through suction filters. Oil flows to the bearings to be cooled. The flanged bearing on the impeller side is the fixed bearing and the outer bearing is the expansion bearing. Both bearings are grease lubricated and the lubrication points are available on diffuser casing for inner bearing. thermometers and valves are provided at all important points. sight glasses. FLUE GAS SYSTEM ID FAN OIL CIRCULATION SYSTEM This Oil Circulation System is designed and manufactured to cool the bearings of fans. Oil level indicator. Flexible coupling ID Fan rotor shaft is directly coupled to the motor by flexible pin type coupling (with rubber bushing inserts). Oil is drawn from a reservoir tank by means of Trocholdai driven by electric motors. Contact less thermometers are provided for indicating the bearing temperatures and for initiating alarm/tripping signal when bearing temperature rises to 95oC/105oC respectively. Pressure gauges. A grease quantity control ring is provided in each bearing discharge the surplus amount of grease.well as the thermometer for the inner bearing is brought outside through the core for easy access. pressure switches. which normally operate at high speeds. instrument panel are mounted on to the tank. Bearings The bearings are self-aligning roller type. oil coolers and pressure filters. breather. KORBA SIMULATOR 60 .

oil coolers. Rotor support bearings are hydrodynamic ring assisted oil lubricated type. TECHNICAL DATA Fan Type and size Orientation Medium handled Location No of fans / boiler Capacity Total head Temperature of medium Specific weight of medium Speed Type of fan regulation : : : : : : : : : : : Axial impulse AN 2806 Horizontal Flue gas Ground level. 7966 Kg/cm . this system will run with little supervision. 740 RPM Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) 2 KORBA SIMULATOR 61 . Contact less thermometers are provided for indicating bearing temperature. 2 225 m3/sec 356 mm wcl. filters and automatic pressure control devices. The bearings of the ID Fan motor are ring lubricated and hence do not require any force lubrication. Air within the motor is circulated by means of internal centrifugal fans and centrifugal action of rotor itself. FAN LUBRICATION SYSTEM Each motor of ID Fan is provided with an independent lubricating oil system.This is a complete interlocked system with stand-by motor. pump. DESCRIPTION OF FAN MOTOR ID Fan motor is 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor having closed circuit aircooling system. 136 0C. also for initiating alarm/tripping signal when bearing temperature goes high. Each motor is provided with a lub oil system for circulating and externally cooling of lub oil. Once all the instruments are set to the required value.

: 740 RPM KORBA SIMULATOR 62 .6 KV : 50 Hz : 3 : Forced oil lubrication : Hydrodynamic ring assisted bearing.Motor Type Rated power Rated voltage Rated frequency No of phases Lubricating system Bearing type Speed : Squirrel cage inductor motor : 1100 KW : 6.

so that no forces are released to the outside (bearings. cylinder and The FD fan consists of the following components: • • • • • Silencer Inlet bend Fan housing Impeller with blades & blade pitch control mechanism. This results in a closed flux of force between adjusting forces and oil pressure. housing. The servomotor consists of piston. there are contact tele-thermometers connected to signalling instruments. An oil hydraulic servomotor flanged to the impeller and rotating with it. adjusts the blades during operation. The rotor is accommodated in cylindrical roller bearings. Guide wheel casing with guide vanes and diffuser. In addition an inclined ball bearing at the drive side absorbs the axial thrust. FD FAN CONNECTIONS KORBA SIMULATOR 63 .FORCED DRAUGHT FAN FAN DESCRIPTION Forced draught fan may be operated in partial load range without affecting considerable economic efficiency. For controlling the bearing temperature. foundation).

The critical speed of the latter is well above the operating speed. FAN MOTOR DESCRIPTION FD Fan is a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor having closed circuit air-cooling system. In the core of the inlet bend. The unit is driven from the suction side. The fans control device. the shaft is accommodated in a specially designed bearing housing. 1.619 Kg/m of medium 26 % 50 % 3 3 KORBA SIMULATOR 64 . The impeller is mounted in over-hung position on the shaft. The hydraulic servomotor is controlled by a pneumatic power cylinder.The inlet bend is executed as inlet nozzle at its impeller end. Contact less thermometers are provided for indicating bearing temperature also for initiating alarm/tripping signal when bearing temperature goes high. 510 mm wcl 50 0C. TECHNICAL DATA Fan Fan type Fan orientation Location Medium handled No of fans/boiler Type of fan regulation Lubrication system Capacity Total head developed Temperature of medium Specific weight Flow (reserve) Pressure (reserve) Motor Rating Voltage Speed Lubrication System : : : : 750 KW 6. Grease lubrication : : : : : : : : : : : : : Axial reaction type Horizontal Ground level Air Two Blade pitch control. Air within the motor enclosure is made to circulate by the help of internal centrifugal action of rotor itself. which in turn gets command from UCB via E/P converter.6 KV Three-phase 1480 rpm. Forced oil lubrication 105 m /sec.

provided at PA Fan suction to damp the noise level. indicators are provided for each of the bearings. each fan being capable of catering total air requirement of 3 mills. of PA fans. The fan rotor is placed in two cylindrical roller anti-friction bearing and is provided with a double row inclined ball bearing to take up the axial thrust. PRIMARY AIR AND SEAL AIR SYSTEM Hot air from air pre-heaters outlet is connected to a common hot air duct from where toppings are taken for individual mills. which are connected by means of angular joints to a central ring. is supported as a separate structure and bolted directly to the fan suction. Cold air from both the PA Fans discharge is KORBA SIMULATOR 65 . Silencer. Hot air shut-off gate and control dampers are provided in the branch line to each mill. It takes suction from atmosphere through a double entry silencer. All the three bearings are housed in a single housing. Fans are of radial type with single entry and horizontal orientation. The ring is guided to rotating position by a set of roller and spring assemblies. Regulating the inlet guide vane unit arranged in the suction side controls fan loading. Fan is coupled to the driving motors directly through a rubber-bushing coupling. which is filled with oil. The axial inlet guide vane assembly of the fan consists of a number of aerofoil inlet vanes fixed to individual shafts. which can be operated by a pneumatic actuator. A control lever is connected to the ring.PRIMARY AIR FAN FAN DESCRIPTION Each boiler is provided with 2 Nos. For monitoring the fan bearing temperature.

The interconnecting ducts provide the flexibility of operating the PA Fan in combination with any APH and it makes it possible to distribute the primary airflow to both the APH when only one PA Fan is running. induction motor : 1250 KW : 6600 V : 1480 RPM : Grease lubricated. : Two : Inlet guide vane control : 75 m3/sec. Each APH is provided with isolating dampers at primary air inlet and outlet. : : Forced oil circulation system having 5 Lit/min capacity for lubrication 3-phase. KORBA SIMULATOR 66 . to feeders for bearing sealing and to mill discharge pipes for sealing and purging. Squirrel cage. Primary air fans are provided with isolating dampers at discharge. to hot air gates for sealing. Hand operated isolating valve are provided in feeder sealing line and solenoid operated isolating valves are provided in sealing air line to pulverisers discharge piping. radial fan : Horizontal : Air : Ground level. of water column : 50 0C : 1. A portion of the air discharge by the fans is heated up in the air pre-heater and the remaining air is sent directly as cold air. TECHNICAL DATA Fan Fan type Fan orientation Medium handled Location No of fans/boiler Fan regulation Capacity Total head developed Temperature of medium: Specific weight of medium Speed Type of fan regulation Lubrication system Motor Type Rated Power Voltage Speed Lubrication : Single suction. : 1187 mm. air-cooled. Both the PA Fan discharge ducting is interconnected before the APHs through interconnecting ducting. Isolating gate (hand operated) and regulating dampers are provided in the branch lines of cold air to each mill.019 Kg/cm2 : 1480 rpm : Inlet guide vanes control.led directly into common cold air duct from where tapping are given to individual mill for tempering air.

classifier. separator body with separator body liner assembly. The heavier strike the separator body liners and are returned to the bowl immediately for further grinding. determining the size of the pulverised coal. LUBRICATION SYSTEM Pulveriser and roller bearings are oil lubricated. it picks up the partially pulverised coal. is dropped out through the air stream to the lower part of the mill side housing. As air passes upward around the bowl. Pivoted scrappers attached to the bowl hub sweep the tramp iron or other material around to the tramp iron spout through normally open pyrite hopper first by closing the inner gate and opening the outer gate of the hopper. central feed pipe and separating inner cone. mill side and liner assembly forming air and mill reject chamber. The springs. Centrifugal force feeds the coal uniformly between the bullring and independently rotating spring-loaded rolls to travel through the outer periphery of the bowl. Worm shaft reduction gear is dipped in oil bath. Pre-crushed coal is fed by the RC Feeder through central feed pipe into the revolving bowl of the bowl mill. The partially pulverised coal continues up over the edge of the bowl due to centrifugal force. Pulveriser radial bearings receive oil supplied by the helical pump mounted on bottom of lower half of mill journal in the oil bath. Motor is grease lubricated KORBA SIMULATOR 67 . Hot and cold primary air mixed in the dustings enter the mill side housing below the bowl and is directed upwards past the bowl around the separator body liners which carry pulverised coal upwards into the deflector openings at the top of the inner cone. The motor is coupled directly to worm shaft of the reduction gear. which load the rolls. impart the pressure necessary for grinding. if carried over to the top of the bowl. then out through the venturi and multi port outlet assembly. which rotates the bowl at a reduced speed and transmits the total power required for pulverizing the coal. revolving bowl and scrapper. multi port outlet assembly. grinding rolls and journal assembly. pressure spring assembly. Any tramp iron or dense foreign material in the raw coal feed which is difficult to grind. Rollers are filled with oil independently. The lighter particles are carried up through the deflector opening impart the spinning action to the material with the degree of spin set by the angle of opening of the blades.PULVERISER DESCRIPTION The bowl mill consists essentially of a reduction gear box.


Pulveriser Specifications Air flow per mill Air temperature at mill inlet Mill outlet temperature Coal flow per mill Fineness of coal milled Primary air pressure inlet/outlet : : : : : : 60 T/Hr 260 0C 77 0C 36 T/Hr 70 % through 200 mesh 650/244 mm wcl COAL MILL ARRANGEMENT KORBA SIMULATOR 69 .




below 345 oC. pressure ahead of the turbine is maintained by two nos. Steam is bypassed from main steam line to cold reheat line through HP-Bypass and from hot reheat line to condenser through LP bypass. provided boiler load < 60%. of spray water temperatures control valves BPE-I and BPE-2 with valve mounted electro-hydraulic actuators. The possible phases of operation of HP bypass station can broadly be classified as follows: • Boiler start-up with TG set at standstill. This allows quick raising of steam parameters to a level acceptable to turbine for rolling during start up. • • • • • Description The HP Bypass system consists of two parallel branches that divert steam from the M. which separates the oil from the gas. Allowing boiler operation following turbine trip. line to CRH line. Preventing safety valves opening at raised steam pressures. HP Bypass System (Hydraulics) Oil Supply unit The oil supply unit provides the hydraulic actuation energy for the complete actuating system. The steam temperatures downstream of the HP-Bypass station is maintained by 2 nos. There is also a spray water pressure control valve with valve mounted electro-hydraulic actuator. The oil KORBA SIMULATOR 73 .HIGH PRESSURE (HP) BYPASS SYSTEM The HP Bypass system in coordination with LP Bypass enables boiler operation and loading independent of the turbine. The accumulator is of the bladder type and consists of a steel pressure vessel containing a nitrogen filled rubber bladder.S. The steam pressure on the valve upstream side can be maintained at the desired level. The accumulator supplies pressurised oil to the system and covers the entire peak supply requirement. Raising of steam parameters to a level acceptable for TG rolling at a relatively faster rate than otherwise is possible. Turbine loading while steam flow gets transferred to the turbine. of pressure reducing valves BP-1 and BP-2 with valve mounted electro-hydraulic actuator. The spray water is available from the BFP discharge line. A safety relief valve protects the system against over pressure. Parallel operation with turbine on load rejection.S. The M. The steam is de-superheated in order to keep the steam temperatures in cold reheat line within limits. and functions as follows: An axial-piston oil pump draws the oil through a suction strainer and pumps it through a pressure filter and via a non-return valve into the accumulator. The HP bypass valve can handle a maximum of 60% of the full load turbine steam flow.

KORBA SIMULATOR 74 . is sized only for the mean supply requirement and it is switched off when the accumulator is fully charged. From the accumulator the oil is fed through the supply manifold with the pressure reducing valve and the pressure is set and controlled. Blocking Unit The electro hydraulically pilot-operated blocking unit is mounted between the servo valve and the actuator. Servo valve HP BYPASS SYSTEM The two-stage servo valve is actuated by the torque motor. A mechanical override acting directly on the control piston permits local manual operation of the valve. which controls the position of the control piston (2nd stage). A mechanical override on the blocking unit permits local manual de-blocking. The pressure switch monitors the oil pressure in the accumulator and provides the signals to switch on the oil pump. It closes off both ports to the actuator if electrically deenergized or with insufficient oil pressure. which is controlled from an analogue-positioning amplifier or from a manual desk control. and holds the piston of the actuator (disregarding some leakage drift) in its last position.pump therefore. The torque motor moves the control fork (of the servo valve) and operates the pilot stage (1st stage).

An intermediate yoke connects this cylinder with the valve. A feedback transmitter unit is mounted onto the coupling yoke and is connected to the valve stem by a linkage system.Actuator The actuator consists of a double acting cylinder with piston and piston rod.off Pressure too low Pressure too high KORBA SIMULATOR 75 . Technical Data Oil Pump (Type) OV 16 OV 32 Oil Supply Speed Motor Power Voltage Frequency Phase No load speed Oil Tank Oil Tank volume Useable volume Nominal volume Pressure rating approx. and a solid coupling connects the valve stem with the piston rod. Operating gas Bladder material 12 1500 4 380 50 3 1500 45 20 10 lit 200 bar 15 oC 65 oC Nitrogen 24 1500 7.on Pump motor .5 380 50 3 1500 70 50 Litre/min RPM KW V Hz RPM Litres Litres Hydraulic Accumulator (Standard) Perbunan (Synthetic Rubber) Available Oil Pressures The controlled system pressure (set with the 25 to 120 bar pressure reducing pressure (limited with the The maximum oil valve) 50 to 180 bar pressure relief valve) Pressure Switch 4 micro-switches for the set points: Pump motor . Ambient temperature min. max.

As the firing rate increases. if taken from CRH. The pressure set point can be adjusted from UCB. acting out of load rejection under normal operation of the unit. shall be possible till the maximum flow capability of the valve is reached at any particular pressure and temperature at upstream. the bypass set point shall be raised to live steam pressure plus a bias pressure of 2-5 ata. Amp at 488 V AC Amp at 125 V AC Amp at 250 V DC Amp at 125 V DC KORBA SIMULATOR 76 . This however. the HP bypass shall be set to maintain the relevant steam pressure ahead of valves plus a bias pressure. The temperature set point can be adjusted from UCB. the pressure set point is to be adjusted to a value equal to the steam pressure ahead of bypass valve minus a bias pressure. This will result in opening of the valves. Thereafter. the set point needs to be manipulated in the same manner to allow flow sufficient through RH. With this.5 Mode of Operation The HP bypass system is intended to ensure reheater protection. The steam temperatures at the downstream of valves are automatically controlled to the given set value. the HP bypass station would automatically open and balance the discrepancy between steam generation and consumption. minimum super heater safety valve lifting under emergency conditions.25 0. After this. The pressure controller would then maintain the set pressure by allowing a flow matching with the steam flow. the boilerfiring rate will be maintained at that level. Operation of the HP bypass station is manipulated by the pressure and temperature set points and is independent of LP bypass operation. Upon reaching the target steam parameter for turbine rolling. This would result in proportional closing of bypass valve during pressure controller action. The process shall continue till the set pressure up stream is reached. adequate steam in CRH for auxiliary steam consumers. Before admission of steam into turbine. Consequent upon steam admission in the turbine.Electrical Rating: 20 10 0. Depending upon the initial pressure condition at the time of boiler firing. further loading of the set can be achieved by increasing the firing rate. The control system is designed to maintain the steam pressure ahead of bypass valve to the given set value. the pressure ahead of bypass valve would tend to fall in view of constant firing rate. to retain the boiler under fire in case of turbine load rejections and to follow boiler control system during certain operation.

The actual pressure is displayed at the desk by indicators. The set point can be varied from the desk by a push button module and is indicated on the console itself. Pressure Control The signal for the HP bypass station is sensed from the main steam and converted to proportional current signal by transmitters.HP BYPASS: ELECTRO HYDRAULIC SERVO SYSTEM The control loop for the steam temperature at downstream of HP bypass valve can be operated by modulating set point as required for different mode of start-ups governed by boiler/turbine characteristic as well as warm-up requirements of steam piping. KORBA SIMULATOR 77 .

• HP BP Pressure controller deviation more than (+) 10%. Manual operation of the bypass spray water temperature control valve is effected by means of push button modules. In addition PI controllers are connected up to the control positioners. independent of the temperature signal. If opening of either of the bypass valves BP-1 or BP-2 is above 2%. The valve position and the control deviation are indicated on the desk. the BP controller will transfer itself from AUTO to MANUAL. To offset the time delay of temp measurement and to achieve favourable conditions when reaching on the spray water-cooling system rapid adjustment to temp input of the injection valve controller by the associated bypass valves positioning monitor. In this case. set point. it will receive auto close command to ensure positive shut-off. the spray water control valves BPE-1 and BPE-2 are reset to a constant pressure feed water supply through the BD Valve. the control of spray water pressure control valves and temperature control valves BPE1 & BPE2 shall be changed to ' AUTO'mode irrespective of their initial conditions. The following will activate the ' Fast Opening' Signal: • • Generator Circuit Breaker Open. If the steam temperature downstream of the BP valves becomes 380oC. Thus. The temperature signal from transmitters is compared at the PI controllers with the common temp. a certain amount of water is injected during the opening of the bypass valve. the closing signal for these valves are initiated accompanied with an alarm. If BP valve position drops < 2% open. According to particular control deviation the PI controller forms a rated signal for the control positioners of the associated spray control valves. Interlocks for the HP Bypass System HP Bypass valve BP-1 or BP-2 opening less than 2% will automatically close the spray water pressure control valve (BD valve). Turbine Load Shedding Relay operated. • Depressing of the ' FAST OPEN'push button. The electro-hydraulic actuators make it possible to attain short positioning time for the spray water control valves and then allow the temperature control to intervene fast enough in the event of quick opening of the HP bypass valves. KORBA SIMULATOR 78 . In order to ensure proper spray cooling on BP-1 and BP-2 (under different steam flow rates).Temperature Control The control positioners for the spray valves are designed in the same way as those for the steam valves.

which is used for turbine governing system. Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link between hydraulic actuators and the electrical system. the fixed set point and the variable set point are formed for the LP Bypass controller. the effective set point under any set of operating conditions being the greater of the two. This injection water is taken from condensate extraction pump discharge. It can also be regulated automatically by means of the ' Automatic Control KORBA SIMULATOR 79 . The fixed set point can be set manually from the control panel to a point between 0 120 % of the maximum LP Bypass pressure with the aid of a motorised set point adjuster.LOW PRESSURE (LP) BYPASS SYSTEM Low Pressure bypass system enables to establish an alternative pass for dumping the steam from reheater outlet directly into condenser at suitable steam parameters. The LP bypass valves are two in number. four injection water valves are provided for de-superheating purposes. two steam pressure control valves. LP BYPASS SYSTEM Set Point Formation Two set points. The control of LP bypass system is hooked up by the same control. In addition to these. The controls for LP BYPASS system are essentially a combination of electrical and hydraulic system. The double shut-off arrangement separates the reheater from the condenser during normal operation.

the controller matches the hot reheat pressure with the effective set point (either FIXED or VARIABLE) by modulating the LP Bypass control valves as necessary. The pressure upstream of the H.P. otherwise.Interface'during the start-up phase and is normally used to set the lower limit for pressure set point. But when charging over from ' MANUAL'to ' AUTO'care must be taken for matching the set point and actual value. between the modes. throttle pressure. a jerk in the system will be felt due to the error present (which the AUTO controller tries to bring to zero).P. blading. A tracking controller is provided so that the control mode (manual or auto) not in service automatically follows the effective controller. is measured by a pressure transducer and transmitted to a matching amplifier which sets the characteristic for the reference variable as a function of the pressure upstream of H. This facilitates bump less changeover. In the ' auto'mode.e. KORBA SIMULATOR 80 . Control of this parameter can be done in the ' MANUAL'mode by changing the electro-hydraulic controller (EHC) output as required by means of the OPEN/CLOSE push buttons located on the control module. LPBP EHC POSITION Vs VARIOUS VALVE OPENING PRESSURE CONTROL FOR LP BYPASS SYSTEM The reheat steam pressure before interceptor valve is the controlling variable for the LP bypass system. blading i. required for reference variable set point formation.

Also the Bypass controller must be in auto mode. solenoid valve (SVV) & slide valve SV-2/4 when the steam pressure upstream at the expansion orifice exceeds value corresponding to 45% of maximum bypass flow. in case the actual reheat pressure is below 3 Kg/cm2. When the actual reheat pressure exceeds 3 Kg/cm2 the ACI opens the LP Bypass control valves + 25% and they remain locked in 25% position up to a reheat pressure of 12 Kg/cm2. 4) via the pressure switch (LPPS). The fixed set point remains static at 12 Kg/cm2 and the LP Bypass controller modulates the control valve to maintain this set pressure. it gets automatically switched off. the Automatic Control Interface Device has been introduced. Once the ACI has brought the fixed set point 12 Kg/cm2. the injection water demanded from CEPs is staggered in two stages. the fixed set point tracks the actual reheat pressure so that the output of LP Bypass "auto" Controller is zero. Any change in the reheat pressure can now be brought only by manually varying the fixed set point to the desired value. When the Automatic Control Interface is switched ON. For this purpose. KORBA SIMULATOR 81 . During this time. it must be switched on by means of the ON/OFF push button provided on the control panel.LP BYPASS CONTROLLER AUTOMATIC CONTROL INTERFACE DEVICE (ACI) During the start-up. This arrangement opens the injection valves (INV-2. it is intended to avoid a very high level of set point. it brings the fixed set point down to 3 Kg/cm2. Two Stage Water Injection To prevent undue overloading of condensate pumps under normal shutdown/start-up conditions. For the Automatic Control Interface to come in action.

the jet pipe of the converter moves towards right and the amplifier piston (KA-08) moves down. The sleeves (KA04) of followup piston valves (KA02/KA03) also move down increasing the signal oil Pressure of water injection Valves. A feedback mechanism stabilises the amplifier piston for a given voltage change.4 Kg/cm2 abs) Spray water pressure is low (< 10 Kg/cm2 or both condensate pumps off). LP BYPASS CONTROL SYSTEM KORBA SIMULATOR 82 . the ' RESET BYPASS TRIP' -Pushbutton for solenoids SV-1 and SV-2 are to be depressed to reset the TRIP command. in the beginning of control operation. In case of condenser wall temperature protection operation. • • • High exhaust hood temperature will automatically switch on the exhaust hood spray water. • Condenser vacuum is low (> 0. Condenser wall temperature is high (> 90oC). there by opening them. With increasing signal voltage.Protective Closing of LP Bypass System (Condenser Back-up Protection) The LP Bypass valves will close automatically under the following conditions to prevent damage to the condenser. LP Bypass Control (Hydraulic) Due to difference between set and actual HRH pressure the electro-hydraulic LP bypass governor generates a proportional signal voltage in the moving coil of the converter (EHC). The steam pressure downstream of LP BP is greater than 19 Kg/cm2.

2. Refer to Figure. Control fluid under control piston of differential pressure relay a2. releasing steam Stop Valves and Control Valves to open. In case of condensate water pressure low and condenser pressure high the reverse action takes place and the spring of KA02 is de-tensioned to such an extent that LP bypass valves are unable to open. Condensate from hydraulic pressure switch of injection water pressure monitor l. LPBP Steam control valves (LPCV-1. 4. 2) open up with a slight time delay after injection valves are opened. Jet pipe Jet pipe regulator Adjusting spring Adjusting screw Corrugated measuring system Adjusting spring Corrugated measuring Corrugated measuring Adjusting spring a. 3. Electric LP bypass governor Plunger coil measuring system Jet pipe Adjusting spring Adjusting screw Jet pipe regulator a. Control fluidunder control piston of limit pressure amplifier k. 2). This increases the signal oil pressure in KA02 (follow-up pistons). 6. its jet pipe swings to right and its piston KA07 moves to upper position. As soon as condensate at required pressure is available with sufficient vacuum in condenser. 7.LP bypass stop valves (LPSV-1. Control fluid a1. 9. Vacuum signal from bypass steam piping behind bypass control valve LP Byapss Limiting Regulator KORBA SIMULATOR 83 . 2. 1. Control fluid above control piston of differential pressure relay Electro Hydraulic Converter for LP Bypass LP bypass limiting regulator (LPLR) has priority over (EHC). 4. due to rising oil pressure in follow-up pistons KA02 (assuming piston KA07 of bypass limiting regulator is in upper position). 3. 2) open up due to hydraulic feedback between actuator pistons and pilot valves (PV-1. 5. 6. 1. 8. Control fluid a1. Control fluid above control piston of limit pressure amplifier a2. 5.

the valve of the safety device moves downwards due to increasing pressure above it. If the injection water pressure drops below a preset value. bypass operation is restored in reverse sequence when the preset vacuum has built up. 8.4) If vacuum drops below a preset value. 2 & PV3. Bypass operation is restored in the reverse sequence when injection water pressure becomes normal.LP BYPASS PROTECTIONS Low Vacuum Safety Device 1. 5. Capnut Adjusting csrew Cover Compression spring Diaphragm Valve Valve sleeve Casting Can Lever a Bypass signal oil from converter a1 Signal oil to bypass valve c Oil drain l Vacuum from condenser A low vacuum safety device is installed in the signal oil line from follow-up piston KA02 to bypass valves'pilots (PV-1. 9. 7. 2 & PV 3. The LP bypass valves are thus closed. 6. to protect the condenser in the event of water injection failing. the valve of the pressure switch (WPS) moves down. blocking off the signal oil line and de-pressuring the oil between itself and PV-1. Low Injection Water Pressure Protection A pressure switch (WPS) is installed in the signal oil line from KA02 to PV-1. 4 to drain. 4. 2. 10. As vacuum increases.4 of bypass valves. The valve thus blocks off the signal oil line and opens the oil between itself and PV-1. 2 & 3. closing the LP bypass stop and control valves. 4. 3. due to low condensate water pressure. KORBA SIMULATOR 84 . 2) and (PV-3.

16. Hood Bellos Pushrod Knife edge lever Cam shaft Compression spring Fitted key Shaft Scale Cylindrical pin Nozzle Slide valve Valve bushing Compression spring Bearing bushing Torsion spring Lever a Control oil a1 Control oil a2 Control oil to pilot valve of bypass valve c Return flow l Injection water pressure Low Injection Water Pressure Protection High Condenser Wall Temperature Protection At a preset condenser wall temperature the two thermocouples mounted in steam dome opposite bypass steam inlet transmit a switching pulse to the associated solenoid valves (SOLV-1. Solenoid valve 4.1. 6. The bypass valves can be opened from the control room manually only after the solenoids are manually reset after the temperature has become normal. 15. Compression spring 3. 12. 5. 7. Solenoid 2. Compression spring 7. 8. 17. 13. Compression spring 5. 4. Compression spring 9. 11. 9. 2. 1. 3. 14. Main valve 8. 10. 2). KORBA SIMULATOR 85 . Solenoid 6. Limit switch for injection a Control oil b Signal oil to Stop and Control valve operator of bypass SV/CV c Drain The solenoid valves block off the depressive signal oil and close bypass valves in the event of high condenser wall temperatures.




tandem compounded. The moving blades of HPT. a double wedged journal bearing at the front and combined thrust/journal bearing adjacent to front IP rotor coupling. Two crossover pipes connect IP and LP cylinder. Pedestals at machine level support the brackets at the sides of HPT. The HP part is a single cylinder and IP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. reheat type. HP turbine has throttle control. The steam is admitted through two combined stop and control valves. 210 MW KWU TURBINE Blading The entire turbine is provided with reaction blading. single shaft machine. Bearings The TG unit is mounted on six bearings HPT rotor is mounted on two bearings. horizontal. IP and LP rotors have self-adjusting circular journal bearings.STEAM TURBINE: GENERAL DESCRIPTION 210MW capacity turbines at Korba station are of Kraft Werk Union (KWU-Germany) design and supplied by BHEL. Highly stressed guide blades of HPT and IPT have inverted T roots. The steam from reheater is admitted to IP turbine through two combined stop and control valves. The lines leading from HPT exhaust to reheater have got two cold reheat swing check NRVs. drop forged moving blades with fir-tree roots. intermediate and low-pressure parts. In has got separate high pressure. The last stages of LPT are twisted. The turbine is condensing. In axial KORBA SIMULATOR 89 . The turbine rotors are rigidly coupled with each other and with generator rotor. The other guide blades have inverted Lroots with riveted shrouding. The bearing pedestals of LPT are fixed on base plates where as HPT front and rear bearing pedestals are free to move axially. LPT and front rows of LPT have inverted T roots and are shrouded. The steam from reheater has got two cold reheat swing check NRVs.

HP & IP casings with their bearing pedestals move forward from LPT front pedestal on thermal expansion. This kind of design prevents any mass accumulation and thermal stresses. THREADED RING 6. It carries the guide blades. HP TURBINE 1. CASING COVER HP TURBINE SECTIONAL VIEW HP Turbine is of double cylinder construction. TURBINE ROTOR 2. OUTER SEAL RING 3. Because of low differential pressure. Outer casing is barrel type without any axial/radial flanges. flanges and connecting bolts are smaller in size. Also perfect rotational symmetry permits moderate wall thickness of nearly equal strength at all sections. The inner casing is axially split and kinematically supported by outer casing. The space between casings is filled with the main steam. KORBA SIMULATOR 90 .direction. GUIDE BLADE CARRIER 5. BARREL CASING 4. HP & IP parts are connected with the pedestals by means of a casing guide. Radial expansion is not restricted. Barrel design facilitates flexibility of operation in the form of short start-up times and higher rate of load changes even at high steam temperature conditions.

IP TURBINE 1. OUTER CASING 3. OUTER CASING 4. Refer to Figure. Arrangement of inner casing confines high inlet steam condition to admission breach of the casing. EXTRACTION NOZZLE 7. Attached to axially split out casing is an inner casing axially split. INNER CASING 5. The hot reheat steam enters the inner casing through top and bottom centre. INNER CASING 6. The joint of outer casing is subjected to lower pressure/temperature at the exhaust. kinematically supported and carrying the guide blades. TURBINE ROTOR 2. INLET NOZZLE IP TURBINE SECTIONAL VIEW IP Turbine is of double flow construction. KORBA SIMULATOR 91 .

1. All shells are axially split and are of rigid welded construction. DIFFUSER 7. Bearing housing between IP and LP b. OUTER SHELL 6.LP TURBINE Double flow LP turbine is of three-shell design. Two rings carrying the last guide blade rows are also attached to the middle shell. Longitudinal beam of LP turbine d. INNER SHELL 4. OUTER CASING 2. INNER SHELL 5. The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell. Refer to Figure. OUTER SHELL 3. Thrust bearing. Rear bearing housing of LP turbine c. OUTER CASING LP TURBINE SECTIONAL VIEW Fixed Points (Turbine Expansions) a. Independent of outer shell. KORBA SIMULATOR 92 . middle shell is supported at four points on longitudinal beams.

HP FRONT PEDESTAL HP REAR PEDESTAL LP FRONT PEDESTAL LP REAR PEDESTAL HPT OUTER CASING IPT OUTER CASING LPT OUTER CASING HP FRONT PEDESTAL BASE PLATE HP REAR PEDESTAL BASE PLATE LP FRONT PEDESTAL ANCHOR POINT 11. 8. 14. The outer casing of LP turbine expands from its fixed points towards generator. 9. Bellows expansion couplings take the differences in expansion between the outer casing and fixed bearing housing. 7. 16. Hence HPT rotor & casing expands towards bearing no (1) while IPT rotor expands towards generator. 6. Axial movements are not restricted. 19. The magnitude of this expansion is reduced by the amount by which the thrust bearing is moved in the opposite direction due to IPT casing expansion. 3. 17. 20. Any lateral movements perpendicular to machine axis are prevented by fitted keys.Front/rear housing of HPT can slide on base plates. LP REAR PEDESTAL ANCHOR POINT LP OUTER CASING ANCHOR POINT HPT INNER CASING IPT INNER CASING LP INNER OUTER CASING LP INNER OUTER CASING HP INNER CASING ANCHOR POINT IP INNER CASING ANCHOR POINT LP INNER –OUTER CASING ANCHOR POINT LP INNER –INNER CASING ANCHOR POINT TURBINE ANCHOR POINTS AND EXPANSIONS KORBA SIMULATOR 93 . which ensure central position of casings while axially expanding and moving. 15. 18. The LPT casing is located in centre area of longitudinal beam by fitted keys cast in the foundation cross beams. 13. 2. Bearing housings are connected to HP-IP casings by guides. 10. 4. 12. The LPT rotor expands towards generator. 1. 5.

control oil for governing and hydraulic turbine turning gear.) supplies high-pressure oil to jack-up the TG shaft to prevent boundary lubrication in bearing. Any lateral movements perpendicular to machine axis are prevented by fitted keys. Hence HPT rotor & casing expands towards bearing no (1) while IPT rotor expands towards generator. Turbine Oil Supply In the 200MW KWU turbines. Refer to the figure.Front/rear housing of HPT can slide on base plates. The LPT rotor expands towards generator. a DC oil pump can supply lub oil. TURBINE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM The oil systems and related sub-loop controls (SLCs) can be started or stopped automatically by means of SGC oil sub-group of automatic control system. Axial movements are not restricted. During start-ups. The outer casing of LP turbine expands from its fixed points towards generator. auxiliary oil pump (2 Nos. The magnitude of this expansion is reduced by the amount by which the thrust bearing is moved in the opposite direction due to IPT casing expansion.) supplies the control oil. KORBA SIMULATOR 94 . the Jacking Oil Pump (2 nos. which ensure central position of casings while axially expanding and moving. The various logics and SLCs under SGC oil are given in the ATRS section.) before can be supplied to the bearing. Bearing housings are connected to HP-IP casings by guides. Before the turbine is turned or barred. Under emergency. the main oil pump (MOP) takes over. Once the turbine speed crosses 90% of rated speed. The lubricating oil passes through oil cooler (2 nos. single oil is used for lubrication of bearings. The LPT casing is located in centre area of longitudinal beam by fitted keys cast in the foundation cross beams. Bellows expansion couplings take the differences in expansion between the outer casing and fixed bearing housing. It draws oil from main oil tank.

machined of the turning gear wheel. provisions for manual barring in the event of failure of hydraulic turning gear. 12. 15. have also been made. which is connected to the governing rack. 3. A gear.MAIN OIL PUMP The main oil pump is situated in the front bearing pedestal and supplies the entire turbine with lubricating oil and control oil. lower Oil tube TURBINE TURNING GEAR The turbine is equipped with a hydraulic turning gear assembly comprising two rows of moving blades mounted on the coupling between IP and LP rotors. 22. 8. 23. 7. Threaded ring Pump casing. 2. 21. 14. 16. Speed Xter Permanent Magnet Pump shaft Spacer sleeve Pump casing. 1. Feather key Journal + Thrust Brg Ring Vent pipe Oil inlet vessel Hyd. 13. 4. The oil under pressure supplied by the AOP strikes against the hydraulic turbine blades and rotates the shaft at 110 rpm (220 rpm under full vacuum condition). 20. 11. 19. 6. Coupling Elect. upper Journal Bearing Oil pipe Bearing bushing Seal ring Impeller Feather key 9. In addition. engages with a Ratchet & Pawl arrangement operated by a lever and bar attachment. 10. Speed Xter Oil line Turbine shaft 17. 18. 5. KORBA SIMULATOR 95 .

The steam pressure in the header is then maintained constant by means of a leak-off control valve. Above a load of 80 MW the turbine becomes selfsealing. The last stage leak-off of all shaft seals is sent to the gland steam cooler for regenerative feed heating. controlling seal steam pressure control valve. which is also controlled by the same electro-hydraulic controller. Refer the Figure. 2 KORBA SIMULATOR 96 . The leak off steam from HPT/IPT glands is used for sealing LPT glands. A pressure of 0.01 Kg/cm (g) is maintained in the seals.HYDRAULIC BARRING GEAR AND MECHANICAL BARRING GEAR TURBINE GLAND SEALING Turbine shaft glands are sealed with auxiliary steam supplied by an electrohydraulically controlled seal steam pressure control valve.


Double flow IP turbine with 20 reaction stages per flow. (80 hours per annum & max. iii. ii. 15 min in individual case) Condenser pressure. STEAM TEMPERATURE Long time value keeping 400h within annual annum mean value oC 543 543 359 359 oC 549 549 80-hr/ annum maximum. : 147. (Long time value but keeping within annual mean 535oC. 535 oC. HRH pressure/ temp at full load.TURBINE SPECIFICATIONS Type: Three cylinders reheat condensing turbine having: i. Main steam pressure/ temperature at full load.. : 210 MW : 229 MW : 3000 RPM : 630 tons/hr. Rated Parameters Nominal rating Peak loading (without HP heaters) Rated speed. per 15 min. Single flow HP turbine with 25 reaction stages. in individual cases oC 563 563 : 76 mm Hg with CW inlet temp 33 oC. Rated value Annual mean value oC Initial steam IPT SV Inlet HPT exhaust Extraction 6 535 535 343 343 500 + (special 425 case) 500 + (special 425 case) 98 KORBA SIMULATOR . Permissible SH / RH temp variations.1 kg/cm2. : 34. Double flow LP turbines with 8 reaction stages per flow. (400 hours per annum) o : 536 C. Main steam flow at full load (With HP heaters in service).23 kg/cm2.) : 549 oC. o : 543 C. 535 oC.

(bar) 1. Permissible differential temperature .Short time period : : 17 K. 5. For the individual case approx. KORBA SIMULATOR 99 . 3 (from 3rd stage LPT) Extraction No. Extraction No. 15 min. In the hottest line the limitations indicated for initial steam and reheat temperature must not be exceeded. Provision for this is that the turbine is immediately reloaded or the boiler immediately reduced to minimum load if no-load operation is maintained. 4 (from IPT exhaust) Extraction No. 2. 28 K. 1 (from 7th stage LPT) 39.Extraction 5 Extraction 4 Extraction 3 Extraction 2 Extraction 1 LPT exhaust 433 316 200 107 62 49 438 326 211 127 82 70 100 473 366 255 167 127 70 * Long-time operation: Upper limit value permissible without time limit Valid only for the no-load period with high reheat pressure after trip-out from fullload operation. 5 (from 11 the stage IPT) Extraction No.No time limitation between parallel steam supply lines .37 0. 6. Turbine Extractions (Pressure/ Temperature) at 200 MW Extraction Pres.06 2. 4.75 7.216 Temp. 2 (from 5th stage LPT) Extraction No.858 0.23 16. 343 433 136 200 107 62 0 C. 3. 6 (from HPT exhaust) Extraction No.

3.5 mm .5 Hz KORBA SIMULATOR 100 .0 mm -2. LPT Diff. rear).0 mm +30.6 mm 55.7.0 mm -5.0 mm +25.5 mm IPT Diff. Alarm value +4.2.5 mm .5 Hz 76 oC 120 oC 120 oC 45 microns 200 microns 200 mm Hg ±0. Expansion. between upper & lower casing +/.0 mm .0 mm 500 oC 110 oC +/. IPT front. +5.45 oC Metal temp diff.Alarm and Limiting Values of some Important Parameters Parameters HPT Diff.3. Expansion.3 mm 51.5 mm + 6.0 mm HPT exhaust casing temperature LPT outer casing metal temperature 480 oC 90 oC Limit value +5. Expansion.30 oC (HPT front middle.0 mm . Turbine Bearing Metal Temperature Maxm Oil Temperature before coolers Whose normal operating temp is 75 oC Whose normal operating temp is 85 oC Turbine bearing housing vibration Turbine absolute shaft vibration Condenser vacuum (absolute) Turbine axial shift Turbine over speed 90 oC 100 oC 35 microns 30 microns 120 mm Hg ±0.

Adjustment of droop in fine steps. fully backed-up by a hydraulic governor. follow-up piston valves. even during on-load operation. Solenoids for load shedding relay. KORBA SIMULATOR 101 . the KWU turbine supplied by BHEL at NTPC Korba is equipped with electro-hydraulic governor. Sequence trimming device. Starting and Load limit device.TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM In order to maintain the synchronous speed under changing load/grid or steam conditions. Elements of Governing System The main elements of the governing system and the brief description of their functions are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Remote trip solenoids (RTS). Speeder Gear (Hydraulic Governor). Electro-Hydraulic Converter (EHC). Main trip valves (Turbine trip gear). Hydraulic protective devices. dynamic stability and simple representation of complicated functional systems. Hydraulic amplifier. Follow-up piston valves. Oil shutoff valve. The measuring and processing of electrical signal offer the advantages such as flexibility. Aux. Extraction valve relay. Test valve. The integration of electrical and hydraulic system is an excellent combination with following advantages: • • • Exact load-frequency droop with high sensitivity. Avoids over speeding of turbine during load throw offs.

this oil flows into two different circuits. it holds the valves' spools in open condition against the spring force. trip oil pressure is drained rapidly through the main valves. Refer to Figure. the main trip valves are tripped. The Trip Oil is supplied to the Stop Valves (of HP Turbine and IP Turbine). Auxiliary Secondary Oil circuit and Secondary Oil circuits. Low Vacuum trip device and Thrust Bearing trip device). Refer to the figure below. Under normal conditions. By resetting Unit Trip Relays (UTR) from UCB. The construction of main trip valves is such that when aux. All turbine tripping take place through these valves. The control oil from remote trip solenoids is supplied to them. The Auxiliary Trip Oil flows in a closed loop formed by main trip valves and turbine hydraulic protective devices (Over Speed trip device. trip oil pressure is adequate. During the normal operation of the turbine. KORBA SIMULATOR 102 . Whenever control oil pressure drops or any of the hydraulic protective devices are actuated. the control oil from the governing rack is free to pass through them to the main trip valves. REMOTE TRIP SOLENOIDS MAIN TRIP VALVES The main trip valves (two in numbers) are the main trip gear of the turbine protective circuit. closing turbine stop and control valves. called as the Trip Oil and Auxiliary Trip Oil.REMOTE TRIP SOLENOIDS (RTS) The remote trip solenoid operated valves are two in number and form a part of turbine protection circuit. Under energised condition the down stream oil supply after the remote trip solenoids gets connected to drain and the upstream will be blocked. these solenoids can be reset. The solenoids gets energised whenever any electrical trip command is initiated or turbine is tripped manually from local or UCB. these solenoids remain de-energised. Under tripped condition. In this condition.

When the pilot valve i. the starting device position is raised. This is known as control valve close position. This opens the stop KORBA SIMULATOR 103 . the start-up oil and auxiliary start-up oil circuits are drained. the pilot valve is brought to its bottom limit position by reducing the starting device to 0% position. With the valve in the bottom limit position (starting device = 0%) control oil flows into the auxiliary start-up circuit (to reset trip gear and protective devices) and into the start-up oil circuit (to reset turbine stop valves). The starting device can mechanically act upon the hydraulic governor bellows by means of a lever and link arrangement. A build-up of oil pressure in these circuits can be observed. for opening the stop valves and releasing the control valves for opening.e. It has got port connections with the control oil. start-up oil and auxiliary start-up oil circuits.MAIN TRIP VALVES STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE The starting and load limit device is used for resetting the turbine after tripping. Before start-up. This causes the hydraulic governor bellows to be compressed thus blocking the build-up of secondary oil pressure. The starting device consists of a pilot valve that can be operated either manually by means of a hand wheel or by means of a motor from remote. while bringing the starting device to zero position.

follow-up drains of hydraulic governor. oil pressure. Further raising of the starting device release hydraulic governor bellows which is in equilibrium with hydraulic governor' spring tension and primary oil pressure s (turbine speed). ESVs open at 42% and IVs open at 56% positions of the starting device. and raises the aux. STARTING DEVICE ACTING ON SPEEDER GEAR 104 KORBA SIMULATOR . closing the aux.valves. sec.

hydraulic governor comes into action after 2800 RPM.e. The bellow is also subjected to the primary oil pressure. The position of the sleeve changes with the equilibrium position of the bellow. which alters the spring tension on the top of the bellow. SPEEDER GEAR KORBA SIMULATOR 105 . the tension of which can be adjusted manually from UCB by an electric motor or locally by a hand wheel. The zero position of speeder gear corresponds to 2800 rpm i. The bellow compression depends upon the position of the starting device and the speeder gear position. which is the feedback signal for actual turbine speed. The bellow and spring assembly is rigidly linked to the sleeves of the auxiliary follow-up piston valves.SPEEDER GEAR The speeder gear is an assembly of a bellow and a spring.

This primary oil pressure acts as the control impulse for the hydraulic speed governor. The transmitter is supplied with control oil via an oil reservoir.HYDRAULIC SPEED TRANSMITTER The hydraulic speed transmitter runs in the MOP bearing and operates on the principle of a centrifugal pump. CURVE SHOWING TURBINE SPEED Vs PRIMARY OIL PRESSURE KORBA SIMULATOR 106 . Excess oil drains into the bearing pedestal. An annular groove in the speed transmitter ensures that its inside is always covered with a thin layer of oil to maintain a uniform initial pressure. The variation of pressure in the discharge line is proportional to the square of the machine speed.

The position of the sleeve determines the draining rate of trip oil through the ports. The trim device is connected to the follow-up piston valves of IP control valves by means of a lever. follow-up piston valves can be said to control auxiliary secondary oil pressure. reducing the HPT exhaust temperature. SEQUENCE TRIMMING DEVICE The function of the sequence trimming device or HP/IP TRIM DEVICE is to prevent any excessive HP turbine exhaust temperature due to churning. The trim device operates at this moment trimming the IP turbine control valve. Accordingly the trip oil pressure downstream of these valves changes. The IP control valves openings are trimmed down. Upon tripping. It changes response 2 of main and reheat control valves. It consists of a spring-loaded piston assembly. The control valves of HPT open more to maintain flow of steam. The control oil is supplied via an energised solenoid valve. When the turbine loads is less then 40 MW and hot reheat 2 pressure is more than 32 kg/cm the solenoid valve gets de-energised cutting out the control oil supply to the trim device.AUXILIARY FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES Two Auxiliary Follow-up pistons are connected in parallel and the trip oil is supplied to them through orifice. under normal conditions. causing a lot of churning and excessive exhaust temperature. which is supported by control oil pressure from beneath. aux. KORBA SIMULATOR 107 . The sleeves of these valves are attached to the speeder gear bellow link. the trim device alters the spring tension of follow-up pistons of IP pistons control valves. The trim device trips under spring pressure. The steam flow through HP turbine tends to fall to very minimum. Oil downstream of auxiliary follow-up pistons circuit is termed as AUXILIARY SECONDARY OIL. When the reheat pressure is more than 32 Kg/cm and load less than 20% the IP turbine tends to get loaded more than HP turbine. draining the secondary oil. Hence.

oil line. Sec oil c : Return oil HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER SOLENOIDS FOR LOAD SHEDDING RELAY A pair of solenoid valves has been incorporated in the IP Sec oil line on control valves and Aux Sec. 8. The extraction stops valves controlled by IP secondary oil acting through extraction valves relays also get closed. After an adjustable time delay (approx. 2.HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER Hydraulic Amplifier consists of a pilot valve and an amplifier piston. The position of the pilot valve spool depends upon the aux. 3. secondary oil pressure. 7. 4. Amplifier piston Follow-up piston Sleeve Shaft Lever Feedback lever Pilot valve Compression spring Adjusting screw a : Control oil b : Secondary oil b1 : Aux. A feedback linkage mechanism stabilises the system for one particular aux. in order to prevent the turbine from reaching high speed in the event of sudden turbine load throw-off. 6. The solenoid drains the IPCV secondary oil directly. secondary oil before the hydraulic amplifier. 9. 2 seconds) the solenoid valves are re-closed and secondary oil pressure corresponding to reduce load builds-up in the HP and IP turbine secondary oil lines. 5. Depending upon the pilot spool position. The other side of amplifier is connected to the drain. The HP control valves are closed due to draining of aux. secondary oil pressure. The movements of the amplifier piston are transformed into rotation of a Camshaft through a piston rod and a lever assembly. the control oil is admitted either to the top or the bottom of the amplifier piston. 1. KORBA SIMULATOR 108 . Direct draining of IP Sec oil circuit causes the reheat valves to close without any significant delay. The control valves are operated (closed) by the load-shedding relay when the rate of load reduction exceeds a certain value. by the second solenoid valve.

FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES There are in all twelve follow-up piston valves.e. This is also termed as HYDRAULIC MINIMUM SELECTION of governors. is effectively in control. upstream of aux. EHC output). on the piston of pilot spool valve of the elector-hydraulic converter (i. follow-up pistons. The drain port openings of follow-up pistons of hydraulic amplifier depends on auxiliary secondary oil pressure. This means the governor with lower reference set point.FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES The trip oil is supplied to the follow up piston valves through orifices and flows in the secondary oil piping to control valves. The follow-up piston valves constitute a minimum value gate for both the governors. which determines the amount of drainage of trip oil. and that of electro hydraulic converter. The secondary oil pressure depends upon position of sleeves of follow-up piston valves. KORBA SIMULATOR 109 . Six of them are associated with hydraulic amplifier and six of them with EHC in the governing system.

13. Valve Cover 9. 15. Both these valves are free-swinging check type. 19. Deaerator and HPH No: 5) to prevent back flow of condensed steam into the turbine from heaters on account of high levels in the heaters. Oil Seal 6. Valve Body 10. (Stop valve open condition. Bolt 2.R. There are two NRVs provided in each of these extraction lines and is force closing type. the spring force closes the valve when steam pressure either falls or is lowered (reduced load). The test valves have got port openings for trip oil as well as start-up oil.3. thus opening the stop valve. The actuator assists the fast closing of the first valve. When start-up oil pressure is reduced the test valve moves up draining trip oil above the servomotor piston and building the trip oil pressure below the disc. KORBA SIMULATOR 110 . both the valves are closed automatically. The mechanical design of force-closed valves is such that they are brought into freeswinging position by means of trip oil. 18. The test valves facilitate supply of trip oil pressure beneath the servomotor disc. O-ring 8. Trip Oil 11. 21. EXTRACTION N.TEST VALVE 1. A hand wheel is also provided for manual operation of test valves. In case of flow reversals.VS AND EXTRACTION VALVE RELAY Four pair of swing check valves are provided in the extraction lines to the feed heaters (LP Heaters No: 2. They are open as soon as differential pressure is sufficient. which moves their spool downwards against the spring force. For the purpose of resetting stop valves after a tripping. Spindle 4. Cover 5. 16. under normal operation). startup oil pressure is supplied to the associated test valves. 14. Bushing 7. 17. Hand wheel 3. In their bottom most position the trip oil pressure starts building up above the stop valve servomotor piston while the trip oil beneath the disc gets connected to drain. If the trip oil pressure falls. 20. Trip Oil Piston valve Spring plate Spring Spacer Bottom cover Trip oil Drain Trip oil Startup oil Each of the HP and IP stop valves' servomotors receives trip oil through their associated test valves. Piston sleeve 12. however the first valve is equipped with an actuator.

by energising the associated solenoid valve. But in this case the pressure loss shall be more leading to loss of efficiency. the secondary oil pressure at which the FCNRVs will be released for opening can be set. its changeover valve and its solenoid valve control the trip oil to each of the actuators of force closing type valves. Extraction (4) FCNRV solenoid is also energised additionally by lower differential pressure in the extraction line. In both the cases the actuator is devoid of trip oil and its spring force closes the NRV. KORBA SIMULATOR 111 . However. By suitable adjustment of its spring. also if the steam pressure is more than the spring force.The extraction valve relay. draining of trip oil pressure through extraction valve relay assists closing movements of FCNRVs. Extraction valve relay actuates the FCNRVs in proportion to secondary oil pressure. In case of turbine trip or sudden load reduction. swing check FCNRVs will also open without the release action.

They open out fully when main control valves open up corresponding to 5-10% of maximum turbine out-put. Even when the pressure of secondary oil has not built up sufficiently. KORBA SIMULATOR 112 . Their pilot valves via their rotary servomotor in proportion to secondary oil pressure operate the CRH NRVs. NRVs can be opened up like safety valves when the upstream pressure rises above the downstream side pressure by one bar. the NRVs return into steam flow by the hydraulic actuator. Only when the control valves are closed to this threshold again. they are closed by the torque of rotary servomotor. so that when the steam flow ceases in the normal direction.b b1 b2 : : : Control Oil Secondary Oil Secondary Oil c x x1 : : : Return Oil Trip Oil Trip Oil COLD REHEAT SWING CHECK VALVE Two numbers of swing check valves are provided on the CRH lines from which the steam is drawn for HPH-6.

which causes the turboset to slow down so that the running down time of the turboset and the time needed for passing through critical speeds are shortened. When the pressure in the condenser increases. the ventilation of the turbine balding is increased.VACUUM BREAKER The function of the vacuum breakers is to cause an increase in condenser pressure by conducting atmospheric air into the condenser together with the steam flowing from the LP Bypass. KORBA SIMULATOR 113 .

Control of system frequency on the grid or interconnected grid/pool is a major responsibility of load dispatchers. The speed governor spins slower (control arm moves toward “LOW” position). figures and descriptions of governing systems. more steam is admitted by opening/controlling the steam control valves. • The governor controls the rise in speed of all turbines irrespective of duty. In the paragraphs that follow. the speed of each machine in the grid remains same to all other machines connected to the grid. the turbine governing has been explained using theoretical information. in instances of losing its’ electrical loads. system voltages etc. the turbine speed tends to slow down. the governors perform functions such as: • • • • Parallel operation/working of machines with other turbine-generators connected together in a grid. When a Turbo-generator is connected to grid. A basic understanding of turbine speed governors is necessary to maintain the central control of system parameters like speed. The governor enables the electrical grid system to be to some extent selfcompensating to changes in load demand. which results in the control mechanism in increasing steam flow to the turbine (control valve opens). Most governors do not hold absolutely constant speed as load changes. As load is increased on the generator. frequency. The governor enables the turbine-generators not connected together. run as single unit. Basically.HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC GOVERNING OF TURBINES Power produced by any power plant is sent out on utility grid (Transmission line and control equipments) together with power from other plants through process of synchronization with the grid and to distribution systems and then to the consumer. load. The purpose of the governor is to sense the instantaneous speed of the turbine in revolutions per minute. All turbines are equipped with speed governors. Output of each individual unit is controllable due to governing actions. but are designed to permit the speed to drop as the load is increased. The governors therefore control the steam supply to the turbine as well as ensure maximum safety of the machine and to the operating people when the turbine is on load. KORBA SIMULATOR 114 . and to transmit a signal to the turbine control valves to open or close and maintain the desired speed. and also enables speed of turbine. (Before synchronisation). When an increase of load is required. kept under control. in a grid.

allows oil to drain from the bottom (J) of the power piston. At the same time port (I) in the pilot valve. These movements uncover the port (G) of the pilot valve thereby allowing oil pressure to act on the top of the power piston (H). KORBA SIMULATOR 115 . this also tilts floating lever (D). the governor springs are adjusted periodically. opens or closes valves that admit steam to the turbine. shaft. the governor weights and a moveable sleeve (C). more steam is admitted to the turbine by opening the steam valves. The governor usually takes the form of spring-loaded weights mounted on a shaft assembly that is driven by a worm & worm wheel from end of the H. the governor weight will move outwards causing sleeve C to lift. When an increase of load is required.P. the steam valve will move towards the closed position. Sleeve (C) is connected to a floating lever (D) to which is attached the spindle (E) of the pilot relay valve and the spindle (F) of the main steam valve. thus admitting less steam to the machine. so as to keep the range at which the governor operates between limits. During installation and also afterwards. The weights. Due to this operation. tend to move outwards due to centrifugal force and this movement is dependent upon the speed of the turbine shaft. Simple turbine governor type-2 The governor (A) is driven from the turbine shaft.Turbine Governor System type-1 Governors of the turbines basically control the steam flow to the turbine. which are held by springs. If the turbine shaft speed increases. The movement of the weights is arranged to operate on oil relay valve and this valve through an oil pressure relay system. An arm pivoted at (B) has attached to it.

Mechanical –Hydraulic System Block Diagram: The speed acts on the radial spring governor. minimum signal thus obtained from here is acted upon the Auxiliary and main relays of governor valves of H. The percentage of control valve opening on each turbine depends upon the electrical output from that individual T.P control valves and the pressure switching & relaying that effects to operate the release and bled steam check valve.e.P and I. passes through a minimum selector that has been provided with another signal of locally/remotely controlled load limiting device. Such governors do not use the electro-hydraulic governors. The hand wheel (K) is normally on remote operation from the control panel by means of a reversible motor known as the “speeder motor”. To regain the previous frequency/speed. For detailed working of Governor. affects the hydraulic relay and also. the drawing as shown below should be referred.V pressure. which control the operation by electrical interfacing units i. vacuum unloading gear and anti-motoring device act on check valve and also for differential pressure switching (it compares the minimum selector O/P as explained above). the amount of fuel fed to the steam generator is increased adequately. The system frequency decreases. the anticipatory derivative system (acceleration component). as more electrical load is required. The feedback signal of S. and in turn the entire system at the same speed (frequency). Local or remote adjustment on the speeder gear output is algebraically summed to act with the speed component.G. this forms the speeder gear KORBA SIMULATOR 116 . Since with more customer load on the system.Loading on the machine is done/carried out by operating the hand wheel (K) thus opening the steam valve. this in turn. thus the gain that is also regulated by local adjustment of governor reputation through the pilot oil regulating valve. the electro-hydraulic converter. the frequency tends to decrease then the governors on all the system turbines need to operate (to open) the control valves to admit more steam to Turbine and allow the system to supply the extra load.

runback as the feedback also. The figure below shows the block diagram of mechanical-hydraulic system. KORBA SIMULATOR 117 .4 bar pressure depending upon the make and type of machine.P and I. These are held in position by means of a retaining spring.3 and l. H. Better control can be achieved by increasing this pressure (more than 35 Kg/cm2 pressure) but this leads to leaks and fires. The hydraulic oil used in the governor system is at a pressure up to 20 Bar. when actuated rapidly closes all valves associated with steam supply to the turbine. A high-pressure oil pump normally supplies this oil and then pressure of oil is reduced as above. For this reason some turbines in use today utilize the Fire Resistant Fluid (F. This device.F) system and thus the pressures can be increased without the risk of fires. A sliding bolt or an eccentric ring is attached to the shaft.P control valves’ position are derived for valve offset adjustments. Emergency governors are normally set to operate instantaneously if turbine speed reaches 110% of rated (3300 rpm on a two pole turbine generator) or higher speeds. Turbine bearings are lubricated with oil at between 0. The emergency governor shuts off the steam supply in the event of rotor speed increasing by more than 10% above its normal speed. Emergency governors (often referred as the Over speed Governor): The emergency governor is the final line of defense to protect the turbine from dangerous over speeds.R.

Turbine Droop can be set in turbines either mechanically or electrically (In KWU turbines the provision of droop is made to range from 2. Droop of Turbo-generators: Speed regulations of turbine also called the Droop. The amount of the inherent decrease in speed from no load to full load is called speed regulation. The emergency valve then shuts off the steam supply . = ±2. The emergency governor is tested at periods by deliberately over-speeding the machine when the load has been taken off. droop. or 50 Hz KORBA SIMULATOR 118 . If the governor speed regulation is required to be set at 5% then for a 3000 rpm turbine. which is holding the emergency.5% to 8. The Droop is necessary in the control system in order to sense a change in speed and thus to reposition the valves. The one not being tested is made inoperative by a selector lever. at a speed of 3075 rpm. The droop setting in electronic system of EHG has been incorporated in a module connected in series which receives input as the load controller/comparator forming the error (MV-DV). i. (or the proportional band). the control valves will be open wide at a speed of 2925 rpm or 2½ % below 3000 rpm. And likewise in other side of 50 Hz frequencies. is defined as the amount of speed change from no load to full load divided by the rated speed.5% from 3000 rpm. and the droop corrected/incorporated signal is fed to the final load controller module of the load control loop.0% and to match the grid frequency. or proportional band. it operates a trip and releases the relay oil pressure. chosen setting is 5%).In doing so. In KWU turbine (of SSTPS droop is set at 5%. the control valves will be fully closed. Each of the twin bolts or rings is operated in turn.The bolt or the ring flies out of the normal position . valve open.e. or 2½ % above 3000 rpm.

that is the load that the automatic control will attempt to maintain The frequency bias of all controlling turbine generators on the grid is added up to determine the system frequency bias. let us review the frequency effects and the frequency bias on a particular unit . At this point. the cost signal representing desired generation from this unit changes from 100 MW to 104 MW. the droop is set such that a biased zone is maintained from 3000 r. With a 0 bias setting. If the cost of generation at given moment on the grid is such that a load of 100MW should be generated by that unit. Of course. Most grids operate automatically. the cost control is acting to oppose frequency correction back to 50 Hz. the cost control would close the control valves to restore 100MW.m to 3075 rpm. Knowing his system frequency bias. If the cost of generation at given moment on the grid is such that a load of 100 MW should be generated by that unit.p. as soon as the load increased to 104MW.9 Hz. if it has been set to 4 MW per 0. then the dispatcher must manually direct an increase or decrease in generation from the units under his control. Further. Instrumentation will advice him how far above or below 50 Hz the system has been operating for the past 24 hours. Our single unit example was being cost controlled to provide 100MW and it went to 104MW when system frequency dropped 1/10th of a cycle. the dispatcher can then order more or less load to be generated for a given period in order to restore system frequency to an average of 50 Hz for the past 24 hours. that is the load that the automatic control will attempt to maintain. In this case. This phenomenon is particularly important for controlling system frequency specially in view of controlling power generation with ABT. The frequency bias of all controlling turbine generators on the grid is added up. KORBA SIMULATOR 119 .frequency).1 Hz deviations. Beyond this speed until 3225 rpm. This is usually done fairly close to midnight of each day. In order to view the economical loading on the sets connected in parallel an example of a single unit can be considered for understanding the cost controlled situation. the dispatcher “corrects” system frequency in order to provide the correct frequency on a 24-hour basis. under the added influence of frequency bias. no control action occur to reduce generation back to 100 MW and system frequency should return to 50 Hz. to sense a change in system frequency as load goes up or down and to provide continuous signal to the controlled generating units in order to maintain the desired 50 Hz system frequencies. if no automatic load frequency control is being used. the droop gets affected automatically for unloading. in order to restore system frequency to 50 Hz. to determine the system frequency bias. As soon as the system frequency drops to 49. If we can again assume that the turbine governor would again have picked up 4 MW.

Linkage Mechanism 4. Hydraulic Amplifier 3. 0% Load 100% Load Frequency Control is shown in the figure below. yD= k3 yC + k4 yE. The net movement of C is therefore yC = k1 kC PC + k2 f and movement D. Fly ball Speed governor system 2.Transient speed rise (TSR): When load rejection takes place. Main component are. speed shoots up temporarily before settling down to steady state value TSR gives the % speed rise on full load throw-off 8642OTime Steady state TSR Steady State Regulation: It is defined as the Ratio of % speed change (from no load to Full load) to the nominal rated speed. 1. The movement yD depending upon its sign opens one of the ports of the pilot valve admitting highpressure oil into the cylinder thus moving the main piston & opening the steam valve by yE. it shows the single turbogenerator system supplying an isolated load. KORBA SIMULATOR 120 . %Regulation=100x(nmax– min)/nnom nmax. nmin. Speed changer Increase in frequency f causes the fly balls to move outwards so that B moves downwards by a proportional amount k2’ f.

excellent operational reliability. Electro-Hydraulic Governing has been achieved through various electronic / selector modules configured in four modes of controls: KORBA SIMULATOR 121 . this is controlled by pilot valve of the turbine governor & the secondary fluid oil system. Maintaining exact load frequency droop with high sensitivity. In KWU turbines. dynamic stability. dependability. Basically the Electro-Hydraulic Converter (EHC) is the connecting element between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the turbine governing control system for carrying out the Electro-Hydraulic Governing of the turbine. The piston of the servomotor is subjected to disc spring force in the close direction and Hydraulic pressure in the opening direction. the stop valve & control valve (one set) share a common body. Hydraulic Governor controls the steam supply by operating the control valves. The Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) is beneficial in:• • • • Offering the flexibility. Low transients and steady-state speed deviations at all instances. Operating the turbo-generator Safely in conjunction with TSE.In KWU turbines. The fluid pressure under the piston determines the position of the valve. Providing reliable operation at times of grid isolation conditions. Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) works in parallel with Hydraulic governor at all times of requirements.

Speed Control mode. KORBA SIMULATOR 122 . the set point of the Hydraulic Governor must be set above that of the Electro-Hydraulic Governor when EHG is effective. as such normally. and pressure signals are measured and converted into conditioned signal in electronic modules. Electro Hydraulic Converter details: Electro Hydraulic Converter converts the electrical signal in to the hydraulic signals and large positioning forces are generated in control valves. the tracking device is switched off automatically thus tracking under faulted operation mode is prevented or prohibited. The speed. Under steady state condition pilot is at central position. More details on tracking actions are covered in the follow-up circuits of the speed/load control modes. Load Control mode Pressure Control mode. in deflected position. affected is that of Hydraulic Governor. load. causing secondary oil pressure to change. the control oil is admitted above or below the amplifier piston. which actuates the sleeves of follow-up piston valves.• • • • Admission Control mode. when EHG fails to cause shut-off. the set point that is. In cases. In such situations the Tracking Device provides a revised set point of 5-10% above the EHG set point and it causes increase in small load when the control is transferred to Hydraulic-Governor. The tracking device is either switched on or off manually but when EHG failure or turbine trip occurs. The electrical signal from governor control circuit operates the sleeve and pilot valve spool. The Hydraulic governor and the EHG system have been designed such that the governor with lower set point takes over or assumes the system control. The motion of the amplifier piston is transmitted via a lever to a camshaft. this regulates the trip fluid drain.

By using two Nos of differential transformer (housed in EHC). Control Transfer of various controllers: Three selectors have been used for specific functioning Speed controller output (hrnc) and the load controller output (hrpc) are passed through a Maximum selector (MAXKORBA SIMULATOR 123 . the reference value of the Hydraulic controller determines the actual valve position. Although the force to the plunger coil and to the control sleeve is. and it supplies the operating current for driving the plunger coil. thereby it controls steam supply into the turbine.Admission Valve (spool) Controller Admission Valve (spool) Controller also referred as the position controller is Common for all three modes of EHG. The reference signal therefore works in reverse manner (rise in the coil current for low reference condition). considerably smaller. feedback signal from the valve lift is derived to ensure proper stationing of plunger spool. but the regulating signal to the secondary auxiliary oil flow as transformed is quite large. The figure below gives various connections and modules used in EHG. The current in the plunger coil is increased for closing the HP /IP CV and vice versa for opening of the HP /IP Control Valve. The Position controller loop uses a PID control mode for processing outputs that provide the driving current signal to the plunger and regulate the oil drains of HP/IP control valves (CV) . Whenever current through the plunger coil gets interrupted or the electrical feedback circuit gets faulted.

Operation of EHG in various modes Start-up Switching the supplies ON and setting the speed/load setter to zero puts the EHG in Operational condition. The actual speed is sensed since turbine already is in barring gear and by slow rising of speed reference the speed controller works /is in service. KORBA SIMULATOR 124 . Finally through the last minimum selector: MIN–2:. The hydraulic speed control eqpt and the start up eqpt of the hydraulic controller are set in upper end position. from the grid.5 V is generated by a potentiometer that gets algebraically summated with hrnc then it outputs voltage which is less than that of the speed/load signal as selected from the MAX-1:) The signal from the Minimum selector: MIN–1: passes through another Minimum selector: MIN–2: that receives the Pressure Controller output (hrPrc) signal as explained in pressure controller loop. the turbine speed is then brought up situation for synchronising TG with grid using speed controller. the unit can be disconnected from the grid. sudden separation of the generator. After the speed controller has assumed control of TG set. Shutdown During normal shut down operation. Frequency change is selected via the integral action load controller to corresponding droop values and a sensitivity of 5 Milli-Hz is obtained which meets the operational requirements of the present day large grid. Operation under load Load controller can be taken in service after turbine is synchronised to control load in quick response and high linearity either as per LDC/AFDC or using various modes/sub loops explained in Load control. the output signal of the load controller is immediately reduced to value below that of speed controller. the speed controller assumes control and returns turbine back to the set reference speed. the control signal connects the Admission Valve (spool) Controller loop which outputs the driving current for the EHC plunger coil. (During sudden load throw-off. The speed controller then remains in standby mode only and stands ready to provide station load in of load shading.e. Load shedding In case of load shedding i. the input to the minimum selector: MIN–1: takes care of transient condition of the load throwoff and is sufficient to check the turbine from over speeding. The output signal of the speed controllers is automatically matched to the output signal of load controller from rated power on down to station load. the load controller is set to zero value.1) and the selected signal passes to a minimum selector (MIN-1) in such a fashion that at times of over-speeding of turbine (during load throw-off situations). Consequently due to minimum selection. over speeding of turbine is effected and since 10.

An additional effect is the reduction of the speed oscillations.(When the speed of the TG set rises slightly above synchronous speed. a reducing gear lowers the speed of the motorized potentiometer to ¼ rate for exact speed adjustment. above the speed of 2800 rpm. the control action in speed control mode quickly reduces the turbine speed very close to synchronous speed) During load shedding with subsequent operation of the TG set in an isolated grid situation. The speed reference (nR) can not be raised when follow-up condition exists and dn/dt is less than monitoring (in this situation lowering of nR gets slowed down. The Time-dependent speed reference signal ( nRTD ) The Time-dependent speed reference signal (nRTD) also referred as nR lim. In case of automatic reclosing of the generator CB. During start-up of turbine this nRTD allows rising of the turbine speed at the highest permissible rate consistent with the conservative operation as decided by the TSE computed margin signal introduced between a DC amplifiers.This reference speed practically coincides with the rated speed. By the synchronizer (when selected) or By follow up signal (explained separately). influences the speed reference nR considerably. of narrow range (2700-3300) and wide range (0-3600). The slope of the integrator ramp can be adjusted over a wide range KORBA SIMULATOR 125 . Speed Control Mode Speed Control Mode works during • • • • • • Rolling (start-up or shut-down of the turbine). Two indicators have been provided in UCB panel for monitoring speeds. This provision improves the dynamic response of the closing of the main steam stop valve /control valve and keeps the turbo set speed from rising along the droop characteristic. Speeding up of turbine until synchronisation. The speed reference (nR) cannot be raised when follow-up condition exists and dn/dt is less than monitoring rather in this condition raising or lowering phenomena of nR gets slowed down when the speed reference (nR) is less than 2800. The reference nR is varied in the range of 0-3600 rpm and for minute operation during synchronizing. (The speed controller assumes continuous TG set control in such situations) Speed reference signal (nR) is varied (In the range of 0-3600 rpm): • • • Manually by Raise/Lower push buttons (using motorized potentiometer. since the speed controller is set to provide the station load during the start of operation under load. the reduction of the load controller output signal below the speed controller output signal below the speed controller output signal is cancelled and the initially selected load level restored. The Integrator module performs this function rising with time like a ramp. Regulating during Over-speeding. For effecting block loading & full loading of TG set at exceptional emergency situations House-loading operation during fast load throw-off For Controlling the TG set during rapid/large frequency fluctuations.

iii) MSV is open (>0%).e. final load reference (hrpc) is more than final speed reference (hrnc) by 10% and frequency is between 49-51 Hz OR if turbine is tripped (time elapsed) and speed reference (nr) is equal to actual speed (nact) minus 60 rpm. is transmitted to the speed controller and displayed on the desk in the range 0-3600 rpm. then the dn/dt is less than monitoring signal appears to alarm the operator. the quantum of the follow-up signal is derived from the actual less the off-set (60-120 rpm) speed reference (nR) and difference is further added or subtracted as per the magnitude to cause change in speed reference (nR ).03 sec –2). it blocks the already generated nRTD . for details. ‘Blocking ‘ or the ‘Stop nRTD ‘ of the speed signal is generated by an AND module in conditions i) speed >2850rpm. v) Generator breaker is not on and a feedback signal of dn/dt <108 rpm per rpm (0. and thus the speed controller input signal remains stay-put during stop action. Actual speed (nact) Measurement: Actual speed nact is acquired by three digital speed pickups (Hall probes) in the form of pulses /frequency. Channel-2 is utilized while other two-channel pick-up remains redundant. . vi) speed controller is selected & in action. (nR nact ) < 50 rpm. The dn/dt is less than monitoring is derived from an AND gate module.proof monitoring.e. ii) nR is more than nRTD by 300 rpm and iii) an OR ed output of many conditions as given below:1. electronically switching ensures no affect in channel in service and also a full . ii) nact is less than 2850 rpm. Refer block diag. it also blocks any further rise in speed and brings back the speed reference to 600 rpm. less than 100 rpm per minute. TSE influence gets faulted (goes out of order or switched off) or EHC fault condition appears AND turbine speed is more than 2950rpm. the speed reference signal becomes less than actual speed and if is more than 50 rpm. if between the speeds of 600-2820 rpm the rate of speed rise is very low i. modify the final nR . During rolling of the turbine. dn/dt less than monitoring alarms the operator and takes care of low acceleration rate in turbine during rolling by suitable output from the speed reference setting module. Quantum of Follow-up signal is the difference between actual speed (nact) and offset of 120 rpm and is effected (switched automatically) if load controller is operative.The output nRTD of the integrator module. This Block signal stops the integration (further) function of time dependent speed reference integrator. If nR > nRTD. 2. The selected sensed speed channel signal is further divided into three measuring signals (f/v of 0-60 Hz. and at the critical speeds (between 600-2829 rpm) of the turbine. low range 0-6 Hz & full range 0-60 Hz and a quartz frequency standard) for various other applications in the EHG and other circuits. 3. its conditions are i) nR is more than 600 rpm.and is optimized during commissioning.. During the transition of control from electric to Hydraulic. KORBA SIMULATOR 126 . i. pressure controller is in action OR Generator breaker not ON. During follow up. Fast mode or the stop action facility.

ACTUAL SPEED MEASUREMENT / FORMATION The speed controller is poportional+derivative (P-D) action controller.‘nRTD) form the input error of the Speed controller which outputs control signal (in the path as explained in selection section) through the selection modules for driving the EHC and finally establishing the EHG.The difference of actual speed and time dependent speed signals (nact . Due to proportional KORBA SIMULATOR 127 . of turbo-generators connected in the grid as compared with purely mechanical and Hydraulic Governor run T-G sets. with sloping characteristics. the speed controller outputs for better load sharing by more nos. During steady-state condition.

KORBA SIMULATOR 128 . The load demand signal is restricted within upper and lower MW loading limits as detailed in CMC loop description. it can also be varied by the Automatic dispatch control (When switched ON ) . matching or the follow up is automatically taking place and loading of the TG set is subsequently made in standby basis. it is automatically switched OFF. a control error (off-set) is obvious in the speed reference but it does not matter much. ADC influence ‘ON’ appears when there is NO ADC fault if is selected. it is also termed as pR ADS .. Load Control Mode Load reference value pR is generated by means of a reference value setter module as described in speed control mode and is derived manually by the operator adjusted (lower/raise) values by means of a remote driven motorized potentiometer. No load correction of speed is achieved by a feed forward signal that is obtained from Boiler pressure controller during synchronising the T. at this situation.G.control. set.and is basically the MW demand generated by the Coordinated Master Control loop(CMC). An identical speed at synchronising point is possible to be achieved due to a Pre-feed function of pressure. In case if. CMC or ADC gets faulted. Load controller is switched ON for bringing load controller in service.


And it (pRLIM) acts directly on the load controller without any intermediate control device. the upper/lower load margins are computed by TSE. The characteristic of pRLIM is linear 0-10v rising in 04 minutes. if the rate of rise of the pRLIM is limited to the load gradient selected. Stop signal in load control: A ‘Blocking’ or STOP command gets initiated at conditions shown below then the integrator stops further integrating and pRLIM (the load demand) remains steady until the blocking signals are cleared or restored. KORBA SIMULATOR 130 . is on but the speed controller has taken over (due to conditions of follow-up) and speed controller remains in action until load controller signal (pr) < (nr) of speed controller. This pRLIM rises during start-up at a rate (Mw/min ) selected through load gradient setter until final value.). The response of the pRLIM is purely integral. explained separately..B. for inclusion and it either modifies the high gain amplifier slope in both negative and positive sides of the amplifier or the TSE computed margins as explained above modify the high gain amplifier through minimum selector.Load reference pR as obtained from the potentiometer in voltage signal.) is selected either by On/Off push button or by follow-up command. It follows the ramp characteristic. then tracking gets released as soon as (pr) = (nr) and When load shedding is less than station auxiliary power (p act < station load) and Mw error reaches to more than 5 % or the generator circuit breaker is not made on. the load controller output. The Load gradient (load rate dp/dt. it is enabled again after the TSE is reset and it becomes O. tracks to speed signal. power error (Pr-Pact) signal governs the follow-up /tracking as explained below. At conditions when TG is not synchronised. is fed to the high gain amplifier whose gain is adjusted by the rate of loading dp/dt or the load margins (In order to load the turbo-generator at highest possible rate consistent to permissible level of thermal stress. normal and stop modes. Tracking or the follow-up conditions in the load controller: When the generator C. and at this situation the proportional channel is switched off.k. The pRLIM module is continuously allowing matching of the actual power output as long as the generator breaker is open (not synchronized) and ensures smooth transition of speed (during start-up) to load controller (after synchronization). Upper release margin can result reduction of generated power and lower release margin can result unloading. The proportional leg of the response of the pRLIM can be adjusted between 0-20% of MCR power of the TG Set. Time dependent reference signal also referred as ‘pRLIM’’: The Time dependent reference signal also referred as ‘pRLIM’’ is generated through a high gain amplifier and an integrator functioning in fast. The block conditions are met at conditions as given below: • TSE switch is ON (selected) and it goes out of order (got faulted).

• •

The load reference signal has been raised and the pressure controller goes/switches to limit pressure mode of operation. The STOP set point binary condition is/gets introduced.

A highly and sensitive linear response with respect to power grid frequency is effected by having the additional load reference component pR∆f (this can be set as low as possibly up to 5 milli Hz); it can be included for operating the load controller with frequency influence included in the system. This frequency influence was being excluded in the system sometimes in nineties, because the units were been operated at very high differentials of frequencies when frequency used to rise to approx 52 Hz at off-peak hours (in night hours) or reduce/decline as low as 47.5 Hz at peak load hours. But now due to insistence by Load Dispatch Center (LDC) to regulate the grid frequency at very tight margin and in order to run systems on ABT mode, the frequency influence inclusion have become mandatory. This is being referred as FGMO operation of units. The load reference thus derived is fed to a minimum selector, which also is fed with the load limiter output. In order to restrict loading, Load limiter is preselected; the Load limit value (due to plant conditions) can be adjusted by the load limiter potentiometers and can also be seen on control desk. Even the reduction in grid frequency cannot cause the TG set to exceed the preset power level due to load limiting. The output signal from the load limiter at the minimum selector in the form of the pR , that is the sum of all reference values acting on the load controller as reference signal or the desired value. Actual Load signal is acquired threefold by means of the load measuring device and transmitted to the controller comparator module but in case the signals of the three parallel cannels deviate by more than 5% an alarm ‘ACTUAL LOAD SIGNAL FAULTY’ along with group alarm of ‘Turbine Controller Faulty’ appears. The difference of the actual measured power signal (pact) and the pR form the input of the load controller that outputs control signal and passes through a selection module for driving the EHC as explained in the admission control and selection diagram. Load Controller consists of two plug-in modules first one to accommodate isolated grid detection and the second to accommodate dynamic loading of the generators & to housing the tracking module. Load Controller is a proportional (P) + integral (I) controller to take care of small changes of load in Proportional mode and large changes in Integral mode operation. Due to this addition, the response of the controller is proportional for small changes of the load reference value but for the large changes of reference value proportional plus integral mode refines the system operation. In order to effect smooth transition from speed controller to Load Controller (Generator breaker open condition i.e. turbine not synchronised with grid) pR is



compared continuously with pact and control signal is matched ensuring bump less switching. During the time the speed controller is in control for start-up, shut-down or no load operation of TG set, the starting time constant of the TG set remains in dominating whereas during synchronised operation, the transfer functions of generator and the power grid become of vital importance for controller optimisation. Pressure Control Mode The pressure controller controls the turbine load with respect to the main steam throttle pressure and prevents the large pressure drop during fast loading (Quick load increase). The actual steam throttle pressure is measured in turbine area and pressure reference is derived from CMC loop, after comparison the deviated control signal (hRprc) is fed to the Proportional +Integral (PI) action type Pressure controller and its final output is fed to the minimum selector-2 as described earlier in speed controller and load controller loops. The Pressure Controller functions in two modes of operation: • Initial pressure mode • Limit pressure mode Initial Pressure Mode: In Initial pressure mode of operation, constant initial pressure (turbine inlet throttle pressure) is maintained and acts in proportional to pressure setting by minimizing the pressure error (Actual-Ref) even up to zero value. The power delivered by the TG set is determined by the boiler capability up to a maximum of power level as set by load controller; increase of load above this is blocked thus, because it is connected to a minimum selector. The difference pressure ∆p between the reference and actual value, is controlled up to a value of 10 Kg/cm2 which is equal to the pressure drop of steam flow from boiler to the turbine control valve; it therefore ensures natural differential pressure of the steam flowing from boiler to the turbine. A preset potentiometer equivalent to this pressure generates negative voltage to the controller input and it biases the pressure differential ∆p thus in the controller. Limit pressure mode: Limit pressure mode uses the boiler storage capacity and is effected either by push button or gets automatically selected as soon as the pressure deviates to 10 Kg/cm2 from normal running pressure to operate the controller in Limit pressure mode. This deviation of 10 Kg/cm2 pressure signal already subtracted in the in the input of Pressure controller, as described in the initial pressure mode, gets neutralized by automatic switching. Introducing the Limit Pressure Operation is therefore possible to regulate boiler pressure beyond a pre-set pressure of main steam and load in small or quick variations, and is controlled until pre-set pressure is reached that is not possible in normal frequency based load control.



In fact the normal ∆p from boiler to turbine (as explained in initial pressure mode) is not persisting either due to increase in pressure at turbine side due to load throw, vacuum drop, extractions’ closure etc or due to pressure drop in boiler side by nonavailability/reduced loading of mills, of coal feeders or any other causes. At this situation due to equating/reducing of differential pressure ∆p , an alarm is generated so as to warn/alarm the operator of the discrepancy. When Limit pressure engaged alarm appears, the stop signal in the load control loop is also generated for blocking the pRLIM signal from increasing/reducing.

All the three controllers are operative in such a manner that the governing of T.G is ensured full proof and speeding or loading of the T.G. is best maintained as per the pressure in the system and Boiler or turbine follow mode is achieved with full reliability and safety. Co-ordinated Master Control (CMC) ensures co-ordination between Boiler & Turbine. The Co-ordinated Master Control (500 Mw) block diagram has been given below, we find that the Unit master receives load demand signal from load dispatcher (ALC). A GNI computer/SPCM is provided with the system to decide target value Z0, Run Back load limits & load rate required for proper generation, Boiler master controller, Turbine load set-point etc., through which the CMC is ensured. The load demand signal as generated in CMC, for turbine control reaches to point ‘D’ of EHG block diagram (refer the load control mode) and is switched for inclusion to operate the



EHG in coordination with grid dispatch ADC demand. Boiler Follow or Turbine follow modes are decided by switching suitably and loaded TG operation is achieved as explained in details of CMC mode of integrated control in C&I , ACS section.











Turbine protection system performs to cover the following functions: a. Protection of turbine from inadmissible operating conditions. b. In case of plant failures, protection against subsequent damages. c. It restricts occurring failures to minimum. Standard turbine protection system comprises the following: Mechanical/hydraulic turbine protection. Electrical turbine protections.




Mechanical Hydraulic Turbine Protection The design of mechanical hydraulic protection equipment is in accordance with hydraulic break current principle and consists of following: a. Two manual trip devices (main trip valves) b. Two speed monitors (over speed trip device) c. One hydraulic low vacuum device d. Two solenoid valves for trip initiation (remote solenoid valves) As explained earlier, turbine stop and control valves are tripped to close position if the trip oil pressure is reduced below the minimum value. The main trip valves allow rapid draining of trip oil in case they are operated either manually or automatically by the reduction of aux. trip oil pressure. Aux. trip oil pressure can be drained because of actuation of hydraulic low vacuum trip device, over speed trip device or thrust bearing trip device. The principle of functioning of individual hydraulic trip devices is explained in details under the chapter of Automatic Turbine Testing System. Remote trip solenoids act as interfaces between mechanical hydraulic and electrohydraulic protection equipment of turbine. Upon receiving the electrical trip command, the solenoids get energised and close the valves. Thus control oil supply to main trip values is cut off leading to their closure. Electrical Hydraulic Turbine Protection Electrical turbine trip equipments comprise two-channel redundancy and function on operating current principle. All electrical trip criteria act on the two remote trip solenoid valves to energise the solenoids. The electro-hydraulic turbine protection equipment features - Two solenoid operated valves for trip initiation (Remote trip solenoids). - Emergency trip contactor cabinet containing trip channels 1 and 2 - Monitors with signal conditioning - One substitute channel to ensure uninterrupted transmission of eventual turbine trip signals during testing by ATT. The remote trip solenoids (RTS) have already been described. Operation of any one channel causes energising both solenoid-operated valves leading to turbine trip eventually. Transmitters that cause a trip in the case of any electrical tripping signal are conditioned and monitored via binary signal conditioning of the ATT system or via the central analog/binary signal conditioning.







Protective criteria from other areas. 7. KORBA SIMULATOR 145 . which are: 1. Manual tripping devices (Turbine trip gear local operating lever) Speed monitors (over speed trip devices) Thrust bearing trip device Hydraulic low vacuum trip device Electrical low vacuum trip device Lub oil pressure protection Fire protection Manual turbine tripping (electrical UCB switch) Protection criteria from other areas are as follows: • • • • • Boiler trip (MFR) Boiler drum level very high ( > + 225 mm wcl ) Main steam temperature trip ( < 480 o C ) Trip from functional group control (ATRS shut-down programme) Generator trip Like low vacuum tripping (electrical) the low steam temperature protection also comprises ' Arming'and ' Disarming'features to facilitate re-start of turbine. Protective circuits for the standard turbine protection equipments or criteria. Over Speed Trip Device Two hydraulically operated over speed trips are provided to protect the turbine against over speeding in the event of load coincident with failure of speed governor. b. 8.Turbine Trip Actuation Circuits The turbine protection system is sub divided into two parts: a. Standard criteria are specified by the turbine manufacturer and are responsible for full protection of turbine under various specific conditions. 3. 2. 6. 5. 4. under low main steam temperature conditions.

Bearing pedestal Spindle Spring Piston Piston body 6. 5. 7. 2. which in turn causes the trip oil pressure to collapse. This connects the auxiliary trip oil to drain thereby depressurising it.OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE 1. The loss of auxiliary trip medium pressure causes the main trip valve to drop. 8. the eccentric fly bolt activates the piston and limit switch via a pawl. 3. 10. Low Vacuum Trip Device KORBA SIMULATOR 146 . 4. 9. Spring Pawl Over speed trip bolt Shaft journal Limit switch c: Return Oil u: Auxiliary Stratup Oil x: Auxiliary Trip Oil When the preset over speed is reached.

Valve body 5. Compression spring 10. Limit switch 11. which monitors this condition and prevents continuation of tripping initiation when condenser pressure is high. the topside of which is subject to the vacuum. Also fire protection-1 (automatic actuation) gets bypassed if the barring gear valve is ' closed' not . The fire protection trip is achieved by manual Pushbutton in UCB or automatically by very low MOT level (. Trip Oil The two rows of tripping cams. to depressurize the auxiliary trip medium and thus the trip oil in the shortest possible time. The pressure beneath valve is thereby dispersed and the auxiliary trip medium circuit is connected to drain.In the hydraulic low vacuum trip device. Pawl 7. which releases a piston to depressurise the auxiliary trip oil and at the same time to actuate limit switch.150 mm below the normal working level ' ). Electrical tripping of turbine is achieved by fire protection along with closure/stoppage of total control oil supply to turbine governing system by tripping the emergency stop valve on the control oil line. thereby tripping the turbine. the spring moves valve 6 downwards. Piston 4. Thrust Bearing Trip Device The function of the thrust bearing trip is to monitor the shaft position in the bearing pedestal and. The electrical tripping on low vacuum occurs through a pressure switch on the vacuum line to mechanical hydraulic low vacuum trip device also at the same condenser pressure. Bearing pedestal 3. which are arranged on opposite sides of turbine shaft. Torsion spring 8. equivalent to the permissible shaft displacement. Compression spring 2. If the axial displacement of the shaft exceeds the permissible limit. if a fault occurs. the cams engage pawl. KORBA SIMULATOR 147 . a compression spring set to a specific tension pushes downwards against diaphragm. 1. The resultant depressurisation of the auxiliary trip oil actuates main trip valves MAX51 AA 005 and MAX51 AA 006 thereby closing all turbine valves. relative to pawl of the thrust-bearing trip. this pressure switch is interlocked against a second pressure switch. Startup Oil Aux. Knob a: c: u: x: Test Oil Return Oil Aux. If the vacuum is too weak to counteract the spring tension. Please refer to the associated logics at the end of this O' chapter. have a specific clearance. When turbine is started up again. Turbine shaft 6. Piston 9.






is the criteria for the satisfactory functioning of devices. Also. A fully automatic sequence for testing all the safety devices has been incorporated which ensures that the testing does not cause any unintentional shutdown and also provides full protection to turbine during testing. which might result in loss of generation or damage to machine components. The steam stop valves and control valves along with all the protective devices on the turbine must be always maintained in serviceable condition for the safety and reliability.AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTING (ATT) INTRODUCTION Under the present crunch of power crisis. The stop and control valves can be tested manually from the location but this test does not cover all components involved in a tripping. Automatic functional protective substitute devices that protect turbine during ATT.e. Automatic Turbine Testing extends into trip oil piping network where total reduction of trip oil pressure due to actuation of any protective device. Interruption if the running time of any programme step is exceeded or if tripping is initiated. if the substitute circuit is healthy. Only its pretest is carried out without any faults i. manual testing always poses a risk of mal-operation on the part of the operator. During testing. Monitoring of all programme steps for execution within a predefined time. Also. This warrants testing of equipments and protection devices at regular intervals. KORBA SIMULATOR 153 . during testing. SALIENT FEATURES The Automatic Turbine Tester is distinguishable by following features: Individual testing of each protective device and stop/control valve assembly. during normal operation. two electrically formed values of 3300 rpm take over protection of turbine against over speed. general alarm or the cause of tripping is also initiated so that this part of alarm annunciation system also gets tested. Automatic re-setting of test programme after a fault Full protection of turbine provided by special test safety devices. the main test begins. the economy dictates long intervals between turbine overhauls and less frequent shutdowns. These disadvantages are fully avoided with the Automatic Turbine Test.

causing stop/control valves to close. Remote trip solenoid-1.The testing system or ATT is sub divided in two functional sub-groups. closing the main trip valves. Hydraulic low vacuum trip device. It drains the control/aux. Refer Fig. ATT for protective devices broadly incorporates the following sub programmes: a. During normal operation. all alarm/annunciation are activates as in case of an actual tripping. protective devices act on the stop/control valves via the main trip valves. Hydraulic test circuit establishment. Over speed trip device. Main test programme. 2. AUTOMATIC TESTING OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES ATT sub group for protective devices covers the following devices. b. 5. Reset programme. Thrust bearing trip device. Remote trip solenoid-2. This control oil in trip circuit prevents any actual tripping of the machine. 3. Each sub-group contains the device and all associated transmission elements for initiation of a trip. c. trip oil circuit is isolated and changed over to control oil by means of test solenoid valves and the changeover valve. trip oil. The closure of main Trip Gear drains the trip oil. 4. KORBA SIMULATOR 154 . Whenever any tripping condition (hydraulic/electrical) occurs. d. During testing. 1. the protective device concerned is actuated. Preliminary test programme. However.

ATT SAFETY DEVICES Preliminary Test In preliminary test programme. During preliminary test. further testing is inhibited. following steps are performed. the turbine is fully protected against any inadvertent tripping during ATT. the substitute circuit elements and the circuit are tested for their healthiness. KORBA SIMULATOR 155 . If any fault is present.

Build-up of control oil pressure upstream of changeover valve is monitored. The test solenoids valves are again energised building up the control oil pressure upstream of changeover valve. After successful establishment of hydraulic test circuit command goes to initiate the main test. command is automatically given to establish hydraulic test circuit (substitute circuit). draining control oil and creating differential pressure across the changeover valve. Hydraulic Test Circuit Establishment If no fault is present during preliminary test. control oil flows in the trip oil piping. The hydraulic test circuit is responsible for the supply of control oil in trip oil circuits. it assumes upper (test) position and annunciation is flashed to this effect. At this moment another solenoid (SVX) gets energised. With changeover valve in its test position.Test solenoids (TSX) become energised. in which individual devices can be checked. Test solenoids de-energised one by one & drop of control oil pressure is monitored. If all steps are executed within a specified time period pre-test is said to be successfully. KORBA SIMULATOR 156 .

The reset solenoid valves energise and supply control oil in aux. which have tripped from their normal positions. TESTING OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES The main trip valves and remote trip solenoid valves have already been discussed in previous chapters. KORBA SIMULATOR 157 . Reset Programme The resetting programme automatically starts after the main test is over. start-up oil circuit to reset main trip valves and protective devices. Turbine trip gear (main trip valves) is closed after trip oil pressure drains and associated alarms flash. trip oil pressure can be built-up and monitored. They are held in position against centrifugal force by springs whose tensions can be adjusted corresponding to 110% . trip oil. trip oil and aux.111% over speed. the fly weights (bolts) fly out due to centrifugal force and strike against the pawl and valves. draining aux. Once they return to their normal position. deactivating hydraulic test circuit and resetting circuit. the associated hydraulic test signal transmitter with the exception of remote trip solenoids provides the necessary signal to actuate protective devices. reset solenoids along with test solenoid valves and SVX get de-energised.Main Test During main test programme. trip oil pressure and tripping the turbine. When over speed occurs. hence the remaining ones will be taken up here. The protective device under test operates and drains the aux. Over speed Trip Device Trip consists of two eccentric bolts fitted on the shaft with centre of gravity displaced from the shaft axis. If oil pressure is satisfactory.

spool on' valve slowly moves down to gradually build-up test oil (control) pressure beneath the flyweights. start-up oil (control oil) resets the device back into normal position. the spool valve move down. bringing in the associated alarm. aux. III. HTT is deenergised and aux. Startup Oil Drain Oil 1. trip oil pressure drains. Thrust Bearing Trip Device This device operates in case of excessive axial shift ( >0. As soon as reset programme starts. IV. Control Oil Test Oil Aux. Valves spool moves up draining aux.HYDRAULIC TEST SIGNAL TRANSMITTER (HTT) FOR OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE During ATT. HTT is de-energised and vacuum trip device is automatically reset. causing valve also to move toward lower position. associated ATT solenoid is energised and test oil pressure is supplied to test piston valve. The device operates. During resetting. the associated hydraulic I. During ATT. 2.6 mm) or excessive thrust pad wear. Two rows of tripping cams on the shaft engage with the pawl) under high axial shift condition. bringing in the associated alarms. the HTT (Hydraulic Test signal Transmitter) gets energised and connects the space above diaphragm to atmospheric pressure through an orifice. spool moves-up and when test oil pressure is fully drained. KORBA SIMULATOR 158 . test signal transmitter Low Vacuum Trip Device With deterioration of vacuum. Field adjustment facilities and checks have been provided when turbine is stationary and there is no vacuum in the condenser. tripping main trip valves and the turbine stop/control valves. At pre-defined test oil pressure fly weight one and two operate to actuate individual pawl and spool arrangements bringing in the associated alarm. after hydraulic test circuit is established. start up oil (control oil from ' reset'solenoids) pressure resets the devices to their normal position. pressure builds-up over the diaphragm. trip oil and tripping the trip gear and turbine. II. Limit switch (normal) Limit switch (test) Valve for Test Oil Actuator (HTT) becomes ' . The piston rod actuates the pawl and spool valve assembly. 4. V. During ATT. For resetting. The aux. 3. Trip Oil Aux.

KORBA SIMULATOR 159 . All the four stop and control valve assemblies are tested individually. They must be maintained in absolutely workable condition for safety and reliability of turbine.AUTOMATIC TESTING OF STOP/CONTROL VALVES The combined stop/control valves are final control elements of the turbine governing system.

The control oil supply pressure beneath the servomotor s piston drops and control valve starts closing. command goes to energise solenoid valve (1). there is a sudden rise in trip oil pressure. After these solenoids (1) & (2) de-energise. automatically a command goes to energise another solenoid (2). which is sensed by pressure switches. opening the control valve. Once the stop valve is opened. KORBA SIMULATOR 160 . The trip oil pressure drains beneath the disc of stop valve servomotor piston. As soon as test programme is initiated. After the stop valve is closed. As soon as piston sits on the disc. next command goes to the positioner motor to move in reverse direction. This pressure difference causes the stop valve to open. so as to keep the load and pressure reasonably constant. they are actually closed. This supplies trip oil to the test valve such that test valve moves down gradually to admit trip oil pressure above the servomotor piston. the other control valves are operated by the governor. the test valve moves up to admit trip oil beneath the disc and connecting the space on top of the piston to drain. it is essential that Electro Hydraulic Governor is in service and machine load is less than 160 MW and load controller is ' ACTIVE' . Should any turbine trip occur during the test.During ATT of stop/control valves. The stop valve closes. the positioner motor of control valve servomotor' pilot starts. After the control valve is fully closed. In order to prevent large fluctuations of initial pressure or load on the machine. all solenoids are de-energised and tripping takes place in the usual manner. All along this test.

not required by manufacturer KORBA SIMULATOR 161 . The operating reliability and availability can only meet the high requirements if testing is undertaken at the scheduled times. Testing Intervals Tests are scheduled according to the following Testing Interval Categories. Testing Interval I 3. Testing Interval IV 6. Controller System / Device Test Test Conditions Test Interval 0 I II III IV V Operation Turbine controller Load shedding relay Bypass controller Pressure controller Oil temp controller Function Adjustment Function Function Load Rejection Standstill Standstill Load rejection Operation Load rejection Adjustment Standstill Function Function Operation Operation x x x x X* x x x x x x x x x x X* x X* x x x X*: Recommended. which can be tested automatically without interrupting operation. as recommended below. Testing Interval 0 2. Testing Interval II 4. Testing Interval V Fortnightly Quarterly Six-monthly Annually After operation interruptions more than 12 month After or during overhauls Testing Interval Category 0 applies to devices.TESTING SCHEDULE All important turbine components must be tested at regular intervals. The tables show the allocation of the Testing Interval Categories to the test. 1. Testing Interval III 5.

Sub loop Control of Pumps System / Device Test Test Conditions Test Interval O I II III IV V Oil Pumps Function Start-up Pressure Shutdown Operation x x x x Valves System / Device Test Test Conditions Test Interval O I II III IV V Standstill Stop Valves Freedom of movement Leak Test Operation Operation ATT x Shutdown Start-up Standstill Control Valves LP Bypass Control Valves Extraction Valves Safety valves Vacuum breaker Freedom of movement Leak Test Freedom of movement Freedom of movement Actuating valves Function Operation Operation ATT x Shutdown / Start-up Standstill Operation Operation/ Standstill Standstill x x x x / x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Protection and Safety Devices System / Device Test Test Conditions Test Interval O I II III IV V Main Trip Valves (Gear) Function Remote Trip Solenoids Standstill Operation ATT Standstill Operation ATT x x x x x x Function KORBA SIMULATOR 162 .

Too low Steam Pr.Over Speed Trips Function Actuating value Over speed after load operation Rated speed Rated speed x ATT Standstill Operation ATT Standstill Standstill x x x Hydraulic Function Low Vacuum Actuating Trip value Electrical Function Low Vacuum Actuating Trip value Thrust Bearing Trip LP Bypass Condenser Protection Reverse Power Protection Fire Protection Function Function Actuating value Function Function x x x x x x x x ATT Standstill Shutdown Shutdown x x x x x x Safety Function Devices for Actuating Reverse Flow value Low Lub Oil Pressure Protection Device Too high Steam Pr. Protection Devices Function Actuating value Function Actuating value Function Actuating value Operation x x Standstill x x x Standstill x x Standstill x x KORBA SIMULATOR 163 .

Alarms and Measuring Devices System / Device Test Test Conditions Test Interval O I II III IV V Alarms for all system Digital Signal Transmitter Speed Pressure Temperature Expansion Vibration Oil Level Valve Position Measuring Devices Function Actuating Value Function Actuating Value Operation Standstill Standstill Operation x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Accuracy of indication x Standstill x x x Measurement of Important Operating Parameters System / Device Test Test Conditions O I Test Interval II III IV V Long Term Monitoring Steam Pressure Steam Temperature. Steam Flow Internal Efficiency Condenser Leak Tightness Bearing Metal Temp. Expansion Vibration Oil Levels Oil Pressure Oil Temperature x x x x x Operation x x x x x x x x x x x x KORBA SIMULATOR 164 .

KORBA SIMULATOR 165 . at 55% depth). within which the speed/load can be changed during loading/unloading of the machine. at 95% depth) and mean wall temperature in the middle section of the components (Tm. The turbine stress evaluator provides the basis of continuously calculating permissible values for desired changes in operating conditions at all times and under all operating states and by displaying temperature margins. Whenever steam inlet temperature changes within the turbine. TASK OF TSE If the turbine is to be operated so that there is no undesirable material fatigue. thereby causing excessive fatigue. which is in contact with steam (Ts. Specially designed wall temperature sensors are used on combined stop and control valves of HP turbine for measuring these temperatures. The results of TSE. The thermal stress on the individual components can be ascertained from difference between the two temperatures of the component.TURBINE STRESS EVALUATOR (TSE) SIGNIFICANCE OF TURBINE STRESS MONITORING It is important for the operator to know how quickly his turbine can be started up and what changes in load he can make without the fear of over-stressing the turbine components. the metal temp. The wall temperature sensors measure temperature of the surface. It is made of the material having temperature characteristics similar to those of casing. These sensors have two measuring points. These comprise a screwed sleeve containing a measuring insert. follows the steam temp. are displayed by means of an indicating instrument. This causes differential thermal expansions within the turbine casing and shaft & corresponding stress in the metal. MEASURED VALUE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING Wall temperature sensors (thermocouples) are used to sense the temperature of various turbine components and these signals are given to the TSE as the input temperature signal. these thermal stresses must be kept within acceptable limits. Turbine Stress Evaluator measures and calculates the relevant temperature values and evaluates them in an analog computing circuit and determines the allowable conditions of operation so that useful life of the turbine shall not be unduly reduced. Signals from the TSE are also fed to the speed and load reference limiter of the turbine controller for use in set point and gradient (speed and load) control. This ensures good thermal contact and same thermal gradients through temperature sensor as surrounding wall. Thermal over-stressing can reduce useful operation life of turbine and its components. The screwed sleeves are inserted in a through hole in the wall of casing and welded on outside. The optimum balance between longevity on one hand and material flexibility of operation on the other is achieved when the permissible range of material stress can be utilised to the fullest extent. with a certain delay. which are the appropriate operating instructions. Thus it allows the operation of the turbine at the highest possible rates of load/speed change while limiting the stresses within permissible values.



131 e -t/T2 + 0. The measured values are processed in an analog computing circuit with 3 channels namely ADMISSION. Normally 5 measuring points feed the TSE. we get upper margin and that on the negative side we get lower margin. are selected as representative margins and are displayed by TSE indicator and used for further processing.177 e -t/Tk ) ] Where. before the last drum stage to represent the surface temp of the shaft. The mean internal (mid metal) shaft temperature can be calculated with an adequate degree of accuracy by means of the following mathematical equation. HP TURBINE and IP TURBINE channels. Till the machine load Pact remains < 2% PMCR. The calculated temp difference is compared against the permissible mean temp difference ∆Tp. First two measuring points are located in the body of combined Stop/Control valves are called ADMISSION sensors.08 56. KORBA SIMULATOR 168 .692 e -t/T1 + 0. Comparing ∆Ta against ∆Tp on the positive side. the TSE display selection remains in the ADMISSION / SPEED mode.(0. The load margins are calculated from the available temperature margins and changes in the casing temp differential. the TSE changes over to TURBINE or LOAD mode in which the actual load and load upper and lower margins are indicated. The smallest of the respective upper and lower temperature margins calculated for Admission and Turbine area. FUNCTIONING OF TSE The mV output from thermocouples is fed into the signal conditioning cabinet where the transducers give out 4-20 mA signals as temp signals. values derived from the measured surface temperature. depending upon machine load. The next two are located in the HPT cylinder adjacent to the first drum stage and are called HPT wall temp sensors. The thermal stress is proportional to this temp difference. steam temperature and time lapsed. It is taken as the surface temperature of shaft itself. The last measuring point is in the flange of IPT cylinder inner casing. the surface temperature on the inside of casing surrounding the rotor is measured by a single thermocouple at a point where the dynamic behaviour of temp of the shaft corresponds to that of casing. The solution of this equation is realised by means of three integrators and one summing amplifier.Shaft temperature simulation If the thermal stress in rotor is to be monitored. Ts Tm t : : : Surface Temperature Mid metal Temperature Time in minutes T1 T2 Tk : : : 2408. in which the actual speed and temperature margins either form admission or turbine channels. The corresponding mean shaft temp is simulated. which is derived from function generator for each computing channel. Tm = Ts [ 1. The difference between ∆Tp and ∆Ta is called MARGIN. Each computing channel determines ∆Ta between surface and mean (mid) temperatures.62 Time constants Various constants used in the above equation are derived from the shaft diameter and thermal diffusivity of the rotor material. as sleeted. At Pact >2% PMCR .31 457. are displayed.


Power supply for the TSE indicator is ± 24 V. The lower red coloured disc is controlled by the lower available margin either for the temperature or the load. or the load is below 2% MCR the actual speed and temperature margins are displayed on the left side of the display. The effective section is illuminated according to the operating mode. Before the generator is synchronised. The upper red coloured disc is controlled by the upper available margin either for the temperature or the load. It comprises of three discs. Two partly These discs are controlled by means of three electrical servomotors equipped with feedback potentiometers.TSE INDICATOR The indicator is divided vertically into two sections one for starting and one for load operation. KORBA SIMULATOR 170 . .and Load coloured glass discs.One Circular Scale disc. partly calibrated in Speed . After the generator is synchronised and load is greater than 2%. The circular scale is controlled by the actual value for either Speed or Load. The module for control of the potentiometer-equipped servomotor is located in the TSE indicator and receives three impressed currents of ± 1 mA for the computing circuits. the actual load and load margins are displayed on the right side.

The row of alarm windows located across the top of the two section of the indicator shows which computing channel is on line. while the white indicates the permissible zone of operation. These screens have two zones in different colour. the red area represents a warning or prohibited range. KORBA SIMULATOR 171 . During load operation. The upper and lower temperature margins are covered on the screen. the right hand section displays the actual load and the load margins. The red window in the middle is the fault alarm. The actual load is shown on a rotating disc marked in MW. The turbine is operating within the permissible stress as long as the actual temperatures. Additional LEDs located above and below are the symbols for HP and IP turbine in the turbine related window and indicate from which turbine upper margin (Upper LED) and the lower margin (Lower LED) is originated. The appropriate LEDs then show a red light. Speed is indicated on a circular moving scale. speed and temperature margins are displayed on the left hand section. During start-up. load values are located within the transparent region between the discs. Two rotating red discs indicate the permissible load range. Illumination of the appropriate chosen window indicates whether the displayed margins are being supplied by admission or turbine channel.

this indicate that the temp margins originating from one of the channels related to the flashing window has been reduced to less than 100K. the TSE indicator can be switched manually by means of two push buttons on the control desk to indicate the respective margin either from the admission or from the turbine channels as desired. KORBA SIMULATOR 172 . When changeover has been affected. which displays the load margins calculated from the temperature margins. During speed operation. the lower boundary indicates lower margins (for decreasing load and shut-down).The opaque red section between the discs covers the prohibited range. Changing Section of the TSE Indicator During speed operation. Two red discs indicate the permissible load change. The flashing lamp instructs the operator to changeover to the range with the smaller margins. the TSE indicator automatically changes over to the right hand section. The upper boundary of the transparent sector indicates the upper margins (for start-up and increasing load). the green alarm window changes the flashing to steady light. if the non-illuminated green alarm window flashes. When the unit is synchronised.


(V1 + W1. it is sufficient to wait or to reduce the rate of change of load and temperature until an adequate margin is obtained. if the upper margin is exceeded the steam temperature must be reduced and conversely. it is necessary to have temperature margins of more than 300K available. the component material is being subjected to excessive stresses which means an intensified effect on the material fatigue. Before synchronising is carried out.IMPORTANCE OF THE MARGINS The temperature margin is a measure of the degree of thermal stresses. dPuH dPuI = dTuHT min . The load margin is the greatest step change in load based on the instantaneous stress condition. which a turbo-set can be subjected to. All counter measures must be directed towards protecting the component. If the indicated actual load becomes covered by the upper or lower red discs. In this way optimum startup or load change is achieved without over-stressing the component. which is in the greatest danger of overstressing. (V2 + W2. Pact) eM (TM – Tm MT) dPuII(H) = dPuII(M) = KORBA SIMULATOR 174 . this means that the component is being stressed to its permissible limit. The upper load margin represents the minimum value determined from the individually computed available upper margins of HPT and IPT. Pact) dTuHT min. If the margin is consumed. so that the minimum load on set can be achieved immediately after synchronisation. during rapid increase in speed during synchronisation etc. If the excessive stresses are to be reduced. . Further. dPu = Minimum value out of dPuH and dPuII(M) = dPuI + dPuII(H) Where. The condition is indicated by the relative edge of the red disc horizontal position. increase in speed or load should then only be made at a rate. (A + B. which the turbine can withstand without being over-stressed. Any reduction in steam flow leads to less effective heat transfer and thus tends to reduce temperature differential. the lower margin is exceeded the steam temperature is to be increased. Load Margin Calculation The upper and lower load margins are computed by using the respective temperature margins of the turbine computing channels. In many cases. the steam temperatures are to be brought closer to the turbine temperature that is to say. which will enable the disc to maintain their position. Pact) eH (TH – Tm HT min) dTuMT .

Values of various constants are: A B eH = = = 0.296 = 0.725 B = -0. If there is a deviation from the tolerance value.090 3. fixed voltages are introduced into the computing circuit through relays.150 eM = The load lower margin available is calculated as follows: dPl = dTlT min .150 KORBA SIMULATOR 175 .315 V2 W1 W2 = 1. Pact) TSE TEST Panel Testing A test programme for the Turbine Stress Evaluator is available for testing the correct functioning of individual computing channels. A = 2.090 = -0. Where. For this purpose. the indicator must show specific known values for each computing channels. instead of the measured temperature and load signals.110 0. it indicates that there is some fault/error in the evaluator. (C + D. from the input amplifiers to the display unit. If the TSE is functioning correctly.000 TM TH V1 = = = 5. Testing can be done only if ' Enable'or ‘Release’ signals from EHC (electro hydraulic turbine controller) and FGA (functional group automatic control) are present.833 8.250 0.000 6.

are shown in shaded. the pushbuttons A and HPC are to be pressed simultaneously. if it is required to start HPT Casing (Sl. for testing of each category.The following table can be used while performing the TSE test. No:3) test while the machine is on load. KORBA SIMULATOR 176 . Test Results for 200MW TSE MSV MCV HPS HPC IPS Tu Tl Pu Pact Pl 30 K 79 K 21 K 99 K 96 K 6K 230 MW 100 MW 79 MW 60 K 13 K 200 MW 100 MW 50 MW 104 K 13 K 157 MW 100 MW 49 MW TSE influence can be switched off from the EHTC control cabinets and under such conditions turbine should be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer within permissible temperature differences. The buttons needed to be depressed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Test Programme Computing Pushbuttons MSV MCV Channel (ADMISSION/TURBINE) Initial condition HPC HPS IPS Turbine Rolling A A T T Turbine on Load A A T T T T T T Admission HP Stop Valve Admission HP Control Valve Turbine HPT Casing (Rolling) Turbine HPT Shaft (Rolling) Turbine IPT Shaft (Rolling) Turbine HPT Casing (Load) Turbine HPT Shaft (Load) Turbine IPT Shaft (Load) For example. Selector Pushbutton Sl. No.

then those devices generate a TSE fault alarm. KORBA SIMULATOR 177 .C. If TSE upper margin is less then 300 K.Dynamic Test (Monitoring) of TSE This facility has been provided for continuous monitoring of the healthiness of all the input signals. If any signal changes at an unrealistic rate. PRTD can be reset and made free after TSE influence is switched off. and output signals. For this test. further speed rise from 600 rpm to 3000 rpm is not possible. which monitors the rate of change of those signal values. 2) EHC a) Speed Controller Only upper TSE margin is used. This testing is automatically carried out all the time. b) Blocking or ‘stop NRTD’ of the speed signal if Speed > 2850 rpm NR > nRTD by 300 rpm AND TSE Influence sets faulted. The time dependent speed reference signal (NRTD) allows rising of turbine speed at the highest permissible rate consistent with the conservative operation as decided by TSE computed speed margin signal introduced D. a testing device is incorporated in all the signals. TSE Output Signals 1) To ATRS a) From Step No. Consequently PRTD setter will freeze avoiding the erroneous values entering into the load controller loop. 14 to Step No. c) Switching off TSE influence will make SGC turbine programme off Fault in TSE does not make SGC Turbine programme off. computational values. 15. amplifier. Lower TSE Margin is not used. as coasting down is natural. b) SGC Turbine start up programme gets switched off if TSE upper margin is less than 00K with turbine speed > 600 rpm < 2800 rpm while rolling.

c) Load Controller Both lower and upper margins used. These margins determine the gradient at which PRTD varies. -ve upper margin can unload the machine whereas reduced lower margin can prevent turbine from deloading. Load signal gets blocked in case TSE going out of order when influence is on. 3) CMC Unit load rate (set in CMC module) is going to Guided Target Indicator gets compressed with TSE margin. Minimum of TSE lower margin and unit load rate considering NO RUNBACK situation goes to GNI which ultimately gives the rate at which the unit should be unloaded. Maximum of TSE upper margin and UNIT load Rate goes to GNI which ultimately gives us the rate at which the unit should be loaded.








DESCRIPTION The 200MW generator is a three phase, horizontally mounted two-pole cylindrical rotor type, synchronous machine driven by steam turbine. The stator winding is cooled by de-mineralised water flowing through the hollow conductor while the rotor winding is cooled by hydrogen gas maintained inside the machine. Fans mounted on the generator rotor facilitate circulation of hydrogen inside the machine. Four coolers mounted inside the machine cool the hydrogen gas. The generator winding is provided with epoxy thermo-setting type insulation. The machine is provided with completely static thyristor controlled excitation system, fed from terminals of the machine. Hydrogen being a light gas with good heat carry away capacity is used for cooling the rotor winding, rotor and stator core. Two hydrogen driers are provided to facilitate moisture removal. Hydrogen is circulated through them via the fans in dry condition. Normally one drier is kept in service and other is on regeneration. Four hydrogen coolers are provided to cool the hot gas to maintain the cold gas temperature at 40oC. Liquid Level Detectors (LLDs) are provided to indicate liquid in generator casing. This provision is to indicate leakage of oil or water inside the generator. It can be drained through drain valve. H2 gas purity is to be maintained of very high order i.e. more than 97%. STATOR WATER-COOLING SYSTEM The stator winding of the generator is cooled by de-mineralised water circulating through hollow conductors of stator winding bars in a closed loop. The cooling water system consists of 2x100% duty AC motor driven pumps, 2x100% duty water coolers, 2x100% duty mechanical filters, 1x100% duty magnetic filter, expansion tank, polishing unit and ejector system. The stator water pump drive the water through coolers, filters and winding and finally discharges into the expansion tank situated at a height of about 5m above the TG floor. It is maintained at a vacuum of about 250 mm Hg by using water ejectors. A gas trap is provided in the system to detect any traces of hydrogen gas leaking into the stator water system.








To prevent leakage of hydrogen from generator housing, ring type shell seals are provided at both ends of the generator. During normal operation the AC seal oil pump draws the seal oil from the seal oil tank and feeds it into the shaft seals via 2x100% capacity coolers and 2x100% capacity filters. The differential pressure 2 regulator maintains seal oil pressure differential of 1.3 Kg/cm over the hydrogen pressure irrespective of the value of hydrogen pressure. The seal oil is supplied to the shaft seals into the annular groove of seal ring via the passage in the seal ring carrier. The clearance between shaft and seal ring is such that frictional losses and seal oil temperature rise are minimum. Oil film is of sufficient thickness to provide proper sealing. Higher-pressure ring relief oil is fed in the annular groove in the airside seal ring carrier. Thus gas and oil pressure acting on the seal ring are balanced and friction between seal ring and seal ring carrier is minimized. The seal ring is free to adjust its position according to shaft position. Airside seal oil is directly returned to the seal oil tank via a float valve. The oil drained towards the hydrogen side is first collected in pre-chamber and then passed to the intermediate oil tank in order to separate any trace of hydrogen present in seal oil. The oil from this tank also is returned to the seal oil tank via a float valve. Any possible traces of gases or vapour etc. are removed by vacuum pump from top of the seal oil tank. In case of failure of DPRV-A or AC as well as DC seal oil pumps failure, DPRV-B will come into service and governing oil is used as seal oil.




3 phase) 56 m 3 2 2 3.09 Kg/cm 36 oC 70 oC 186 2 . 750 V 9050 A 0. 75 oC (Alarm) 3. Rotor winding resistance per phase at 20 oC.49 % 0.40 KV (without AVR) 1 2 2 t <8 Anti clockwise Double star 9 (6 neutral.SPECIFICATIONS OF THE GENERATOR Rated parameters: Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW rating Rated Terminal Voltage Rated Stator Current Rated Power Factor Excitation voltage at MCR condition Excitation current at MCR condition Excitation voltage at no load Excitation current at no load Rated speed Rated frequency Stator winding resistance per phase at 20 oC.00155 Ω 0. 000 KW 15.2 kg/cm 40 oC.49 22. Efficiency at MCR condition Short circuit ratio Rise in voltage with 100% load throw off Negative phase sequence current capability Direction of rotation when viewed from slip ring Phase connection No of terminal brought out Generator gas volume Nominal pressure of hydrogen Permissible variation of gas Pressure Nominal temperature of cold gas Purity of hydrogen Relative humidity of H2 at nominal pressure Max temperature of cooling water inlet Max temperature of cooling water outlet Hot gas temperature Nominal gauge pressure at winding inlet Max temperature of Stator Water at winding inlet Max temperature of Stator Water at winding outlet KORBA SIMULATOR 247. (Alarm) > 97 % 60 % 36 oC.85 Lag 310 V 2600 A 102 V 917 A 3000 RPM 50 Hz. 43 oC. 0.0895 Ω 98. 000 KVA 210.5 kg/cm ± 0.

4 Kg/cm 0.3 micro mho/cm 20.C.C.0 micro mho/cm 200-300 mm of WCL 2. 45 0C.Stator water flow Normal Alarm Trip Stator water conductivity Normal High Trip Stator water expansion tank Vacuum Auto start of standby SW pump Nominal consumption of cooling water At 35 oC. seal oil pump) Seal oil temperature after Seal oil cooler Normal Alarm Seal oil outlet temperature Normal Alarm Differential pressure across duplex filter Normal Alarm Seal oil pressure at Turbine and Slip ring end 0.9 Kg/cm static head). At 37 oC. 5. At 40 oC. 65 0C. seal oil pump) Safety valve release (D.0 micro mho/cm 13.9 Kg/cm 2 (0.40 0C.4 Kg/cm 3 2 3 3 3 95 m /hr 110 m /hr 130 m /hr 9 Kg/cm 9 Kg/cm 2 2 3 3 20 . Safety Valve release (A. KORBA SIMULATOR 187 . 40 0C.6 Kg/cm 2 2 2 27 ± 3 m /hr 21 m /hr 13 m /hr < 5.

5 Kg/cm .96 KV to 16. 4. 44 0C. 60 0C. Output of the generator at various lagging and leading power factors are as per the generator capability curve. 8600 A to 9500 A. 95 0C. KORBA SIMULATOR 188 . at a Hydrogen pressure (g) of 3. 105 0C. The stator current should accordingly be changed within limits of 5% ± i. 110 0C. 115 0C. 14.e. High 85 0C.1. 75 0C. Permissible voltage of operation and corresponding values of the MVA outputs of stator currents are given in Table . OPERATION LIMITS Capability of the Generator The generator is capable of delivering 247 MVA continuously at 15. 5. 75 0C. During continuous operation of the generator at 110% of the rated value stator current should not increase beyond 9500 A corresponding to 105% of the rated value. 70 0C.75 KV terminal 2 voltage and stator current 9050 A. V. Variation of Terminal Voltage Generator can develop rated power at rated power factor when the terminal voltage changes within ± 5% of the rated value i.Permissible temperature rating of Generator: High 1. 6.e. 3.54 KV. The cold gas temperature not to exceed 44 0C and distillate temperature at inlet of stator winding not to exceed 45 0C. 7. 2. Generator bearing and seal Babbitt temperature Generator bearing oil outlet temperature Stator winding temperature Rotor winding temperature Stator core temperature Hot gas temperature Cold gas temperature 75 0C.


7 7. to 53.e.01 231 7.14 16. KORBA SIMULATOR 190 .24 in KA 17.96 247 9.32 voltage in KV Output in 217 MVA Stator current 7.5 Hz.17 224.5 Hz. However.6 15.7 242 8.37 16.56 17.5 During continuous operation of the generator at 110% of the rated value stator current should not increase beyond 9500 A corresponding to 105% of the rated value.75 247 9.TABLE – I Terminal 17.05 14. 47.92 16.85 237 8. Frequency Deviation The Generator can be operated continuously at rated output with a frequency variation of ±5% of the rated value i.54 247 8. the performance of the generator with frequency variation is limited by the turbine capability.

unloading of the generator has to be carried out as per the curves. The operation of the generator with cold gas temperature more than 55 0C is not permitted.Temperature of the Coolants If the temperature of the cooled hydrogen or inlet water to gas coolers increases beyond the rated value. Similarly.III respectively. Operation of the generator with cold distillate temperature below 35 0 C is not recommended. Permissible values of short time over loads of Stator Current Vs Time in minutes and Rotor Current Vs Time in seconds are given in Table . the unloading of the generator has to be carried out as per the given curves. the generator can be over loaded for short duration. The operation of the generator with cold distillate temperature more than 48 0 C is not permitted. KORBA SIMULATOR 191 . Operation of the generator with cold gas temperature below 20 0C is not recommended. if cold distillate temperature at inlet of stator windings increases beyond the rated value. UNLOADING SCHEDULE DUE TO HIGH DISTILLATE TEMPERATURE Overloading Under normal conditions.II and Table .

Asynchronous Operation Asynchronous Operation of the generator on field failure is allowed depending upon the permissible degree of the voltage dip and acceptability of the system from the stability point of view.e.95 60 5.9 60 3.5 minutes. the field suppression shall be cut out from the circuit and active load on the generator shall be decreased to 60% of the rated value within 30 seconds and to 40% in the following 1. 2 13.2 20 3. The generator can operate at 40% rated load asynchronously for a total period of 15 minutes from the instant of excitation failure.73 360 KORBA SIMULATOR 192 .76 4 11. At the same time current of maximum loaded phase should not exceed the permissible value for normal conditions of operation of turbo-generator under balanced loading.41 15 9.TABLE – II Stator current in KA Time in minutes TABLE .5 A.57 1 12. In case it is not possible to achieve this. It implies that maximum difference between limit current is about 10% of the rated value.86 6 10. Unsymmetrical Short Circuit Performance The duration of unbalanced operation should be such that the product of square of 2 negative sequence component of current I 2 expressed in terms of per unit value of stator current and its duration in seconds does not exceeds 8 (I 2 t < 8). During field failure. Within this steps should be taken to establish the reasons of field failure to restore normalcy or the set should be switched over to reserve excitation.31 5 10.12 240 2.67 2 12. the machine has to be run down and tripped. If negative sequence current reaches a value of 20-25% of the rated value trip-relay will operate and the generator will be automatically tripped. If the unbalance exceeds the above permissible limits.22 3 11.III Rotor current in KA Time in seconds Operation under Unbalanced Load The turbo-generator is capable of operating continuously on an unbalanced system loading provided that continuous negative phase sequence current during this period shall not exceed 5% of the rated stator current i. 452. measures shall be taken immediately to eliminate or reduce the extent of unbalance within 3 to 5 minutes.

kg/cm2 (g) 3.0 2.NEGATIVE SEQUENCE CURRENT CAPABILITY CURVE The permissible value of negative sequence current and the corresponding durations are given in Table .5 5 1.9 KORBA SIMULATOR 193 .25 10. However.9 0. TABLE – IV Duration of short circuit in seconds Negative sequence Current Operation at Reduced Hydrogen Pressure Continuous operation of the turbo-generator with lower hydrogen pressure than the 2 rated value of 3.0 1.2 2. during emergency.V H2 Pres.5 Kg/cm is not permitted.V.0 Generator Load (MW) 200 115 30 Duration of Operation Continuous Continuous Continuous 1.IV. the generator can be run at reduced hydrogen pressure with reduced load for a short duration as given in Table . TABLE .

Capacity of the Generator with One Cooler out of Service The generator can deliver 185 MW continuously when one gas cooler is out of service. Refer to Fig Motoring Action Motoring of the turbo-generator is permissible within the limitation of the turbine. Operation of generator with air-cooling is NOT PERMITTED.Within this time action should be taken to restore the hydrogen pressure to normal value. KORBA SIMULATOR 194 . The operation of the generator with more than one cooler out of service is not permitted.

Field Flashing Circuit Since it is difficult to start the excitation system with the residual voltage at nominal speed. v. the excitation system starts working smoothly. Any deviation in generator terminal voltage is sensed by an error detector and causes the voltage regulator to advance or retard the firing angle of thyristor thereby controlling the field excitation. Thyristor Converters The converter is assembled in one or more numbers of cubicles depending on the number of thyristor bridges connected in parallel. Rectifier Transformer The power transformer gets input supply from the generator output terminals. Field flashing Circuit Field breaker and field discharge equipment. The AC power is tapped off from the generator terminal. the remaining bridges will have adequate capacity to feed the generator field for full load output. ii. The static excitation system consists of: i. A back-up battery supply is given in parallel to field flashing output. Initially the station auxiliary supply of 415 volts is stepped down by a small transformer and then rectified in a rectifier bridge and supplied to the generator field. stepped down and rectified by fully controlled thyristor bridges and then fed to generator field as excitation power. Fans mounted on the top of the cubicles cool the thyristor bridges. The number of bridges is so designed that in case one bridge fails during operation. Normally it is a dry type transformer. Automatic Voltage Regulator iv. The secondary is connected to the Thyristor Bridge.STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM Description Static Excitation System is used in most of the 200 MW Generator sets. which delivers a variable DC output to the generator field. a field flashing circuit is provided to overcome this problem. KORBA SIMULATOR 195 . A high control speed is achieved by using an inertia free control and power electronic system. to control the generator-output voltage. Rectifier Transformer Thyristor Converter iii. As soon as the generator output builds up to 40%.


KORBA SIMULATOR 197 . a field breaker is provided. The magnetic field energy is dissipated through a field discharge resistance. The voltage thus obtained across the resistor can be added vectorially either for compounding purpose or for transformer droop compensation. For parallel running of generators compounding feature is provided. the field breaker provides protection by isolating DC source from the field. AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR It is the heart of excitation system. Three CTs sensing the current in the generator terminal feed proportional current across the variable resistors in the AVR. In case of electrical faults.FIELD BREAKER CUBICLE For rapid de-excitation of synchronous machine and complete isolation of the field from the Thyristor Bridge. The AC input thus obtained is rectified and compared against a highly stabilized reference value and any difference is amplified in different stages of amplification. It consists of the following components: ERROR DETECTOR AND AMPLIFIER The generator terminal voltage is stepped down by three phases PTs and fed to the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR).

The step pulse at the output ensures simultaneous firing of several thyristor in parallel. by exciting which. A built. KORBA SIMULATOR 198 . pulse amplifier (intermediate stage) and transmits them through pulse transformer to the gates of the thyristor. It gets its synchronous AC reference through a filter circuit and generates a row of pulses whose position depends on the DC input from the AVR i. This is also known as pulse coupling stage. The pulse limit for rectifier and inverter (deexcitation) operation can be adjusted independent of each other by potentiometer provided on the front side of unit.e. A built-in relay is provided which can be used for blocking a 6-pulse channel. +5V and a coarse stabilised voltage UL. In a two-channel system. -15V. the pulse position varies continuously as a function of the control voltage. these pulses can be either blocked completely or shifted to inverter mode of operation.e. It has also DC power supply unit which operates from a three-phase 380V supply and delivers + 15V. PULSE FINAL STAGE The unit receives input pulse from the previous stage i. Two relays are provided. Six double pulses displaced by 60o from one another are generated at this output.in power supply provides the required DC supply (+ 15V +5V & UL) to the final amplifiers. energising and de-energising the relay affect the changeover.GRID CONTROL UNIT The output of the AVR is fed to a grid control unit. PULSE AMPLIFIER The pulse output of this grid control unit is amplified further at an intermediate stage of amplification.

When one channel is working generating the required pulses. FOLLOW-UP UNIT To ensure a smooth changeover from ' Auto'to ' Manual'control it is necessary that the position of the pulses in both the channels should be identical. The following limiters are normally used in the static excitation system. Pulses can be blocked with an internal relay provided in this unit. Pulses are blocked in case of Failure of one or more thyristor fuses. Failure of power supply of the final stage. A pulse supervision unit detects spurious pulses or loss of pulses on the pulse bus bar and transfers control from ' Auto'to ' Manual'channel. any difference in the two control levels can be visually checked on the balance meter provided on the control panel and after matching the two signals the changeover can be done. MANUAL CONTROL CHANNEL A separate manual control channel is provided where the controlling DC signal is taken from a stabilized DC voltage through a motor operated potentiometer. the other remains blocked. So it is necessary to influence the voltage regulator by suitable means to limit the over-excitation and under-excitation. even if a thyristor bridge fails with its final pulse stage. Failure of the converter fans.Each thyristor bridge has its own final pulse stage. The DC signal is fed to a separate grid control unit whose output pulses after being amplified at an intermediate stage can be fed to final pulse stage. b. while transferring control from manual to auto. Therefore. blocking or releasing the pulses of corresponding intermediate stage affects a changeover between auto and manual control. Stator Current Limiter Rotor Current Limiter Rotor Angle Limiter KORBA SIMULATOR 199 . However. A pulse comparison unit detects any difference in the position of the pulses and with the help of a follow-up unit in actuates motor operated potentiometer on the manual channel to turn in direction so as to eliminate the difference. Therefore. LIMIT CONTROLLERS When a generator is running in parallel with the power network it is essential to maintain it in synchronism without exceeding the maximum permissible load on the machine and also without the protection system tripping. a. c. the remaining thyristor bridges can continue to provide full load output and thereby ensure (n-2) operation.

and with necessary time lapse. It comprises an actual value converter. The field current is measured as the AC input side of the thyristor converter and is converted into proportional DC voltage. Both the signals are amplified and summed up to influence the excitation of the synchronous machine through AVR in a manner so as to suppress the rotor oscillation. two PID regulators and a DC power pack. Also. dv/dt sensor and a signaling unit. The inductive current limit is affected through the integrator while the capacitive current gets directly on the AVR output. The slip as well as acceleration signals needed for the stabilisation are derived from active power delivered by the alternator. two comparator. which provides the necessary dead time and the gradient that can be adjusted by potentiometers. amplified. KORBA SIMULATOR 200 . during a fault condition (when dv/dt is large and -ve). The limit is reduced during (n-2) operation through a relay switched circuit. The signal is compared with an adjustable reference.Stator/Rotor current Limiters limit the control voltage to a value corresponding to the permissible excitation in over excited operation while rotor angle and stator current limiter limits the control voltage to value corresponding to permissible excitation in under excited operation. A discriminator in the circuit differentiates between inductive and capacitive current. The limiting regulator operates as soon as the DC value exceeds the reference value. SLIP STABILISING UNIT The slip stabilising unit is used for the suppression of rotor oscillations of the alternator through the additional influence of excitation. The positive and negative signals processed by two separate amplifiers are brought to the output stage and only that output which had to take care of the limitations is made effective.e. a reference value. a limiter with adjustable PID characteristics. STATOR CURRENT LIMITER This unit functions in conjunction with an integrator unit. ROTOR ANGLE LIMITER This unit limits the load angle i. the limit is raised (field forcing limit). The regulator consists of a measuring converter. fed to the voltage regulator input. The limiter is fed with generator terminal voltage & current and through a simulation circuit derives the rotor voltage & grid voltage & hence the load angle. ROTOR CURRENT LIMITER The unit basically comprises an actual value converter. a limiting amplifier with adjustable PID characteristics and a reference value unit. the angle between the voltage of the network centre and the rotor voltage.

as also Regulation Supply. the remaining bridges will be adequate to provide full load output with field flashing. With rise in temperature the resistance value changes sharply after a certain level. result in tripping of the Field Breaker. This change with one resistor is used for ' warning'and with another for ' tripping' . power supplies receive their input AC supply through Miniature Circuit Breaker with thermal overload relays. Isolator Isolators are provided on the input and output side of the converters to enable replacement of defective thyristor under running load.EXCITATION SYSTEM PROTECTION Excitation Transformer Protection The protection unit for the excitation transformer is normally mounted on the swing frame of the regulator cubicle. Besides over-current protection a dry type rectifier transformer is embedded with temperature dependent resistance at the low voltage windings. Failure of Auto Power Supply / Regulation supply result in to Manual channel change over. Redundancy The thyristor bridges are designed such that in case of failure of one. The current supply for the relays is made through a DC converter. Airflow Monitoring Since converters are air-cooled by fans the airflow is monitored by airflow relays. Failure of protection and control voltage. It consists of two over current relays. which receives its input supply from battery through a filter circuit. with adjustable ranges. Converter Protection Fuses Each thyristor in the converter is connected with a fast acting semiconductor fuse to protect in case of over-current. KORBA SIMULATOR 201 . Resistor/Capacitor Network across to each thyristor for protection against hole storage effect.C. AVR Protection All D.

Power chart of a Turbogenerator (Solid rotor design) SIGNIFICANCE OF MACHINE CAPABILITY DIAGRAM Capability diagram of the generator gives the safe operating domains. It gives the basic information regarding the limiting zones of the operation so that limiter can be set / commissioned suitably for safe operation of unit. KORBA SIMULATOR 202 .

1 Ifn KORBA SIMULATOR 203 . 2500 KVA.85 LAG 3000 RPM EXCITATION SYSTEM Ifn Ifmax Vfo : : : 2512 A 3000 A (contin.0896 Ω 1.65 Ifn.75 KV/575 V. 2.5 KV 5 K Ohm. 620 V for 10 sec ) Vfn Ifo : 300 V : 917A Field resistance Field forcing (n-2) limitation α min α max Over voltage setting Rotor Earth fault Range of control of AVR Field flashing off Excitation transformer CTs Generator Excitation Transformer DCCT PTs DCPT Field flashing transformer 0.4 Ifn 30o 72o 2.115%) Blocking of Ch. 2500/5 A 3000/2 A 15750/110 V 600V/20 mA 5 KVA. pulses upto 30% voltage 70% V 15.75 KV 9050 A 0. 415/35 V ( 3900 A.2 K Ohm.000/5 A 200/1 A.EXCITATION SYSTEM PARAMETERS ( KORBA STAGE-1 ) GENERATOR MVA MW VOLTAGE STATOR CURRENT POWER FACTOR SPEED 247 210 15. 30% (85% . : : : : : : 10.) 120 V : : : : : : : : : : 0. 1.

Fan fail a. ii. e. Air Flow Relay Fan supply Pulse final stage power supply failed iii. Thyristor fuse failed iv. Transformer Over Current Instantaneous Transformer Over Current delayed 2nd stage Rotor Over Voltage 48V supply fail Three or more (≥/3) failed i. a b Field Flashing disturbed Switch in Test Position KORBA SIMULATOR 204 . d. b.B.Field Breaker closing 1 GE2 Open 2 386GX Reset : Up to 70% voltage within 20 Secs + RPM Relay (2950 rpm) Field Flashing Field Breaker Tripping Protections 1 Class A 30Z → 86G→ 386 GX → Field Breaker Trip a. HI . 2 Isolator open. Gen trips through field failure relay. stage-II Regulator supply fuse fail Manual Channel fail Thyristor Fan supply fuse fail Transformer Temp.HI 3 Direct Trip Trip the F. c. b c d e Rotor Earth Fault. Class B 30F → UTR → LFPR(32GI) → 32GI→ 2/32G1 → 86G → 386G → FB Trip a. b. directly.

4 Automatic Changeover to Manual a b c d e f Supply A1 fail Supply A fail Excitation transformer O/C delayed Stage-I Excitation transformer temp HI Auto Channel pulse failure AVR PT Fuse Failure Protective change over to manual AVR Fault FB Tripped due to AVR fail Limiters in Action Loss of Control voltage Rotor E/F Alarms a b c d e f Limiters a Stator Current Limiter b c Rotor current limiter Rotor Angle Limiter KORBA SIMULATOR 205 .


Requirement of Protective Device: .Limit its scope by switching to isolate the defect. . . During abnormal operating conditions certain components of the generator are subjected to increased stress and therefore.) Protective Devices The choice of the protective equipment for a generator requires precise knowledge of the stress to which the generator is subjected to during services in order that preventive measure may be devised for avoiding inadmissible stress. s Task of the protective system: .Unload and/or trip the machine immediately. referred to as faults.Sensitivity: Lowest signal input value at which the protective device must act. It can be either internal fault or external fault depending upon whether they are inside or outside of the machine.Tripping time: There should be clearly a distinction between the tripping time of the device. The machine with fault must be tripped immediately.Selectivity: Only that part of the installation actually containing fault should be disconnected. .Reliability: The device must always act within the required time.Detect abnormal condition or defect. the mechanical forces affecting various parts of the machine and effects of the temperature rise. The total fault clearing time now is of the order of 100 (mill sec. Important stresses include the electrical voltages to which insulation is exposed. . could fail. considering the circumstances such as current and total tripping time for the fault. . KORBA SIMULATOR 207 .Safety against faulty tripping: There should be no trip when there is no fault.GENERATOR PROTECTION Description The core of an electrical power system is the generator. . The corrective measures against generator' abnormal operation are taken care by stubborn protective system.Alarm the operating staff. .


UAT Differential d. As such generator protection is broadly segregated into two parts i. Reverse Power 12. a.T.e. Generator Local Breaker Backup (LBB) 13. G. e. 2. electrical protection-mostly Class-A type and mechanical protection-mostly Class-B type. c. c. Oil Temperature High 14. 3.Types of Protections The details of the protective circuits of a 200 MW turbo-generator are given in the above fig. ELECTRICAL PROTECTION 1. Generator Differential Overhead Line Differential Overall Differential Stator Earth Fault Rotor Earth Fault b. Bus Bar Protection KORBA SIMULATOR 209 . The several faults occurring in generator can be either electrical or mechanical in nature. Low Forward Power 11. 5. e. c. 8. 4. Stator Earth Fault. stand by Stator Interturn Fault Negative Phase Sequence Current Generator Backup Impedance Loss of Excitation Pole Slipping Over Voltage Over Fluxing 10. 9. Generator Transformer Protections a. Restricted Earth Fault. Differential Protection: a. 7. 6. Main Earth fault protection: b. PRD Protection d. Buchholz Protection Winding Temperature High Fire Protection b. UAT Protection 15.

This protection meant for complete protection of H.T. winding of the generator transformer is star connected and the neutral is solidly earthed. RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT The H. thus producing a difference current in the differential circuit. and a high impedance definite current attracted armature type. The relays are designated 87 UAT and 87 UTB are DTH 31 type. Any fault occurring on these lines is detected by overhead line differential protection. KORBA SIMULATOR 210 . winding of generator transformer.V. OVERHEAD LINE DIFFERENTIAL The 400 KV bushings of the generator transformer are connected to the switchyard double moose conductor overhead line.T. The delta side of the generator transformer is considered as a part of the generator and its earth fault would cause the earth fault current to flow toward the generator neutral and be detected as generator earth fault.5 amp) relay current which corresponds to 1000 amp fault current. it has been provided with a biased differential protection in a similar circulating current scheme. It is set to operate 10% (0. GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL A direct short circuit between different phases of the winding causes a severe fault current flow through the windings and results in extensive damages. the relay picks up. A fault inside the protected zone is fed from either one side or both sides depending upon the current sources present. This difference is detected by differential relay. The relays used is designated 87 G and is CAG 34. The current entering and leaving the protected object are determined by current transformers and compared by relays by means of a differential circuit as shown in the figure. UATS DIFFERENTIAL Since UATs are connected directly to the stator windings. As a result there is a distinct difference between the current at the neutral and terminal ends of the particular winding. The relay is designated as 64 GT and is CAG 14 type one amp. c.5 amp type. G.V. The relay designated 87 L is of CAG 34 type 1 amp.DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION a. b. G. If this differential current exceeds a set percentage of the current flowing in the protected object.

The relay is designated 87 GT and is of DTH 32 type 5 amp which is a biased differential type relay.T. OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL Since Generator Transformer is directly connected to the stator winding.d. it would be proper to include the transformer windings associated bus ducts including those for UAT HV side and conductors in a similar circulating current protection scheme. KORBA SIMULATOR 211 . G. Biased setting of 30% is used to prevent the relay operation in case of a through fault when the current transformer may saturate and produce an erroneous secondary current.

15. KORBA SIMULATOR 212 . For an earth fault in the generator the E/F current flows in the primary of the neutral grounding transformer.24 KV ratios. Generally 5% Generator winding starting from neutral point remains unprotected because a fault in these portions will generate too low a voltage for relay operation. As a result a voltage across the resistor is developed which activates stator E/F sensing relay. The secondary winding of the transformer is shorted through loading resistance of 0. vibration of the conductors or other fittings of the cooling systems.EARTH FAULT PROTECTIONS a. The relay has a inverse definite minimum time characteristics. The reason for this kind of protection is due to mechanical damages resulting from the insulation fatigue. creepage of the conductor bases.75/0. The earth fault relay designated is VDG 14 type 64 G1. STATOR EARTH FAULT (Main) The generator neutral is earthed through the primary winding of neutral grounding transformer of the rating 50 KVA.42 Ω.

if it occurs only at one point.R value < 5. If a large portion of winding is shorted.Stator Earth Fault (Main) b. will be stronger at one pole than the other which will cause high vibration and may damage the bearings and may sufficiently displace rotor thereby fouling the stator. Rotor E/F protection is provided by monitoring the I. VDG 14 type. The relay is 64 G2. The attractive force.5 KΩ : Alarm . When there is no E/F. the field flux pattern may change causing the flux concentration at one pole and wide dispensation at the other.2 KΩ : Trip KORBA SIMULATOR 213 . I. STATOR STANDBY EARTH FAULT The relay is connected across an open delta of the generator PT secondary windings. which is proportional to the square of the flux density.R value of the rotor winding I.R value < 2. the sum of the phase voltages of the generator and hence the voltage across the relay is zero. Danger arises if a second fault occurs causing the current to be diverted in part at least. It has a inverse time voltage characteristics. ROTOR EARTH FAULT Ground leakage in the rotor circuit of a generator does not adversely affect operation. c. The voltage across the point a & b will assume a positive value when one phase voltage of the generator drops because of earth fault on that phase. which can burn the conductor causing severe damage to rotor. from the intervening turns.

it is detected by a polarised voltage relay. Any unbalanced condition could be resolved into positive. or through voltage transformer to voltage relay.STATOR INTER-TURN FAULT When leakage occurs between the turns in the same phase of a winding the induced voltage is reduced and there will be a voltage difference between the centre of the terminal voltage triangle and the neutral of the machine. The relay is designated 50 GI. the current transformer carries a transient current or alternatively voltage transformer produce a voltage thereby picking up relay and tripping the Generator. in a generator having one winding per phase. when inter-turn leakage occurs at the ends of the open delta. These neutral are then joined through current transformer to current relays. a voltage transformer is connected between each phase terminal and the neutral of the winding. is a CAG 14 type 5 amp attracted armature. the neutral ends are connected together to form. NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE A three phase balanced load produces a reaction field. The zero sequence components do not produce armature reaction. If an inter-turn fault occurs in the machine. which is constant and rotates synchronously with the rotor field system. The positive sequence component is similar to the balanced load. For generators having several parallel windings per phase. negative and zero sequence components. as many neutrals as there are parallel windings per phase. The negative sequence component is similar to that of KORBA SIMULATOR 214 . Therefore. the secondary transformer leads being connected in open-delta. definite current operated type.

Hence the flux produced by negative phase sequence current cuts the rotor at double the rotational speed thereby inducing double frequency currents. For any current conditions in the three phases the amount of unbalance can be determined from the values of negative sequence components I2 of current by the method of symmetrical components. The degree of unbalance is taken to the value of the negative sequence current component expressed. as percentage of rated current. the generator is capable of withstanding but beyond it there is time delay. This generator has I2 t = 8 characteristics indicating that within I2 t < 8. The losses in the rotor are 2 proportional to the square of the degree of unbalance. The relay used is designated 46G and is of solid-state design and CTNM type. As a result eddy currents produced are very large and cause severe heating of the rotor windings particularly damper windings.positive sequence but the resulting reaction field rotates in the opposite direction. The time delay has to be matched to the machine negative sequence current withstands capability. 2 KORBA SIMULATOR 215 .

which may not be able to supply the required excitation MVAR. Operation as an induction generator necessitates the flow of slip frequency current in the rotor. Also. Since the system faults would suddenly change the system impedance both the relays shall operate within 55 ms. Otherwise Class-B trip if the grid is able to sustain the voltage dip. it could overload the grid. In order to discriminate against swings on the grid. Since rotor would get over heated due to slip frequency current. the machine should not run more than a few seconds without excitation. Because of this the machine may fall out of step or usually known as pole slipping trip. The relay used is designated 21G. POLE SLIPPING The asynchronous operation of the machine while the excitation is still intact unlike loss of excitation causes severe shock to both machine and grid due to violent oscillations in both active power and reactive power. damper winding. If this disturbance has been sufficiently reduced by the time this has occurred. the two elements would operate sequentially and a trip command is given when both have operated. As the impedance seen by the relay changes it comes in the operating zone of the two relays one after the other. The swing curves can be detected by an impedance relay. the main flux being produced by wattless stator current drawn from the system.5 seconds so that the generator is tripped only when 400 KV protections has not cleared the fault even in the second zone. It acts as an induction generator. the machine may regain synchronism. KORBA SIMULATOR 216 . LOSS OF EXCITATION Failure of the field system leads to losing of Synchronism and resulting in running above synchronous speed.GENERATOR BACK-UP IMPEDANCE PROTECTION Three-phase zone impedance is provided for the back-up protection of generator against external three phases and phase to phase faults in 400 KV systems. in that case it is not desirable to trip the machine. excitation under these conditions requires a large reactive component which approaches the value of rated output of the machine. The zone of impedance relay should be extended beyond 400 KV switchyard and it should be connected to trip the generator after a time delay of 1 to 1. during pole slipping. and slot wedges. The relay used is designated 40 G YCGF type. The oscillation may disappear in few seconds. When loss of excitation is accompanied by under voltage it will initiate Class-A trip. The sequential operation is observed by auxiliary relays. the tripping is through an impedance relay (98 GY) set with a reach up to the 400 KV yard. however. but if it does not. If however the angular displacement of the rotor exceeds the stability limit the rotor will slip a pole pitch. it must be isolated from the system. The relay used is 98G and is of solid-state design of ZTO type. The relay has two measuring elements set at two values near the independence as seen by the relay. The relay can be set to be in operation for swings up to +90O corresponding to the stability limits of the unit.

This is a protection to trip generator on other than electrical faults. G. LOW FORWARD POWER PROTECTION When a generator. 20% higher than rated v/f ratio.C. If the flux increases unduly.1 sec & trip at 12 sec in v/f relay & generates AVR ' Raise' block. The power relay used is designated 32 G1 and is a WCD type.T become over saturated resulting in high magnetising current. Since core can be damaged because of this overheating. The relay is set to operate at 10% rise in the terminal voltage. Surge voltage originating from lines because of switching or atmospheric disturbance is dealt with directly by lighting arrestor and surge diverters. The flux is dependent on ratio of voltage & frequency. switching capacitive faults etc. Also this protection is used for a few electrical faults where generator trip can be delayed. The relay used is 99 GT and is GTT21 type which senses v/f ratio at the secondary of the bus duct P. trips the generator with a time delay of 2 seconds. Practically this condition will arise if the machine AVR misbehaves thereby unduly increasing the voltage even when the grid frequency is low. of the transformer.e. Alarm is at 0. A time delay of 3 seconds is provided to take care of transient over voltage arising from line charging. protection has to be provided against it. To protect the machine against over voltage the protection relay senses the voltage at the secondary of the bus duct PTs. This in turn leads to higher iron losses. KORBA SIMULATOR 217 . When the load on generator drops to less than 0.5 percent. The condition of over fluxing could arise in case the voltage at the machine terminal rises or its frequency drops or both occurring simultaneously. provision for time lag unit is there to prevent undesired operation from transient power reversal. synchronised with the grid. the point when the generator starts drawing power from the grid and acts as motor. The adopted setting for relay is v/f = 1.75 KV at terminal. loses its driving force the generator remains in synchronism. generator low forward power relay gets energised and with turbine tripped or stop valves closed. The relay used is designated 59 G & is VTU 12 type 110V A.T. OVER FLUXING The iron core of the generator transformer carries the flux to produce required emf. The generator should be isolated from the grid after the steam flow ceases and the flow of power to grid reduces to minimum i.U.5 . and gives alarm and trip signals at different time delay.e. However. i.T.OVER VOLTAGE The generator winding is rated for 15. the magnetic circuits of the generator and G. which will increase the winding temp.2 P. sustained over voltage would unduly stress the winding insulation and may lead to failure.

e. which results in increase of temperature. failure. The LBB protection initiates bus bar protection.2 secs. The vessel is full of oil.C. The generated gas is utilised for relay operation. vibration and distortion. Continued full speed turbine rotation causes lot of turbulence of the trapped steam. So there is a back-up arrangement to trip the generator if it does not trip within 2 seconds i. This is known as Reverse power Protection which acts in two stages. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONS G.) to trip all other breakers connected to that bus. protection. protection. (Refer to the bus-bar protection scheme).F.P. The relay is a gas-operated device arranged in the pipeline between the transformer tank and separate oil conservator. It contains two floats b1 and b2 which are to be hinged and to be pressed by their buoyancy against two stops.REVERSE POWER PROTECTION The generator must be disconnected from the grid as soon as turbine stop/control valves have closed. on L.B. The relay used is designated as 50Z. This acts as a final back up to L. LOCAL BREAKER BACK-UP PROTECTION (LBB) This is a protection against the main Gen.P. to the relay extended through trip command (either 86 G or 286 G or B/B protection trip). Relay sensing • • D. Over current element senses actual fault persisting. this protection acts as a back up to the main generator by tripping all the breakers connected to that particular bus. completely shutting off the steam. 1st stage reverse power relay operates after 5 seconds time delay and includes stop valve closing/turbine trip. they will rise and KORBA SIMULATOR 218 .F. 2nd stage Reverse Power Relay acts after 60 seconds time delay which trips the generator irrespective of either stop valve closing or turbine trip. When both the above conditions are satisfied LBB protection acts with a timer (0. If gas bubbles are generated in the transformer due to fault.T. Thus turbine will be subjected to excessive thermal overstress. C. Hence. which may occur due to (i) (ii) Mechanical failure Trip circuits not healthy. The power relay designated is 32 G2 and is also WCD type. BUCHHOLZ OPERATION Any internal fault in generator transformer will result into rapid increase in the winding temperature resulting in vaporisation of oil (dissociation of oil) accompanied by generation of gas.

THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION Vapour pressure thermometers or resistance temperature detectors are used for this purpose. Sprinkler installation comprising of a system of interconnected pipes into which sprinkler heads are fitted on a definite basis of distribution. If the temperature rises still further tripping will take place. Sprinkler heads are provided in the compressed air line. FIRE PROTECTION Sprinkler system is utilised to protect the transformers from fire hazards. Then the load on the transformer is to be reduced. The transformer winding temperature and the oil temperature are continuously monitored. When the fault is dangerous and gas production is violent the sudden displacement of oil along with the pipe tilts the float b2 and causes a second contact to be closed and making the trip-circuit and operating the main switches on both HV & LV sides. Gas is not produced until temperature exceeds about 150oC. Generally the sprinkler/system consists of a compressed air line and a water line. which operates an alarm. KORBA SIMULATOR 219 . when the temperature reaches a certain value it will give indication.get trapped in the upper part of the relay chamber thereby displacing the oil and lowering the float b1. If the rate of generation of gas is small the lower float b2 is unaffected. Sprinkler heads are so constructed that the heat arising from fire will cause them to rupture. so momentary overload of transformer does not affect the relay unless the transformer is really hot. Also insufficient oil level in Buchholz relay could lead to same operation. This sinks and eventually closes an external contact.

from his water will be sprinkled on to the transformer. When the sprinkler head ruptures.The compressed air line will always be kept in charged condition. This protection trips all the feeders connected to the faulted bus zone. BUS BAR PROTECTION This is a protection against 400 KV bus faults. it must be reliable and discriminatory so as to (i) (ii) trip only the faulted bus section (zone) not to operate for external faults. the pressure in the water header will open to send the water into the water header. KORBA SIMULATOR 220 .

C. The D. Also a supervision relay ' connected in 95' the A. for any Bus bar protection trip to occur. Sensing of the particular zone is made through isolator contact status relay (type VAJC). This is set at a lower value so that it can sense shorting / opening of one CT circuit current at normal operating value. C etc. relays (97) are connected to these trip buses again through respective isolator status contacts. loose connection. In addition to each of the main zones there is an overall check zone to increase reliability of the whole system.e. scheme is provided. The bus bar protection trip D. shorting etc. The operation of the relays is used to energize B/B protection trip buses.) through isolator status relay contacts. This provides an alarm and also isolates the B/B protection scheme. All CTs in that particular zone are parallel with proper polarity to obtain the current differential. KORBA SIMULATOR 221 . both or any one of the main zones and check zone must operate.C. B.C current scheme is similar to main zone except it is not routed through any isolator selection.C trip circuit is not complete unless the check protection also operates i. which is fed to the relay. The current is switched into appropriate zone (zone A. Bus 1(C) X Bus 3 (D) X X Bus 3 (D) Bus 4 (E) Each feeder has one common CT for main zone bus protection. This zone covers the whole of 400 KV yard and uses a separate CT core to reduce chances of mal-operation due to CT saturation. 400 KV yard has 6 bus zones (4 main and 2 transfer zone) as shown in figure below.The current differential senses the fault through high impedance voltage relay (Type FTG) to reduce chances of mal-operation on external faults due to CT saturation. Section I Bus 1 (A) Bus 2 (B) Section II Trans. The A.

30 D LBB Protection. 99 GTTX Gen. Stator stand-by E/F Protection 64 G2X UT-A Buchholz Trip 30 K UT-A Buchholz Trip 30 N UT-A Fire Protection 30 L UT-B Fire Protection 30 P Gen Negative Sequence Protection 46 T LBB Protection 50 ZX From Relay 86 G UAT-A Back-Up Over current Protection 51 UTAX UAT-B Back-Up Over current Protection 51 UTBX GT Over-Fluxing. 21G Gen. 50 GIX GEN. 64 GIX GT Restricted E/F Protection. 87UT BX GEN. 59 GC GEN. Reverse Power Protection 32G Low Forward Power Protection. 87 GX Gen. 30 E Excitation System Fault. 32 G1 UTR-A UTR-B GT Block Overall Diff Protection 87 GTX GEN. Over voltage. Back-up Impedance Protection. Over head feeder Diff Protection.GENERATOR PROTECTION GT Fire Protection. 87 UTX UAT B Diff Protection. 30C Bus Bar Zone ‘C’ Protection. 87 LX UAT A Diff Protection. 30 Z Generator Diff Protection. 32 G1 KORBA SIMULATOR 222 . 64 GTX Low Forward Power Protection. 30 B GT Buchholz Protection. 98 GX Stator E/F Protection. Inter-Turn Fault. 30G GT Pressure Release Valve. Pole Slipping protection.









Knowledge of measurement is essential for designing any process. In analogue signal processing the amplitude is increased or a power through some form of amplification is utilized. Signal processing on output signals bring them into a form or description compatible with the computer. and recording. Measuring systems are studied. various stages of operations carried out on the controls and measurement system has been depicted. In making most engineering measurements. ' sense'or ' measure'the quantity that sets the limit for the ' integrity' of the measured value. Data logging is done by computers. Electronic data handling systems tackle the signals for display. The basic measuring element or the combination of elements. Instrumentation system encompasses the entire data handling. transmission and reduction of the data. the Measurement systems are usually of two types 1) Mechanical and 2) Power type. Digital signals can be transmitted to a distant and remote station. The instrumentation system is formed from KORBA SIMULATOR 231 . condition or characteristic of the system in study. Computer control of an industrial process demands that the measurement is fast enough to result in real-time instrumentation and control. we require the assistance of some form of measuring system and measurement by direct comparison (is less general than indirect) or by indirect comparison.INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Measurement is the source of important and necessary information for any continuous process. starting with the basic function of measurement or releasing the control function signals. Measurement is essential tool and it supports to monitor the operational parameters of any system or the process that performs. with greater accuracy and integrity than that of analog signals. Digital-signal processing techniques are used for developing sophisticated instrumentation systems with multifunction capability. and into digital signals. The output signals of the primary measuring systems are converted into proportionate analog electrical signals. The data is transmitted over a long distance. In any of the process. utilized and designed such that. The data handling operations constitute acquisition. record or decision-making. the output signals truthfully represent the state. Measured data is acquired and pooled at a central location in complex system for display. Instruments are the measuring means and these are vital exactly like body nerves or the brain in human organs. which have provisions for storing data. Data acquisition systems (DAS) are used for displaying and subsequent operation on the data derived from all the basic measuring systems. Measuring element provides an output signal that is displayed and recorded in both analog and digital fashion. The accuracy of indicated or displayed value may be less if the output signal of the basic measuring element is handled by some intermediate systems. The accuracy with which the condition of a system is controlled by an automatic control system has similar accuracy as measured system must have. In the Figure shown below. Control function is generated after the measured value is compared with the desired or reference value in the form of standard output signals for use in automatic control. Automatic data processing and automatic computation use the logical components in the modern sophisticated systems. it is reduced and reconstructed to the original form.

The first contact that a measuring system has with the quantity to be measured is through the input sample accepted by the detecting element that senses or detects the input signal and then transduces into an analogous form. its quality. In making most engineering measurements. Normally Mechanical devices function as Primary Detector/Transducer and the Electrical device serve as a Secondary Transducer. and characteristics in combustion chambers (Boilers). are essentially required for keeping proper control/check on operation activities. air & flue gas flow. Acquiring the reliable measurements and then correctly interpreting its meaning invariably leads one nearer & nearer to the desired solution. the vibration. the steam pressure. measurements of the parameters viz. The measuring instrument senses. voltages or the current amplitudes of the turbines. The chain of devices converts the basic form of input into analogue form or into a digital form that represents the output as known function of the input. One has to understand fully the system and select/use instrumentation for processing data. converts and finally presents an analogue or the digital output in the form of display and displacement in a scale or a chart. we require the assistance of some form of measuring system and measurement by direct comparison (is less general than indirect) or by indirect comparison. temperature and flow. frequencies.application of all the basic measuring systems as well as the processing of the measured data. In power plants. KORBA SIMULATOR 232 . and generators etc.

buffer the signal. the Interfering input. Finally the output components due to interfering input and the output component due to the desired input with modifying components are added. Input quantity in the form of sensation is used to drive the primary sensing element as shown. The Instrument amplifiers amplify the low level signals superimposed with common mode voltage and have the characteristics like low drift. In the subsequent diagram the input-output relationship in instrumentation has been shown. high noise rejection capability etc. The operational amplifiers are intended primarily for amplification of voltage signal derived from transducers’ circuit with accurately adjusted gain values. and the Modifying inputs.MEASURING SYSTEM: INPUT-OUTPUT FUNCTIONING The input/output relationship and the elements have been shown in the functional diagram of measuring systems. it is then conditioned & converted suitably. to give adequate output. MEASURING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM INPUT-OUTPUT FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS Instrumentation Amplifiers are used to boost the amplitude of the signal. convert the signal current into voltage and separate differential signal. The input quantities are classified as the Desired input. recorders CRT displays. high linearity. These inputs are then amplified/suitably conditioned through amplifier modules as shown. Strain gauge bridges and biological electrodes connected in Wheatstone bridge configurations as shown. any variation in gain affects the accuracy of measure of primary quantity. the transducer then converts it in secondary signal. additional power source is given for the transducer/primary sensor operation. KORBA SIMULATOR 233 . limit monitors and other applications. high input impendence. The signal then becomes the desired data which is transmitted & telemetered then further processed for driving the output instruments like display indicators. unwanted common mode signal etc The amplifiers are mostly used in the applications of thermocouples. high CMRR.

the potentiometer R1 can give the required gain. Full scale voltage level out of the amplifier is achieved either by sample and hold circuits. The transducer. in some cases they require auxiliary energy source and are therefore energy controllers (called ‘passive’ transducers). and the transducer puts it in to a more convenient form. A = (1+2R2/R1) (R4/R3). driving and transferring the signal into usable form. The bridge is not perfectly balanced and error Vo appears due to Common-Mode input at the amplifier (voltage EBD decides the error) used as instrument amplifier. A/D converters etc. connected in high CMRR using non-inverting configuration). The Instrument transducers convert the mechanical input to an analogue electrical output for further processing it in readable/usable form. and the transducers may be genuine energy converters (called ‘active’ transducers).The instrument amplifiers are the improved version of differential amplifiers (FET input op-amps. The measuring system consists of a primary sensing KORBA SIMULATOR 234 . The Wheatstone bridge is connected with the differential amplifier having voltage Vequivalent and the resistances at the input terminals of the Op-amp become unequal.The output voltage is Rs/Rg. sensor or detector is the device that measures the physical quantity by electrical or other means. Differential voltage ediff appears across Rg and creates an imbalance in the current flowing through the transistors Q1 and Q2. the voltage sensitive measuring instruments have very high input impedance so loading must be avoided. The transduction implies energy conversion. The amplifiers are available with programmable gains Basically. Therefore the transducers require electrical power supply particularly for dynamic measurements. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CONFIGURATION INSTRUMENT AMPLIFIERS (DIFF VOLTAGE) INSTRUMENT TRANSMITTERS/DETECTORS A detector senses the input information. its Net gain. The sensor or the detector detects the Physical quantities as “signal” by mechanical elastic members or by electrical means.The current mirror consisting of Q3 & Q4 forces the imbalance current to flow through Rs. All electrical measuring instruments sensitive to current can be used for voltage application (calibrated in voltage scale) by adding suitable resistors in series. analogue multiplexer.

Due to enormous research works. phase shift (in analogue signal). they normally do not require the auxiliary electrical supplies for driving signal. current or frequency. Active transducers are self-generating and are used for measuring the velocity. temperature. The digital encoders are either incremental encoder or absolute encoder type. According to signal handling. The digital encoder for linear and angular displacement is used in direct digital transducers. The outputs of Analogue Transducers express the measured quantity as amplitude that is continuous with time (analogue signal).element and a transducer that converts the energy sampled into proportional /corresponding to the input energy signal. Digital Transducers (The direct digital transducers) provide digital output signal directly in the form of rectangular pulses of constant duration and amplitude. i) ii) Passive transducers and Active transducers. light and force. The transducer/detector elements are classified according to the device or the attachments (Class-1: Detector. and it responses to rapid changes in measurand and its electrical output impedance. The detectors/ transducers are further classified in two categories as per their functioning. but are not essentially dependent on signal amplitude. these characteristics have led designers to use transducers invariably in all process industries. Analogue transducers are becoming obsolete presently because of easy refined and cheap technique deployed in digital 1-0 binary system. Information about the mechanical is usually obtained as displacement (seismic mass converts acceleration to force or movement). A transducer has the size. the transducers are further categorised as: a) The Analogue transducers and b) Digital transducers Analogue transducers provide outputs in analogue form and they need A/D converters for digital application. and in most cases this conversion operates in both directions. the transducers have been miniaturized too much. weight and shape. The active transducers involve conversion of energy from one form to another. Passive transducers depend on material characteristics & physical configuration and the conductance (inverse of resistance). and it is manipulated without error in electronic processing circuit. Digital signal can be transmitted to long distances and it does not get affected due to amplitude change. The digital signals are in the form of pulses. Class-2: Detector with Single Transducer and class3: Detector with two transducers) etc. so they need external supplies for effecting changes in signal voltage. capacitance etc. it requires long-term stability for input-output relationship. KORBA SIMULATOR 235 . inductances. In the indirect digital type transducers the output signals are sinusoidal with the frequency related to measurand and it works in combination with digital frequency measuring system. or in the form of sinusoidal time sequence of 1-0 (binary output). A transducer is the first element in the measurement of mechanical quantity (termed as primary sensing element).

the electrical elements convert mechanical displacement into voltage thus it normally performs as secondary transducer. Force is applied via a flexure to the lower end of the force bar. Periodic time is very easily converted into binary signal so when the frequency of transducer is very high then signal is mixed or multiplied with transparent high frequency signal and there is no difference of frequency. The filter networks are common in instruments and filter characteristics are obtained by the use of the feedback of the output signal. electronic force balance transmitter that receives the force through the force bar or the vector flexure. Remote indication or recording is feasible. Vector flexure is used for fine-tuning and larger changes by effective gain change of oscillator as shown here. transmitter senses the differential pressure or Pressure signal that is converted into force-balance system for measuring the gauge or absolute pressures as shown in both two figures. Corresponding force bar transmits the effective angle for span adjustment.Many quantities e. 3. The effects of friction are minimized. pneumatic relays etc. temperature. This current flowing through the feedback coil is used as the output signal of the transmitter. connected to an oscillator circuit and applied to feedback motor to balance the initial disturbing force. Frequency outputs include amplitude of frequency converters (voltage oscillators). The detector armature (ferrite disc) moves with detector coil and modifies the coupling between the coils. is Foxboro make. which pivots on the diaphragm seal (It isolates the process from measuring system). Mass-inertia effects are minimized. The framework carries the Zero-adjustment spring/ feedback bellows. KORBA SIMULATOR 236 . Amplification or attenuation may be easily obtained. Force developed by the primary element is applied via a flexure to one end of the force bar joined together with a thin circular diaphragm serving as flexure. shown below. The digital resonators measure the temperature (even that of very small mass). 4. Output with sufficient power for control is provided. In the figures shown below are the transmitters that detect the mechanical forces like the ones given in the mechanical elastic members or the proving rings. The force on vector assembly causes movement on the apex. accurately with high resolution are measured in one or the other form of digital transudation. Some of the inherent compatibilities of mechno-electrical transducers are as under: 1. determined frequency and encoded position.g. 2. The D. light intensity and force can be transduced with devices that are self-generating and do not require auxiliary electrical power supplies. The Electric transmitter. Mostly. pulse count. 5. Measurement of electrical quantity normally does not require transducers. since the primary sensing element is filter or rectifier. Velocity.P.

asphalt. tar. Overall accuracy varies from 0.5% and repeatability of 0. The Capacitance C = 0.P. ELECTRICAL TRANSMITTER PNEUMATIC D.e. In that case the liquid impinging on the target will be brought to rest so that the pressure increases by V2/2g and the Force on target is given by F=(K. pressure. PRESSURE TXR Capacitive Transducers The Capacitive Transducers work on the principle of variation of capacitance due to cutting of dielectric and change by plate (area) for transducer operation. K = die-electric constant.1%. transmitter. The change of dielectric constant is used in measurement of level in a container of liquid hydrogen or similar chemical element. target flow transmitter etc applications.244 KA (N-1)/d. V2. The capacitive device detects liquid level even though the reference in dielectric constant between the liquid and vapour state is as low as 0. A =Plate area (in 2). D=separation of plate surface in inch etc. N = Number of plates.5. if both high-and-low-pressure sensing signals are connected to pressure connections of the obstruction elements (discussed in detail in flow measurement section).TRANSMITTER PNEUMAT. Similar arrangements can be used as Target flow meters for gas flow. It can function as a Target flow transmitter. The pneumatic system is common for all detectors such as DP . The Force is balanced through the force bar by the air pressure in the bellow so that a 0. slurry at pressures up to 100 bars. It is evident from above that the capacity effect can be obtained either by change in the dielectric constant or change of area. The capacitance between the diaphragms & the electrode output is used in a measure of relative position of diaphragms and the distance change between itself and the electrode.The force-balance mechanism functions as gauge pressure transmitter.A1)/2. if the lowpressure connection is open to the atmosphere.0 bar signal proportional to the square root of flow is obtained. i.2 – 1. It also functions as a high-range D.P. The changing distance between blades of capacitance is undoubtedly more commonly employed for using capacity pickups. KORBA SIMULATOR 237 . if the primary & secondary elements (forming an integral unit) is particularly used for measuring high viscosity liquids. where.

Capacitive Displacement transducer is a standard proximity type sensor in which the movable plate/electrode functions as conductive surface of the object in the vicinity of the fixed plate. it draws certain amount of energy in the initial stage for setting up the electric field otherwise Electrostatic instruments does not draw any power for AC (rms) measurement. Bridge circuit is used. Final fractional change in capacitance is given by: C/C0 ={(1-µ 2 ).Single O/p C Geometrical variation Permittivity variation V=dielectric/metal Liquid level gauge Differentia l o/p C± C and C± C W=dielectric/metal VARIOUS TYPES OF CAPACITIVE SENSORS USING DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS Capacitive Pressure Transducers: Metallic diaphragm/member forms the movable plate of the transducer. In a Cylindrical electrode type pressure transducer.E. and r =dielectric constant of the fluid Such transducers are used for indication of pressure under static or slow varying conditions. ln= natural log. The walls of the metallic pipe are used as the outer electrode and a solid cylindrical rod running along the pipe serves as the inner electrode and its capacitance is related by equation: C0= (2 . The capacitance change due to deformation of the clamped diaphragm can be obtained. 0 r. Where L= length of central electrode. the standard capacitor under static & std pressure is kept as reference in the bridge arm. Electrostatic instruments (for measuring sufficiently high DC voltage): work on the principle of variable capacity (movable plate).R4. the pressure is continuously measured under flowing conditions. it draws the current however. r1=central electrode radius. r2= Inner radius of pipe. P}/16.dt3 Thus differential pressure can be related with the change in capacitance as above.L)/ln (r2/n). KORBA SIMULATOR 238 .

Streaming potential Operation Displacement to displacement Force to displacement Pressure to displacement Pressure to displacement Pressure to displacement Force to displacement Forcing function displacement Force to displacement Pressure to displacement Temperature to electric current Temperature to displacement Temperature to phase Fluid level to displacement Specific gravity to displacement Velocity to pressure Velocity to pressure Velocity to pressure Velocity to force Linear to angular velocity Displacement to resistance change Displacement to resistance change Displacement to resistance change Strain to resistance change Temp. pin or finger B. Seismic mass 2. Moving coil 7. Temperature-stik E. Piezoelectric. Contacting 2. Changing plate areas 3. Spring C. Variable coil dimensions 2. Thermal 1. E Photoelectric F. Changing coil positions 5. Changing air gap 2. Mass 1. Variable-length conductor 3. voltage Light intensity to voltage Flow to voltage KORBA SIMULATOR 239 . Thermocouple 2. Bi-metal (includes Hg in glass) 3. Mechanical A. Changing core positions 6. Bourdon tube 3. to resistance change Displacement to inductance change Displacement to inductance change Displacement to inductance change Displacement to inductance change Displacement to inductance change Velocity to inductance change Velocity to inductance change Velocity to inductance change Displacement to capacitance change Displacement to capacitance change Displacement to capacitance change Displacement to current. Capacitive 1. Electronic.Pendulum scale 3. Variable resistivity of conductor B. Inductive 1. Contacting spindle.Bellows 4. Variable dimensions of conductor 5. Proving ring 2. Variable area of conductor 4.Disphragm 5.Typical Primary Detector-Transducer Elements & their Operations Type I. Variable air gap 3. Hydro-pneumatic 1. Resistive 1. Elastic member 1. Changing core material 4. Manometer D. Moving core C. Changing dielectric D. Dynamic a) Orifice b) Venturi c) Pitot Tube d) Vanes e) Turbines II Electrical A. Static a) Float b) Hydrometer 2. Moving permanent magnet 8.

In view of statistical treatment of data some characteristics of the instruments & related defining terms or terms often applied during working.(It’s relationship is often employed for summing equally weighted. Certain errors may add directly whereas other may not.) Correction improves the worth of the result and it is the revision in the form of either an additive factor or a multiplier or both applied to the indicated value. Accuracy is expressed in percentage based either on the actual scale reading or on full-scale reading: and it is derived from Accuracy = Vr (max or min) – Va. Percent accuracy (scale) = {Vr (max or min) – VA] / Va} X 100 and KORBA SIMULATOR 240 . Chaotic etc. Definition.. The information is extracted from extraneous mass input energy by conversion. Errors can be the systematic or fixed. [Normally ηT < 1. transudations. Computational. Loading/ judgmental. Transfer efficiency (ηT) = Iout / Iin (information) gives the ratio of the input information [Iin] received & output information [Iout] delivered by the pick-up. Maximum Error is the value by which the result differs from the true value and measured value (associated with small systematic error) and is given by Vr (max or min)] for the true value or the actual value. random or accidental.but it is desired to have this value as high as possible. True or actual value (Va) is the actual magnitude of an input signal to a measuring system. Result (Vr) is obtained by making all known corrections to the indicated value and is derived from Vr = A Vi + B. filtering process etc. A study of error propagation must include consideration of the interrelationship of the various types of error. Indicated value (Vi) is the magnitude of raw or directly recorded data by the measuring system. Blunders or mistakes. illegitimate etc and Error is according to the nature and type of activity & techniques used like Human & Experimental Errors.en = independent errors. where A. B are the corrections. are given below: Information: The media handled in the process is termed as Information. ei =√ (e1)2 + (e2)2 + (en)2 where ei = overall independent error And e1. the error of measurement is the difference between the true value and the obtained result. Error is the actual difference between the true value and the result and is derived from Error = Va – Vr. Discrepancy is the difference between two indicated values or results determined from a supposedly fixed true value. Variation of conditions. the value of the error is never really known. independent errors). The true value of any physical quantity is obtained by experimental methods as far as possible nearest to the true value. Data is the elemental bits of information in numerical form obtained by experimental means.

although accuracy may not actually be known. for. The fidelity refers to the situation that there is no time lag or phase difference between output and input. Response Time: The time required by instrument to settle to its final steady step position after application of the input is defined as the Response Time of an instrument. it is a definite concrete number for a given situation. The full-scale accuracies have particular settings and scale in use. There should not be any distortion. Fidelity of any system is defined as the ability of the system to reproduce the output in the same form as the input. Ideally a system should have 100% fidelity and the output appears in the same form as the input. Divisions are marked on a scale. Uncertainty. Range is the difference between the largest and the smallest result. Dead time is defined as value before the instrument begins to move after the measured quantity has been changed. Whereas the Speed of Response defines the quickness with which a instrument responds to a change in the quantity being measured. Deviation: Deviation or the Residual is the difference between a single result & mean of many results is termed as. Dead Zone is defined as the largest change of KORBA SIMULATOR 241 . Uncertainty informs possible error or what one thinks may be the range of error. Scale Range of any instrument is defined as the largest and the smallest reading of the instrument. Precision shows the degree of agreement between repeated results – measurement with small random error. these are based on scale reading and the full scale readings respectively. Linearity: The measurement should response to linear variation (maintain linearity). Propagation of uncertainty is the manner in which the uncertainties affect result. a limit dimension. This relation may be described in terms of an analogous idea. Percent standard deviation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. but may be far from the true value. The measuring lag becomes important where high-speed measurements are required and the time lag is required to be reduced to minimum. Frequency range defines the range of frequencies over which measurement may be taken with specified accuracy. Precise data have small dispersion (spread or scatter). is the region in which one believes (or guesses) the error to be. In order to account for small error in read out system the percentage linearity is maintained as small as possible Percentage linearity is given by: 100 x (maximum deviation of parameter/ Full-scale deviation). Measuring Lag: The delay in the response of the instruments to change in correspondence with the measured quantity is given by Measuring Lag.Percent accuracy (full scale)={Vr (max or min) – Va] / Vfs} X 100. the set of marks or division forms an Index scale and the division moved is the index reading.here Vfs is the full scale reading. on the other hand. Uncertainty differs from accuracy.

Mechanical quantities.the quantity being measured to which the instrument does not respond. which are sufficiently fast acting to faithfully follow the inputs. Overshoots: When an input is applied to an instrument. The Dead zone is also termed as backlash or the Hysteresis. There are many forms of elastic members for converting mechanical sensation of pressure/flow/level parameters. the bellows. Dynamic inputs require system components. Steady-state periodic quantity has definite time-cycle whereas the magnitude/time variations of transient quantity do not repeat. Measuring Systems: Mechanical Elastic Members and Proving rings Elastic members are the mechanical sensing elements and these are used to change forces into displacements. the better is the system. Static system is non-changing in characteristic and is most easily measured. The driving forces or the movements/functioning of transmitters depend upon the developed force or displacements caused by the mechanical elastic members or proving rings. RAMP. (except for the manometer) and so secondary transducers are used for providing interpretable outputs. The Pressure-measuring devices use elastic members of one type or another. They fall into one or a combination of following three categories: KORBA SIMULATOR 242 . In measuring systems primarily electrical elements sense input & detect the process parameters. Loading: Energy is always taken from the signal source by the measuring system. are Static and Dynamic (steady-state & transient). The force output from the diaphragm. as with force measurement. This effect is referred as Loading. It is desirable to have a little overshoots but an excessive overshoots is undesirable. the smaller is the loading on the signal source of the measuring system. without draining an undue amount of energy from the signal. the pointer does not immediately come to rest at its steady state position but moves beyond it or in other words overshoots its steady position. in addition to its inherent defining characteristic and distinctive time-amplitude properties. Dynamic system refers to the situation when a system does not settle to its equilibrium or steady state condition after the application of the driving force In order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of the system the STEP. All instruments available in market make use of properties of either mechanical elastics members or the proving ring characteristics. SINUSOIDAL functions are imposed and results noted for its analysis. which means that the information source must always be changed by the act of measurement. or the Bourdon tube are all based on elastic deformations brought about by the force resulting from pressure summation. the loading of the signal source is almost exclusively a function of the detector. The recorders or the output indicators (being the intermediate modifying devices) receive most of the driving energy from sources other than the signal source. The mechanical displacements are usually small in pressure-measuring devices.

Here again. make use of elastic torsion members.(1) Direct tension or compression (2) Bending moment application (3) Torsion application The Bourdon tube is usually referred as Primary Detector–Transducer for sensing the pressure. secondary transducer elements are employed to provide a usable output. Another example of Secondary Transducer is the compression type force measuring load cell. Secondary Transducer: the ordinary Dial Indicator. Strain gages are secondary transducers that measure the deflections. it can accommodate direct tension or compression members. and the deformation is used as a measure of torque. Manometer is an elastic member device whose deflection is proportional to the force. it performs the function of a Secondary Transducer. Mechanical Proving rings are some form of the mechanical springs & stiff sensing elements and are widely used in instruments as secondary force standards for calibrating testing and weighing machines. in which the spindle acts as a detector through its contact with the signal source functions as Secondary Transducer. The Torque meters usually. The elastic torsion member twists in proportion to the applied torque. In this case. MECHANICAL ELASTIC MEMBERS MECHANICAL PROVING RINGS Pressure Measurement KORBA SIMULATOR 243 . Micrometer or dial gages are often used for measuring the deflections. although not always. it gives output in the form of displacement to drive the linkage chain of the elements. there is no secondary chain in signal form. But when the displacement from the Bourdon tube is used to move the core of the Differential Transformer for outputting voltage (pressure to displacement and then to voltage in a pressure transducer application).

The spring rate of bellow varies directly as the modulus of elasticity of material from which it is formed. Backlash between the quadrant and pinion is minimized by using a delicate hairspring. If the internal pressure is less than the external pressure. Allowing the unknown pressure and measuring the resultant force either directly or indirectly. The upper part of the quadrant is the toothed segment. causing the pointer to move in the opposite direction. =coefficient of cubic expansion. One end is sealed and attached via an adjustable connection link to the lower end of a pivoted quadrant. Balancing unknown pressure against pressure produced by a column of known density liquid. Bourdon Tube If the internal pressure exceeds the external pressure the shape of the tube changes from oval towards circular with the result that it becomes straighter. The other end of the tube is open so that the pressure to be measured can be applied via the block to which it is fixed and which also carries the pressure connection and provides the datum for measurement of the deflection. The movement of the free end drives the pointer mechanism so that the pointer moves with respect of the scale. 3. 2. The bellows are replacing diaphragms since the modulus of the elasticity of the material is better to have good valve thickness. Diaphragm pressure elements: Two basic categories of diaphragm elements comprise of i) stiff metallic diaphragms and ii) slack diaphragms. KORBA SIMULATOR 244 . Bellow elements for pressure measurement: The spring rate or modulus of compression of bellow varies directly modulus of elasticity of the material from which it is formed and proportionally to the third power of the valve thickness. Allowing the unknown pressure and measuring the resultant stress / strain acting on elastic member of known area Process of balancing a column liquid in U tube of known density. the free end of the tube moves towards the block. thus gauge pressure = atmospheric pressure + hp and P = hm (A/a+1)(p1-p2) also p = p0 / 1+ (T-T0). Bellow and diaphragm sensors are used for measuring differential pressure as given in the figure below. The unknown pressure is applied to the underside of the diaphragm and resultant movement of the center of the diaphragm is transmitted through a linkage to drive the pointer as in the Bourdon gauge. Bourdon Tube: Bourdon tube is a mechanical elastic member as shown above. The simplest form of Bourdon tube comprises a tube of oval cross-section bent into a circle. which engages in the teeth of the central pinion.The pressure measurement employs three types/methods as given below: 1. which carries the pointer that moves with respect to a fixed scale.

g. dead weight tester is one such type of testing and calibration tool. orifices. The basic principle of flow sensing using velocity of stream is given by V= (2g h) & the differential pressure is P= h g .g. the differential pressure P = (P1-P2) is used to obtain the theoretical value of the mean flow velocity V2 =E (2 P/ ) . the ventury.The diaphragm elements are made up of corrugated diaphragms with spacing ring stretch welded at central hole. and variable area meters fall in the obstruction category and total/static pressure & direction of sensing probes fall in velocity probes category. gaseous. Use of standard pressure gauges in parallel to the gauge to be tested is another method of calibration. PRESSURE SENSOR Flow Measurement In flow metering. Dead weight tester is the simplest technique for determining the pressure by measuring the force i. granular solid and the type of flow e. the Primary method includes the weight or volume tanks.e. This ensures the safety of the diaphragms when excess pressure is acted upon. laminar. turbulent. In flow measurement. decide the type and size of sensor. In flow metering. flow nozzle. whereas. KORBA SIMULATOR 245 . liquid. the upstream pressure P1 and the downstream pressure P2 are obtained by suitable tapping provided on either side of the obstruction. BELLOW TYPE D. burettes positive displacement category sensors. the Secondary devices in flow applications e. the flowing medium e. The calibration of each instrument confirms the accuracy and correctness of measurement. In flow measurement. steady state or transient etc. generated when it acts on a known area. the pressure change is measured and a measure of velocity is obtained. SENSOR DIAPHRAGM TYPE DIFF.g. where E = velocity of approach. Fluid velocity is measured by reference to aero or hydrodynamic principle.P. Here the.

the Velocity of approach (M)= 1/[1-(A2/A1)2 . A2 = K. The Ventury is an obstruction element and it creates a total loss of pressure equal to 10-20% of the differential pressure across it. in this. Actual volume flow rate is calculated from the mean flow velocity V2. It may be eccentrically located when intended for use with fluids containing small traces of particulate matter. The edge of the orifice plate on the upstream face should be sharp as rounding or burring faces considerably affect the flow rate. =mass density. All the measurements involving obstruction elements have their useful range restricted from one-third to the full-scale value of velocity because of the relationship between velocity and differential pressure. and the accuracy of the flow rate determination depends on the application of the correct coefficient. Orifice is a thin metallic disc arranged concentric with the pipe in most cases. The three types are shown in figure. throat. Discharge co-efficient (Cd) = Qactual/Qideal and the Flow-coefficient (K)=CM. with its’ coefficient of discharge being the lowest at 0. which can be welded into the pipe for the measurement of high flow velocity of water or steam at high pressure. the area of opening offered by obstruction is A2 (= d2/4) and K= flow coefficient (=CdE). The Dahl tube is also an obstruction element and it produces longer pressure differential with lower pressure loss as compared to the venturi. µ= absolute viscosity etc.e. Details of the obstruction elements have been given below for proper understanding flow measurements. and exit as shown and the location of the taps are also shown in the figure. Obstruction elements e. There appears considerable disturbance to the flow pattern and consequent pressure loss due to obstruction. The Discharge coefficients vary with the flow conditions as determined by the Reynolds number. The dimensions 246 KORBA SIMULATOR . Finally the flow is derived by Q = Cd. D=pipe dia.g. i. for an incompressible fluid. flow-nozzle etc are used for the measurement of mean flow velocity as also the flow rate. Flow (Q)=A1V1=A2V2 where Velocity (V)= (2g h) and A=area of cross section. and Reynolds Number Rd for a pipe is Rd=D V/µ.A2 . V= fluid velocity. and (P1P2) =V22 2g[1-(A2/A1)2 ] . The flow nozzle as shown is a one-piece obstruction element. The Dahl tube given in figure consists of a short length of parallel lead in pipe followed by the converging upstream cone and the diverging upstream cone. the orifice plate.Flow Relation formulae can be also reffered. The Ventury consists of three parts: entrance cone. ventury tube.V2.6. The Orifice plate is the simplest and cheapest obstruction element. E. A circumferential gap is kept between the two cones and the down stream pressure is tapped at the location of the gap. The segmental orifice plate has a hole that is partly circular located below its centre. The discharge coefficients and the flow coefficients are determined experimentally for each size and version of obstruction element and provided by the manufacturers.

The excess pressure h is termed as impact pressure.where hm = diff. The Pitot tube is combined with static opening. the orifices are made of stainless steel. = mass density of fluid in motion. Henry Pitot. rate of flow. The size of the opening is designed so as to produce approximately the maximum pressure difference at the maximum. is used for measuring flow since in a horizontal pipeline. FLOW METERING SENSORS AND DEVICES FLOW CHARACTERISTICS Flow Measurements using Rota meters: The Rotameter flow system is versatile in that it can be designed to measure the flow rates of liquids widely ranging in their viscosities and volume flow rates as low as 0. nickel. in levels of the manometer m = mass density of the liquid. Excess pressure P2P1 = p = g h and velocity at Pitot tube mouth is V1 = (2g h). Pitot tubes are also used for gas flow measurements. The pressure built up in the Pitot tube is higher than the free stream (static) pressure.of one of the sharp-edged versions are shown in figure. finally V1 = (2hm m g/ ) . Figure below show. the obstruction type flow sensors and their flow pattern. ebonite or plastics. Depending on fluid type its low rate. Pitot tube named/derived from its inventor. flowing fluid coincide with velocity vector which varies from zero at the wall and maximum at the centre. The Pitot tube is having a small opening facing the fluid flow direction. gunmetal.1 KORBA SIMULATOR 247 . The tube is used to determine pressures resulting from total flow-rate rather than change of rate and it determines the impact pressure. Proper alignment of the tube with the flow direction and YAW-ANGLE (probe axis and the flow stream line at the pressure opening) of Pitot tubes need to be properly aligned with flow direction and the Yaw – angle should be zero.

and it sets up a differential pressure across the top and bottom surfaces of the float. The fluid in motion impinges on the rotor blades. At steady state.here A is area.cc/min. the flow rate is proportional to the angular velocity . with upper end serving as the index on the scale. by making the density of the float double that of the fluid. The float is made hollow or of solid light plastic material. the tube is made of borosilicate. The clearance between the float and the tapered glass varies in area with the position of the float. the length of the float is made small while ensuring that the Reynolds number of the flow is not greater than 2000.The rotor is hinged rigidly inside the meter. The float obstructs the flow and the fluid flows through the annular clearance between the float and the inner wall of the tube. Cd is the discharge coefficient. The Rota meter-float system employs a float kept in a fluid stream so that its’ position is a measure of the velocity of the fluid. KORBA SIMULATOR 248 . The float comes to rest. The guiding spindle or shaft carrying the float at the lower end passes through upper part of the tube. its axis coincide with pipe centreline and flow direction. Electromagnetic transducer nowadays measures the speed of the rotor and associated digital read out is obtained as against the older methods of using traditional counters with gearing mechanisms.P and thus is calibrated in terms of the fluid velocity. The spring force to the displacement of the float and is not a constant. In the Rota meter float systems. The flow rate and differential pressure are given by: Flow rate Q=ACd = {2 Vfg ( f – )}/Af . To make the float independent of viscosity drag. In Horizontal flow type Rota meter-float systems. The rotor rotates in proportion to the fluid velocity. when the forces working on the float due to upward fluid flow. Hence the nonlinearly related to displacement. the tube is in position and the float is backed by spring as shown. and the Differential pressure P = (Pb -Pt) = {2 Vfg ( f – )}/Af . the horizontal is proportional flow rates are the associated is proportional Turbine Type Flow Meters as shown has axially mounted freely rotating turbine rotor. is made totally independent of density. Rotameters are designed on the basis of the types (two) of flow: i) The vertical flow ii) The horizontal flow. and torque is developed on each blade/wing. The secondary transducer and circuitry are adjusted to correct this non-linearity and the final signal to the velocity. The float always assumes a position for each velocity holding the differential pressure constant. The mass flow rate. Vertical flow type Rota meter-float instruments are of constant head variable area type flow meters /rotors. The position of the float is always hold the D. The measuring fluid is passed through a tapered glass tube as shown in figure. is balanced by the weight and buoyancy forces. however.

m. bi-directional flow sensing and fast response inductance of the coils. density. the e. etc. KORBA SIMULATOR 249 . V = velocity of flow. no affect due to suspended solids. pastes. alkali.f is generated which is proportional to the rate of flow of the liquid.f. Wb/m2 D = pipe diameter in mtr.D. Electromagnetic flow meters are suitable for measuring a wide variety of liquids such as dirty liquids. viscosity. equivalent shortcircuiting effect is observed and the actual voltage across the electrodes becomes less than B. this waveform can not be entirely achieved Electromagnetic flow Detector: It is based on Faradays Laws of electromagnetic induction. not immune to fluid viscosity. conductivity etc.HORIZONTAL FLOW ROTAMETER VERTICAL FLOW ROTAMETER Magnetic Flow Detector: When the conducting liquid flows through a magnetic field an e. EMF E = BDV where B = magnetic flux density. is used to drive an indicating or controlling equipment. Such type of flow meters do not obstruct the flow and can measure the velocity of flow of slurry and corrosive liquids and are insensitive to the viscosity. Temperature. Basic advantages of magnetic flow meters (although resistivity is limited in certain applications) are the density variation.C. pressure. density and temperature. acids. have no bad effects. m/s. slurries. According to this when conducting fluid passes through a pipe of nonconducting and non-magnetic material it can be treated as equivalent to a set of the moving parallel straight conductors lying in a plane perpendicular to direction of motion. This type of sensor is able to overcome the inaccuracies caused due to pressure drop and any restriction in flow of slurries that may clog and no change materially with time. Maximum EMF is induced when the electrodes placed across the diameter of the pipe and the direction of flow makes the fluid medium remain in continuous contact with the element between the electrodes.m.

the frequency of sound changes (this indicates the speed) if its source/reflector moves relative to the listener or the monitor.C excitation but because of the inductance of the coils. signal is sampled at five points during each measuring cycle and true value of flow is achieved. this waveform can not be entirely achieved .5 Hz frequency with polarity revers al every cycle. KORBA SIMULATOR 250 . MAGNETIC FLOW DET ELECTRO MAG. at (b) Shows the excitation from constant current source. In Ultrasonic system the time of flight of the sound wave between the two points get modified by the velocity of flowing medium and difference between the flight time is to be directly proportional to the flow velocity.C supply to the coil is switched on/off at 2.In the figure of the waveform as shown below. At a) Shows the ideal current waveform for pulsed D. D. In this type. Two piezo electric crystals (one a transmitter and the other a receiver) are potted/fitted on pipe wall as shown in RHS bottom. Velocity is proportional to the frequency and thus V=C (F2F1)/(2F1 COS ). the square wave excitation is used. and at (c) the signal produced at the measuring electrode. FOW DET WAVEFORM IN THE COIL Doppler Effect & Ultrasonic Flow Detectors According to Doppler effect. the flow stream must have some discontinuities and pipeline be acoustically transmissive.

associate with possible errors of i) surface tension effects in the sensing media. above the lower end of the tube. h.Microwave and ultrasonic time transit method Levels in tanks are measured by using pressure of column of liquid at constant density and is obtained as gh. The air is supplied past a regulating valve so that it just escapes from the bottom end of the tube as bubbles.Ultrasonic Flow Sensor Ultrasonic Sensors mounting in pipe Measurement of Level systems The practical method of knowing the level of contents (volume). Level measurements. a condensing chamber is provided at the top of the second tube of the manometer and is filled with the same liquid as in the container. and is given by P = h g. iii) changes of the mass of float due to sediment built upon the float sensors. then h = K hm Normally.Side gauges 2. Corrosion effects caused by the components of the sensing system. the level sensors are needed for detecting these levels and provide proportional read out of the level with respect of chosen datum. and iv) temperature and pressure changes to the contents. KORBA SIMULATOR 251 . abrasion in granular materials may cause undue friction and change the mass of floats and level affected. built up due to admission of air through a tube into the container of a liquid. Level sensing by Air bubbler system: In this method air pressure. Level Measuring systems are generally of following types: 1. is measured.Capacitance type probes 4. m = density of mercury The mercury levels in the two legs of the manometer are adjusted initially to be at the same height as the bottom of the container. Position of the sensor head is such that the problems of turbulence created by the contents flowing in and out to the tank is subsided. Then the pressure in the tube equals the pressure due to the head of liquid. gh = ( mhm – y)g.Pressure sensing 5. ii) turbulence occurring at the sensor due to material flow.Float driven instruments. high temperatures. up-thrust buoyancy 3. presence of substances.

This is also accepted as replacement of direct gauge-glass by Boiler Inspectors.9 volt to 2.9 volt as water level increases. The CHU KORBA SIMULATOR 252 . Alternatively. The Hydra step operates on the philosophy of continuous comparison between adjacent channels by the logic matrix and it ensures that the indication presented to the operator has been fully verified. Level Sensing by Constant Head Unit/Chamber: Almost all type of transmitters used for level sensing of high temperature/pressure vessels. The measurable resistivity is prominent at 100 bar to 183 bar or more pressures. It is used in place of direct gauge glass for level measurement of boiler drum. the hydrometer uses the depth of immersion as a means for detecting variations in specific gravity of the supporting liquid. At this pressure and sufficient temperature (200 to 360O C) the resistivity of water is above one mega ohm and of steam is 100-mega ohm. at higher resistivity) and as water (green colour. any other transducer such as the diaphragm type can be used in place of the manometer for sensing the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the closed container. Level Sensing By Hydra-Step: The Hydra step is self-validating by the continuous comparison between adjacent channels type remote display unit. alarming and lamp indications for detecting high/low level states of the liquids in tanks. The voltage drops from 4. The simple float is used primarily as a liquid-level detector and makes no allowance for change in density of the supporting liquid. Schmitt trigger circuit is utilized for creating logic matrix and relaying. Level instruments using magnetic sensors are installed in the tanks needing tripping. Magnetic indicators (as shown in the figure) use floats to follow the liquid surface using mechanical linkages for operating remotely located read out devices. The difference of standard resistivity is sensed and indicated as steam (red colour. are provided with a constant head chamber/unit in the sensing/impulse lines of the transmitters. while retaining the condenser. It is observed that approximately 15 seconds are only available for tripping down the boilers in cases when level of the high capacity (200MW or more capacity) boiler drums reach beyond its normal operating levels. at lower resistivity) through logic matrix obtained by Hydra step cells which are mounted at the pre-decided locations of the gauge glass unit. then the weight of the closed container is obtained by means of load cells. The level measuring system as shown gives h= h1 – hm ( m/ -1) and h = K hm as h1 is held constant. it being assumed that the float is always immersed to the same depth. If the liquid is of constant density. function at static conditions. the Hydra step is the fastest gauge glass to support operating people for safe operation. Both these level sensors of course. Using containers of uniform cross-section. or that of the hydrometer. On the other hand. thus.Level measuring system type using Horizontal U-tube/manometer: In this type the weight of the tube and its liquid contents are measured by any weight or force measuring transducer. the level of the liquid can be ascertained from the weight. Necessary precautions are taken to maintain the security of the hydra step such that plus minus 1 step tolerance is eliminated in acknowledging the drum level in the gauge glasses. The cells are energized at 10 volt 15Hz and 10 micro amps. by using null-balance principle. Level measuring system using Hydro pneumatic devices: These are based on the ordinary float idea.

the impulse lines of a heated vessel/CHU gets filled with air and condensate liquid. gets cooled to atmospheric temperature thus by this time the impulse line connecting the transmitter has attained the normal room temperature.ensures the connectivity of impulse lines at normal room temperature. CHU is vented for a few minutes. The air gets vented after a few minutes of charging and the condensate liquid remains in CHU that comes in contact with atmospheric temperature which after an hour or so. When the transmitter is charged for the first time. The process of venting is adopted for flow/pressure/level applications also in order to keep the input connections to the transmitters cool. MAGNETIC FLOAT LEVEL SENSOR HYDRASTEP LEVEL INDICATOR CONSTANT HEAD UNIT CONNECTION MERCURY FILLED U TUBE LEVEL SENSOR KORBA SIMULATOR 253 . Mounting arrangement is shown below.

KORBA SIMULATOR 254 . the current. Light Sensitive Detectors. The curve shows the curve of light flux versus emf. with the base plate being the positive terminal. All the above cells are also sensitive to X-rays. The Photocells find its application in measurement as a strain gage. The photoconductive cells consist of thin film of material such selenium.f is developed across the base plate and the top metal layer. as to how light energy impinges on the cells. edge and tension controls etc and in mechanical measurements including simple counting where the interruption of beam of light could be implied. as shown and is independent of the cell area. The short circuit current is proportional to the area of the cell and increases linearly with luminance as shown. Photo Electric Transducers: The P. amplifiers with very low input impedance are used. Presently. Photo Sensors or Photo Cells are some other forms of Photo Electric Transducers category of instruments. with a maximum sensitivity around 1500 nm. The response of the germanium cell is primarily in the infrared region responding to wavelengths from 250 nm (near ultraviolet) to 2000 nm. The older version of Electronic type photocells consists of a cathode/anode combination within an evacuated glass or quartz envelope. The spectral response of the selenium is almost similar to that of the human eye and extends from about 250 nm to 750 nm. an e. The silicon cell has its threshold wavelength at 1200 nm. When the incident light flux is increased by 1000 times. metallic sulphide/germanium coated between electrodes on a glass plate. The sensitivity of cell is of the order of 1 mA/lm. A thin film of gold or platinum is deposited on crystalline selenium with a base plate of iron. light impingement freezes electrons to flow thereby causing a flow of small current. with a maximum response at about 570 nm. If light is incident on the barrier layer.Photovoltaic or barrier cell is a semi conductor device in which proper processing produces a insulating barrier layer between the semiconductor and the metal layer T. E. the resistance of the cell falls by 100 times. though of measurable magnitude. the semiconductor layer and the emf. relative spectral sensitivity versus wavelength ( ) and the light flux versus the short circuit current Io at impedance loads as shown.m. the base plate. cells with silicon and germanium for semiconductor layers are available. and rays and gamma radiation. Transducers cell behave as a light control variable so the output is obtained which is proportional to the intensity of the light source. In the figure below the constructional feature of photocell has been shown. Since all the energy of the current is derived from light source and the cell acts as an energy converter. dew point control.output is derived in a photocell. The cell is considered as a source of current and used with external circuits of very lower resistance. represents very small power. If amplification is desired. The open circuit voltage increases in approximately logarithmic fashion.

. its output is fed to servo amplifier to give an output current through restoring coil. Various forms of load cell. Load cell consists of a short column or strut with strain gauge attached thereto and the force reflects of strains the block for sensing the input. and combined actuator transducer have been drawn in the figures below. Combined actuator transducer (CAT) is used for automatic optical instruments having a torque motor and a miniature preamplifier. Vibration pickup. The movement is then measured by a displacement transducer and converted into electrical form. Load cell measures the deformation produced by the force or the weight. It yields a measure of the quantity in hopper or feed of dry or liquid materials. forces up to 5 MN can be measured. acceleration. may serve as a time or frequency transducer. An accelerometer works by the inertia of a concentrated mass. and frequency. velocity. this serves to measure the characteristics of dynamic motion. i. or any simple mechanically vibrating member. chopping the passage of time into discrete bits. The pendulum. displacement.PHOTOCELLS ‘ CHARACTERISTICS LIGHT FLUX VERSUS Eo and Io Load Cells: The Load Cells are basically the strain gauges. KORBA SIMULATOR 255 . In Electronic Force Balance system the displacement is caused by applied force and is sensed by displacement transducer.e. In this the load is converted into deflection analogous to the weight or force. through application of Newton’s laws of motion. A Load cell converts force into movement against the reaction of a spring.

B Hall generator is a four terminal solid-state device and its’ output voltage is proportional to the normal magnetic field and magnitude of input current I in. Hall effect sensor contains four building blocks viz. therefore it is necessary to operate Hall current sensor by constant current regulation. KORBA SIMULATOR 256 . IC. The output voltage of the Hall effect device is proportional to the control current ‘Ic’ or ‘Iin’. it provides total isolation between sensing circuit and the current line being sensed. e (off set) Where K = product sensitivity in 9 mv/ A). The potential difference VH = K.COMBINED ACTUATOR TRANSDUCER LOAD CELL AND ITS CIRCUIT VIBRATION PICKUP Hall generators and Hall effect sensors: Hall Effect Sensor mainly comprises of Hall generator. If a magnetic field ‘B’ is applied to a flat or round conductor. As the conversion takes place of input or load current to the output voltage (Hall Voltage) in magnetic field generated by the input current around the current line. IC = control current. IC . AC/D.C flux are sensed with no limitations by Hall sensors. which is carrying input current ‘Ic’ in the direction perpendicular to Ic. The electrical characteristics as per Hall (scientist) depend upon the material chemistry and features like Hall mobility. If = load current (Amp) and e (offset) = zero current (off set 9 mv) at If = 0 If Ic is kept constant Eh (hall output) is linearly proportional to the current being sensed. the amplifier and temperature compensated constant current source. a Potential difference VH proportional to the applied magnetic field B appears in the direction perpendicular to both Ic and B. drift mobility and the relationship of drift and microscopic mobility to conductivity. the magnetic core. Output of the Hall sensor does not appear as a current but it appears as a voltage or electromotive force generated by magnetic field. In electrical engineering applications Hall output Eh= K . hall generator. If .

approx. Energy levels of 3x10-8 w can be detected. The radiation detectors are thin strip of blackened metal foil of platinum and usually called bolo meter. Photo Sensors or Photo Cells. metallic sulphide/ germanium coated between electrodes on a glass plate. Instrument based on measurement of radiant energy emitted by the hot body are developed and used to estimate the temperature of the body these are known as “Pyrometers” also. thermometer elements get damaged / distorted (rather not possible to be mounted). Such detector avoids physical contact of the system at more than 1400OC temperature. Total radiation pyrometer follows the Stefen-Boltzman’s law Et= R T4 Where T= temp.HALL EFFECT DEVICES Optical Pyrometer: It works on the principle of Thermal radiation. Light Sensitive Detectors. light impingement freezes electrons to flow thereby causing a flow of small current. the time constant is 3 msec. Radiation is classified into several regions / bands depending on its characteristics and wavelength. a change in the resistance of the foil is indicative of the temperature of the hot body. in 0 K R= Stefan’s Const. The photoconductive cells consist of thin film of material such as selenium. KORBA SIMULATOR 257 . The Electronic type transducer consists of combined cathode/anode within an evacuated glass or quartz envelope. Photo Electric Transducers:It covers.

Crystal also gives very linear & sensitive correspondence between resonant frequency and temperature and allows measurement of absolute and differential temperature. This effect is known as Piezo Electric Effect. Range 2 Hz –1MHz. the deformation causes the displacement of internal charges and equal opposite charge on opposite side of the crystal.OPTICAL PYROMETER PHOTO ELECTRIC TRANSDUCER Piezo Electric Transducers: Certain materials possess the ability to generate an electrical potential when subjected to mechanical strength or dimension changes when subjected to voltage. PIEZO ELECTRIC SUBSTANCE KORBA SIMULATOR 258 . Piezo Electric Transducers are used for force & pressure.5 mm thick and 10 cm2 area of the crystal are available. Forces from 1N to 200 KN with linearity approaching =-1%. Potential difference Vo=Q/CP. Quartz is undoubtedly the most stable Piezo-Electric substance and although its output is quite low but it is used almost universally in electronic oscillators. measurements. Mechanical resonance and mounting orientation decides the frequency limits. Acceleration transducer may be about 4 mm dia and 10 mm long having 2 gram weight that can operate up to 2000C. outputs sensitivity of 125 mV per k Pa for 2. 3500c. The effect is in crystals. The Quartz is ground to the shape of a rectangular or square plate and firmly held between two electrodes contacting its faces. temp. temperature and acceleration etc.

the amount of back-scattered radiation from the test sheet and the backing material (different atomic number) depends on the amount of scattering and absorption of radiation in the test sheet & the backing material and varies with the test sheet thickness. The valves are of sufficient thickness and of a material. The length of the path determines the intensity of radiation received by the detector. a good number of strip sources and strip detectors may be located along the sides but on opposite faces so that the total output of the detectors when added makes up the output signal. The ion current is proportional to the pressure and the range pressure is the largest with this gauge. Radioactive Level Gauge has column of liquid.Radioactive gauges Radioactive vacuum gauge is based on the effect of ionization of the gas. Either C1 or C2 varies to balance the electric field and produce an output. As is the case with sheet materials. No mechanical contact between the gauge and test piece is necessary. Gamma and X-rays are highly penetrating and are used for heavy metals and thick specimens. These gauges can be used from 10-4 torr to 10-3 torr. The ion current does not increase any further when the -particles emitted are totally absorbed by the gas inside. The circuit shown indicates the radio frequency power source ionizes the gas in the transducer in the field from two external electrodes Space charges created and DC output signal furnishes the potential of the electrode. The -rays are used only for very think foils of a few microns thickness. Gamma and X-rays are normally composed of radiation of different wavelengths and hence thickness gauges have to be calibrated for each radiation and for each material. Ionisation Transducers: Ionisation Transducer consists of a glass envelope with two internal electrodes filled by gas or gas under reduced pressure. the characteristic is non-linear. whose pressure is under measurement by -rays emitted from a radioactive source kept inside the gauge. KORBA SIMULATOR 259 . In the Radioactive thickness gauge (Back-scattered detector type). The number of ions formed is proportional to the gas pressure as long as the range of the -rays exceeds the dimensions of the chamber. In the Radioactive thickness gauge (shielded source type) shielded source of nuclear radiation and radiation detector is used as the source of radiation is shielded except in the direction required for absorption or penetration through the material whose thickness is under measurement. rubber or plastics. which does not allow radiation leakage. The thickness gauges are fast and need not be calibrated everyday. the radioactive source & detector. Beta particles are much less penetrating and hence suitable for measurements of thickness of metallic foils and thin deposits of metals on paper. Where linearity is required.

e. capacitors. produce voltage outputs related to non-electrical inputs. The variable resistance (e. Variation of permeance of magnetic circuit causes a change in the flux and voltage is developed due to expanding or collapsing of the flux.) or The variable inductance (single/double coil self inductive. photovoltaic diode and piezoelectric crystal. wire resistance strain gauge.RADIOACTIVE VACUUM GAUGEs RADIOACTIVE THICKNESS GAUGE RADIO ACTIVE DETECTOR (scatter) IONISATION TYPE SENSORS ELECTRICAL SENSORS AND SYSTEMS IN MEASUREMENT: The electrical element transforms the analogue displacement into Voltage or the current through the passive elements i.) effect changes in transducer applications. thermocouple etc. The active pick-ups e. ordinary switch. The variable reluctance is generated when the magnetic lines of flux emanated from the permanent magnets of the systems. resistors. variable reluctance in moving iron/moving coil/moving magnet etc. tacho-generator.g. thermocouple. inductors. are cut by the turns of the coil. thermisters. without 260 KORBA SIMULATOR .g. sliding contact/potentiometer. this principle is used for transducer operation and thus the relative motion is incorporated into the device. simple two/three coil mutual inductive.

The output may be single or three phase (preferred for lower speeds. one type uses the voltage level and the other one-frequency waveform. In Digital tachometers. Pulse counting mechanism is employed to give digital outputs for converting the rotational speed. so very low speed measurement is not possible The clock provides the pulses to open the gate for the prescribed period to set the counter before each count and simultaneously update the digital output. Sensing the direction of motion and indication of the same is possible. The tachometers are used for analogue indication of speed and DC and AC speedometers using voltmeters. In linear function tachometer. The voltage type was normally working on analogue signals generation principle.the need for separate voltage supplies and transducer bridges. Pulses are generated due to the capacitance change between a probe plate and serrated rotor. Electro Mechanical Transducers (Tachometers) Angular speed of rotating shaft measurement is very important particularly in the automatic speed control system. The incremental encoders are used for the measurement of either linear velocity over limited distances or rotational speeds. more often than not. it reduces oscillation at lower speed). its rate is proportional to rotor speed. used universally nowadays by using disk of non-magnetic material that eliminates the influence of shaft magnetization. they are coupled to instrumentation amplifiers. the shape of the output signal is similar to the shape of the pulses those are counted over a given time and the time between the pulses is measured. in which effect of ripple is minimized. Permanent magnet stator and wound rotor principle is used for dc generator (tachometer). The pulse counting method provides measurement of the average speed only and the accuracy depends on the clock period and the resolution varying with speed. which do require power supplies. In such case the system is very dependent on the impedances of the components in the circuit so has poor accuracy. Control logic is used to reset the counter and update the output at each pulse from the incremental and encoder disc. The toothed wheel and magnetic probe which considers the frequency level type. The dc tachometers converts shaft rotation (proportional to speed) signal into an electrical signal. The capacitor system is excited by a high frequency source so that the output is effectively a pulse-modulated signal. In case of inverse function tachometer the clock each incremental pulse of encoder gates pulses. Digital Tachometers. However. The instantaneous speed of rotation at any instant during revolution is reckoned from the counter and the transient in speed are detected. Signal is rectified & smoothened in case of voltage level type tachometers. The voltage relationship is given by: KORBA SIMULATOR 261 . and the thermocouples with thermoelectric characteristics fall in active sensor category. Counters & Electronic Frequency Meters Tachometers produce voltage & frequency proportional to the shaft speed. The piezoelectric substances.

of parallel paths in armature winding For desired high resolution of the order of ±0. The core movement (length change) causes the inductance variations. While the output voltage magnitudes are ideally the same for equal core displacements on either wide of null balance. differential. In general. rad/s a = No. For stability and performance improvement. through phase determination or by use of phase-sensitive circuit arrangement.using the dc tacho-generator or the ac pulse-generating tachometer type measuring system is used.01%.E.M. Eg = (NPΦΩ)/a . COUNTERS TYPE FREQUENCY METER ELECTROMECHANICAL TACHOMETERS Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT): is basically a Differential Transformer that uses the principle of variable inductance. the eddy current is set up in the cup that interacts through the magnetic field in a manner as to follow the magnet and therefore torque developed is proportional to the magnet and cup. Wb Ω = speed of rotation.1% to ±0. LVDT provides an output a-c voltage proportional to the displacement of a core passing through the windings enclosures. The input voltage of LVDT is limited by the current-carrying ability of the primary coil. LVDT is a mutual inductance device that generally makes use of three coils. The sensitivity increases with increased KORBA SIMULATOR 262 . addition of balanced. feedback. It is therefore possible to distinguish between outputs resulting from displacements on each side of null. Thus the angular deflection is proportional to the angular speed of rotation in steady state condition. the linear range is primarily dependent on the length of the secondary coils.F. where N = total number of conductors of the armature Φ P = number of field poles Φ = total magnetic flux per pole. In eddy current drag-cup type tachometer. phase sensitive detection systems are used. the phase relation existing between power source and output changes 1800 through null. The core displacement results in a proportional output on either side of the null position within limits.

determined by the solenoid effect on the core. the core movement causing the differential transformation. FORCE BALANCE TYPE LVDT LVDT SENSING. by use of Transfer Standard in which a thermocouple and a small KORBA SIMULATOR 263 . as indicated above. Xter. however. it may be necessary to use external circuitry to improve the null balance condition Exciting frequency. The LVDT is used in primary detector to convert mechanical force into a proportional electrical voltage.number of turns on the coils in a LVDT. INST DETECTOR LVDT FUNCTIONING Permanent magnet moving coil type measuring system makes use of the driving force/the torque generated by the D. There is a limit. and complete detector using LVDT have been shown. The electrometer amplifiers are used for extremely low current measurements. Such meters are also used for measuring ac current and of frequency higher than 150 Hz as well as dc current. the force balance type LVDT sensing. In the figures below the process of inductance change due to core movement. sometimes referred to as carrier frequency. limits the dynamic response of a transformer. often usable without intermediate amplification.C current flowing in the coil. A voltage dividing potentiometer of sufficiently high resistance is placed across the transformer secondary output to avoid appreciable loading. It is reusable and the cost is also reasonable. DIFF. It is also relatively insensitive to high or low temperatures or to temperature changes and it provides comparatively high output. When utmost sensitivity is desired and the transformer output is amplified. also it increases with frequency. The LVDT sensitivity is directly proportional to exciting voltage and.

The information required for selection of the RTD sensors is. the sensitivity of the RTD. whereas the variation of resistance gives the temperature figures of substances from resistance thermometers detectors.0001k and high sensitivity. Measurement and displays of Temperature Systems In simple thermometer. easily repeatable but is certainly costlier than the Nickel sensor (having 0. is compared with standard cell configured in detection of unbalance current through slide wire and the potentiometer resistance coil.m. The circuit using potentiometer has been shown in the figure below. response (slow or fast) time (0. in translation or rotation or combination or helical motion in multi-turn rotation. The Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTD) enable achievement of very high resolution of the order of ± 0. good/poor thermal contact of sensor with the medium etc. (in form of a coil) and in a sheath or the protecting tube to achieve small size and improve thermal conductivity. Manual balancing is possible by galvanometer. as is clear from the fact that the resistance of value 7000 Ω at 2000 K can fall down to even 6 Ω at 6 K. Platinum-metal sensor for use as RTD. small e. Automatic balancing of the potentiometer requires high gain amplifier and a servomotor.f is obtained from active transducers (Thermocouple etc. The Potentiometer network is used for measuring very precise & accurate value of voltage. Bridge rectifier circuit is used for measuring the Average value of current) by unbalance current flow through a permanent magnet moving coil instrument. The variation of platinum resistance is too much. The resistance element is driven by a.c or d. Potentiometers are available with varying design & provisions. is used. The Resistance thermometer and the thermocouple are categorised as the secondary transducers. Potentiometer N/W are used for Commercial versions of slow varying transients & faster voltages/current in applications like range-change. RTD is a wire element that is wound on a firmer.c. this e. excitation and the output voltage is ideally linear function of the input displacement.5 – 5 sec) giving the thermal conductivity.005/0C sensitivity). standardization and read out of unknown voltage through recording instrument. Hot Wire Resistance Transducers use transfer of heat through conduction by using resistive element in physical contact with the system. Potentiometers consist of resistance element provided with a movable pot/contact. The temperature is determined in thermocouples from thermoelectric properties of materials or combinations of materials.). Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a resistance transducer that changes its value due to change in temperature at the sensing source.m.heater coil enclosed in an evacuated glass bulb.004/0C sensitivity). is quite sensitive (having 0. or the bimetal strip thermometer the Temperature detection is based on differential expansion of two different materials. Nowadays the Zener diode reference is used to provide the voltage for standardization in place of standard cells. KORBA SIMULATOR 264 .f.

length. A compensation line in the R3 leg of the bridge is required when the lead length is long enough. Many metals and alloys exhibit the thermal electric effect but only a few metals are used for temperature sensors. Otherwise reference junction is at triple point of water apparatus. area. temperature co-efficient (α0). difference of temperature (∆T). RT = Ro (1+α0∆T). A thermocouple is a junction of two dissimilar metal wires usually joined to a third metal wire. The e.Linear fractional change in resistance and resistance versus temperature values decide the sensitivity of the RTD. KORBA SIMULATOR 265 .f that is proportional to the temperature of the junction of two dissimilar metals. Tables of RTD resistances to corresponding temperatures are available widely for calibration.m. Since resistance is given by Ro= ρ0. specific resistance.e.) can be varied for obtaining resistance change of the RTD. All thermocouples are encapsulated by stainless steel sheath or hard brass/copper tubes and are protected from contamination and mechanical strengths. In all cases.0005OC temperature. so. The amplifier output (Vout) is used in indicators. the RTD is connected in a bridge circuit in which a null condition is detected by a galvanometer or an amplifier for driving an indicator or the recorder.f produced may not exactly conform to the values made available from standard tables. kept at 0. for making the reference junction.Also. new value of RT gets changed in correspondence with temperature due to variation of initial resistance (Ro). The generated voltage is fed to operational amplifiers of high input impedance to avoid loading. is almost linear and repeatable with change in temperature. The quality of wire produced from batch to batch may vary slightly with the result that the e. the polarity of the thermocouple material mentioned first is positive for temperatures greater than the reference junction temperature. RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR POTENTIOMETERIC RECORDER CIRCUIT Thermocouple Temperature sensor produces an e. any of these three items/figures (i. Ice bath is generally used. The increase/decrease of resistance is linear.01± 0.m. controllers or recorders.f.m.l/A. testing and confirmation of resistance versus temperatures. In the given circuit. Most of the thermocouples can be used in oxidizing environment up to 7500C and reducing environment up to 10000C.

Copper constantan T/C has the maximum sensitivity of 6µV/0C and is useful for the range from -20000C to +4000C. Whenever compensation for variation of cold junction temperature is required. The temp.5% in its operating range of –65OC – 200OC. Cr 10%). Si 1%) is another widely used thermocouple for temperatures from -2000C to +13000C.Platinum metal is stable and platinum-rhodium thermocouple is invariably used. relatively small in size. and is used up to 15000C. Iron/constantan thermocouple is most widely used for industrial applications for the range of temperatures from -1500C to + 10000C.e. Thermisters depict resistivity of 10-1 to 109 Ω-cm. Thermistors are semiconductor compound temperature elements and are thermally sensitive as resistors. The circuit below shows connection of T/C in Op-amp input through cold junction compensation by using two T/C in both leads. Silicon has +ve temperature co-efficient (0. the thermisters have limited KORBA SIMULATOR 266 . Cu 60%) is another alloy that is used with copper. iron or chromel (Ni 90%. two or more thermocouples can be connected in series as shown in figure and for measurement of average temperature. as primary standard for temp between 630. a wheatstone bridge circuit as shown in figure is used with one of its arms having a resistor of nickel wire or a thermistor and located near the cold junction. Al 2%.m. having low thermal capacity & high speed of response and possess large resistance values. Gallium or Antimony are used for low and cryogenic temperatures in the range of 1K-35K. and is preferred for use in non-reducing environment at temperatures between 7000C and 13000C. it is better to calibrate each thermocouple and then use it for measurement of temperature. geranium or silicon)./e. For accuracy. Mn 3%.50C and 1063OC. Semi conductor temperature sensor is also used for temperature measurement and it works on temperature sensitivity of semiconductors (i. Chromel Alumel (Ni 94%. Characteristics of thermocouples are also shown below.7% per OC) and possesses linearity of ± 0. a parallel connection as shown in figure may be used. Depending on their composition.f.Its sensitivity is only about 6 µV/0C. Similarly germanium crystal doped with Arsenic. Constantan (Ni 40%. In order to obtain a higher output emf.

When the flapper is positioned such as to seal off the nozzle.02 mm only.0 kg/cm2.0 kg/cm2 range.i.s. or 0.e. very cheap. resulting in increased gauge pressure reading. it is most versatile but simple. Pneumatic systems have many features and characteristics e.2 kg/cm2 & 20 mA for 1. PNEUMATIC INSTRUMENTATION Pneumatic instruments find its application in the preliminary system of measurements & control in process industries since inception of industrialization. Air can exhaust faster than passing through a restrictor. The device is supplied with air at 1. setting up of the nozzle is critical in this E/P converter because of the lack of feedback.balance principle and it uses negative feed back which is used to oppose the force of the measuring element and the feedback bellows expand till the force is balanced and there is no further increase in output pressure.application in the range 100oC to +300oC. dampers or the power cylinders.2 –1. The orifice (nozzle) is around 3 times larger in size to that of orifice (restrictor). Adjustments of the springs and perhaps the position relative to the pivot to which they are attached allows the unit to be calibrated in range i. 3:1. 4 mA for 0. needs less maintenance support. the plug of the primary valve is also connected to the beam. From the diagram. The spring tension and the primary valve plug relative to the nozzle seat is adjusted for its’ Zero adjustment. KORBA SIMULATOR 267 . the pressure builds up equal to the supply air pressure.The beam is pivoted at one end whilst the other end is attached to a permanent magnet. Small change in supply pressure does not affect the output but the flapper movement is so small that even the slightest amount of wear on pivots or linkages affects the system performance. conversion is done by the flapper-nozzle process as explained earlier.5 bar pressure and has restrictor and nozzle size ratios similar to a conventional flapper nozzle system i. The high processing speed of electrical and electronics signals is contained in UCB/ACS panels while the fastness of pneumatic drive operation is interfaced by use of E/P converters. it is clear that current flows through the coil to produce a force that pulls the flapper down and close–off the gap. Electro-pneumatic converters (E/P) convert electrical signal in pneumatic form for operating/driving valves. The flapper nozzle works on force.e. The pneumatic instruments work on the principle of accurate conversion of mechanical movement to a proportional pneumatic signal by use of flapper nozzle mechanism working on air pressure. fast in operation. (the strength of which depends upon the value of the current) the permanent magnet is forced down which brings the primary valve closer to its seat. high torque and thrust etc. robust. Thermistors possess high value of temperature co-efficient compared to wire wound resistors and are mostly used in integrated circuits for obtaining change in resistances at desired ranges. The actual movement of the flapper is very small about 0. The E/P converters receive electrical signals and control the pneumatic air operated power cylinder.g. valve or systems. Thermistors are used often for compensating electrical circuit to ambient temperature changes. E/P converters use low-level electric current (4-20 mA) signal for conversion to pneumatic air pressure in 3-15 p. The Fielden E/P converter is a force balance device without feedback. Current is applied to the coil and a magnetic field is set up.

the air continuously escapes via the vent. The magnet is provided with Oil damping for smooth operation. This type of relay is used to provide a positive closing force.pressure builds up and forces the diaphragm down which seals off the exhaust valve and opens the secondary valve. the nozzle pressure is applied to the exterior of the large outer bellows and the control line pressure is exerted on the interior of the small bellows when the forces between the two are equal. The rate of leakage determines the backpressure & the output pressure increases as the nozzle pressure increases in direct acting type and vice-versa in reverse acting type. KORBA SIMULATOR 268 . resulting in a drop in pressure. resulting in an increase in output pressure.e p out increases as the p nozzle decreases. the balance condition exists. In Non-bleed type air relays. Excess pressure is vented through the exhaust. Any increase in primary nozzle pressure overcomes the spring pressure and tend to reduce the response time of relay. i. PNEUMATIC INSTRUMENTS TARGET TYPE TXR WITH AIR RELAY Air relays (Booster relays): Booster Air relays are used to supply large volume of air in the connecting pipe work and for the improvement in system response In Continuous bleed type air relays.

The plunger is free standing and is spring loaded. the return or in stroke (-) is achieved by mechanical means. The application of a second force will return the spool to its original condition. The direction of force determines the routing of supply and exhaust. and if air is applied to port-2 (with port-1 open to exhaust). the Solenoid operated power cylinders are single acting or air to open or air to close type and are termed as Shut off cylinders. main air will then be isolated and the air to the outlet will exhaust from third port. Solenoids are of continuous or intermittent rating and of single coil or double coils with specific duty cycle type i. The coil operates on AC/DC specified supply voltage/current. The force of full or push is important parameter in deciding solenoid specifications.e. The force can be removed and the outlet will remain connected to the air supply. Electropneumatic Solenoid converts electrical signal into mechanical rectilinear motion i. Continuous Bleed Type Relay Continuous Non-Bleed Type Relay PNEUMATIC POWER CYLINDERS Power cylinders are single acting or double acting as per their functions. in this case a spring. in a straight line. Five Port Relays is same as that of three port relays in its’ basic construction. compressed air can be switched to the outlet by the application of a force to the spool. The cylinder can be air to extend type (application of a signal will push the piston out) or air to retract type (signal application pushes the piston in). In this type.lobe spool. the only difference being the use of a three. The solenoid consists of a coil and plunger. the piston KORBA SIMULATOR 269 . Double Acting Cylinder is different than single acting in operation point of view that the power cylinder requires air pressure to move in both directions. if air is applied to Port-1 (with Port-2 open to exhaust) the piston will outstroke (+). Single Acting Cylinder is the simplest type of power cylinder.e. SCR are normally used to activate the solenoid coil. Compressed air can now be routed through the relay whilst at the same time a signal can be exhausted through it. Normally. air is used to make the piston unit out stroke or extend (+). In the double acting cylinder.Three Port Air relay consists of a two-lobe spool running in a surface ground cylinder. Once the pressure has been removed. percentage on total time is specified for particular type of application.

thereby. Assuming an increase in the controller output. it effects bellows to expand. Refer figures In Bailey Pneumatic Power Cylinder. The piston. Wherever direct regulation by pneumatic system. The Power Cylinder out strokes under the action of applied pressure. When the cushioning boss enters the cushioning seal. the controller output acts on the bellows the spool assuming an increase in the controller output the bellows will expand and put the pilot beam up against the restraining force of the spring. air is displaced from the other side of the piston to atmosphere through the main port and needle valve. the Electronic controller output acts onto the E/P converter that converts the signal current (4-20 mA) into proportional air (0. An equalizing valve is included to enable manual positioning of the piston. In order that damage may not be caused by sudden contact between the fast moving piston and the cylinder end housing. is needed the signal air is directly sent to the bellows by a pneumatic regulator and the process repeats same as through E/P converter. this results in the positioner drive arm turn the cam. some form of buffer or cushioning can be used. This results in the cushioning effects on high-pressure systems. As. therefore. This way the system is the back in equilibrium. Piston speeds can be in the order of 450 mm/sec applied to Port-2 (with Port-1 open to exhaust) the piston travels up. only escape through the needle valve at a much slower rate. the Driving Air through the 3-port pilot valve is then admitted to the top of the piston and piston begins to move down. All regulating power cylinders are generally double acting. explained earlier. In doing so it takes the cam with it. This does not limit the piston travel but allows gradual deceleration in the last 25 mm or so of travel. causing the piston to slow down for the premium period of travel. (+)&(-) i.e up & down indicate cylinder movement.0 Kg/cm2) pressure and is passed on to input bellows. This unbalances the pilot valve and causes air to be admitted to the top of the piston. Refer figure for details KORBA SIMULATOR 270 . Impact forces at the ends of the stroke can be great. this unbalances the spool of the three port pilot valve. which is also supplied with driving air of supply pressure regulated as per the size and thrust from the power cylinder. as the cam moves down the bell crank lever turns about its pivot and through the spring opposes the movement of the bellows and restores the spool of the pilot valve to its original position. In Kent Mark IV Pneumatic Power Cylinder. air can. begins to move down.will in stroke (-). which puts more tension on the spring and so restores the pilot beam to its original position. therefore.2-1. the pilot valve spool is attached to the bellows via a connecting link. the main port is blocked off.

flow rate versus stem positions. for example.Kent Mark-4 Pneumatic power Cylinder Bailey Pneumatic power Cylinder Pneumatic (Valve) Positioners are fitted in pneumatic power cylinders and also in the pneumatic valves. A relatively small motion of valve stem results in maximum possible flow-rate through the valve. Positioners are used for supporting the pilot valves. it is necessary that sufficient quantity of pressurized air is made available to the large sized diaphragms or the power cylinder. that due to friction of working parts. 90% of flow rate with only a 30% stem travel. Diaphragm Control Valves: A control valve must be capable of responding smoothly and rapidly to small changes in the controller output pressure signal. oppose the movement of the spindle and the valve plug. The quality of control will be impaired if any force. Equal Percentage type of valves has equal percentage change in stem position that produces an equivalent change in flow type characteristic. These operate generally on a pilot valve principle. The flow relation is Q/Qmax = S/Smax. The Diaphragm valves contain flexible diaphragms. The input signals deflect the diaphragm. which is fixed to the thrust plate. The diaphragm virtually seals the chamber into two parts. KORBA SIMULATOR 271 . Since a pneumatic actuator requires a large power input to produce a large power output. The pilot valve is attached to the pilot beam at one end whilst the other end is anchored and pivoted. Linear Type diaphragm valves have flow rate that varies linearly with the stem position. the upper sections receiving the pneumatic signals from the controller via the air input. There are three basic types of the valves: Quick Opening type diaphragm valves are used predominantly for full ON or full OFF control applications. The spindle attached to the thrust plate extends downwards into the body of the valve.

no matter what the origin.The primary function of a Pneumatic Valve Positioner is to ensure that the control valve plug position is always directly proportional to the value of the controller output pressure. there is provision of automatically adjusting the orifice area in response to action from the controller and thereby altering the block valves (Diaphragm type valves). Without the positioner the slight change in controller output signal may have been too small to initiate any corrective action. off-balance of forces on the valve plug etc. The deflection is opposed by the range spring whose stiffness constant and rating determines the extent of travel of the spindle for a given pressure range and effective diaphragm area. This force applied to move the valve spindle is sufficient to overcome the effect of all forces. KORBA SIMULATOR 272 . The flapper is moved towards the nozzle and the relay output pressure begins to increase. Since the spindle is connected to valve plugs. AIR RELAY & CONTROL VALVE SET-UP PNEUMATIC DIAPHRAGM CONTROL VALVE This output pressure continues to increase until the valve spindle moves. which tend to oppose the spindle movement. regardless of gland friction. The controller output signal does not directly actuate the valve stem but is fed to a bellows unit. mechanical feedback then restores the equilibrium. The matching of input signal range to valve travel range is achieved by changing the ratio of bellows/nozzle distance to feedback arm/nozzle distance. actuator hysteresis. This is achieved by incorporating a feed back lever that acts in opposition to the movement to the input. Assume that the system is in equilibrium and then the controller output increases slightly.

The input (0. x1. Pneumatic Integral action control. x2= Level arm of input and feedback lever arm. since the bellows are having fixed geometry.1. KORBA SIMULATOR 273 . is achieved by replacing the integral bellow with a spring and a variable restrictor in between the proportional bellow and the nozzle loop. is achieved by using a variable restrictor in feedback loop (termed as integral bellow) and fitted in opposition to the proportional bellow. The standard response of the pneumatic controllers is the Gain Kp =(x1/x2)(A1/A2). where A1. Pneumatic Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative Control. the controller output pressure (range same as above) changes in the nozzle piping. The response curve drawn below shows that the final output of PID controller reduces the recovery time to approximately half to that of proportional action and the damped oscillation is resulted nearly at the set point only. The proportional gain Kp can be changed by changing x1. The proportional plus integral action control mode slows down the process and thus the recovery time is increased quite more although the offset due to proportional action is reduced fully.0 kg/cm2 air) changes then the input bellows expand/contract and that in turn forces the flapper to move the nozzle appropriately and balances the forces on the flapper/nozzle.2. the gain Kp is similar to the gain factor of an operational amplifiers. It is obtained by suitably adjusting the proportional gain chamber bellows. integral and derivative action control module restrictors. Pneumatic Derivative action control. A2= effective area of the input & feedback bellows.Pneumatic Controllers Pneumatic Proportional action control. The principle of nozzle-flapper applies with the proportional controllers also.

rotation torque. Pneumatic. The Hydraulic actuators use pressurized oil to operate the valve and the principle of its working is similar to the pneumatic actuators. The style and size of the motor are decided on the basis of starting torque. General details of electrical motors can be referred from other electrical equipments KORBA SIMULATOR 274 . rotational speed etc. The rate of rotation is determined by the AC line frequency and the rotor continues in rotation & in phase with line frequency.PNEUMATIC PROPORTIONAL + INTEGRAL+ DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER Electrical Actuators or the Pneumatic Actuators translate the control signal in to the driving force for dampers/valves. Electrical and Hydraulic actuators are classified according to the medium of application.. except hydraulic pump units for pressuring. The normal AC induction motors or the stepper motors are used for actuator application. The Electrical actuators are either the solenoids operated or the electrical motor driven actuators for driving the valve / dampers of mechanical types. blocking units and filters etc are used. Electrical Motors are used for driving the actuators by producing the continuous rotation of motors.

At high frequencies care should be taken to match the impedance of the cable to that of connectors to avoid reflection and distortion of the signal. Addition of interference signals is avoided. resistive and capacity links or by radiation via stray capacitance and mutual induction effects. The power levels of interferences are extremely low but they become significant for elimination. Coaxial. Intrinsically earth system be earthed in its own earth bar. Common mode rejection can be used to reject the common voltage and provide an amplified signal for a grounded indicator. They require magnetic shielding to provide high permeability path for diverting any interference of the magnetic flux. Where cable screens are used. At the field end the cable screen should be cut back and tapped/floating from earth. Reduction of circuit impedance (of signal) is the effective way of controlling the interference.Electrical Interferences (random or periodic) create problems for control and measurements.e. There are two modes of interferences: i) Differential mode is in series of interference that causes one signal lead (wire) in potential relative to the second signal and ii) Common mode interference appears between both signal leads and ground and causes the potential of both sides of the signal transmission circuit to be changed simultaneously and by the same amount relative to ground. static earthling be connected to common plant earth. Screens or guard shields are situated and connected in such a way that interference current are returned to their sources without entering the guarded signal path. Interference is usually coupled by conduction through metallic. Grounding of the transducer is achieved by mounting its case and through the mains power lead. Signal conditioning circuits such as amplifiers may require external power. in the control room. Screening & shielding is second very important method for controlling capacitive coupled common mode interference. KORBA SIMULATOR 275 . Electrostatic coupling is resulted due to capacitance between two objects and so such interference is associated with capacity leakage paths to ground. The conductance-coupling path is always stray. double coaxial lead and the twin conductor with screens are used for screening. Ground connection comprise the most common and most troublesome sources in measuring system which can be eliminated by providing single point grounding preferably at the source end. but be screened from the power supply. Electro-static screens provide the protection from electro-magnetic interference. The ground potential differences cause common mode interference current which reaches the signal circuit through the conductor. earth continuity of screens must be maintained through the installations with the earthling at one point only i. A conductor carrying AC is surrounded by an alternating magnetic field and voltages are induced in any conducting material position within the magnetic field.

laying only 2 wires to connect the transducers does local signal conditioning and signal conditioned measurement system to the rest of the loop. resistance thermometers. since such loading is a direct error for the system. the effect of nonlinearity with resistance in output voltage and the effect of current through the resistive sensor are considered. techo-generators. processing. inductive pickups. inductive and capacitive transducers require excitation whereas thermocouples. Any possible loading of voltage sources by the signal conditioning be always considered. piezoelectric crystals produce their own voltage which only requires amplification and therefore are termed as active transducers. as the controller sees a 4-20 milliamp input signal and The measurement of power supply If the input is a variable resistance and a bridge or divider is used. indicating and recording. Since the current carrying lines are also the power delivery lines to energise the transducer so. Following three factors are important for conditioning: The load impedance should remain between 0-1000 ohms The interchange-ability of the process controllers. KORBA SIMULATOR 276 .SHIELDING& SCREENING INSTRUMENT EARTHING FOR COMPUTERS Signal conditioning (Data Acquisition) and Signal processing Signal conditioning (Data Acquisition) and Signal processing are defined as the excitation and amplification system for the Passive transducers and the amplifiers for the Active transducers so as to bring up the level of transducer to a sufficient quantum for conversion. The potentiometers. strain gauges.

C. DC systems are generally used for common resistance transducers (strain gauges) while AC systems are essential for the variable transducers and systems that have long lead lengths for transducers to the signal conditioning equipments. temperature. etc. Special care is needed to avoid addition of interference to the signal. 2 to 4 V. Active filters can be used to reject the frequency and prevent overloading of the AC amplifier. etc.C. computation or transmission. They are easy to be calibrated at low frequencies and have ability to recover rapidly from an overload condition. multiplexed and converted to digital form for storage. After amplification signal may be sampled. Feedback around D.? d) Linearity: Must the measurement output be linear? e) Noise: What is the noise level and frequency spectrum of the measurement environment? KORBA SIMULATOR 277 . the entire system is developed. Carrier type AC conditioning systems for use with variable resistance or variable inductance transducers require carrier frequencies. bridges such as the Blumlein Bridge. Define the measurement objective.The DC amplifiers need differential inputs in CMRR mode. temperature. 3% of reading. Resistance transducers are often placed in a D. After signal conditioning physical quantities such as pressure. quantized. a) Parameter: What is the nature of the measured variable: pressure. and balanced differential inputs give high rejection to common-mode signals. voltage.? c) Accuracy: What is the required accuracy: 5% FS. while push-pull reactive transducers are placed in special a. and special equipment grounding. Since the sensor is selected from what is available. Signal Conditioning – Design guidelines The guidelines as given below can be important in Signal Conditioning and designing. Mostly.? b) Range: What is the range of the measurement: 100 to 200OC. electrostatic screening and electromagnetic shielding may be necessary. carrier systems. Special amplifiers can provide particular requirements such as very low drift. current. isolation. 45 to 85 psi. The outputs of these bridges and signals from active transducers are usually amplified. Operational amplifiers are used to obtain well-defined gain. flow. from selecting the sensor to designing the signal conditioning. resistance etc. level. Guidelines for analog signal conditioning design: 1. Wheatstone bridge.c. Thus enough information is made available to address an issue properly and exercise good technical judgment. and operation with high–impedance transducers. strain and positions are transformed into an electrical voltage or current of sufficient level for further processing in electronic circuits and indicators or the recorders. Almost all transducers are followed by signal-conditioning equipment. the actual design is really for the signal conditioning. producing a.c.

Select a sensor (if applicable) a) Parameter: What is the nature of the sensor output: resistance. Sophisticated Integrated Circuit (IC) chips fabricated on single chip of semiconductors ( Si.Inverting configuration. second-order damping. designed to amplify the signals over a large/ wide frequency range.(Rf/R1) V1(s) and the output is given by ( vi ) = v1 . It has two input terminals and one output terminal and a gain of at least 10 5. etc. the output signal appears in same sign of the input signal. resistors are used in the input & feedback impedances as shown. In the latter cases.2. We use the resistors as the input & feedback impedances as shown in the fig. voltage. An Op-Amp is direct coupled. equation. Ge ) are the basic elements of the Op-Amp. In Laplace representation form VI (s) = V1(s) . an Op-amplifier is connected in single ended input and the input impedance is high by virtue of the feedback.Kvi holds true where K =zo/zi. Design the analogue signal conditioning (S/C) a) Parameter: What is the nature of the desired output? The most common is voltage. An Op-Amp is basically the differential amplifier which responds to the difference in the voltages applied to the positive and negative input terminals. accuracy. thus the output signal appears in sign inverted of the input signal. KORBA SIMULATOR 278 . high gain voltage amplifier.? 3.? c) Time response: What is the time response of the sensor: first-order time constant. In Laplace representation form Vo (s) = (Rf/R1)V1(s) and the output is given by ( vo ) = .(Rf/R1).g. but current and frequency are sometimes specified. The ideal Op-Amp is a linear device in that the output is directly proportional to the inputs for all values of input voltage. 0 to 5 V. v1. etc. and frequency? d) Range: What is the range of sensor parameter output for the given measurement range? e) Power: What is the Power specification of the sensor: resistive dissipation maximum. current draw. 4 to 20 mA. Basic Op-amp application and the circuits are given in paragraphs that follow: In the Non. 5 to 10 kHz)? c) Input impedance: What input impedance should the S/c present to the input signal source? This is very important in preventing loading of a voltage input. conversion to voltage is still often a first step. graphical. b) Range: What is the desired range of the output parameter (e. Practically the relationship v0 =. etc.? b) Transfer function: What is the relationship between the sensor output and the measured variable: linear.(R1/ R1+ Rf) vo In the Inverting mode which uses an Op-amplifier as a sign inverter. d) Output impedance: As offered at short-circuiting on loaded circuit? OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP-AMP) An Operational amplifier is the name given to the electronic amplifier that is employed to analogue computers for performing mathematical operations.

In the Integrator. no current flows into the op-amp terminals & no voltage drop across the resistor thus full voltage appears between the + terminal and ground.RiCS and the output vo = . the input signal ( v1 ) gets differentiated to obtain the output signal (vo). In the Voltage follower configuration. The Load current IL and voltage source Vs is related: IL= Vs/R1 Voltage follower Current to voltage convertor. (d v1/ dt) KORBA SIMULATOR 279 .V1(s).R C1. Voltage to current convr. the initial conditions are added and are initially biased by a dc voltage. the source voltage gets converted into a load current. A capacitor is used as the feedback impedance and a resistor is used as the input impedance In Laplace representation form Vo (s) = . In the current to voltage converters. Non-inverting Op-amp. in Laplace representation form Vo(s)=Vi(s). and so the Circuit gain Av = (vo)/(vi) =1. In integrating. the voltage source of high internal resistance drives a low-resistance load. Inverting Op-amp.Basic Op-amp.Rf In the voltage to current converters. (1/RiCS) and the output vo =1/ (R1 C). It also performs the action of an Impedance Transformer. thus the source current has been converted into a voltage. v1 dt In the Differentiator. its gain becomes 1. the current [Is] is introduced into the (–) ve terminal of the Op-amp. the input signal (v1) is integrated to obtain the output signal (vo). This is basically the more refined version of emitter follower or the source follower. Since the feedback resistor Rf =0 and input resistor R1 is α (open circuit). the resistance and the capacitors in the circuit are inter-changed to form the differentiator as shown in the figure. and the output voltage is ( vo ) = -Is. an equal current in the feed back resistor is setup and since the amplifier input voltage (v1) is practically zero. the output voltage follows the input.

Square-wave. etc. The output voltage (vo) of the multi-input voltages is given by (vo) = K {(v1) + (v2) + (vn)} = where K=Ro/Rz Integrator Op-amp Differentiator Op-amp Summing Op-amp. pulse train. In the Waveform generators. Square wave Generator Op.Amp.Amp. Waveform Generator Op.c op-amp.Amp. can be generated by the use of one Op-Amp and a pair of back to back Zenor diodes and some filter elements. input may be a simple sinusoidal signal. KORBA SIMULATOR 280 . Triangular-wave Generator Op. several inputs can be summed up by using resistors in the input as given in Inverting configuration and feedback impedances of the high gain d. Triangular wave.In the Summing Op-amp. While designing the op-amps for typical waveform generation. an appropriate type as per required application of op-amp along with the power supply and the feedback network is selected.Amp. Comparator & Clipper Op.

Changes of shaft behaviour /attitude and eccentricity have no effect on the accuracy of measurement so long as the probe gap remains within its working range. frequency & Phase. Furthermore. However. the measurement of axial differential expansion between turbine rotors and cylinders has been significant as an operating parameter. expansions and vibrations should not become excessive such that turbines are safe and defect free. the rate of heating or cooling of the rotating and stationary parts of steam turbines is not the same and differential expansions and contractions occur. the methods of measurement based on the use of both double taper and straight radial collars on the shaft have sometimes presented major problems in the realisation of acceptable accuracy. tend to close the small axial clearances between the rotating and stationary blades. The vibration is measured in Amplitude. With the increased length of machines. of turbine start up the records obtained are peculiar to the units concerned and are of particular value in providing a record of past operation on which to base future procedures. as well as an indication and permanent record of the behaviour of turbine generating plant during start up and running on line. To deal with this situation a system-employing eddy current probe has been developed which does not suffer from drift. The supervisory equipment supplied with large steam turbines involves the application of various machine-mounted detectors to provide the necessary information on temperature differentials. Vibration Detection and Measurement: Pedestal vibration analysis can give information of the shaft condition (whether cracked/may develop crack within some period). turbine supervisory equipment are regarded as essential in providing a warning of imminent trouble. The detectors of measurement of parameters mounted outside of the steam space e. which for example.TURBINE SUPERVISORY EQUIPMENTS The advantage of equipping turbines with supervisory instrumentation was recognised some forty or more years ago and at that time it was envisaged that such instrumentation would provide accurate and easily interpreted indications of the mechanical behaviour and working clearances of steam turbine generating plant. in the context. operation and shut down within minimum time. surfaces exposed to the live steam cause change in temperature more rapidly than the rest of the turbine and if temperature differences are not kept within satisfactory limits. A few of the turbovisory instruments have been described in the paragraphs that follows: Differential Expansion Measurement: Historically. Such detectors are mounted on the bearing keep so as to present the probes appropriately to the periphery of the specially machined collar on the turbine shaft. axial differential expansion and vibration all give little or no information on the situation inside of the cylinders. plastic strains with cracking of the affected parts may result in the long term. Nevertheless. Reliability and repeatability are of overriding importance in establishing the confidence of operatives in turbine supervisory equipment. shaft eccentricity. the thermal stresses. In a vibration KORBA SIMULATOR 281 .g. running clearances and dynamic balance of the turbine/shaft and to ensure safe start up. however. Under changing conditions.

it follows the vibratory motion. Induced voltage is proportional to vibration velocity (measured so) and displacement can be obtained by electronically integrating the signal. Permanent magnet is firmly attached to the case. Normally the Piezo-electric (earlier explained) type sensors are used as vibration pick-up . Phase: It refers to the angle of unbalance and is given in radian/degree. measured in r. The induced voltage is proportional to the relative velocity between the coil and magnetic field and it depends on the coil length.G sets) to 750 Hz (new revised figures reached are 5-1000 Hz) 3. it is measured in r. 1.s and its unit is mm/sec/sec 2. Frequency: Vibration in rotating machines occurs as a result of imbalance in the forces generated or acted upon in the M/C and the frequency is in multiples of shaft rotational speed which ranges from 10 Hz (close to 1st critical speed of 500MW T. its unit of measurement is micrometer (m-6) Velocity refers to the speed of the part at which it moves at any instant during the vibration cycle ( 0 to max or peak).e.m. And by this measurement routine operational monitoring of changes in vibrational behaviour and radial clearances of the machine can be ascertained.s & its unit is mm /sec Acceleration refers to the rate of change of vibration velocity at any instant during the vibration cycle.detector the voltage is induced across the end of a conductor that moves through a magnetic field. magnetic strength and velocity of passing magnetic field. Amplitude: It refers to the level of vibration. Shaft vibration is defined as the dynamic movement of the shaft around the eccentricity locus. Coil assembly is supported by a spring suspension system and combined mass is designed to have low natural frequency.As explained earlier.m. the spring stiffness and in magnet characteristics etc gives rise to output voltage KORBA SIMULATOR 282 . small variation in construction of vibration pick-up i. it can be further represented by i) ii) iii) Displacement which is the total distance the vibrating part moves in a given direction. Differential Expansion Detector Vibration Measurement Detector Eccentricity Detector Measurement The Vibration measurement can be made in three basic quantities as under.

all of them outside the steam space and close to a bearing. these transducers operate on eddy current or the variable reluctance principle. is particularly sensitive to out of balance forces on the turbine shaft at the higher speeds. though dependent to some degree on the mass of the pedestal and the rigidity of the foundations. this is extremely useful. For shaft eccentricity measurement an eddy-current probe is presented to the periphery of the shaft at a defined longitudinal distance from the centre line of the bearing. vibration instrument may give an output reading when subjected to high cross axis excitation.(Cross-axis figure should not exceed 10 %) While going for Vibration Measurement.c. common practice is followed to measure bearing pedestal vibration which. On a turbine pedestal for example. connecting cable and electronic processing units. the change in radial air gap within the cylinder is inferred from eccentricity. It is measured as the diameter of the locus traced by the shaft centre. Normally the Non-contacting type proximity sensors are used which contains transducer. Depending upon the overall sensitivity. In the limit. in one direction. but for indicating the onset of shaft vibration trouble on a particular turbine it is not so reliable. thermal bends. Magnetic effects are picked up in considerable quantum due to the a. generator vicinity and may create noise. LVDT has been explained Thrust Position (Shift) Measurement: The primary purpose of thrust position measurement of the turbine shaft is to provide an accurate indication of the onset of thrust bearing failure. in this circumstances the transducer with high transverse (cross-axis) sensitivity could produce an output which is significantly different from the actual vibration level in the required direction. The detection of shaft eccentricity is particularly valuable at the lower speeds in establishing the straightness of a turbine shaft but the measurement is often complicated by phenomena of shaft whirl. which can arise from effects originating at the bearings. at several points along the rotor.variations. If the temperature distribution in a shaft is not symmetrical about it’s axis differential expansion will cause the shaft to bend and if the speed is raised centrifugal forces will aggravate the condition. but this can be overcome by incorporating magnetic screen with the instrument. The responses to imbalance. It provides signals directly proportional to acceleration and offers particular advantages of robustness and resistance to environmental conditions. continuously operating monitoring equipment. Vibration amplitude for a certain level of severity must get smaller and smaller and the alarm level changed accordingly. At all times. rubbing may occur with the resultant localised heating possibly leading to serious damage. rubs & unloading of bearings are more clearly observed by measurements of shaft movements within the bearings rather than by the vibration of pedestal in the steam turbines. With such an indication giving advanced warning the damage KORBA SIMULATOR 283 . Shaft eccentricity equipment indicates the amplitude of shaft vibrations relative to the pedestal. As permanent. the shafts of steam turbines must conform within close limits to the natural deflections due to their own weights. the Horizontal and Vertical vibration may be very similar in magnitude.

Hence. Also the fixed point of L. Differences in expansion between the outer casing and the fixed bearing housings to which the housings for the shift glands are attached are taken by bellows type expansion joints. the greater will be the inaccuracy. The casings of the LP turbine are separately and axially located by fitted keys at the front supports of their longitudinal beam members on the base plates. The probe should be installable. and its gap adjustable from the outside of the bearing housing with the machine in operation however. Seen from this point. The centre guides for these casings are recessed in the foundation crossbeams. In turbines when the HP and IP casings heat up. this is not always possible. from these points the members and the LP outer casing bolted to them expand towards the generator.to the machine can be limited to only the loss of the thrust bearing. The movement and expansion of individual casings is measured to ensure that the alignment between pedestals is maintained within acceptable limits. The rotor and casing of the LP turbine expand towards the generator in a similar manner. both the rotor and casing of the HP turbine expand towards the front bearing of the HP turbine. the outer casing of the LP turbine expands from its fixed points towards the generator. This is brought about by thermal growth and various pressure strains on the shaft and the turbine casing. Thus the origin of the cumulative expansion of the casings is at the front bearing housing of the LP turbine. The measurement is made. There is no restriction on axial movement of the casings. The bearing housings are connected to the HP and IP turbine casings by guides which ensure that the turbine casings remain in their central position while at the same time axial movement takes place.P Turbine is there at the bearing casing housing front base plate support of each longitudinal beam member of the LP turbine. Shaft Eccentricity Measurement: Eccentricity is defined as the out of centre Turbine Rotor &Casing Expansion Measurement: The front bearing housing of the HP and IP turbines can slide on their base plates in an axial direction. either expand within the clearances provided at the pedestals or can be KORBA SIMULATOR 284 . as near to the thrust bearing as possible since the greater the distance between the thrust collar and the points of measurement. At the rear supports of the longitudinal beam members the casing is free to expand horizontally in any direction. Rotor expansion takes place in the direction away from the location point within the thrust block assembly. If possible the thrust probe should observe the thrust collar directly. Fitted keys prevent any lateral movement perpendicular to the machine axis. Since this bearing housing is free to slide on the base plate the shafting system moves with it. Free lateral expansion is allowed. The thrust bearing is incorporated in the front bearing housing of the IP turbine. The IP and HP casings expand towards the front bearing housing of the HP turbine as the fix point of the turbine casing on the foundation is at the bearing housing between the IP and LP turbines. when there is a temperature rise. The rotors can. they expand in the direction towards HP end. removable. so each LP casing expands towards the generator end.

. the potential of each electrode reflects the composition of the solution.f. whereas an electrolytic cell is supplied with electrical energy from an external source. A galvanic cell is used as a converter of chemical energy into electrical energy. One way is to rely on heat transfer equations written into the computer software. The effect therefore forms the basis of the electrochemical transduction of the active type and the e. Several methods are adopted to predict the temperature gradient during turbine run-up.f. developed between the two electrodes of the cell constituted for this purpose is used to signify the concentration level. At the exact point at which the galvanic e.m. Chemical control of the feed water system is achieved by addition of ammonia and hydrazine concentrations in the feed water.m.m. removing impurities & corrosion products etc. Rotor Temperatures: The HP and IP rotors may be subjected to high thermal stresses due to temperature gradients through the rotor assemblies. CHEMICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Chemical control of water systems plays an important part in the operation of modern power plant. and alarms the operator of any marked departure from acceptable conditions and provides information for troubleshooting. other way is to make use of measurements taken in the HP and IP steam pipes located in positions within the pipe work in such a way that their response over short periods is the same as that of the rotor.f is balanced by the applied e. no current flows through the cell. Chemical monitoring instrumentation monitors the chemical conditions of the system during operation and facilitates chemical control of the water treatment plant. The electro chemical technique is adopted for measuring the concentration of a component in solution in terms of effect it has on the electrical properties of the cell.keyed to the casing to move axially with the expanding rotor depending on the turbine designs. and under these conditions. Some of important application of chemical instrumentations at various plant locations are shown and described in short in pages below. the condensate polishing plant etc. thereby maintaining high water purity & Chemical conditioning. Metal temperatures are displayed as individual temperatures or differential temperatures from combinations of individual or average temperatures. The basic aim of chemical control is to maintain an environment in all parts of the system. pH measurements provide indication of adequacy of ammonia dosing & necessity of continuous hydrazine monitoring. These conditions arise during start-up when high temperature steam flows over relatively cool rotors. and the material used for all conditions of operation. Without it plant would deteriorate rapidly and major failures would soon result leading to loss of availability. KORBA SIMULATOR 285 . This is achieved by minimizing the impurity ingress.

Final Feed water line: Conductivity. sodium and reactive silica as a check on the final feed water quality and its acceptability for feeding to the boiler. Deaerator Inlet / Outlet: Occasional need for on-line monitoring of dissolved oxygen to check on deaerator performance. The Condensate Polishing Plant: Conductivity (before and after cat-ion resin) and reactive silica to facilitate plant operation and check on outlet water quality in addition to this chloride and sodium are monitored. pH. Boiler Water (Drum type system): Conductivity (before and after cat-ion resin) chloride and sodium to ensure correct alkaline conditions in the bulk are being maintained. The Condenser: Direct conductivity to facilitate in finding the condenser leak locations by means of probes installed at various locations within the shell. The Condenser Extraction Pump: Direct and after cat-ion conductivity (supplemented by sodium in some instances) to provide warning of condenser leakage and the Dissolved oxygen to ensure adequacy of oxygen removal at the condenser. dissolved oxygen. Downstream of chemical dosing points: PH as a check on adequacy of dosing. to ensure the neutrality of acid and alkali spent by re-generants prior to disposal. In addition continuously monitoring of ammonia and hydrazine concentrations in the feed water since chemical control of the feed system is achieved by addition of these chemicals. Conductivity (before & after cat-ion resin) reactive silica and sodium measurements are done for finding out the performance of individual items of plant. It gives warning of resin bed exhaustion and ensures required water quality. During commissioning and subsequent start-ups it may be considered beneficial to continuously measure the total iron (i.e.The Make up Water Treatment Plant. In addition pH equipment is often installed at sumps etc. pH measurements provide an indication of the adequacy of ammonia KORBA SIMULATOR 286 . corrosion product) inventory to the boiler.

and under these conditions.f developed between the two electrodes of the cell constituted for this purpose is used to signify the concentration level. Electrochemical transducers enable the presentation of ionic potentials into a suitable form so that output signals represent the bio-chemical phenomena (in which both membrane barriers and metal electrolyte interfaces are used) for pH KORBA SIMULATOR 287 . The electrochemical cells are of two types.m.m. A column of saturated KCL solution over the paste enables contact with the test solution through a salt bridge of KCL whose concentration is kept about 3. However the passage of ion takes place through the unequal rates of diffusion develop some junction potential.m. the potential of each electrode reflects the composition of the solution. The porous plug or the salt bridge serves the function of connection between the reference and indicator electrode without allowing the solutions to mix with each other. no current flows through the cell. The latter may only be required during early operation to establish a relationship between silica in steam and boiler water once this relationship has been established then monitoring the silica in the boiler water may be adequate. Contact with mercury pool is by means of a platinum wire which may be amalgamated Ag/AgCl or Calomel (Mercurous chloride) electrode is used for pH measurement of water. 1) Galvanic 2) Electrolytic.f. whereas an electrolytic cell is supplied with electrical energy from an external source.f is balanced by the applied e. This situation may change in the future as a result of excess hydrazine possibly being linked with erosion / corrosion problems currently being investigated. At the exact point at which the galvanic e. which is in contact with a paste containing equal weights of calomel and potassium chloride.dosing and the necessity for continuous monitoring of hydrazine other than to economise on its use is (or has been in the past) debatable. The theory of electrodes and the principles that govern their design are a little involved and require an understanding of electrochemistry.8 mol per litre. Measurement of ion concentration in electrolytes pose problems because an electrode is selective to desired ion species and its concentration in the solution and reference electrode remain independent of the variation of the electrolyte surrounding the indicator electrolyte and separating the electrolyte. Main Steam: Conductivity (before and after cat-ion resin) and reactive silica to obtain a measure of salt carry over to the turbine blades. Electrochemical transducers enable the presentation of ionic potentials into a suitable form so that output signals are representing the bio-chemical phenomena (in which both membrane barriers and metal electrolyte interfaces are used). The metal used for electrode is mercury. Electro Chemical Transducers The concentration of a component in solution is measured in terms of effect it has on the electrical properties of the cell. The effect of the component on an electrode introduced into the solution forms the basis of the electrochemical transducer of the active type and the e. A galvanic cell is used as a converter of chemical energy into electrical energy.

measurement of water the metal used for electrode is mercury. Paramagnetic Analysers Two of the electrons in the outer shell of the oxygen molecule are unpaired. normally alkaline pyrogallol solution. Bone and Wheeler and Schholander gas analysis apparatus. Measurement of oxygen Although the concentration of oxygen in gases is the parameter of widest interest it should be remembered the most if not all. On entering the cross-tube it is heated by the filament and this has the effect of reducing its paramagnetic susceptibility. Located in the cross tube is a heated filament which forms one arm of a Wheatstone bridge. However the passage of ion takes place through the unequal rates of diffusion develop some junction potential. A column of saturated KCL solution over the paste enables contact with the test solution through a salt bridge of Kcl whose concentration is kept about 3. they are repelled) There are two-three types of instrument for measuring oxygen. Oxygen present in the sample gas is attracted from the left hand tube into the cross-tube by the magnetic field. Apparatus for measuring oxygen by this method. are typically those referred to as the Orsat. Since instruments read directly in concentration units they must be calibrated at the pressure of measurement. The porous plug or the salt bridge serves the function of connection between the reference and indicator electrode without allowing the solutions to mix with each other. Contact with mercury pool is by means of a platinum wire. The limitations of this type of apparatus are obvious and the accuracy of measurement is very dependent upon the skill of the operator.8 mol per litres. which is in contact with a paste containing equal weights of calomel and potassium chloride. methods of measurement actually respond to oxygen partial pressure. indicates the volume of oxygen originally present and allows the concentration. measured at atmosphere pressure. attracted by a magnetic field.e. (Most other gases are either unaffected by a magnetic field or exhibit weak diamagnetic properties i. Of these the Orsat is the most common and although somewhat crude it still finds use in the laboratory and as a portable means of gas analysis on plant. Magnetic Wind Analyser utilizes the principle of paramagnetic property of O2 as hown in the diagram the sample gas enters at the bottom and passes upwards through the side tubes. The flow of gas cools the filament so changing its resistance. which make use of this property. along with other gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. which may be amalgamated Ag/AgCl or Calomel (Mercurous chloride) electrode. the oxygen molecule is strongly paramagnetic i. The magnetic moment is therefore not neutralized and as a result. The heated gas is pushed along the cross-tube by cold gas entering at the left thus creating a flow of gas along the cross tube proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. (by volume) to be calculated. This change is KORBA SIMULATOR 288 . Gas Absorption Methods These methods are dependant upon the oxygen in a measured volumetric sample of gas being absorbed by a chemical solution.e. The resulting reduction in volume. Haldane.

resistance unbalances the Wheatstone bridge giving a signal. the forces acting upon it being dependant upon the strength of the pole pieces and the magnetic susceptibility of the gas which surrounds it. The right hand stream of nitrogen passes through a magnetic field whilst the left hand stream passes through a similar volume. Sample gas is introduced upstream of this outlet and mixes with the nitrogen as it emerges from the two arms. The presence of a paramagnetic gas such as oxygen increases that susceptibility (and therefore the forces acting upon the diamagnetic body) in proportion to the oxygen partial pressure. A diamagnetic body located in a non-uniform magnetic field will be repelled by that field. The first measuring cell to take advantage of this effect was that developed by Pauling and known as the Pauling Dumb-bell system. The Pauling cell consists of two diamagnetic spheres of glass filled with nitrogen and mounted at the ends of a bar to form a dumb-bell. This dumb-bell is mounted horizontally on a vertical quartz fibre torsion suspension. It requires a continuous flow of nitrogen and accurate alignment to ensure that there is no gravitational chimney effect. into a common outlet. KORBA SIMULATOR 289 . This is the basis of the Magneto-Dynamic Analyser. Quincke Type Analyser: In this analyzer a continuous steam of nitrogen gas passes over two sections of a Wheatstone bridge. The presence of oxygen in the sample gas generates a small backpressure on the right hand flow pressure distorts the flow pattern of nitrogen around the arms of the Wheatstone bridge which becomes unbalanced and gives a signal proportional to this oxygen content. Flows are adjusted so that the heat losses over the two sections are the same and the Wheatstone bridge is balanced. but without any magnetic field. which can be related to the oxygen concentration. Magneto-Dynamic Analysers also make use of the paramagnetic properties of oxygen but in a different way.

The platinum outer electrode of the sensor acts as a catalyst in this respect and the output will therefore be a measure of the residual oxygen. The High Temperature Ceramic Sensor The High Temperature Ceramic Sensor is in principle an oxygen concentration cell comprising two electrically conducting.987 cal /deg /mole) T is the absolute temperature. E = 2. The response is linear with oxygen partial pressure and two-point calibration usually with air and nitrogen (to set the zero of the instrument) is sufficient. provided that the oxygen partial pressure is known at one electrode. This is shown schematically. The spheres are repelled from the strongest part of the field and so rotate the suspension until the force produced by the twist of the suspension is equal to the force acting on the spheres. R is the gas constant (1. Oxygen reacts with combustible gases in the sample at above 600OC. In practice air is invariably used as a reference gas and is allowed. The tube is completely gas tight and made of a ceramic (usually calcium stabilized zirconium oxide).The whole measuring cell operates inside a strong non-uniform magnetic field. F is Faradays constant (23060 cal/v) Thus. at the temperature of operation. Calibration and measurement at the same pressure enables a direct readout in concentration units to be obtained. or directed to come into contact with the one electrode whilst the other electrode is exposed to the sample gas. With magneto-dynamic analysers only the magnetic susceptibility of the gas is being measured and the reading is unaffected by changes in the carrier gas composition. The current required to maintain the dumb-bell in the zero position is a measure of the magnetic susceptibility of the gas present in the cell and therefore the oxygen partial pressure. The potential difference across the cell is given by the Nerst equation i. KORBA SIMULATOR 290 .303 RT log( P1/ P2) /RTvolts . P1 & P2 oxygen partial pressure at electrodes F P2. E is the potential difference. A change in the oxygen content of the gas inside the cell changes the force acting on the dumb-bell causing it to take up a new position.e. then the potential difference between the two electrodes enables the unknown oxygen partial pressure to be determined at the other electrode.. conducts electricity by means of oxygen ions. This cell is the basis of the Servomex range of oxygen analysers. The ceramics used for sensing leads to situation of even operating at a lower temperature. using a lamp/mirror system or electromagnetic feedback can be used to restore the dumb-bell to the zero position as in the Munday cell. This can be measured wither directly e. The high temperature ceramic sensor holds over a very wide range of oxygen partial pressure allowing measurements to be made in the percent oxygen range on the one hand through ppm concentrations to oxygen range partial pressure as low as 10-25 atm on the other. which.g. chemically inert electrodes (usually platinum) attached to either side of a solid electrolyte closed ended tube.

reduces the repetitive manual operation. controlling the process parameters like pressure. A steam ejection sampling system of the type as shown is also employed to provide a sample suitable for oxygen measurements using a paramagnetic analyser CONTROL SYSTEMS In any industrial operation. and automatic control becomes essential. Filtration of particulate matter can be more readily achieved and a further advantage is that oxygen reading on a “wet” basis can be obtained directly. however. it has become the important and the integral part of the power plant (any process). Level temperature. For direct oxygen read out on a “wet” basis sampling system and measuring cell must be maintained above the dew point.. Automatic controls provide means for attaining optimal performance of the dynamic system. All above thus calls for good understanding of the field. viscosity etc.The measurement of oxygen in flue gas is an important aid to the combustion control of oil and coal-fired plant. humidity. The immediate problem that has to be overcome in this application. the designing of control system must be such as to use complex computation through the electronic analog. expand the production rate. flow. digital and hybrid computers and on-line computers for KORBA SIMULATOR 291 . The direct oxygen probe based on the high temperature ceramic sensor and manufactured by Kent and Westinghouse has the advantage that it can be installed directly into the flue gas ducting. systems are becoming more complex and lot many equations are being incorporated to cope/ be in pace with the advancements in control field. improve the quality and economizes the cost. As the efficient power. is the wet dirty and potentially corrosive nature of the gas to be analysed. A fast instrument response is also a feature of the Kent probe system as shown. Not only does this avoid the complication of a gas sampling system but high temperature operation ensures freedom from “dewing out” of water on the cell surfaces.plant-operation requires handling many inputs and outputs.

the period of cyclic oscillation. We are interested in resolving and controlling the initial error. when a controlled variable experiences a sudden change. economic. This is the elapsed time between the instant a deviation (error) occurs and the corrective action first occurs. in such situation we are interested in both the peak amplitude of the error and the period of the oscillation. The System implies to biological. Due to the control lag. or acceleration etc. in control system. Control Lag: The control system has Control Lag (it refers to the time) associated with its operation that must be compared to the process lag. leads to an oscillation of the error about zero. KORBA SIMULATOR 292 . We have cyclic transient error if the cycling amplitude decays to zero. is termed as the Internal Disturbances whereas the External Disturbances refers to the disturbance generated outside the system although partly is an input only. physical etc. This means the variable is cycling above and below the set point value. Control lag refers to the time for the processcontrol loop to make necessary adjustment to the final control element. Systems: A combination of components that act together. Cycling: The dynamic behaviour of the variable error under various modes of control. but not limited to physical ones rather the abstract and the dynamic phenomena forms a System. If cycling continues indefinitely. velocity. this leads to the steady state cycling. it is always possible to include compensation within the system so that measurements are unnecessary. The dead times can have a very profound effect on the performance of control operations on a process. Dead Time: Another time variable associated with process control that is both the function of the process-control system and the process is Dead Time. decay time for the error to reach etc. Unpredictable disturbances are designated as unknown parameter beforehand. with predictable or known disturbances. Feedback control: A feedback control in a control system is one which tends to maintain a prescribed relationship between the reference input( set point decided any where within the range) and the output by comparing these two signals and using the difference as an error input to the controller. Servomechanism: is a feedback control system in which the output is some mechanical position.. the terms servomechanism and position are synonymous. the process-control loop reacts by outputting a command to the final control element to adopt a new value to compensate for the detected change. Some terminologies appearing frequently are given below to describe the intricacy of control systems: Plant: A set of machine parts functioning together to perform a particular operation is considered as a Plant.operation support. Process: Any system comprised of changing and dynamic variables usually involved in manufacturing and production operation describes a Process. Internal & External Disturbances: The signal that affect the output of the system.

One has to find complete response to a step function or alternatively the frequency response for steady-state sinusoidal inputs. the output has no effect upon the control action. the output is neither measured nor fed back for compensation with the input. System requires a feed back signal. the changes are random and therefore unpredictable except on a statistical basis. E. The PB is 10 % if the 10% change in error causes 100 % change in output. In a closed loop system use of feed back signal reduces the system error. For each reference input. it being perhaps the first automatic control device. It operates on a time basis that is why it is termed as open loop system Closed loop control mode: is the mode in which the output signal has a direct effect upon the control action. CONTROL SYSTEMS: MODES OF CONTROL ACTIONS The Control Systems work in two modes as explained below: Open Loop Control Mode: In this mode. the governor of the engine drives a rotating spindle carrying the flyweights.. in response to a sudden change in load etc. Working of the Watt’s Flywheel governor is the best example to understand the philosophy of the primitive process control system installed in the process industries. Transducers are used to measure variables and convert them to electrical form. programmed controls of temperature by heating furnaces according to a preset program etc. Automatic regulating system employs feedback in which the reference input or the desired output is either constant or slowly varying with time Controllers are meant to maintain the actual output at the desired value in the presence of disturbances of automatic regulating system. control systems can be analysed into a few basically similar components. Process control is essential requirement of any industry. are often used in Process control systems. Dynamic Response of control Devices is the dynamic behaviour. Automatic control of pressure and of electric quantities such as voltage. current and frequency. this is required to evaluate the range of regulation and tuning of the controller performance. Error signal between the input and the feedback signal is fed to the Controller so as to output to the system for reducing/neutralising the error and bringing the output of the system to a desired value.g. Motors are used to provide the ‘muscle’ for system control. the closed loop is capable of greater accuracy over a wider range of conditions even when less precise control elements are used. Controllers and amplifiers are used to develop signals to actuate the controlled system. It should be noted that most Process control systems include servomechanisms as an integral part. there corresponds a fixed operating condition as the o/p is not compared with the input and the system accuracy depends on calibration. Computers or comparators are used in determining the difference between reference and feedback variables. The engine KORBA SIMULATOR 293 . In Watt’s flyball governor. Despite their great variety. Often. In comparison to an open loop system.Proportional Band (PB) is the change in proportional input that is required to produce full-scale change in output.

An increase in load on the engine momentarily reduces its speed.speeds up until the centrifugal force of the flyweights overcome the force of the speed adjusting spring and partially closes the throttle valve. The system consists of components: Fly ball Speed governor system senses the change in speed (frequency). as the speed increases. Increase in frequency f causes the fly balls to move outwards so that B moves downwards by a proportional amount k2’ f. Its downward movement opens the upper pilot valve so that more steam is admitted to the turbine under steady conditions (hence more steady power output). and accelerates the engine until the set speed is reached. the fly balls move outwards and the point B on linkage mechanism moves downwards and reverse happens in decreasing of speed. For opening /closing the steam valve against high-pressure steam. It also provides a feedback from the steam valve movement (link4). The reverse happens for upward movement of speed changer. This link mechanism provides a movement to the control valve in proportion to change in speed. generator speed and frequency goes up. Hydraulic Amplifier has a pilot valve and main piston arrangements. Linkage Mechanism: ABC is a rigid link pivoted at B and CDE is another rigid link pivoted at D. The movement yD depending upon its sign opens one of the ports of the pilot valve admitting high-pressure oil into the cylinder thus moving the main piston & opening the steam valve by yE. reduces the centrifugal force of flyweights. high pressure oil flowing under top causing main piston moving downward. The net movement of C is therefore yC = k1 kC PC + k2 f and movement D. the steam valve opening causing increase in turbine. Block diagram of a fly ball governor Load Frequency Control: The figure below shows the single turbo-generator system supplying an isolated load. KORBA SIMULATOR 294 . allows the throttle valve to open. The point A on the linkage mechanism is moved downward by yA then yA = kC PC . Speed changer: It provides a steady power output setting for the turbine. PC is commanded increase in power which sets into motion a sequence of events like pilot valve moving upward. yD= k3 yC + k4 yE. Low power level pilot valve movement is converted into high power level piston valve movement.

it is observed that a positive movement yD creates a negative (upward) movement yE accounting for the negative sign in (i) above. (i) From the schematic diagram (left side). the transients in excitation voltage control vanish much faster and do not affect the dynamics of power frequency control. The movement of yE is obtained by dividing the oil volume by the area of the cross-section of the piston. Changes in load demand can be identified as: (i) slow varying changes in mean demand. The volume of oil admitted to the cylinder is thus proportional to the time integral of yD. which can be made. Because of (i) above the rate of oil admitted to the cylinder is proportional to port opening yD. Furthermore. Thus.yD) dt. otherwise the system will be prone to hunting resulting in excessive wear and tear of rotating machines and control equipment. this time constant is much larger than that of the generator field. Load frequency and excitation voltage control: This control is non-interactive for small changes and can be modelled and analysed independently. The regulators be designed to function insensitive to fast random changes. Thus yE = k5 (.Certain justifiable simplifying assumptions. and (ii) fast random variations around the mean. Schematic Diagram of Load– Frequency Control Load–Frequency & Excitation voltage Control KORBA SIMULATOR 295 . excitation voltage control is fast acting in which the major time constant encountered is that of the generator field. are: Inertial reaction forces of main piston and steam valve are negligible compared to the forces exerted on the piston by high-pressure oil. while the power frequency control is slow acting with major time constant contributed by the turbine and generator moment of inertia.

and action and then produces an output signal. Common terms for limits include set point and differential. apply the logic of control. Two-position control can be used in basic control loops for temperature control or for limit control such as freeze stats or outside air temperature limits. the controller compares an analog or variable input with instructions and generates a digital (two-position) output. fans. One output increases the signal to the controlled device while the other output decreases the signal to the controlled device. The controller compares input from sensors with a set of instructions such as set point. Set point indicates the value where output pulls-in. Floating Control A floating control response produces two digital outputs based on changing variable input. The output changes value as the input crosses the limits. KORBA SIMULATOR 296 . There are no standards for defining limits. These end devices include valve operators. electric relays. The instructions involve definitions of upper or lower limits.CONTROL SYSTEMS: CONTROLLERS Controllers process data that are input from the sensor. throttling range. Control responses are characterized as: • • • • • • Two-Position Control Floating control Proportional (P Only) control Proportional Plus Integral (PI) control Proportional Plus Derivative (PD) control Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative (PID) control Controlled Device or Output A controlled device responds to the signal from a controller or control logic in a way that changes the condition of the controlled medium or the state of the end device. Two-Position Control In a two-position control sequence. or is true. Two-position control functions as a simple switch. energizes. The control logic usually consists of a control response along with other logical decisions that are unique to the specific control application. pumps. damper operators. The control response also involves an upper and lower limit with the output changing as the variable input crosses these limits. The control response conveys as to how the controller functions. and cause an output action. The output changes back or drops out after the input value crosses through the value equal to the difference between the set point and the differential. The output signal may be transmitted either to the controlled device or to other logical control functions. compressors. and variable speed drives for fans and pumps applications.

g P. thus large gain is required then. In proportional action output p = po at error=0 and is constant If the deviation (error) exceeds the Proportional Band then the output may exceed the range of correcting element.B. In proportional controllers: KORBA SIMULATOR 297 . In proportional control. The controller output is given by:-p=(100/P.B).B.where e is the error. it is inverse of gain Kp) .FLOATING CONTROL RESPONSE According to actions of the control systems the controllers are categorized in either Two-position (On/Off) or Proportional (‘P’ action) or Integral (‘I’ action) or Derivative (‘D’ action) and combination of all above. The loop controls within this throttling range. P+I+D etc. Offset is defined as the difference between the control point and the desired condition. a unique value of the measured variable corresponds to full travel of the controlled device and a unique value corresponds to zero travel on the controlled device. po is the bias or the offset(initial condition is po)and Kp is proportional gain and is equal to 100/P.B. The change in the measured variable that causes the controlled device to move from fully closed to fully open be called the throttling range. the output will rise with an increase in the measured variable. Desired value must differ from the measured value and the measured value is controlled to a proportional desired value by off setting the set value.P. is denoted as P. assuming that the system has the capacity to meet the requirements. In direct-acting proportional control response. A proportional controller utilizes the principle of negative feedback. Proportional Action Control Mode A proportional control response produces an analog or variable output change in proportion to a varying input. P. The relationship of the gain Kp of the amplifier (the proportional sensitivity) of the control can be obtained by the controller output.e + po. The type of action dictates the slope of the control response. In a reverse-acting response. P+I.(proportional band.is to be chosen such that oscillation is minimum. the output will decrease as the measured variable increases. P+D. is increased to damp the oscillation& attenuate the input cycle. e.B. which is directly proportional to the deviation (error) of controlled variable (input).

the resistance R1 varies the proportional const and so the P.R2/R1 > 1 hold good Normally Laplace transform. The electronic proportional controllers are basically the amplifier. Kp= Ri/Ro.R2/R1) K . There is a band of error about zero of magnitude PB within which the output is not saturated at 0 or 100%. which is amplified by gain factor K to a value suiting to the valve regulation.V.i) ii) iii) The output is a constant equal to output po for the error = zero If there is error. The controller output eo = K. (ei –eo. an error is created (e=M. which receive small voltage signals and output higher voltage/power signals. Gain G(s) = Eo(s)/Ei(s). Proportional Constant Prop. The desired steam pressure (Desired Value) is applied to the controller which also receives the feedback signal of actual steam pressure (Measured value).B. Proportional Control Set up Error Vs.V) thus. for every 1% of error a correction of Kp percent is added to or subtracted from po. Controller Output at varying gains KORBA SIMULATOR 298 . In the Op-amp circuit. is obtained for the dynamic response of the controller from transfer functions and the overall transfer function defines the system behavior. Control set-up The diagram below gives the arrangement of control system in which the valve responsible for the boiler combustion say oil/coal valve is regulated to control the boiler outlet/steam pressure. Control response Prp Cont characterstic Prop.-D.

The inverse of the integral time is termed as the Reset rate.P.Kp=4) as shown in the figure. The integral time Ti is adjustable and this Ti affects the integral control action.Kp=2. the R (variable) and C decide the integral time and can be set as desired.B=100%and Kp=2.B=50% and the pressure oscillates with rise of Kpat reduced offset than before when Kp=1. which can be adjusted. P(s)/E(s)= Ki/s. When the error is zero the output is fixed at the value that integral term had when the error occurred. System performance of control actions can be predicted on the basis of Step response. In Integral mode the value of the controller output p(t) changes at a rate proportional to the actuating error signal as given above.Effect of Controller Output for gain K=1 Effect of Controller Output for gain K=2 The controller output varies according to the gain (proportional gain constant Kp=1. Integral Action (Reset Action) Control Mode In integral action controller. For zero (0) value of e(t) the value of p(t) remains stationary. ‘Kp’ is the gain of the proportional controller. In the OpAmplifier circuit. Since the inverse of Kp is the Proportional Band (P. which is measured in. The integral time (TI) adjusts integral action while a change in value of the Kp affects the proportional and integral parts of the control action If the error is not zero the proportional term contributes a correction and the integral term begins to increase or decrease the accumulated value depending on the sign of the error and the direct or reverse action. KORBA SIMULATOR 299 . the output increases at a rate proportional to the control variable error and so the control output is the integral or the error over time with a gain factor (integral gain) the output p(t) =(1/KI) e.dt and the Transfer function is given by. The effects of gain Kp =1 and the gain Kp =2 has been shown in another sketch from which it can be inferred that the Off-set values (Deviation from desired output) can be reduced by increasing values of Kp but can never be neutralised since the proportional action mode generates Off-set (as is clear from the equation). P. so with Kp=1.B). The integral component removes any standing error as achieved by I action alone. although it effects to sluggish the controller response. repeats per minute.

In the ckt combination of R1& C in ratio of R2 can be set for the derivative time. Derivative Action Control Modes Proportional Plus Integral Control (Pi) Mode PI control measures offset or error over time. PI control loops do not perform well when set points are dynamic. sudden load changes occur..it is observed that the recovery time in proportional mode if is X then due to addition of Integral mode(in PI) the recovery time of process error is increased a lot say 2 times X. the recovery time of the process error is reduced a lot say ½ X. A well setup PI control loop will operate in a narrow band close to the set point and not over the entire throttling range.Derivative Action (Rate Or Anticipatory) Control Mode In derivative control (also termed anticipatory). then change in output is equal to change in output as a result of proportional action. KD d ep/ dt where KD = derivative gain constant d ep/dt = rate of change of error. The graph below shows the effects of modes of controls (P. The error is integrated.The Proportional action controller maintains the output at an offset whereas the Proportional plus Integral or the Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative controllers maintain the output at set value line as is clear from the graph. Integral. The derivative action responds only to the rate of change of error. and a final adjustment is made to the output signal from a proportional part of this model. and if further derivative action is added (in PID) . In Derivative (rate) mode the output p = Kp. KORBA SIMULATOR 300 . If error changes by an amount ep in a period of time TD. PI control response will work in the control loop to reduce the offset to zero. PID). Since it is time dependant at deviation (error) of zero value the output is zero and there is no output. PI. the controller output is directly proportional to the rate of change of control variable. or the throttling range is small. Curves showing the Proportional.

KI ep(t) dt and Transfer function is P (s)/ E(s) = Kp(1+1/ TIs) In PI mode one to correspondence of the proportional mode is available and the integral mode eliminates the inherent off set The integral function provides the required new controller output and error goes to zero after load change. its Output is p =Kp. The Step change effect is shown in the curve by which it is clear that the error is almost neutralised due to P+I action and the valve opening is also less fluctuating.(1 + . The effect of the integral action shifts the whole proportional band. The ramp change is also shown and the combined effect is drawn in next curve. Proportional + Integral Control Set up P + I Controller Output for Step Error Proportional Plus Derivative Control (PD) Mode In this mode the cascaded use of proportional and the derivative modes is made. response P+Icontroller O/P for Ramp Error Proportional + Integral Contr Set up The proportional gain and the integral action time play important role in (PI) control system.Prop. The P+I control set up shown below is similar to the proportional control set up with addition of integral unit. The output saturates whenever the error exceeds the Proportional Band limit. which gives that integral effect improves the controller response although process speed is slowed down. The controller output is given by p = Kp. ep +Kp. + Int. KD d ep /dt) The transfer function of the PD is P(s)/E(s) = Kp (1+TDs) KORBA SIMULATOR 301 . The effect of derivative action is moving the controller in relation to the error rate change. The system is useful in frequent and large load changing type processes. The integral term can not become negative thus it will saturate at zero if the error and action to drive the area to net is negative value.

the controller will compute the derivative or slope of the control response.KD dep/dt + po The transfer function of PID controllers is: P(s) = Kp (1+TDs +1/TIs) E(s) The P+I+D control set up has been shown which is further addition of D in the P+I set up.from that it can be observed that the combined effect gives result at very short duration(refer the recovery time been reduced tremendously due to all three control mode action as shown in earlier curve) KORBA SIMULATOR 302 . In addition to proportional and integral calculation. P + D Controller O/P for Ramp Error.e. The control characteristic due to result of typical error change is shown .a ramp change of the load has been shown from where it can be inferred that with D action the correcting signal is anticipatory in nature and it is created at times when change takes place but in opposite direction of the change process. the PID mode eliminates the offset of the proportional mode and still provides fast response.Option of proportional controller cannot be eliminated. Each of the three constants (Kp. which is due to the anticipatory characteristic of derivative control. The setup in electronic circuit has been drawn for the P+D control . KI . however it can handle past process load changes as long as the load change off set error is accepted. Electronic P + D controller set-up Proportional (+) Integral (+) Derivative Control (PID) Mode PID control adds a predictive element to the control response..KI ep(t)dt + Kp.e. This calculation dampens a control response that is returning to set point so quickly that it would overshoot the set point. PID control should be selectively applied to control loops. The combination of all three modes i.KD) can be varied independently without affecting the effective value of the other two i. the integral and the derivative Controller output p is given by P(t) = Kp.ep + Kp.

the p’ = p be ensured. thereby Bump less transfer will be possible in Manual to auto operation..Proportional + Integral Control Set up P+I+D Controller O/P for Step: Error Electronic P + I + D controller P+I+D Controller O/P for Ramp Error Various modes of controls can be achieved by using Op-Amps. Proportional plus derivative mode is PD: KP= R2/(R1+R3) and KD= R3. PD & PID modes of control in Electronic circuits have been shown below: KORBA SIMULATOR 303 . (Offset error of P action remains and D term provides the rate action) and in Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative mode the gains KP is obtained by R2/R1. Proportional plus Integral mode is PI: KI= 1/R2. Bump less transfer: . PI.If p’ is the signal value corresponding to the position value of the correcting element and p is the output signal so p’= p be met by automatic control. If it is achieved. To transfer from manual to auto control. The controller output in proportional mode is P: KP = R2/R1. the correcting element will respond and make large disturbances minimized.CD etc.C.CI and KD by RD. capacitors & resistances.C (Output inverters are included for eliminating instability and expected fast variable time change). KI by 1/RI. In manual control p varies as per deviation (error) and p’ varies independently.

DIRECT/DISTRIBUTED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM (DDCS) Direct digital control (DDC) systems consist of networked microprocessor-based controllers connected to analog and digital devices, which either sense information or control components of a system. Control logic initiates and sequences operations programmed with software stored in the hardware. Analog-to-digital (A/D) converters transform analog electrical values into digital information for the microprocessor. The analog sensors may be thought of as transducers that convert a thermodynamic property to an electrical property. Most systems include stand-alone or remote controllers with software to eliminate the need for continuous communication. A personal computer workstation primarily monitors status and stores back-up copies of the programs, records alarms and trending functions, and archives historical information to operate the energy management system (EMS). Relatively complex strategies and energy management functions are normally available at low levels in the system architecture. Electric-to-pneumatic transducers (E/P converters) can provide pneumatic actuation. Controlling a system by DDC, involves three distinct steps: • • • Measure a variable and collect data Process the data with other information Cause a control action

A control loop comprises three main components: sensor, controller, and controlled device. These three components or functions interact to control a medium. Figure 1 shows air temperature as the controlled medium. The sensor measures air temperature and outputs data; the controller processes the data; and the controlled device causes an action. Similar figures could illustrate, the pneumatic or electronic control systems, where the controller is a separate and distinct piece of hardware. In a DDC system, the controller "function" takes place in software, as shown in figure 2. The double lines indicate the boundary in and out of the DDC controller.

Figure 1. Basic control loop

Figure 2. DDC control loop



Algorithms describing the mathematics of the software handle the controller function. Various modes of control have been described earlier in details. However the sensor, points, data classifications etc. have been elaborately explained below. Sensor Sensors measure the controlled medium or other control input in an accurate and repeatable manner. HVAC sensors may measure temperature, pressure, or humidity. Some sensors may measure other relative temperatures, time of day, electrical demand condition, or other variables that affect the controller logic. Other sensors input data that influence the control logic or safety, including airflow, water flow, and current, fire, smoke, or high/low temperature limit. Sensors are an extremely important part of the control system and can be a weak link in the chain of control. Points The word point is a common term used to describe data storage locations within a DDC system. The data can come from sensors or from software calculations and logic. The data can also be sent to controlled devices or software calculations and logic. Each data storage location has a unique means of identification or addressing. DDC data can be classified three different ways-by types, flow, and source. Data Classifications Data types are digital, analog, and accumulating. Digital data may also be called discrete or binary. The value of the data is an integer, a 0 or 1, and usually represents the state or status of a set of contacts. Analog data is represented by numeric or decimal number (usually defining a varying electrical input that is a function of temperature, relative humidity, pressure, or some other variable). Pulse input data are the accumulating data and are represented by a numeric or decimal number; the resulting sum is stored. Data flow refers to whether data go to or from the DDC component or logic. Input points describe data used as input information and output points describe data that are output information. Points can be classified as external when the data are received from an external device or sent to an external device. External points are sometimes referred to as hardware points. Internal points represent data that are created by the logic of the control software. Other terms used to describe these points are: • • • • Virtual points Numeric points Data points Software points

Global or indirect points are terms used to describe data that are transmitted on the network for use by other controllers.



Common Point Types Analog input points normally imply an external point and represent a value that varies over time. Common analog inputs for process applications include temperature, pressure, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, or airflow. Analog output points are control signals for modulating valve positions, damper positions, or drive speed. Digital inputs for process applications are usually status indicators, such as whether or not a motor is running, or for fans, pumps, motors, and lighting contactors. A temperature high limit is considered a digital input because, although it is monitoring an analog value related to temperature, the information that is transmitted to the controller is a digital condition indicating whether or not the temperature has exceeded a threshold. Digital outputs usually control relays that command motors or other devices to turn on or off. Software Characteristics There are many different software programs used in DDC systems. DDC systems include operating software, configuration software for the points or system architecture, programming software, and software for alarms. The characteristics of the programming software can be an important difference in various DDC systems. There are three common approaches used to program the logic of DDC systems: • • • Line programming Template or menu-based programming Graphical or block programming

Line programming-based systems use software languages, similar to Basic or FORTRAN with the process subroutines. Familiarity with computer programming is helpful in understanding and writing logic for any process applications. Menu-driven, database, or template/tabular programming makes use of templates for common process system logical functions. These templates contain the detailed parameters necessary for each logical program block to function. How one block is connected to another or where its data comes from is known as data flow and is programmed in each template. Graphical or block programming is an extension of tabular programming. Graphical symbols connected by "data flow" lines represent the individual function blocks. Symbols similar to electrical schematics and pneumatic control diagrams depict the process. Graphical diagrams are created and the detailed data are entered in background menus or screens. Architecture System architecture is the map or layout of the system used to describe the overall local area network (LAN) structure. This map will show where the operator interfaces with the system and may remotely communicate with the system. The network, or LAN, is the media that connects multiple devices. This network media allows the

devices to communicate, share, display and print information, and store data. The most basic task of the system architecture is to connect the DDC controllers so that information can be shared between them. LAN Communication Communications between devices on a network can be characterized as peer-to-peer or polling. On a peer-to-peer LAN, each device can share information with any other device on the LAN without going through a communication manager. The controllers on the peer-to-peer LAN may be primary controllers, they may be secondary controllers, or they may be a mix. The type of controllers that use the peer-to-peer LAN will vary with different manufacturers. In a polling controller LAN, the individual controllers cannot pass information directly to one of the other controllers. Data flow from one controller to the interface and then from the interface to the other controller. The interface device manages communication between the polling LAN controllers and with higher levels in the system architecture. This same device may also supplement the capability of polling LAN controllers by providing the following functions: Clock function Buffer for trend data, alarms, messages Higher order software support Many systems combine the communications of a peer-to-peer network with a polling network. In this case, the interface communicates in a peer-to-peer fashion with the devices on the peer-to-peer LAN. The polling LAN-based devices can receive data from the peer-to-peer devices but data must flow through the interface. Controller Classification

Many DDC manufacturers make two distinct levels of controllers. Some make only one. These levels describe where the controller resides within the system architecture on the control network. Knowing the difference between these controllers is important because the appropriate controller is application dependent. Many specifications do not distinguish between the various types of controllers. Higher-end controllers normally reside on a higher-level network and communicate in a peer-to-peer fashion. These are called primary controllers. Peer-to-peer, means that the controllers can share information to other peer-to-peer devices without going through an intermediary device. (Called a supervisory interface). Such controllers have more memory, more sophisticated CPUs, higher resolution A/D converters, more accurate clocks, and can store more complex control strategies as well as trends, schedules, and alarms. Manufacturers also make lower level controllers that normally reside on a lower levelpolling network. These controllers have more limited memory and processing capabilities and must use a supervisory interface device to communicate with all

other devices. There are many different designs. Some are designed for terminal applications like variable air volume boxes or fan coil units. Others may be used for air handling systems with simple to moderately complex sequences of operation. These terminal controllers are usually configured for the number of points required for that application. Some of these controllers use a free form of programming, which requires a complete set of custom programming, while others have application specific programs for typical applications. These programs have selectable parameters that can be set up for each individual application. Since these controllers have more limited memories, they usually do not store historical information (such as trends) and rely on the supervisory interface for this function. The secondary polling networks are configured such that one supervisory interface can monitor a limited number of controllers. This limitation varies by manufacturer. A large number of controllers on a secondary controller network can negatively affect the number of trends that can be practically used, the amount of data that can be processed, and the speed of transmission over the network. How many is too many on this secondary network? This varies and depends on the manufacturer, the speed of their network, and the application in question. In a process control applications, these lower-level controllers may be adequate for many simple systems, but a primary controller is more appropriate for critical applications. How does one specify these distinctly different controllers? First, the engineer must define requirements of various types of controllers and their corresponding interfaces (both network and operator). Once defined, the engineer can dictate which controller should be used on various applications. The process control systems have undergone dramatic changes. They have evolved from pneumatic controls through various generations of EMS and DDC systems to current generation distributed DDC. At this time the computer industry trend of increasing processing power and memory at lower cost is quickly influencing DDC controllers. The advent of open protocols, the increased availability and use of site/building/campus networks, and the interfacing of DDC systems to the Internet have increased the complexity of these systems. During the last 20 years (relatively short time), we moved from a non-proprietary communication protocol to one that has been very proprietary. In addition, the control logic that was distributed to single function hardware components (receiver controllers, and switching relays) now resides in software. These are significant changes to a critical subsystem any process systems, which is vital to the performance and basic operation of industrial units. The DDC system is the "brain" of the process industry dictating the position of every damper and valve in a system and determining which fans, pumps, and auxiliaries run and at what speed or capacity. There is a tremendous need for all involved in the process to increase their knowledge of control systems. Many product lines are presented in generically described layers. Vendors' proprietary controllers and interface devices are placed on these layers, allowing a user to compare similar systems. The user can penetrate this architecture diagram.

The software adopts manual mode when the plant is being regulated manually, independently of the microcomputer. Match mode is adopted for two successive execution cycles, when transferring from Auto to Manual or when BAD data is detected; it allows the software to be ‘initialised’ to the prevailing plant state. Autonormal is the mode adopted when the plant is under unrestrained automatic control. Auto-constraint mode may be adopted when automatic control has to be suspended because a plant limit has been reached. The development of the so-called computer on a chip in the form of a single integrated circuit (IC) microprocessor has given considerable impetus to the use of DDC. Above information provides theoretical background of DDCS used in a small process but in power plant many computers and related systems are grouped to achieve complete plant operation by use of hybrid controls deploying pneumatic/electronic/hydraulic units. Since our simulators are uniquely using Analogue Control System, only preliminary information has been given as above. In another type of Direct Digital Control System (DDCS) as employed by CEGB in their power plants, the computer performs all the functions of error detection and controller action; digital logic circuits are integral part of the loop. DDC have the capacity to control multivariable processes with interactions between elements. The keyboard functions as the communication medium; VDU terminal uses plain language instruction. The computers in DDCS are referred as control centre. The mainframe computer is the central point for accepting information transmitted from the process; in our case the power generating plant. It processes and displays the result to an operator through Data Processing System (DPS). The computer has the potential of loop control. The plant signals are sampled and calculations are repeated at intervals and treated mathematically. The performing close measured values for the control system is derived by processing large number of detectors / sensors of the plant parameters which are separate from the electronic control system In process where hybrid type control is utilized both DDCS and electronic controls are used controlling carry out the programming but since they do not have the information of control engineering in detail it becomes difficult to communicate the control requirement with sufficient precision in programming. As such several commercial hardware and software packages are marketed which use high level languages and the control engineers can write their control software directly; software packages are written suiting to a particular process not particularly for the power plant The minicomputer and microprocessors plus the user-friendly operating systems have been developed which software engineers can utilize relatively straight forward. The fig. Below shows the DDCS logic diagram. The software used by an individual control centre besides in the memory the control centre and all signal associated with that software are connected of to the input / output hardware of the control centre. Presently data processing (DP) is carried out in systems having mainframe computers. The computers used are mostly the microcomputer-using CUTLASS language is typically developed by CEGB, UK for DDC application.

The CUTLASS, therefore, has the facility for carrying out arithmetic (co-efficient, time constants etc.) and logical manipulation from data, including IF statement, SubRoutines and FOR loops for calling up items of data arranged in arrays. All data types can have the status BAD either because they are indeterminate or because the user has used an IF statement to reject unacceptable data item. The CUTLASS DDC language recognizes four alternatives of control mode-manual, match, auto-normal and auto-constraint. The software adopts manual mode when the plant is being regulated manually, independently of the microcomputer. Match mode is adopted for two successive

If the multiplexer is differential. bipolar transistor ‘on’ offset voltage and FET ‘on’ resistance can cause error. Solid-state switches such as bipolar or field effect transistors (FET’s) can be used at sampling rates in excess of 100 000 samples per second. when transferring from Auto to Manual or when BAD data is detected. and the synchronizing signal in the transmitter data is used to synchronize the receiver and transmitter switches so that data channels are isolated. The limiting factor to sampling rates is the presence of switching transients. A major difficulty with the TDM system is that each input is measured at a different time. The multiplexer can now select each hold input in turn. In theory. only one switch per input is provided and common ground return completes the circuit for all input signals. two switches are provided for each input signal. MULTIPLEXING Multiplexing is the process of sharing a single transmission channel with more than one input. controls the switches. as actually shown in figure. and when the switches open the input voltage are held on the capacitors. A similar set of multiplexer switches is required at a receiver.execution cycles. There are two main types: i) Time-division multiplexer (TDM) and ii) Frequency-division multiplexer (FDM). the sampling rate required to accurately transmit a signal whose highest KORBA SIMULATOR 311 . Autonormal is the mode adopted when the plant is under unrestrained automatic control. Sample and hold units are used to overcome this problem. thus leakage current. The switch characteristics can contribute errors in the signals. V2…. A control unit whose function is to provide the signals.Vn) is connected to the transmission channel in turn. it allows the software to be ‘initialized’ to the prevailing plant state. The analogue switches maybe electromechanical or solid-state switches. Electromechanical devices such as dry-reed and mercury-wetted contact relays have sampling rates generally limited to about 250 samples per second. Each signal input to the TDM system is connected via a sample and hold switch to a capacitor. Often the switches are selected in sequential order under the control of a ring counter circuit in the control unit. The development of the so-called computer on a chip in the form of a single integrated circuit (IC) microprocessor has given considerable impetus to the use of DDC. Time-division multiplex (TDM) System The TDM multiplexer consists of a number of switches in the transmitter such that each analogue input (V1. if the multiplexer is single-ended. which select the various switches in the multiplexer and provide timing for the multiplexer and other associated equipment. All inputs are sampled at the same time by closing these switches. Auto-constraint mode may be adopted when automatic control has to be suspended because a plant limit has been reached. and these values are not valid for comparison if there is appreciable change in magnitude of the inputs between samples.

loading strain and voltage monitors. acoustic noise.frequency component is fHz is 2f samples per second. Each input modulates an assigned subcarrier at comparatively low frequencies (540kHz). it is necessary for the sample rate to be. Such a system is well adapted to analogue signals. Data usually are sent by a FDM are vibration. especially when sample and hold circuits are used. say. Generally TDM is used for may channels of data containing low frequency information as obtained from temperature. the sampling rate must be at least 5000 samples per second. The time between samples in 200 µs. & each input is read at intervals of 20 ms. In practice. Thus. Frequency-division multiplex (FDM) system A schematic diagram of AM frequency-division multiplex system is given above. The AM-FDM system permits a number of data signals to be simultaneously sent over a common transmission channel. 5f samples per second. KORBA SIMULATOR 312 . acceleration and dynamic strain. due to limitations in the reconstruction filters. whereas a TDM system has discontinuous outputs and is well adapted to digital signals. as all input and output voltages are continuous. pressure. for example if f=10 Hz and 100 data channels are to be sampled.

g. Control each RUNG of the ladder is evaluated simultaneously and continuously influences KORBA SIMULATOR 313 . The sequence of events can be described in narrative fashion (flow-chart. Ladder diagrams are used for designing and describing the sequence of the process events. motor on or off etc. Set off conditions is described as a discrete state of the whole system. Here both levels and the valve setting vary over a range. maintaining temperature at a set point for a given time. Even if the controller is operating in on / off mode there is still variable regulation although the level will now oscillate as the input valve is opened and close to compensate for output flow variation. which run continuously a start up. valve open or close. Computer based method of control also termed as programmable logic control uses relay control system and ladder diagrams. This means that the valves can only be opened or closed and the level is either above or below the specified level. Different types of switches are symbolized as shown in logic diagrams. In a discrete state process each event is described by a unique specification of the hardware& it must be carefully defined in terms of the nature of two states & its relation with the process. If the same example is studied in discrete state control logic then the level and valve setting are discrete because they take two values. In systems.g. There are only discrete number of possible states of input and output values e. or Boolean equations) SWITCES are the primary input elements in the discrete-state control system. Thus if outflow increases the control system will increase the opening of the input valve to compensate by increasing input flow rate and the tank level is regulated. level measurement. for three input and three output variables 26=64 possible states shall be there.PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS (PLC) The Discrete state relates to each event in the sequence and specified conditions of all operating units of the process. An event lasts for as long as the input variable remains in the same state and the output variable is left in the assigned state. Other events involve regulation of continuous variable over time or the duration of an event e. In PLC system the sequence of event must be described that will direct the system through the operations to provide the desired end result. Narrative statement as to what must happen during the process operation and what events must occur to achieve the object is required for such requirement. There is no continuous measurement or output over a range because the variables. Continuous control for controlling flow of liquid through a valve into the tank and some unspecified flow out of the tank can be referred as an example of continuous variable regulation. or initialization phase and running phase are typically there it is important to realize that with relay. Normally Open (NO) or Normally Close (NC) states are activated from many sources. Some of the events involve the discrete setting state in the plant e. The controller operates according to some mode of control in order to maintain the level against variations induced from external. In a process control the discrete state situations are involved in operations some of these are in series/parallel. input valve setting and output valve setting are of two state quantities and these form the discrete state control.g. An event in the system is defined by a particular state of the system.

The other main KORBA SIMULATOR 314 . It converts the input into binary 1 or 0 state. solid state devices for controlling high power AC/DC in response to low level commands by use of SCRs and TRIACs are part of the PLC/software. In PLC the processor is a serial machine. that are able to accommodate and make changes in programmed sequence. Another main hardware of the PLC is the input module. which examines the state of physical status and other output devices to put their state into a suitable form acceptable to the processor. Time delay actions and counters.consequences are immediate which is not there in the computer based programmable controllers. performs arithmetic and logic operations on input variables. which performs one operation at a time and sequentially sample input to evaluate the required programme.S for directing the overall operation from data input / output and executes the user programmes. functions under a permanent supervisory O. The processor (being the main hardware of the computer) executes programme to perform the operations according to ladder diagram or binary commands. the relays are replaced by software.

RS01 (Controller). maintenance can be referred from the C&I manuals on the above systems. The ladder diagram includes rungs for such control system with specified proportional. ensure the plant stability and safety prior to switching over to automatic operation. XM13 (Memory). have been used for various application in the ACS system. LT01 (Relay Unit). Electronic modules e. XM02 (Analogue Memory). HV02 (Amplifier) etc. programming diagram interpretation. RK01 (Controller). time relay & counters. The detailed testing. AV95 (Power Supply). Fuel flow & Air flow). integral. The PLC operation considers the simultaneous selections of ladder diagram and relay sequencers in two modes. XK12 (Limit Value). Establishing Automatic Operation requires certain steps like operate the plant such that the measure variable is within the limits to that of the set values. H & B. Eight no. HS01 (Relay Module). ANALOGUE CONTROL SYSTEM (ACS) The Analogue Control System (ACS) has been supplied by M/s.hardware of the PLC is the output module. Transmitters output is to 4 to 20 mA or –2V to 10 V as per the requirement. the input scan mode and the execution mode. record the plant parameters before automatic operation is switched. HA01 (Interlock Selection). light. RAM. XP01 (Comparator). operation. Drum level & Feed regulating station differential pressure control KORBA SIMULATOR 315 . West Germany. of cubicles cater the total requirement of ACS. AV96 (Power Supply). In 200MW Thermal Power Plant Korba.. For more details refer the designing of signal conditioning as given in earlier chapters. Programming unit. many new features are included such as computerized control of continuous processes and DDC as a builtin feature of the PLC./Min Selector). motor. RK04 (Low Range Controller). All the control modules have the facility of galvanic isolation of the order of 250 volt between input and output terminals. The output modules supply AC power to external devices viz. LL03 (Logic Unit). Record the final setting of the controller in tabular form. Operate the manual switch and regulator such that the position follows demand at the appropriate speed when a demand changes made. • • Co-ordinated Master Control (Firing Rate. AW02 (Galvanic Isolation). following controls have been incorporated. VV01 (Signaling). at suitable driving power. connect the recorder and assign the correct colour for recording the measured. addressing and programming units are important hardware in the PLC. As the technology of computers and PLC advances. It also accepts binary 1 or 0 input from the processor and uses this to turn on or off the output devices. ROM. solenoid etc. The scan time is around 20 mS and it depends upon the clock frequency of the processor. XN01 (Max. LL02 (And Logic). Power supplies to transmitters are derived from various supply modules placed in the cubicle.g. derivative gains. XU01 (Computing). desired value etc. checks. RL01 (Controller).

throttle pressure control. B. Similarly the Gas flow control is delinked in our plant. the automatic operation of power plant is linked with the load demand. unit capabilities (Runback limits). as actual value signal is furnace suction to wind-box Diff Press as explained in I. As the boilers at the thermal generating units supply steam to the Turbo-generators. Heavy fuel oil control. If power is generated as per the instructions of the LDC within the limits of generating capability of each unit then the economic and efficient loading of the boilers can be ensured. KORBA SIMULATOR 316 . D. B. Furnace pressure control Air flow /F. This results complete energy balance. Mill Feeder A.D. frequency correction. turbine generator control. load rates.• • • • • • • • • • Feed pump re-circulation flow control Dearator Level & Pressure control. Temperature / Air flow control. F. F. load limits. Pulverisers A. boiler master (Fuel & Air flow control). C. CO-ORDINATED MASTER CONTROL (CMC) OF THERMAL POWER PLANT The power flow in the grid from various generating units needs to be controlled and regulated as per the consumer demand and the capability of generating units. Feed water flow control is not directly linked with the CMC (as shown in block diagram) in our 200MW sets as the three-element control of Boiler drum control fully takes care of steam flow/load index. Net power flow in the grid is certainly zero for maintaining the energy/heat throughput to the generating units and energy/power sent out to the system. Speed control. Let us look at to the block diagram of CMC we find that in addition to LDC. turbine load index. the balance of heat input to boilers with that of the power generated by the TG set need to be regulated & controlled by grid managing load dispatch center authority (LDC). C. E. E. Hot well level & Re-circulation control S/H Steam & Reheat steam temperature control. Primary Air Pressure Control. D.D.Fan control loop.Fan control.


The generated load is controlled through regulation of turbine control valve by EHC signal as received from GNI output through selectors explained KORBA SIMULATOR 318 . The unit master station translates the load demand signals within maximum / minimum limits as per unit requirement for the boiler and turbine control system.VARIOUS MODES SELECTION BY SWITCHES CO-ORDINATED MASTER CONTROL MODE The objective of the CMC is to enhance the response of the boiler and turbine control systems under all operating conditions while maintaining the outputs of the turbine. • • • • Co-Ordinated Mode Turbine Follow Mode Boiler Follow Mode Runback Mode CMC.The Co-ordinated Master Control System (CMC) operates in four modes as given below. The CMC receives unit megawatt demand signal from the load dispatch centre & throttle pressure signal. boiler and all major plant auxiliaries within the safe operating limits.

Block diagram shown below is clearly giving turbine/ boiler operation considering the reference signals i. this difference is kept within -+ 3 kg/cm 2) and the boiler master outputs the signal that is termed as firing rate demand signal to the fuel and air control loops as required for efficient boiler operation and pressurizing.e.in CMC loop details (as described in pages that follow). KORBA SIMULATOR 319 . The functioning of CMC in general & in nutshell can become clear from the block diagram given below.e boiler is controlled by the throttle pressure and the turbine is controlled by its own output i. megawatt signal. becomes unit load demand signal and the unit load demand signal as generated from Unit Master/ALDC gets by passed. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF COORDINATOR MASTER CONTROL TURBINE FOLLOW MODE In the turbine follow mode. The turbine load is controlled through regulation of turbine control valve by EHC when it is operative/selected in Load control mode and also the CMC has been selected to modify the turbine load. there is no direct measurement of steam flow). In turbine follow mode. The Boiler master station also receives the error signal from steam throttle pressure comparator (actual – desired pressure. the actual unit load as selected by energizing of relay/switch T1. Boiler is manually controlled from the Boiler Master A/M station and the turbine remains in initial pressure mode controlling the throttle pressure. the steam flow to turbine becomes the demand signal for boiler master. (since the steam flow to turbine is measured by using a computed signal of turbine first stage pressure and main steam temperature corrected signal as obtained from curve plotter . In the turbine follow mode.

Each one of the major auxiliary viz. throttle pressure. This unloading rate is set by potentiometers mounted on the electronic module HA-02 and through the minimum selector electronic module XK-01. Let us consider the situations that.e. Hence the output signal from the XK-01 becomes the load set point guidance signal designated as down gradient (GD) of the GNI. 320 KORBA SIMULATOR . In Boiler follow Mode the actual unit load as selected by energizing the relay T4 becomes the load demand by passing the Unit Master load demand signal and the guided tracking integrator( GNI) sends this signal for further processing and outputting for boiler control. of FD fans are required for full 210MW operation of the unit and if one of the FD fan is tripped or not available due to some major problem. The load demand of the unit is another signal available to this minimum selector.e. CEP etc. similarly if one mill is not available because only three mills out of 4 mills are required for full load operation then the unit load shall be reduced to 155MW i. (Refer the block diagram BD-2 for details). when put in auto mode of operation and the turbine remains manually operable in limit pressure mode through load controller. The load signal derived from the export bus is used for controlling the turbine control valve movement. TURBINE FOLLOW MODE BOILER FOLLOW MODE RUNBACK MODE The unit capability in terms of load generation is calculated by the run back condition based on the availability/healthiness of the various plant auxiliaries.BOILER FOLLOW MODE In Boiler follow mode the Throttle pressure is maintained constant. 210 – 55 = 155MW etc.140MW since available one FD fan can support unit operation for this load. In Boiler Follow Mode the throttle pressure deviation becomes the demand signal of the boiler-firing rate through boiler master selected in auto mode. if two no. the load of the unit shall be reduced equal to the contributing capacity of the particular auxiliary.e boiler is controlled by the megawatt signal and the turbine is controlled by the boiler’s output i. then the unit load shall be brought down to say approx. BFP. The unloading rate (run back limit) means the percentage at which the load set point has to be reduced due to non-availability of a particular auxiliary. FD Fan. ID Fan. Block diagram shown below is clearly giving turbine/ boiler operation considering the reference signals i. thus the turbine is manually controlled through the load controller and in Limit pressure mode. contribute to the unit loading and the contribution percentage of each auxiliary has been pre-decided thus due to non-availability of the particular auxiliary.

the signal as desired for setting the loading rate and is compared with the lower load margin (decided by TSE) and the minimum of above two signal is fed to the maximum selector XN-01 which also receives the run back rate (unloading rate of the unit) and the maximum of the two is fed to GNI in subtractive port and another parallel signal of the unit load rate is compared with upper load margin (decided by TSE) and the minimum of these two is fed to additive port of the GNI. (Refer the block diagram BD-1 for details).Further the unit load rate setter outputs. the automatic feed back (GNI tracking) signal to GNI bypasses the load limit selectors & the boiler master PID Controller because of changed contact of relay T2 as the relay T2 has been energized due to selection in runback mode and the boiler firing rate signal from GNI directly controls the boiler operation as per the run back requirement explained above. COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL (CMC) KORBA SIMULATOR 321 . The run back requirement of the unit is suitably processed at the GNI as described above. In the Runback mode.

Deviation Wp. Turbine follow mode. Analogue Signal: Actual load. is the main module in the CMC loop. Initial Pressure. Lt min). EHC fault. KORBA SIMULATOR 322 . Binary Signal: Coordinated Mode. This panel contains the following items & functions: • Unit master station • Max/Min load setters • Unit load rate/change setter • Boiler master A/M station • Throttle pressure set point • C. Frequency deviation. The Unit Master station with provisions of auto / manual selection. The Unit Master Station receives the Mw load demand of the unit from the automatic load dispatch centre (ALC) also termed as load dispatchers’ demand in the form of Coordinated Master Control (CMC Load demand) and Unit master station outputs the CMC load demand when this is selected in AUTO MODE operation. The following interconnection signals between Boiler Control and turbine control are provided to ensure proper functioning. turbine follow and coordinated mode • • Indicators for Turbine on CMC. Diff. Limit Pressure. Run Back Digital indicators for Demand Load. Reference load. Diff. • The Co-ordinated Master control (CMC) has been provided to simultaneously control both turbine and boiler in cohesion with grid demand. Generated Load.Temperature (U min. Actual Pressure.COORDINATED MASTER CONTROL (CMC): detailed loop description A coordinated master panel insert is provided as a means for operator to supervise the operation of coordinated master control system. Temperature. Initial Pressure. Correction setter Selection push buttons for boiler follow.V. Limit Pressure. Boiler follow mode Turbine on CMC.

all modify the GNI output as explained in runback mode. PA fans. KORBA SIMULATOR 323 .CMC. Three selectors/ switching relays T1 . T2 and T4 are energized for running the controls in boiler follow. δF within the band of +/-15% the correction is added to the GNI output (Ao).FORMATION OF LOAD INDEX AND SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION Unit Master Station. δF) signal is added directly to the output of the GNI. CEP. in addition a fixed 15% (K. the frequency correction signal. Unit load rates. when put in manual mode of operation. Guided Target Integrator (GNI The Guided Target Integrator (GNI) a computer module computes the target signal. or coordinated mode of operation. outputs the Mw load demand signal. BFP etc. runback rate. the desired unit load rate. ID fans. For K. as generated by/ desired by the unit operator suiting to the plant requirement. This signal (Ao) is subjected to a MAX/MIN cut off by the presets load limits and minimum cut off by the unit capability signal decided solely on the healthiness/availability of the coal pulverisers. upper/lower load margins. as compared with upper and lower power margin generated from turbine stress evaluator (refer TSE chapter for more details). The unit capability signal forms the Run Back Limit signal for controlling the unit load at times when full no. turbine follow. The unit load demand signal as explained above becomes the target value (Zo) of GNI. of auxiliaries are not available.

δF > A pre-selected value (15%) is added directly to the output of GNI (Ao) to obtain an immediate change in the load set point to the boiler. and the signal gets slowed down as the target value of the GNI is corrected and the output runs towards the target with a selected gradient. The Electronic Module XU 02 with catalogued program through X 203 works as a GNI. which is the heart of the load set point guidance sub-loop CMC-GUIDED TARGET INTEGRATOR INPUTS & OUTPUTS KORBA SIMULATOR 324 . The target value Zo of the GNI is limited by the Maximum of the turbine load signal and the runback limit signal.CMC-GUIDED TARGET INTEGRATOR INPUTS & LOAD DEMAND The frequency correction signal ensures frequency deviation K.

The output of this controller is used as a demand signal to the boiler firing rate and air controls. Under transient operating conditions. Frequency corrected Mw load demand signal finally forms the input of GNI module for further processing. the throttle pressure is allowed to vary within a small range to increase turbine output by utilizing storage capacity of the boiler and to raise or to lower the energy level of boiler by over or under firing. The frequency deviation K.While the unit load demand thus generated as above is used for directly the boiler master and the firing rate control. of maximum limit and minimum limit value setters. The frequency influence is incorporated in CMC loop by suitable setting in the function generator module. The unit load demand received either from LDC or set by the operator from the unit master is also modified by the deviation in the system frequency. The signals steam flow to turbine (1st stage pr. System frequency deviations within a small range (±5%) are passed directly and larger deviations are routed through the GNI. Two nos. The firing rate demand signal to the fuel master stream is compared with total air flow in a minimum selector card 15 and the lower of the two signals form the set point and also the feed forward signal to fuel control stream. An additional digital indicator has been provided to monitor the Mw load demand in megawatt scale / display. through a proportional module P and is further compared with run back limit signal in a minimum selector. KORBA SIMULATOR 325 . it is also further sent to turbine side for controlling the turbine generator load through electro hydraulic governor. The frequency deviation signal modifies the Unit load demand generated by the GNI module.) in case of Boiler Follow Mode and electrical load demand signal in case of coordinated mode and turbine follow mode are used as a feed forward signal. are available to limit the Mw load demand within limited range as desired (Max – 250 MW & Min 100 MW) and output of the unit master is within these two limits. any larger variations in throttle pressure shall restrict the turbine output till boiler has produced additional output to match the increased demand. The correction provides a change in unit load demand equivalent to the expected change in MW output due to any deviation in system frequency. However. influencing the electrical load demand signal. BOILER MASTER CONTROLLER The boiler master controller is provided to maintain the throttle pressure constant during various plant conditions. Final load demand signal is passed on for signalling to the system (healthiness) and also indicated in the dual point indicators. FIRING RATE CONTROL The firing rate demand signal generated from the coordinated control system is divided into two controls loops/ sub-systems of Fuel flow control and Airflow control to establish the fuel and air flow control systems. δF > +/-15% corrects the MW load demand signal that forms input to the GNI.

KORBA SIMULATOR 326 . This is achieved by using the 24-volt release signal from signal monitor card 30 and analog switch 51. the fuel master controller shall not operate in Auto. The isolated feeder signal for each feeder is given to signal monitor and distributor card 30 from where 4 to 20 mA decoupled signal is sent for DAS and for various indicators. There are two redundant speed signals for each feeder. this signal is not other than the multiplying constant adjusted at the Cv potentiometer in the derived fuel flow for comparison with the firing rate demand as desired value signal.Also the same firing rate demand signal to the Airflow control stream is compared with total fuel flow signal in a minimum selector card 15 and the lower of the two signals form the set point and also the feed forward signal to Airflow control FUEL FLOW CONTROL (COAL FEEDER SPEED CONTROL) The Coal feeder speed signal is 4 to 20 mA and is obtained from coal feeder speed sensors. Calorific value Cv correction is included to modify the fuel flow signal as per the quality of the coal received. The sum of the feeder speed and the oil flow becomes the Total fuel flow signal (Actual value) in fuel master loop. one already isolated. A uniform dynamic response of the system outputs for the entire load range is maintained and achieved by automatically changing the appropriate control system gain. by Proportional-amplifiers card 16 and analog switch 51 as pulverizes are taken in and out of service. A provision is made for selecting either of the two speed signals to be used. The oil flow to the burners is the difference between the two measurement signals of HFO flow to burners and the return oil back to the HFO tanks. and for the other an isolator card is provided. The fuel master controller has the provision for receiving the Auto release signal from (master controller logic card 02) the feeder speed controller to ensure that unless at least one of the slave feeder controllers is in Auto. The supply and return oil flows are measured by flow meters in the heavy fuel oil supply and return lines. one for control and the other for switching the feeder speed control to manual upon failure of the signals in use.

MA1036. signals are provided for each feeder. A/M station MA1012 (Oil flow) . set minimum. MA 1024. Release for totalizing circuit. MA 1016. Release feeder speed to Auto. Set feeder speed to minimum. speed>30%) and system output contacts are provided for each feeder. MA1028. The output signal reaches to the heavy fuel oil flow control valve. KORBA SIMULATOR 327 . MA1040 (Fuel master). MA1042.CMC : FIRING RATE CONTROL (COAL FEEDER-TYPICAL SCHEME) A separate controller controls the heavy fuel oil header pressure by comparing the measured value with the set point adjusted by the operator.(Coal feeder speeds) have been used The signal monitors(for feeder on Auto. MA 1020.

the fuel flow must be decreased first. On load pick up.The excess air controller 03 via the proportional adjuster 07 influences the set point signal. A/M station (MA1001) and (MA1002) for FD fan A /B with provision for manual biasing and (MA10013) for Excess air control has been provided. Each signal is pressure and temperature compensated in computer card 22. the airflow will be increased first and on load drop. The set point for the excess air Controller is developed by function generator card 12. Cross limiting by comparison of the master Signal with total fuel and air flow to ensure excess air condition under all circumstances is included in the air flow control.CMC. To ensure a minimum airflow for furnace purge and low load operation a maxselector 15 is provided.FIRING RATE : FUEL FLOW /COAL FEEDER SPEED CONTROL AIR FLOW CONTROL (F. according to the firing rate demand Signal as a load characteristic and compared to the measured oxygen value in a PI-step-Controller 03.FAN CONTROL) The secondary airflow is measured with two redundant flow transmitter s for left and right side. A uniform dynamic response of the output for the entire load range is maintained by automatically changing the appropriate control system gains in P-amplifier card 16 as and when F. fans are taken in and out of service. KORBA SIMULATOR 328 .D.D. Provision is also made for selecting either of the two oxygen analysers to be used for control & for switching the oxygen control to manual upon failure of the oxygen content measured signal in use with the help of Signal monitoring card 30 & Analogswitch 51and for selecting either of the redundant secondary airflow signals or for rejecting FD blade pitch control to manual upon failure of the Signals in use.

D. An interlock is provided to automatically open the cold air damper and close hot air damper on Pulverisers trip conditions.CMC. It means the hot air damper opens and the cold air damper closes to maintain the required temperature of the PA to mills. the temperature is compensated by a computer card 22. Flow sensing tubes (pilot tube) in each primary air duct sense and measure the primary airflow to each Pulveriser. PULVERISERS TEMPERATURE & AIR FLOW CONTROL The pulveriser temperature control loop has been used to operate the hot and cold air dampers in tandem and in a pre-determined relationship. which generates a control Signal to position both the hot and cold air damper to regulate the temperature. The Controller 04 generates a control Signal to position both the hot and cold air damper together for the regulation of primary airflow. Signal monitors and alarm contacts have been provided for temperature low and high. The measured primary airflow Signal is applied to the PIController 04 and is compared with the desired set point. which also performs the square root extractor function.FIRING RATE: SECONDARY AIR FLOW CONTROL The interlocks STOP +y/-y in case of furnace pressure too high or to low from DRG6 and MAN-transfer in case of failure of the corresponding ID fan is provided. such that adjustments in the ratio of hot and cold air result in a minimum disturbance to primary airflow. The measured temperature Signal is applied to the PID Controller 04. Signal monitor (SMD 019) for fuel air deviation high & very high and SMD 020 for airflowless than 30% & less than 40% and the system input contacts of ‘CLOSE’ & ‘OPEN’ and system output contacts of Lock-in position Signal to final pneumatic actuator in case of Controller failure for both F. fans A & B are provided. Lock-in position is used for cold and hot air KORBA SIMULATOR 329 .

PULVERISER ( MILL ) TEMPERATURE CONTROL PRIMARY AIR PRESSURE CONTROLLER Primary air to all Pulverisers is maintained by controlling the primary air pressure (and so the air quantity) at the common discharge duct of the two PA fans A and B. Close for hot air damper. Open.damper Controller failures. The primary air pressure is measured and the output signal is given to Signal monitoring and distributing card 30. for cold air damper. are available for interlock and other requirements. for cold air damper etc. Auto Release for cold and hot air dampers. The output Signal from this Signal monitoring card is compared in a ‘P’ amplifier card 16 with the desired pressure set point from the A/M station MA-1010 and the resulting error is amplified and processed in the Controllers for finally driving the E/P converters of the power cylinders for regulating the positions of the PA fan A/B inlet dampers/vanes. Set To Min. A uniform dynamic KORBA SIMULATOR 330 .

KORBA SIMULATOR 331 . Furnace pressure is measured and compared to the desired set point in P-amplifiers card 16 and error is amplified and processed to drive the E/P converters of the inlet vane position power cylinders. A uniform dynamic response of the system for the entire load range of the unit is maintained by automatically changing the appropriate control system gain in proportional amplifier card 16. The two transmitters are connected through separate taps on the furnace. A comparison network is provided to supervise the outputs of the transmitters with Signal monitors card 17.response is maintained by automatically changing the appropriate control system gain depending on the number of fans in AUTO. The furnace pressure controller also receives the signal of total airflow as a feed forward Signal for an immediate interaction in case of any change in the airflow. PRIMARY AIR PRESSURE CONTROL BOILER FURNACE PRESSURE CONTROL Boiler furnace pressure is controlled by positioning the inlet vanes of the two Induced Draft fans. An interlock is provided on both Controllers to automatically close the inlet vanes on start command of PA fans. Lock-in position Signal for pneumatic actuator of PA fan A and B and the CLOSE Signal for PA fan A and B are made available in this control loop for required applications.This comparison network automatically selects the draft control system to manual and also actuates an alarm contact upon detection of high deviation between the outputs of the two transmitters. Two redundant furnace pressure transmitters have been used. depending upon the number of fans in Auto.

BOILER FURNACE PRESSURE ( SUCTION ) CONTROL BOILER DRUM LEVEL (FEED WATER FLOW & STEAM FLOW) CONTROL The feed water flow to the boiler is controlled by the low range and high ranges FWControl valves that maintain the drum level as desired. The boiler drum level signal is pressure compensated in computer card 22. The left or right drum level signal is compared with the set point in the PI-Controller 02 for the FW low range control valve and in KORBA SIMULATOR 332 .One cabinet mounted switch is provided for selection of one of the transmitters to be used for control. Interlocks are provided to automatically close or open the ID fan inlet vanes. An interlock is provided to block the automatic control from increasing the induced draft fan inlet vanes and decreasing the forced draft fan bled pitches when furnace pressure is excessively low. The boiler drum level is measured on the left and right side. when furnace pressure is excessively high. Conversely. A/M stations MA-1004 & 1006 have been used for ID Fan A/B vane drives. induced draft fan decreases and forced draft fan increase is blocked. A second cabinet mounted switch is provided to detect the monitor when it is necessary to operate with one transmitter out of service. Pressure switches for high and low furnace pressure and one monitor card 17 is provided for interlock & protection Signal for alarm on High differential between pressure transmitters &Defeat is provided in the control loop.

The auxiliary steam flow is measured and added to the signal ‘steam flow to turbine. H/HH SM-D023 SM-D024 Drum level left.of right/left Alarm Drum pressure left L/H SM-D021.the PI-PI Controller 23 for the FW high range control valve. which create differential pressure (Delta-Pi) proportional to the feed water flow. pressure-and temperature compensated in the computer card 22. In each case the delta-P signals are square root extracted. The ‘DP’ signals are temperature compensated and square root extracted in computer card 22. Total FW-flow thus obtained. The steam pressure signals PT-D003 and D004 are supervised for Low and High values with signal monitors SM D060 and D061 the difference between both signals is monitored with KORBA SIMULATOR 333 . Drum level left. BOILER DRUM LEVEL CONTROL The Main steam flow is measured on the left and right sides of main steam pipes. becomes the feed back signal to the FW high range valve controller for further processing. Following output contacts are provided for alarm/signaling:Drum pressure left.L/LL High-Diff. The two signals are added in the operational amplifier card 16 and processed for various uses. Provisions are there for selection of the level transmitters (mounted in right and left sides) and also automatic transfer to Auto for the low range to high range Controller in case of Feed Water -flow less than 20% or larger 30% conditions. L/LL Drum pressure right. SM-D024 SM-D025 (switch defeat) SM-D036 Drum pressure right L/H SM-D037 The feed water flow is measured in both pipes doubly by orifice/flow elements.

B. The control deviation signal passes to the Delta-P master Controller. The power amplifier drives the electromechanical actuators that are mounted on the hydraulic coupling of BFPs. The output signal of these position Controllers are going via function generator card 12 to the power amplifier KE 01 (40) for each scoop tube of BFP hydraulic coupling.SM D062 and alarm contact is provided. C . The resulting signal reaches to a following amplifier with provisions for gain change if two boiler feed pumps are in operation.The UCB operator can adjust the scoop position set point via proportional adjuster for balancing the scoop position controllers of individual pumps that are in operation. The Delta.P is measured and compared in an OpAmp with that of the set point value. as constant. Scoop tube can be set to minimum position during starting. BOILER FEED WATER DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE CONTROL The Controller output is connected to the Scoop Controllers of Boiler feed pump A. The feed flow and the steam flow should match in normal conditions FEED WATER CONTROL VALVE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE CONTROL The Feed Water control valve differential pressure control is implemented to ensure an optimal reaction of F/W flow control by holding the differential pressure (DeltaP) above F. Main steam flow signal is used as a feed forward signal.S valve. KORBA SIMULATOR 334 .

SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL The Superheated (S/H) steam temperature is maintained constant by controlling the outlet steam temperature during various plant conditions with the help of spray control valves. The controller output signal drives the I/P converter of the four burner tilt power cylinders. 1047. This signal is compared with the set point in a Proportional plus Integral controller. Modules are there for obtaining high-diff. Alarm of S/H outlet temp.C (MA 1046. The R/H temperature is measured on the left and right side and supervised for high/low values.left High/Low (SM-D026).(. Average temp. of both left and right side forms the measured variable and it is compared with the set point in the burner master Controller.Auto/manual stations of DP master (MA 1009). 1048) have been provided in this control loop. The S/H outlet steam temperature is measured on the left and right side. is measured on both sides and used in the control loop. S/H outlet steam temp. The alarm contacts are provided i. Alarm between left and right side.left H/L (SM-D028) right H/L (SM-D029) High diff. The hand/auto stations of S/H outlet steam temp.B. The control deviation of the burner master 335 KORBA SIMULATOR . SM-D031) SUPERHEATED TEMPERATURE CONTROL REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE. BFP scoop Position Controller A.e. Additional to the outlet steam temperature signal the S/H or De -S/H outlet steam temp. The individual temperature signals are monitored. Controller left/right MA 1042/1043 with provision for set point adjustment are provided in the control system. CONTROL The R/H steam temperature control maintains the R/H outlet steam temperature constant during various plant conditions. Main steam flow signal is connected as feed forward signal via a function generator card. S/H outlet steam temp Right H/L (SM-D067). Low Low(SM-D066) . Right LL(SM-D027) De S/H outlet steam temp.

In case of high negative control deviation. Provisions are made for balancing the left/right R/H spray valve.M. The position of the R/H spray control valves are monitored and contacts below minimum are provided for opening or closing of additional. R/H outlet temperature left& right H/L (SM-D032&33) . Under normal operation the R/H spray control valves are closed The interaction is suppressed by a fixed input signal ( i. Position out of synchronization (SM-D071). SM-D042/044 alarms.M. The position of the burner tilts is measured and a network is included to produce the signals i. that means the R/H outlet temp.e. High diff. make up control value. Block valves. The Controller output signal is used to position the D. Deaerator level is maintained by modulating the D. Nozzle tilt horizontal (SMd071) . DEAERATOR LEVEL AND CYCLE MAKE-UP CONTROL The deaerator level is measured by level transmitter and compared with the set point value in Controller card.controller is also connected to the R/H spray master controller. Temp Alarm between left/right SM-D034. make up control valve (condensate surge-tank outlet line) and thus regulates the make up water to condenser. 5%). R/H spray valve position left/right below MIN. CYCLE MAKE-UP AND DEAERATOR LEVEL CONTROL KORBA SIMULATOR 336 .e. Interlocks for the position controller are included. Main steam flow signal is used as a feed forward signal. the Reheat spray control valves (left and right) are opening to avoid further increase. is too high.

KORBA SIMULATOR 337 . by this time MC-33 is fully closed and the hotwell level is further maintained through modulation of control valve MC-27. The Controller output signal is applied to the pneumatic converters of the control valves MC-27 and MC-33. Condenser hot well level is maintained by regulating the condensate re-circulation flow control valve MC-33 to full open condition by diverting the condensate water to the condenser up to the condition that a minimum flow of 210 T/H flows through condensate extraction pumps. the condensate flow control valve MC-27 starts opening and simultaneously the MC-33 starts closing until MC – 27 opens to 40%.DEAERATOR PRESSURE CONTROL CONDENSER HOT WELL LEVEL AND MINIMUM RE-CIRCULATION The hot well level is measured by level transmitter and compared with the set point value in Controller card. As soon as the CEP flow increases beyond this.




1 6. The co-efficient of conductivity of several metals and some compounds of which scales are made of. These precipitations are sticky in nature and form coating on the metallic surface. a. are tabulated below: CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS Metal Copper Carbon steel Bessemer steel Scales Aluminium oxide fused Calcium Carbonate Ferric oxide Calcium sulphate Magnetite Magnesium Phosphate (A12 O3) (Ca CO3) (Fe2 O3) (CaSO4) (Fe3 O4) Mg3 (PO4)2 920 110 98 x 10 µ mho/cm 3 Steam contamination 8. In spite of good water management the internal surfaces in a boiler become dirty over a period of operation. It is essential to periodically clean the boiler during overhauls etc. Corrosion c.BOILER WATER CHEMISTRY It is important to maintain proper quality of feed water and boiler water for trouble free operation of boilers. it is not possible to achieve desirable steam purity for trouble free operation of boiler and turbine. The principal objective of boiler water treatment is to prevent. It can also be described as a continuous. SCALING Water contains many impurities like dissolved salts and/or suspended matter. mud and bacterial growth can be removed easily as compared to dissolved solids. These dissolved impurities are insoluble at elevated temperatures. When temperature rises.1 KORBA SIMULATOR 341 .9 5. as they are designed to closer tolerances. Scales are objectionable because of their heat insulating effect. The quality requirements become more stringent for highpressure boilers. This is called scaling. without proper control of boiler water chemistry.4 3. solubility of these dissolved salts decreases and some precipitation occurs locally. The suspended impurities such as biological growth. water is primary output.2 1. Scaling b. Since the boiler.0 2. adherent layer of foreign material formed on the waterside of a surface through which heat is exchanged.

of which they are composed. The ' balls'found in steam drum and water wall headers are typical oil formation in turbine flow sections. which is used for phosphate treatment.From the above table it is very clear that how insulating these scales are. Accumulation in boiler drums is most often in the form of mud or sludge. decrease in solubility as temperature and pressure increase. 342 KORBA SIMULATOR . especially in locations where heat flux is high. however. The tri-sodium phosphate. because the scale thickness depends upon the amount of heat being transferred. The reaction is as follows: 2NA3 PO4 + CaSO4 Na3 PO4 + H2O Na2 HPO4 + H2O = = = Ca3 (PO4)2 NaOH NaOH + 3Na2 SO4 + Na2 HPO4 + Na3H2PO4 The advantages of phosphate treatment are: • • • • Adequate alkalinity can be maintained in the boiler water. Oil serves as a nucleus and binder of scaling at hot spots. is a neutral salt. solubility of Ca CO4 decreases rapidly with increasing temperature producing extremely hard. On-line removal of scales forming salts is done by phosphate treatment. loose scales may form particularly in water tubes. hence proper control over pH (above pH =10. No Problem of caustic corrosion. That is the reason why dematerialised water is used in the system. But it is impossible to lay down uniform thickness of scale. which is not same in all sections of boiler. Demineralises can produce water quality with nearly zero hardness. which greatly minimise the potential for boiler deposits. are insoluble under high temperatures prevailing in the boiler. The only disadvantage of phosphate treatment is Phosphate hideout.2 reactions reverts to left) can be observed. Prevention of Scaling The most effective method for prevention of scaling is to eliminate scale-forming elements from the feed water. Tri-sodium phosphate reacts with salts of Magnesium and Calcium to form sludge (Calcium & Magnesium Phosphate). or to transform them by some means into an innocuous form. adherent coating on boiler tubes. Any scale in the boiler. Scales and deposits are formed because the compounds. is absolutely undesirable. Certain anhydrous calcium salts especially sulphate. tends to increase the pH value while di-sodium phosphate formed as a by-product. Self-containing hydrolysis. It is sometimes said that a thin layer of Ca CO3 (calcium carbonate) should be maintained to protect the surface from corrosion. Na2 HOP4 is additionally available to form phosphate sludge. These salts are inevitably present is the boiler water in the form of residual hardness even after demineralisation. Similarly. When oil is present as a contamination in boiler water. All ionised salts are removed in these processes. corrosion and turbine fouling.

Corrosion of iron and copper in condensate systems leads to formation of porous deposits under which salts in boiler water concentrate and damage the underlying surface of boiler steel. In boiler the oxidation of iron is accompanied by the reduction of hydrogen ions supplied by the hot water. As corrosion products. It is never advisable to resort to any boiler water treatment with free caustic. are available to take care of any hardness in water. The recommended boiler water limits for phosphate & drum water pH are as follows: Phosphate should be pH CORROSION Scattered pitting in the presence of oxygen is sometimes observed in the water line in the steam drum and in the down-corner tubes of boilers.7 It ultimately forms a cell and is continuous in nature unless surface of oxygen is removed. At higher loads phosphate comes out of the solution because of its low solubility at raised temperature.level control. It does much more damage to the boiler tubes than any ' phosphate hide-out' . hidden out. The mechanism of pitting in a metallic surface produced by a bubble of air is shown in the figure 10.4 . even in absence of deposits. However.9. 3Fe + 4H2O = Fe3O4 + 4H2) KORBA SIMULATOR (A) 343 .Phosphate Hideout Sometimes. even in small amounts. Then. These areas are necessarily separated but usually are not far apart. on account of their high temperature. The area over which the metal is oxidized is called the anode and at which the oxidising agent is reduced is called cathode. Two stages in the formation of a pit are represented by the following chemical half reactions Cathodic 2e. electrons flow between these areas through the metal while ions migrate through the solution. The severity of these effects can be controlled to some extent by reducing the concentration of oxygen and free alkali. objections are raised against co-ordinate phosphate treatment because of the phenomenon of the phosphate hideout.3. Economiser. Corrosion is the oxidation of metal by some oxidising agent in the environment. caustic gauging can occur owing to the concentration of sodium hydroxide particularly in places where the rate of heat transfer is unusually high. This may lead to excessive total dissolved solids content of boiler water in drum. and by eliminating products introduced from pre-boiler system. Other possibilities are the corrosion of stressed metal. there is no danger in phosphate hideout. But when the load is reduced it goes back into the solution adding to the total phosphate content of water. is also susceptible to corrosion by oxygen.= 1/2 O2 = H2O = 2 OH Anodic 20H = Fw = Fe (OH)2 = 2e< = 3 . It is nothing more than a nuisance to the operators for control of boiler water chemistry regarding (PO4) . This system constitutes an electro-mechanical cell. Any phosphate salts.10 ppm 9.

PREVENTION OF CORROSION Removal of Oxygen Oxygen is introduced into boilers dissolved in feed water. Both reactions are posed by an irreversible potential called the hydrogen over-voltage. steam heats the feed water in primary heater and also scrubs the heated water.3 to 0. several local corrosion. most of the oxygen flashes into steam space. and carbon dioxide and oxygen that are dissolved in water can be removed by de-aeration.In case of acidic water 2 H+ + Fe = Fe ++ + H2 (B) The reaction (A) is self-limiting on account of the barrier of Fe3 O4 that forms on the surface of the metal. Sodium Sulphate Hydrazine Sodium Sulphate is commonly used in boilers operating at less than 60 Kg/cm2 KORBA SIMULATOR 344 . continues until the supply of hydrogen ions is depleted in boilers.5 . 2 HCO3 H+ + HCO3 = = CO3 + CO2 + H2O CO2 + H2O So far we have discussed the mechanical method of deaeration. pinhole failures and pitting in the rear furnace wall tubes are attributable to attack by the dissolved oxygen. the pH of deaerated water is normally maintained 8. by the condition of the surface of the metal. Hot spray flows down through a baffle arrangement against a rising flow of steam that sweeps the liberated gases out through a vent at the top of the vessels. The greater part of corrosive gases. while deaerated water collects in a storage section at the bottom. which are primarily used to remove oxygen.5.9. The oxygen concentration of less than 0. Because of volatilisation of CO2 and thermal decomposition of bicarbonate. producing characteristics pitting at the water wall lines and in the vicinity of the discharge of the feed line. b. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in feed water should be less than 0. Let us see how effectively the corrosive oxygen is removed with the help of chemicals.007 ppm can be obtained through this method. The vent is equipped with a condenser through which cold feed water flows to prevent excessive wastage of steam. When this water enters the steam drum. which is affected. There are two chemicals. In these units. Cold water saturated with air contains about 10 ppm of oxygen. In addition in high-pressure boiler.01 in a spray type deaerator normally used inn power plants.03 ppm and preferably less than 0.005 ppm in water for high-pressure boilers. The reaction (B) on the contrary. This can be reduced to 0.7 ppm in an open heater and about 0. Open heaters are suitable for low pressure but spray type deaerating heaters are commonly used. a.

especially when there is free alkali in the water. where the heat is transferred. The presence of these deposits causes over heating of the tubes and sometimes ductile gauging. The presence of porous deposits on the waterside of boiler tubes lead to serious corrosion. These oxides. besides causing foaming. At the economiser inlet the concentration of hydrazine is to be limited to 0.while hydrazine is the reducing agent at higher pressures. Various conditioners are added to disperse insoluble materials and prevent the accumulation of sludge on surface. Small amount of particulate matter comprising finely divided oxides of copper often contaminate condensate. Direct reaction of steel with particles of ferric oxide is also possible. Concentrated solution of hydrazine is flammable. Recently poly-crystallites and other synthetic polymers have come into use. Does not increase dissolved solid content of drum water Disadvantages of hydrazine treatment are o o o Vapour toxic nature. 3Fe + 4H2O = Fe3O4 + 4H2 KORBA SIMULATOR 345 . Excess of hydrazine at high temp disintegrates into ammonia. 4Fe2O3 + Fe+ = 3Fe3O4 Monitoring Feed/Condensate Water pH The metallic surface on the waterside of a boiler tube is naturally protected by a thin film of magnetite formed by the action of hot water on steel.050 ppm. The reaction of hydrazine is as follows: N2H4 + O2 3N2H4 = = H2O 2NH3 + CO2 (NH4)2 (At 270 0 N2 + 2H2O 4NH3 + N2 (at 200 0 C) C) Nitrogen being inert gas gets liberated and is removed as non-condensable gas. Advantages of hydrazine treatment are o o Low equivalent weight. deposit on boiler tubes at a rate proportional to the heat flux. The rate of deposition increases rapidly above 55 Kg/cm2.

feed water heaters by insoluble phosphate. They are: a. The re-circulation of a small amount of alkaline boiler water through BFP has been recommended but this can lead to plugging of feed lines in economiser.Ideally there is no further oxidation of metal after the protective layer is formed.5 in the drum. Above pH value of 13. not to say a rapidly increasing rate of corrosion due to pH values lower than those recommended. then new gasket or seal welding may be required to eliminate this problem. Priming. Hydrogen atoms react with the carbon in steel to form methane. that with increase in load condition the purity of steam will deteriorate. the magnetite layer thickens. The pressure generated in this may cause fissures along the grain boundaries. Also at lower pH values the silica carry over (Distribution ratio x1/pH) increases very rapidly.5 to 9. The vaporous carry over of remaining salts mainly 2 sodium salts is significant only at pressure above 180 Kg/cm . it is responsible for localised super heater failure. The change in water level may not alter the degree of contamination. Efficient drum internals can only reduce mechanical carry over. Leakage carryover. c. Silica is always carried over in vaporous form. The minimum rate of corrosion is realised at pH value 11 to 12. At lower pH values hydrogen ions are discharged whereas at values greater than 12. the magnetite layer is completely destroyed. At lower pH values than 8. If suspected. hydrogen may diffuse into metal. As this type of carry over is most frequently localised. so ideally the pH of 8.5 should be maintained. It is usually highly localised and may not be detected in steam purity test unless the sampling points are very near to the leakage point. Spray or mists carry over. d. This will be revealed in steam purity measurement by the fact. Foaming. the removable sludge formed by phosphate treatment of scale forming salts becomes very sticky itself. STEAM CONTAMINATION Carry over of salts in steam occur either due to mechanical or vapour carry over. Leakage Carryover Leakage of water droplets through seams or gasket joints of steam purifying equipment cause this type of carry over. The carry over may occur in four types. blistering and weakening it severely. KORBA SIMULATOR 346 . 2 With the pressure above 40 Kg/cm . peptises to some extent and is made porous by diffusion of ions from underlying metal. b.

Centrifugal action to produce separation force. These are known as drum internals. The three basic effects by the internal arrangements are: 1. KORBA SIMULATOR 347 . This is common in all boilers to some extent. Provision of drainable wetted surface in which fine spray can coalesce. Water level in the drum. In this case the water in the boiler would swell due to expansion of steam and formation of additional steam. It is more violent spasmodic action. mechanical contrivances are provided inside the boiler drum. Boiler water concentration. If the steam purification equipment is under designed. Priming It is relatively unimportant in present power plant boilers and is rarely encountered. Foaming The important factors that affect the carry over in steam are: 1. To direct the steam water mixture so that the upward velocity vector is zero. Drum and its internals. Foaming and vaporous and carry over. They distribute and mix feed and chemicals added to boiler water while removing entrained moisture from steam as it leaves the drum. 4. which is many times greater than gravity. Foaming is the condition resulting from the formation of bubbles on the surface of boiler water. this will be present even after the installation of these equipments. 3. 3. resulting in the throwing of slugs of boiler water with the steam flow. 2. The foam produced may entirely fill the steam space of the boiler or may be relatively minor depth. Generally presence of organic matter and/or oil will promote foaming. This action is similar to the” bumping" experienced when water is boiled in an open beaker. atomised droplets of water will be carried with the steam. To achieve the quantity or purity of steam required for power and industrial units.Spray or Mist Carry-over In this case. 2. In either case this foaming condition causes appreciable entrainments of boiler water with steam. Spray or mist carry over can be avoided by installing steam purification equipment. which would show up a drastic deterioration of steam purity. Carry over of this type is characterised by a sudden carry over of gross quantities of boiler water. It can be caused by the variation in pressure such as large pressure drop.

The turbulence caused by opening the valve disperses the sludge. the less soluble components in the water eventually crystallize on the internal surface and in addition. Opening the intermittent blow down can blow out this concentrated sludge. Blowdown As steam leaves the boiler. In ideal operation. and also to promote mixing and reaction with saline in the entering feed water. If the rate of blow down is too high. sulphate etc. It is a usual boiler practice that water wall headers should never be blow down because the circulation or water through them is usually critical when the boiler is on load. If this concentration were allowed to continue. This process is called continuous blow down. So there is no point in leaving the valve open longer than 15 sec. In order to limit silica carry over.) should be introduced above the down comer tubes to prevent sludging on the hot risers. The outlet for CBD should be below the level where the riser tubes enter the steam drum because this is where the dissolved solids in re-circulating water are most concentrated. KORBA SIMULATOR 348 . If the chemicals are injected near the blow down outlet. down comers or ring header.Silica Carry Over Certain dissolved solids in the boiler water are carried away with the steam as vapour and the internals have no control over such vaporous carry over. if too low the permissible limits will be exceeded. In order to control the silica in boiler water. solids introduced in feed water are concentrated in the water left behind in the drum.e. Pressure Dissolved Solids Suspended Matter Alkalinity Silica 1000 psi 1500 psi 2000 psi 500 150 50 10 3 1 50 0 0 10 3 1 Suspended solids in the presence of iron tend to collect as sludge in the lower parts of boiler i. One of the detrimental constituents is silica. short-circuiting will occur. the most effective method used is blow down. the concentration of solids is allowed to reach the limit after which the concentrated boiler water is bled off at such a rate that the amount of solids entering in feed water is exactly balanced by that method in bleed stream. Chemicals for internal treatment (phosphate. heat and water are wasted. the steam would contaminate. the concentration of silica in the drum water must be limited to a specified value for a given operation pressure range. Continuous blow down is the most effective way for controlling the amount of solids in boiler water after the rate of withdrawal has been adjusted properly.

02 0.01 0.005 Nil 0. 100% & above Nil 8.02 KORBA SIMULATOR 349 .5 0.) (max.02 0.01 0.0-9.7 (max.8-9.) ppm Sp.4 0.4 0.8-9.2 9.01 Nil 0.007 0.) ppm Total CO Total silica (max.2 9.4 5-10 ppm 9. conductivity after cation exchanger (mho/cm) Residual Hydrazine ppm (before economiser) Oil 2 60-100 Nil 8.02 Not allowed.0-9.) (max.) (max.) (max.) The recommended boiler and feed water limits for 210MW Korba boiler is as follows: Recommended Feed Water Limits Operating drum pressure in Kg/cm (g) Hardness pH at 25 oC (copper alloy pre-boiler system) pH at 25 oC (copper free pre-boiler system) Oxygen (max.007 0.) ppm Total iron (max.01-0.01-0.4 to 9.) ppm Total copper (max.% Blow down (In terms feed water) % Blow down (In terms of steam) = = Total Solid in feed Total solid in water Total solids in feed Total solid-Total solid in feed x 100 RECOMMENDED BOILER / FEED WATER LIMITS The following are the generally recommended feed water and boiler water limits for high pressure drum type boilers: Total solids Total iron Total copper Total silica Total oxygen Feed water pH Phosphate Boiler water pH 50 ppb 10 ppb 10 pbb 20 ppb 5 ppb 9.2 to 9.3 0.

1-9.Recommended Boiler Water Limits Drum operating pressure in Kg/cm 2 60-125 100 200 5-20 9. Conductivity at 25oC (mho.8 165-180 25 50 3-7 9.) in ppm Sp.8 Total dissolved solids (max.1-9.02 ppm in steam leaving the drum KORBA SIMULATOR 350 .) ppm To be controlled on the basis of Silica distribution / Drumpressure curves to maintain less than 0.1-10 125-165 50 100 5-10 9.cm) max Phosphate residual ppm pH at 25 oC Silica (max.

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