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Teaching defined from different perspectives.
y Idealists: Teaching as a process of transmitting/imparting knowledge y Pragmatists: Teaching as a process of facilitating individuals learning y Naturalists: Helping the individual develop the potentials s/he possesses Commonly: It can be understood as a process of facilitating individual s learning through motivation, coordination, guiding/directing the activities the learner performs and controlling/evaluating the learning results. It is a process of bringing about positive changes in a learner (Obanya, 1998).
Learning seen from different perspectives in psychology
y Learning as a process of acquiring knowledge through the mental process. y It is developing the mental caliber of the individuals y Learning is a relatively permanent change/ modification of the behavior (acquisition of knowledge, the development of skills and formation of value systems) of the learner as a result of practice. y N.B It is an integral/fundamental process which occurs in the learners. It is a relatively permanent change in the behavior of the person/learning.
retrieving/recovering and exploiting (from the short-term memory to the long-term memory) y The performance stage: . Learners use. Information processing. 4 . Selecting information from the env t by the sensory receptors y The acquisition stage: . apply what they have acquired (information) to solve problems.Stages in how learning takes place y The motivation stage: . Receiving a stimulus to learn .
What is expected of them? 5 . well informed /knowledgeable/versed and deeply motivated citizens. 4.Understanding HEIs What are HEIs? Are institutions that provide post secondary education and produce human resource. who can think critically. 2. They are aimed at educating students to become: 1. and involve in community services. conduct research.accept social responsibilities. 3. analyze problems of society. look for solutions to the problems. apply 5.
specific culture. and y New types of teaching-learning materials and evaluation techniques. y The curricula should take into account the gender dimensions and other cross cutting issues. communities. 6 . historic and economic context of each country (Relevance). pedagogical and didactical approaches . y The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of y Determination of academic curriculum by the academic personnel.The curriculum and personnel in HEIs should respond to the following y Using new and appropriate methods. creative and critical analysis. independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts. y Competencies and abilities for communicating effectively.
. the teacher can be a mere transmitter of knowledge. .The learner and the learning situations in HEIs y Who are the students of higher education? (physically. personally. The human resources in the institutions. . the teacher can play the role of a guide. Material resources (teaching materials. peace vs war).& workshops). physical resources (crm. y What does the learning situation include? of . Financial materials (operational allowance. in being able to plan his/her learning. The political and social context (democracy vs dictatorship. socially. morally. . He or she is then more of a "recipient" than a "learner". that is to say.lab. the curriculum. research funds. training grants & others). The learner is assisted in becoming autonomous.. y Example: y Learning is influenced by the teacher . On the one hand. financially the learners). The roles of the teacher and the learner vary in this relationship. mentally. lib. On the other hand.learner relationship. the learner is entirely dependent on what the instructor says or does. audiovisual materials & others). scholarships. 7 . psychologically. or a facilitator.
Advance. To provide opportunity for HL learn throughout life. 3. for indigenous capacity building. 1. y The core missions and values of HE are to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole.Missions and Goals of HEIs in Eth. including through the training of teachers. 5 Contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels. create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide relevant expertise. Help. 2. 8 . protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship. sustainable development. social mobility. 4. To educate qualified graduates and responsible citizens. Giving learners an opportunity for individual dev t. democracy and peace. consolidation /strengthening of human rights. socially active participation. in a context of justice.
Behaviors that characterize secondary school level is over here. quality of preparation at secondary school level. religious affiliation. intellectual/cognitive and their aspiration changes. social. Teachers and Curriculum I. (friendship and social linkage). We need to consider their demographic.sociological chaxs. gradual and painless way. Understanding them at entry level and provision of guidance and counseling service is priceless and invaluable here . -----physical. HE learners As the major actors/partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of HEIs Considering them is as one of the ways in responding to the relevance and quality of education Decision makers need to place the learners and their needs at the center of their concern. there is a period of transition which is characterized by more freedom from parents.HE Learners. cultural background. At this stage we need to take the learners through the changing process in a smooth. psychological characteristics (motivation and selfconcept). i.e. 9 . emotional. teachers and school regulations. affective. psychomotor. marital status and family background in planning lessons.
Moreover. attitude. independent activities. y Psychosocial characteristics: Psychological factors are normally resident within the learners. Therefore. self-concept or emotional traits. y Impacts of prior experiences on the learner s learning: the learners here are in the state of Piagetian stage of formal operations in their cognitive development. residential area. can carry group work. school setting and societal expectations. parental styles and no. Sociological factors include family background. Such students need remedial or tutorial classes to help them makeup the subjects/course in which they score less. social development. think critically. their earlier socialization has also contributed to their b/r.. friendship patterns and linkages. motivational level. create knowledge. political/religious orientations. They can solve problems. 10 . they are not in a position of the Tabula Rasa or empty vessel to be filled. cognitive dev t. of family in which they were grown.Factors Affecting Learning at HEIs y Home background: Instructional language proficiency. work experience. They include intelligence. values. peer group influence. expectations. y Selection/ admission criteria: When students below the expectation are allowed to admit. But their secondary education might have endangered this.
Cont. 11 .
These are duties of HE teachers 1. A commitment to work with and learn from colleagues y Intellectual curiosity/inquisitiveness y Master of his/her field of knowledge and its methods of inquiry y Respect for truth y Intellectual honesty/openness/integrity y Fundamental understanding of the learning process 12 .II. CBE. General characteristics of HE Teachers Expectations: an exemplars in teaching. extension service. Good subject matter knowledge 2. A concern of students development 4. A commitment to scholarship 5. service learning. An understanding of how students learn 3. research and community service (outreach programs. Continuing reflection on professional practice 6. consultancy.----).
for question Effective communication: prepare clear objective.Some hints to enhance the profile of the teacher (as a teacher) y Giving clear explanations: Use concrete. course requirements. etc. etc. and diagrams. examine controversial issues. Promoting Rapport (having consultation hrs). real life and relevant examples. show interest in students ideas and work/performance. present challenging and thought provoking ideas. y y y y y y Present practical applications and experiences. be flexible in your thinking. Promoting student interest (describe relevant personal exp. use guest. humor. Use illustrations. and grading criteria. graphs. use gaze/eye contact. Openness to ideas: let students feel free. body gesture and movement. relate the subject to current issues.) Demonstrate interest. reasonable evaluation. provide opportunities for students talk. talking with students. avoid distracting mannerism. communicate objectives. 13 . use proximity. relevant audio-visual aids Make clear presentation Effective speaking Effective nonverbal presentations use facial expressions. panel discussion. encourage independent and original thought. include a relaxed manner.
For promotion: No research no promotion. Ensures teacher s ability of advising students (making one self up-to-date to the theories. It enhances the quality of instruction 2.Research profile be damned entreaty to academic of HE teachers To publish or perish or publish or y staff of higher education institutions. methods of research) 3. rests largely on the plank of research activities. publish or perish 14 . y Research is important for HE teachers at least for three purposes: 1.
Characteristics of a good researcher y Ability to identify problems y Ability to design an efficient method of solving the problem y Resourcefulness in implementing research plan y Objectivity y Honest y Perseverance y Willingness to collaborate with others y Ability to supervise others y Skills in writing winning grant proposal y Skills in reporting for publication 15 .
prepare checklist to evaluate the community service of yourself and your higher learning institution y Q3. y Q1.Community service y y y y Committee work and membership of the task force Delivery of public lectures Offering of services in one s specialized area Office holder of national societies e. y Q2.g. --- HW. president/chairman of some professional org. How can this be improved 16 . State the chaxs needed for successful participation in community services.
Curriculum dev t in HE y It must meet the needs of the work place (industry and business and other world of work) (Relevance and Validity aspect) y It has to stimulate the entrepreneurial skills of students. entrepreneurships and relevance 17 . y Maintaining the quality of the curriculum is mandatory. It has to be flexible. innovative and follow interdisciplinary approach. y The importance of periodic review and evaluating curriculum in terms of its purpose. respond to market.
Reasons for undertaking curriculum Development in HE y To improve what is taught y Filling the gap that currently exist in HE programs y Responding to the needs of society y Responding to research evidences 18 .
ICT). Entrepreneurship. Dev t in HE y The construction and revision of the existing syllabus for new or existing course y The inclusion of new dev ts in the field of study resulting from research and public declaration in to existing programs ( Civics and Ethical education. 20 . etc.Practices of Curr.
Approaches in the theoretical basis for content selection in curr dev t y Topical approach: many topics based on knowledge and experience y Conceptual approach: Content clustering around some major or sub-concepts y Thematic approach: a combination of concepts y Modular approach: leads to competence of certain skills and more common in TVET 21 .
Some practical hints on course development and implementation y Provide basic information y Describe the prerequisite to the course y Give an over view of the course s purpose y State the general learning goals/objective y Clarify the conceptual structure used to organize the course y Describe the formats or activities of the course y Specify the textbooks and readings by authors and editions 22 .
and exams y State how students will be evaluated and how grades will be assigned y Discuss course policies y Inform students with special needs to contact you during office hours y Provide a course calendar of schedule y Estimate students workload 23 . term papers.Some practical hints cont d y Identify additional materials or equipment needed by the course y List assignments.
24 . Strategies and Styles of Learning y The concept of learning styles refers to individual typical ways of processing information and seeking meaning (Parkay. 2006: 169).Learning and related Issues 1.
Input task= Learners are expected to engage in new concepts or skills 3. knowledge 25 . skills. There are a number of learning tasks including: 1.Learning Tasks y Learning tasks are open questions put to a small group who have all resources they need to respond. Inductive task= to understand the present learners conception/idea of a topic 2.Implementation task= It invites learners to implement new concept.
Integration task= application of the learned skills. Authentic learning tasks=Instruction here is organized around the whole task which are challenging.4.to their life and work 5. 26 . knowledge--.
1.Useful guides to design research based authentic tasks in webbased learning environments. requiring students to define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity= open to multiple interpretations 3. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to collaborate 27 . Authentic tasks comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time.Authentic tasks are ill-defined. = they require hrs beyond classroom period 4. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives. Authentic tasks have real-world relevance 2. 1. using a variety of resources 5.
Authentic tasks are seamlessly/effortlessly integrated with assessment 9. Authentic tasks allow competing/challenging solutions and diversity of outcome 28 .Useful guide cont d 6. Authentic tasks create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else 10. Authentic tasks can be integrated and applied across different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes 8. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to reflect 7.
Common Learning Theories
A. Behavioral learning theories
. emphasize observable changes in behavior that result from stimulus-response (S-R) sequence that begins and ends out side the individual leaner. . Learning is the product of design rather than accident =Planning as a decisive factor. . Learning is regarded as a conditioning/training process by which a person acquires a new response. . Motivation and rewards as important components of learning
Common learning theories cont d
B. Social Learning Theories . Learning process is primarily social, and learning occurs through socialization. . Socialization occurs in a variety of settings and it continues throughout life. . Albert Bandura s (1997)
Common learning theories cont d
C. Cognitive learning theory . It focuses on the mental processes people use as they acquire new knowledge and skills. . Unlike behavioral theories, which focus on observable behavior, cognitive theories focus on the unobservable processing, storage, and retrieval of information from the brain.(Rationalists )
obtaining an overview is often an important step to learning. Refers to how learners organize information into patterns and wholes. 32 . one should start with the total aspects of a learning situation and then more to particulars in light of the whole. Gestalt-field view of learning . Thus.y D. and Gestalt theorists maintain that wholeness is primary. .Gestalt is a German term meaning Configuration or pattern . .
Theories of learning cont d
E. Constructivist Learning Theories
y Constructivist views of learning focus on how
learners make sense of new information, how they construct meaning based on what they already know. y According to constructivism, students develop new knowledge through a process of active constructivism. They do not passively receive or copy input from teachers or textbooks. Instead, they actively mediate it by trying to make sense of it and relate it to what they already know (or think they know) about the 33 topic (Good and Brophy, 2003).
Aspects Behaviorist Cognitive Humanist Social leaning Constructiv ist
Learning theorists View of learning process Locus of learning Purpose of education Teacher s role Manifestatio n in adult learning
Teaching as a Profession and Related issues
Q. What is a profession?
y Profession is a form of employment or occupation, which is respected in society as honorable, and is only possible for an educated person and after getting training in some special branch of knowledge (An Oxford Dictionary). y A profession is an occupation that provides a special service to the community based on accumulated knowledge, skills and wisdom. y It also controls the entry qualifications and work standards of the members. y Thus, one can understand it clearly a profession is an employment that demands an individual to pass through training.
performs specific functions for personal and social purposes. 2. It is practicable/practical. It has literature and unique languages of its members. 5. 4. Involves an intellectual activity/ body of subject matter knowledge/ and system of skills. yT 37 . 3. It is organized 6.Characteristics of a profession 1. requires an extended period of preparation for entry.
5. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills. Forming organization 6. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs. Ensuring permanent membership in the profession and taking teaching as one s life-long career. Commitment profession cont d Teaching as ato the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains. 4. and the profession 38 .1. A high level of intellectual energy. 3. 2. specialization and independence. 7. the home and the community. y Teachers who decide to be permanent members of the profession can contribute better than those who are always ready to leave the profession. y Teachers have commitments to their students. Trying to get opportunities for advancement.
specialization and independence. Forming organization 6. 2. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs. 5. 3. Ensuring permanent membership in the 39 profession and taking teaching as one s life-long . Trying to get opportunities for advancement. Commitment to the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills. 7. 4. A high level of intellectual energy..
y Every employee is expected to accomplish tasks the employer wants him/her perform in the organization faithfully and honestly with the required quality. 40 .Teachers Professional code of ethics y The teachers professional codes of ethics are related to their accountability/responsibility/commitment to their students. the profession. the home/parents and the community. their employers.
y Thus. measurable and acquired issues which can be achieved through training. y They include general knowledge. 41 . etc. y The personal factors are related to personal qualities which are more natural than acquired and are difficult to quantify. an effective teacher is the one who achieves his/her objectives with a minimum energy. The concrete factors are related to the basic. y The personal factors are teacher s personality traits that affect students behaviors. professional knowledge & skills. time. specialized knowledge. material.Unit II The Expected Quality of instructors y Effectiveness in teaching is seen in terms of achieving instructional objectives. identifiable. finance. Effectiveness is determined by concrete factors and personal qualities.
a person of words and actions y Remains being a student all through out his/her life y Has breadth of interest y Fairness and impartiality y Helpful and cooperative y Makes use of different methods of teaching and learning 42 .Good personal treats of teachers y Good character y Respects truth.
y Show respect for students and establish rapport with them.confidentiality as appropriate. y Practice tough love.Skills and Qualitieswith students:Instructor of Effective a. y Appreciate students individuality. y Help students set goals and support them in achieving them. Maintain student. Support them y Accept the students where they are y Have high expectations of students y Provide positive reinforcement. y Elevate or advance students who are doing well y Be flexible. . Ability of working . Universality. 43 . Have prior experience working with youth in alternative education settings. y Demonstrate consistency in the classroom. reliable your activities.
Skills and qualities of effective Instructors cont d B. y Demonstrate empathy. listen well and remain open to questions.) y Live what you teach. Personality Characteristics . y Convey the ethical and the philosophical aspects of the discipline 44 . . meet with individual students if needed. predictability and reliability. Lead by example and be a good role model. y Have a strong sense of self. y Be available to students outside of class (i. be honest with students and have good personal boundaries. y Exhibit creativity and inquisitiveness. y Be non-judgmental. Have a sense of patience. of humor.e. caring and attentiveness. Demonstrate consistency.
Methods and Techniques of Teaching in HE 45 .Unit III Principles.
y They are used as regulators of what the teacher does. y They help teachers get sufficient information on issues related to motivation. understandable. 46 .Definitions and Characteristics of Principles of Teaching y Principles of teaching are generalized statements about teaching activities. applicable and finally durable. ways and means of making students active participants. and mechanisms of self learning. which govern the roles of the teachers and students both inside and outside the classrooms. creating an environment to make instruction clear. readiness. y They help teachers perform their activities in specific directions and acceptable manners.
Characteristics of principles of teaching y y y Universal Essential . space.they make teachers effective in achieving the instructional objectives and efficient in the use of time. money etc their teaching activities. energy. Compulsory. Socially determined the principles are results of long years of observation of life activities and the observation of the principles of teaching in all instructional activities help teachers satisfy the demands of the society and meet the needs of the learners at all levels y 47 . materials.
The principle of linking / connecting school learning activities to social life.The Main Principles of Teaching and their uses in Teaching y y The principle of planning lessons in line with the curriculum. The principle of recognizing individual differences in teaching: y y y 48 . The principle of making instruction clear by using different instructional media that appeal to the different senses. The principle advocates making students verbalize of what they are learning in their own words. The principle of verbalization/Voicing in instruction.
The principle of integrating (coordinating) different subject areas. The principle of making lessons understandable / comprehensible/ 49 .Principles cont d y y y y y The principle of uniting instruction with scientific findings and procedures. The principle of defining the objectives of the lesson. The principle of the leading role of the teacher and the independent activities of the learner.
y Starting from the whole and proceeding to the parts (specific) and the vice versa It is found out that perception is better when it is on whole objects than on specific parts (remember the gestalt psychology theory of learning) y Starting from the immediate and proceeding to the remote .Basic rules in presenting a lesson (The logical and psychological principles of teaching) y presenting lessons from the known and proceeding to the unknown. y Starting lessons from the simple and preceding to the complex y Presenting lessons from the easy and proceeding to the difficult y Starting from the concrete and proceeding to the abstract. 50 .
y motivates learning through warning of failure and punishment. y is assumed to know all and source of knowledge.Classification of methods of teaching A. 51 . y evaluates the performances of students by hearing the recitation / reproduction of what was learned. y gives lessons / tasks without involving students. Traditional Vs Modern Methods of teaching y Characteristics of the traditional method: The teacher: y conducts recitation (learning by heart or memorization by mechanical repetition) of what is to be learned.
The modern methods include problem solving. etc. Encouragement and guidance in the activities are given instead of warning of failure and punishment. reasoning and forming generalization are learned in particular and new situations are common activities. The students participation in the teaching learning process. individualized instruction.Modern method of teaching Classification ofactively and develop skills and valuesd methods cont Attempts to involve the students y y y y y y y in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. student s independent activities /study. organizing and performing the different tasks under the guidance of their instructor(s) is very high. Applications of what require making analysis. especially in planning. group discussion. Much attention is given to directing students efforts towards learning by doing rather than through memorization or recitation of the learned materials. They have activities that are based on the data collected. The methods enhance democratic teacher student relationships 52 . project work.
2. self-responsibility & self action. group discussion --. teacher students conversation.. Student s independent work methods (self-planning. methods ( question answer format.Method cont d The classifications of methods of teaching also include classifying methods of teaching as: 1. teacher s presentation methods (autocratic nature of a teacher).) The methods include the assignment. project and problem solving methods. students learn according to their pace . and 3.). 53 .
teacher centered and active methods. 54 .Classification of methods contin d y Other classifications put the different methods as student centered.
y Discuss on the role of an instructor in students independent study. 55 .
It is a method where the teacher is more active and students are made passive. Advantages and Disadvantages y The Lecture Method: It is the oldest teaching method. etc by citing authorities in the field of the subject but not students. It is usually a one-way communication where a teacher narrates or presents on social or natural events. which is identified as a method of explanation or clarification of contents to students verbally. Applications.The Major Methods of Teaching: Mechanism. processes. procedures. 56 .
advantages and disadvantages of lecture method. 57 . application.Lecture method cont d y Discuss the types(modified/formal and unmodfied/informal).
students performance. nature. demonstration. instructor s supervision.Demonstration Method y Discuss on the definition. 58 . and advantages and disadvantages of the demonstration method. and evaluation). components in (explanation. classification (formal and informal).
make corrections. 59 . students usually discuss on a topic. y The method is particularly suitable to contents that involve matters of opinion.The group discussion method y In-group discussions. One can use it whenever there is the need for obtaining feedback about the learners level of understanding and ability to apply the already acquired knowledge. clarify points. It can be applied when the objective of the lesson is to bring about changes in the attitudes of the learners. apply their earlier knowledge and skills and reinforce their learning. make a review.
When the teacher wants to make his/her students to get an understanding of a program. When the teacher wants to incorporate the discussion method as an essential part of most other methods. not from the teachers. a principle or a policy. 60 .When should a teacher use the group discussion method? y y y y When the teacher expects the ideas of students to analyze a problem and decide on a plan of action. When the teacher feels that there is the need to expand the total amount of information obtained in the class by drawing out suggestions and opinions from many students.
Forms of Group Discussions The different learning groups can be classified as: y Buzz group y Panel discussion group y Seminar group and y Brain storming group 61 .
A Buzz group discussion is necessary when: y it is difficult to get a class start to discuss in a larger group.The buzz group Discussion It is a discussion situation whereby the class students are divided into small groups of three to six students for a brief discussion. Then. students seem to be getting tired or bored. students hesitate to make critical comments in a large group. y y teachers want some suggestion from the entire class when the teachers want to make class action to be based on the recommendations from all. the whole class later reforms for reporting the results. 62 y y .
telling the students the amount of time they will have for discussion. Make the task simple and just one question. for a buzz group session is always a brief discussion. 2.Dividing the whole class into smaller groups of three to six students. arranging their seats in a circle. announce to all groups. etc. asking them elect a chair person and a secretary. If it is possible write it on the chalkboard.Procedures on Conducting Buzz group Discuss y To make effective use of a buzz group discussion. calling the group back together again and asking the secretary from the first group to report. possibly 5 to 10 minutes. It may become a time consuming and boring if you allow all the groups present all their findings. 4.telling the students the question for discussion. a few minutes before the time is up. If there is an extension of time. 63 . 5. 6. so that they face each other. But don t let it be too long. Call on the other secretaries requesting them to mention only new points which were not brought out by the first. 3. 8. the teacher must do the following 1. telling them that there are x minutes for the discussion. 7. observing the groups and giving help to anyone who doesn t seem to understand the procedure. Summarize the main points on the chalkboard. one must be sure that the students have understood it. the second.
It must be clear that the audience have no opportunity to express their views. a social worker. The topic for discussion may involve different people from different discipline. panel members. More often the teacher who has invited the panel members act as a chairperson. Panel discussion shouldn t last more than an hour.The Panel Group Discussion y y y y y y y Panel group discussion is a discussion between a group of three to six people who have a special knowledge and interest in the topic to be discussed. The panel members could be an educator. They participate as listeners. and audience. The audience s questions will be addressed to the panel members through the chairperson before they come to the panel discussion. an economists. 64 . The students may raise additional questions. etc. A panel discussion group has a chairperson.
which need to be covered about the topic during discussion. which should include the topic and. y The chairperson (teacher) contacts members of the panel before the meeting. y The chairperson provides opportunities for all panel members to express their views and he/she summarizes the points made by the speakers. y The chairperson presents questions prepared with the help of the students to the panel on the topic. He/she briefs them about the purpose of the panel discussion. the purpose of the discussion. the names and qualifications of the panel members and the time limits of the discussion. the background of the learners.In panel discussion the panel chairperson has the following responsibilities. 65 . and some important points. y The chairperson gives an introduction.
The method is common in teaching at higher learning institutions where the students are more matured than in the lower grades. The advantage is the involvement of students in the discussion. They learn how to listen to what others talk and express their own ideas when they are given the opportunity. 66 . It is a method where the discussion will be conducted after the presentation.Seminar Group Discussion y y y A discussion after a student or group of students is made to prepare original paper(s) on different topic(s) and is made to present it/them.
unusual ideas are encouraged. Because the greater the number of ideas the greater likelihood of devising solutions to problems. In the brainstorming session. quantity is wanted. The basic rules are that: criticism is forbidden and adverse judgments of ideas must be with held until late. i. Later a judging committee screens these ideas.e. It is a conference technique whereby a group seeks as many answers to a problem posed as possible by collecting all the ideas contributed spontaneously by its members.The purpose of the discussion is simply to elicit a number of ideas about and responses to a problem. 67 y y y y y . free wheeling is accepted. In addition to contributing ideas of their own. Thus. Thus. there are four basic rules to be observed..The Brainstorming Session / Group Discussion y A discussion session by the whole group of a class to forward solution to a problem creatively. no one is allowed to make a negative remark. participants should suggest how the ideas of others can be improved or how two or more ideas can be synthesized. the wilder/natural/unusual the ideas the better.
y In discussions different views and opinions are forwarded. 68 . y It exposes students to valuable experiences which develop their skills of listening and speaking (communication skills) y It gives the students an opportunity to analyze and synthesize facts at a higher intellectual development. immediate modification can be introduced and justified y It helps students to learn and function efficiently in a group setting. When the response is erroneous or inappropriate. This enables students to comprehend an issue from different angles. y It provides the possibility of constant feedback between the teacher and the students. y As it is fewer teachers centered. group discussion enhances personal growth and competence. Students develop their communication skills. professional attitude and intellectual abilities. y In general.Discuss on the advantage and the disadvantages of disussion method The group discussion method as a two-way communication has the following advantages. it allows students a chance to develop their ideas.
Thus. the group discussion method becomes productive if the teachers plan and conduct it properly 69 . If group discussion is not well planned and directed.Limitations of Discussion Method of the discussion method are related to y The shortcomings preparation and presentation group discussions have to be planned properly before the discussions. it consumes time unnecessarily. Only few students may dominate the situation.
It is experiential leaning It involves observation. . The instructor and the student in the class serve as observer and critics. It also provides opportunities to see oneself. It brings reality to classrooms and it does so dramatically and convincingly (solves the problem of time and space). and developing confidence. y Role playing method is unrehearsed/spontaneous/unprepared y y y y y y y dramatization in which the players attempt to take situation clear to themselves and to the audience by playing the role of participants in the situation. discussion and analysis It is learning through entertainment It involves the skills of dealing with other people and helps in understanding students feelings and reactions.Role playing Method y It is presented in front of observers. It brings theory to life and teaches that one s perception of a situation is 70 not always like others. Serves as a means for changing attitudes.
Shortcomings of role playing y Loss and expense which would result from practicing in real-life situation y Students may misinterpret it and emphasize its entertainment value than that of its educative value. 71 .
The Questioning and Answer method y As a method. 72 . lower order and higher order. y It is a key technique of teaching because of its several contributions in teaching and learning. convergent and divergent or factual and problem solving (heuristic)question methods. y The types could be content and process. it is an informal assessment technique. which is used with large groups of students.
y Use praise and other encouragement. y Listen to the given answer carefully and evaluate it. rephrasing. y Give enough time to think over and must demand complete answers. y Using the techniques of paraphrasing. y Make all students actively participant. 73 . and redirection.To make the questioning and answer method effective follow the points below y Formulate clear and precise questions y Adapt the questions to the students level of maturity and capacity. y Paraphrase students responses but not answering one s own questions. In oral questioning. y State the questions before naming a student to respond. y Use pause /wait time effectively between y Be active in accepting students responses in positive manner.
models. y It is a co-operative study where students are grouped and are made to produce tangible product. They often have to work independently. preparation of food. It is done with relatively little direct interaction with the teachers y The projects could be on construction of model houses. There are a lot of project types. plants. etc. y The project could involve a group of students working together on different aspect of the same problem. rocks. growing crops. do a kind of research and report either in writing or verbally to a group. 74 . sample products.The project method y It is a method where students are usually given an individual topic for an in depth analysis. cultural materials. collection of insects. seeds.
Timely Environmental and seasonal factors need to be considered: 2. There should be optimum use of the time. Challenging .the practical aim of the project must be identified. It must fulfill a long-standing need.project should neither be too simple and easy nor too long and difficult. 3. Useful . Economical . Rich in experience .projects should not unnecessarily tax energy and money of students.Specific criteria to make projects useful 1. The learning experiences in a project must be capable of being applied in life. 5.It must be capable of correlating different subjects and practical activities of life. 75 . 4. 6. The project (s) should be implemented in such a way that the students are kept active both physically as well as mentally. Enhancing co-operation it should allow students to think and plan independently and co-operatively.
it makes learning durable. and makes students to get joy and learn in a natural way. It stresses problem . independence.solving.mindedness. it provides situation to create unity of different subjects. etc. thinking and reasoning.The advantages of project method y it provides a conducive environment for learning through practice and y y y y y y y y independently. it solves disciplinary problems for students don t get time to involve in anti-social acts. it gives satisfaction and happiness to students. it provides freedom to work enthusiastically on self-chosen projects. it provided sufficient opportunities to the students to work cooperatively for common purpose. it discourages memorization. 76 . resource fullness. it cultivates virtues like tolerances. open.
3. 2. Over use of a group project method creates a dependency of an individual on a group. They may take long to complete the work. The materials required for project method may not be available easily and cheaply. It requires highly trained teachers who are well rounded in many fields of study. A project method is a time-consuming this is so for students are left to work on their projects by themselves. 4. It is very expensive in terms of getting financial and materials required.Limitations of project Method 1. 7. 77 . It is difficult to identify the share of work of individual members of the group if it is a group project. 5.
78 .The Problem Solving Method y Conscious. y Learners make their own discoveries y It helps students develop their reasoning power y It includes inquiry and project method. planned and purposeful effort to arrive at some solutions y It is the combination of many methods where trial and error approach is applied y It requires self directed learning.
2. Making analysis of data collected.Applying the findings (results). 3. 79 . Identifying and defining the problem. Collecting and organizing the data and information 4. Formulating a hypothesis /basic questions to answer the questions. 5.Steps in the use of problem solving method 1. Drawing conclusions on the basis of findings 6. Make a clear conception of the problem and state it in a manner that it leads to a solution.
2.Other Important Methods y The field trip method y The student Independent study method y Team teaching method (Hierarchical team and Synergetic team Organization of team: 1. Ad-hoc team approach 80 . The differentiated team approach (diversified discipline) 3. The unit specialist team approach (the same field but specialized in different subjects ).
helps teachers to evaluate the work of one another. develops a strong sense of involvement and responsibility among students. 6. 7. etc. . 4. helps to make lessons fit to the needs of the learners and maintain classroom discipline.Advantages of team teaching Team teaching method provides the following advantages. make proper use of resources. 5.. to improve their own teaching and instruction 8. staff. provides opportunities for the development of human relations which are essential for social adjustment. 3. gives adequate opportunities to the students for free discussion/expression. etc. provides opportunities for the students to get better knowledge. Team teachi 1. stimulates discussion among teachers who are jointly responsible for a group of students. provides a flexible class size and help to provide guidance for the 81 learners as well as inexperienced teachers. 2.
y Active learning "derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways" (Meyers and Jones. 1993). Students are DOING something including discovering. 82 . and applying information. Research shows greater learning when students engage in active learning. processing.Active learning y It refers to techniques where students do more than simply listen to a lecture.
(But.Active Learning Techniques cont d y The following active learning techniques can be used in small and large classes. and with all levels of students in any discipline. it is up to the teacher to choose the appropriate active learning techniques for the concerned topic) 83 .
an original example to develop. 84 . Finally. ask or choose student pairs to share their ideas with the whole class (share).1. Think-Pair-Share Give students a task such as a question or problem to solve. Have them work on this 2-5 minutes alone (think). Then have them discuss their ideas for 3-5 minutes with the student sitting next to them (pair). etc.
The group produces a group answer or paper or project. short-term or long-term.2. These work is best in small to medium size classes. They are given a task to work on together. Generally. student preparation for the CLG has been required earlier (reading or homework). Often. Collaborative learning groups y These may be formal or informal. you assign students to heterogeneous groups of 3-6 students. graded or not. y They choose a leader and a scribe (note-taker). 85 .
the whole class works together. and to try to answer a question raised by another student. or drafting exam questions.3. illustrating and applying difficult material or concepts. other students volunteer to answer them. 86 . Student-led review sessions y Instead of the traditional instructor-led review session. y Each student is to ask at least one question related to the material he or she doesn't understand. y Students can also practice discussing. Students may ask questions. y For the second half of the review session. have the students do the work.
for example. y There are now some computer programs. Games y Games such as jeopardy and crossword puzzles can be adapted to course material and used for review. to help you create crossword puzzles. for assignments. 87 . y They can be used at the individual. small group or full class levels. or for exams.4.
88 . this will help them pay attention ( to analyze the speech of individuals). y Prepare students ahead of time with reaction or discussion questions or a list of ideas on which to focus. y After the video. have them work alone or in pairs to answer critical questions. Videos should be relatively short (5-20 minutes). or apply a theory. Analysis or reactions to videos y Videos offer an alternative presentation mode for course material.5. write a "review" or reaction.
They allow students the opportunity to take a thesis or position and gather data and logic to support that view. y Debates also give students experience with verbal presentations. 89 .6. individual or group. critically. graded or not. Student debates y These can be formal or informal. y Some faculty members ask students their personal view on an issue and then make them argue the opposite position. etc.
y This technique helps students actively process material. and gives them practice for the exam. 90 .7. helps them review material. Student generated exam questions y This can be used for review or for the actual exam. gives them a better understanding of the difficulties of writing reliable and valid exam questions.
you may be able to have them collect data during class time (observe some situation or give out some short surveys) or you may have them doing this as part of an outside-of-class project. Invite other faculty and students. a class research symposium y Have the students work on designing a research study on a topic from the class. Mini-research proposals or projects. In some situations. y Either way.8. 91 . have students present their research in a class research symposium similar to what we do at professional meetings.
I will put a case example of sexual harassment on an overhead).9. Consider combining this with a brief in-class writing assignment. applying concepts. Analyze case studies y Bring in case studies for students to read (for example. and theory from the class. y Have students discuss and analyze the case. 92 . data. y They can work as individuals or in groups or do this as a think-pair-share.
in my gender class. Be aware of ethical issues if you ask students to record and analyze personal events or issues.10. y Require a brief critical reflection or analysis of each entry as well. sexual harassment against women or men) they observe. sexism. For example. in or outside of class). students must record instances of sex inequality (sex discriminations. Keeping journals or logs y Have students make journal or log entries (keep records) periodically (on paper or computer. 93 . They then discuss this instance applying course terms and theories.
11. and so on. Write and produce a newsletter y Have small groups of students produce a brief newsletter on a specific topic related to class. y Students should include articles with relevant research. y Share these with faculty and students in related courses or in the major. post information on upcoming related public events. 94 .
95 . y These can be done individually or in groups. and the relationships between concepts. and critiqued. Concept mapping y Here students create visual representations of models. and can be shared.12. between concepts. discussed. once or repeated as students acquire new information and perspectives. with connecting phrases on the lines. ideas. y They draw circles containing concepts and lines.
y 1: y 96 .Unit 5: Classroom Organization and Management of the instructional activities in higher education Definitions and purposes of classroom organization What is classroom organization? Classroom organization is a deliberate creation of the learning environment by considering the instructional objectives and the specific activities to be done by each student to achieve the desired end results.
Rules of appropriateness 97 . B. C. Patterns for arranging participants (small group versus whole class presentation).Crm orgorganization as a conscious cont d y Classroom arrangement of the classroom in its totality to achieve the instructional objectives can be seen in terms of: A. Resources used or resources of information.
The advantages y it appears to be very convent for formal teaching of a lot of students in one class. y it makes the blackboard in front of all students and becomes easy and accessible to the teacher and the writing can be seen easily by all students. y it makes the management of students discipline easy through row monitors 98 . y it makes easy to move between rows and orderly distribution and collection of instructional materials.The major patterns of the classroom seating arrangement include: rows facing the teacher and the y Making students sit in blackboard (row-and column).
demonstrations. 99 .Raw-and column cont d The disadvantages include that: y the student at the back side cannot see the work or practice of student in the front side. y it is difficult to the teacher to evaluate each student s work in the classroom. y it is not convenient to practice different methods of teaching such as small group discussions. etc.
there must be some one who acts as a leader. the size of each group should not be more than six members. It is very much convenient for buzzgroup discussions. 100 . Cluster seating pattern y The cluster pattern arrangement is characterized by the formation of little clusters of students in different positions in the classroom. Grouping can be done randomly or by considering the abilities or compatibility of group members. y In cluster grouping. The leadership should rotate.2. At all times.
y The arrangement is not convenient to teach large class students and it is time consuming.The cluster seating pattern provides the following advantages: y It makes students to communicate easily with each other. y Movement from one cluster to another is not too restricted. y It makes the management of the classroom discipline easy when there is the need for students to work in group or solve problems together. Leadership and co-operation are two important elements of classroom relationship which result from this kind of seating arrangement. y It is easier for students to work as a team and to help each other as peers. 101 .
The Horse Shoe Pattern Arrangement y An arrangement where the teacher sits in the center. y It is easy to rearrange the group without wasting time. 102 . half way along the diameter. This arrangement provides the following advantages: y It can be used when the lesson entails a lot of discussion. y It enables students to consult with each other. y It enables the teacher to check every member easily and help.
y 103 . y it is useful when there is just one object to be used as display for a lesson. Its advantages include that: y it is an arrangement convenient when there is anything to be recorded or to be listened on tape. Unlike the horse shoe arrangement. It can be placed at the center for all to see and comment upon. There is usually no group leader in this arrangement. the authority of the teacher is completely decentralized and formal leadership roles are played down considerably.The Round table pattern Arrangement y It is a good arrangement for discussion lessons. It can be round or square.
the activities and the whole class for the required task resources such as time. classroom organization as an arrangement of activities. money and materials will be wasted. 105 . Students may involve in some kinds of misbehaviors. The instructional objectives and the activities to be done will dictate it. Some activities demand larger space to move freely while others require silent seat works.Conclusion In general. Some require the use of different instructional materials with a maximum care while some don t need materials at all. students. energy. y Thus. classroom resources for instruction differs from time to time and activity to activity. Some demand talking loudly while others need no noise. classroom organization is a prerequisite to achieve objectives easily. if the teacher fails to organize the students.
Definition of CRM Mngt y Classroom management is a process of organizing and conducting a class so as to make instruction effective and efficient. It is a process of managing the teaching and learning activities to get maximum students learning. y It requires careful planning and providing students with pleasant and supportive climate for learning. establishing control. avoiding disciplinary disturbances and promoting effective students learning. 107 . It is a process of establishing and maintaining order. y Effective classroom management depends on the nature of the task at hand. creating interests and desires to learn and achieve. laboratory classes allow students for a great amount of conversation and movement and lecture sessions require quiet attention and purposeful conversation. For instance.
pacing. appropriate styles. etc. materials. lesson contents. etc.Effective classroom management requires: y Good planning. methods of teaching. It demands the ability and skills to use the selected methods. y Conducting the class. organizing a learning environment. Preparation of one s lesson by identifying the instructional objectives. materials. y Monitoring: It is a process of maintaining classroom order or discipline by using different approaches and techniques. motivating and guiding students. setting rules. 108 .
Classroom management aims at: y promoting an environment (physical and emotional) to be conducive to effective learning.Purposes and Areas of Classroom Management Effective classroom management helps in the advancement to the fulfillment of the objective of teaching and facilitates learning. and y ensuring the active and meaningful engagement of students to the learning task at hand. 109 . y guaranteeing class time to be used for learning effectively. y securing the support and co-operation of students in classroom activities.
experience.Areas of Classroom Management Classroom management involves managing: A. Contents of the lesson(s) B. needs and interests of the learners. the teacher s personality 110 . maturity level. Methods of teaching (the ability to select the methods and apply them in concrete situation) Methods of teaching are selected by considering: a. the nature of the contents to be taught. the instructional objectives. b. d. c. and e. the facilities / conditions of the school. the ability.
y applying the major principles of teaching. y reinforcing students activities. ideas and questions y responding to students questions. etc.y presenting the lesson by making students active participants. y the use of appropriate questioning techniques that involve students in applying their earlier knowledge and skills such as making the questions convergent (factual nature). y accepting students feelings. divergent (multiple responses questions) and commenting. y considering individual differences and accommodating them. 111 .
112 . All teachers are expected to manage their time properly. y displaying teaching aids at the right time. y keeping one s pace of presentation. y making appropriate decision on the right time to make students active participant or involve them in doing individual seat works or in group activities y fixing the time for questions in the middle or at the end of the lesson.C. Time allocated to a given lesson. The time management involves: y distributing the time to the different activities. y The different activities of a teacher and students are done within the given time.
y the application of the rules in the use of the chalkboard. y the arrangement of materials in their proper order. Teachers at all levels are expected to manage the materials and spaces set for the instructional activities. y the management of students seat.D. y making the classroom hold enough seats and other resources 113 . The management includes: y the use of the appropriate instructional materials / teaching aids. Materials and space.
etc. 114 . y creating mechanisms to identify individual differences and accommodating them. managing students behavior and their social relationships through a democratic way It requires: y creating conditions for students good interpersonal relations.E. y preparing the classroom atmosphere for cooperation. mutual help and concern to each other as opposed to conflicting conditions.
ineffective style of presentation. failure to set the right task. failure to involve students in the instructional activities and failure to apply the major principles of teaching. lack of planning and preparation. failure to structure one s lessons and present them in steps. 8. 3. Poor teaching 2. failure to use appropriate teaching aids (suitable audio-visuals) 5. 4.Causes of classroom misbehavior 1. 7. Teacher related causes 1. 6. failure to enforce the rules set 115 .
Lack of interest in a particular subject Dislike to a teacher or hostility towards a teacher. Attention seeking. Ignorance of the classroom rules. 116 .Student related causes Antipathy to school or disinterest in learning in general.
y Emotional upset y Bad physical condition 117 .y unsettled or disruptive home environment y Unpleasant peer relations.
y the class size.School Environment Related Causes y The absence of sufficient materials for the classes. laboratories the workshops and fields: y Conflicting rules of the school and the home. 118 .
The approach offers five strategies that the teacher might wish to include in his/her repertoire of managerial strategies They are: y establishing and enforcing rules. y utilizing proximity control.Approaches and Techniques to Maintain Classroom Discipline A. requesting students to stop misbehaving. and y utilizing isolation and exclusion y Establishing and enforcing rules 119 . The major goal of the teacher is just to control students behavior by any mechanism. y utilizing mild desist. directives and orders. The Authoritarian Classroom Management Approach y The use of controlling strategies. y issuing commands.
force and disapproval. ridicule/scorn. y The teacher forces the students to behave according to the teacher s dictates. it is a process of controlling student behavior. threats. y Unlike the authoritarian approach (which stresses the use of humane teacher behavior) the intimidation approach emphasizes the use of intimidating teacher behaviors harsh forms of punishment such as sarcasm/criticism. coercion.B.The Intimidation/ threatening Classroom Management Approach y Like the authoritarian approach. 120 .
3. The Permissive Classroom Management Approach
y This approach maximizes students freedom. y The major theme of it is that the teacher should
allow students to do what they want whenever and whatever they want. y The role of the teacher is to promote the freedom of students and thereby foster their natural development. y It helps students develop self directness, selfdiscipline and self responsibility if students are made free physically and psychologically.
4. The Cookbook Classroom Management Approach
y It provides descriptions of lists of things a teacher
should or should not do when he/she is confronted with various classroom management problems. Sample of lists of dos and don ts are given as follows: y always reprimand and a pupil in private; y never raise your voice when admonishing/giving a warning students y always be firm and fair when dealing with students; y Never play favorites when rewarding students etc. 122
5. The Instructional Classroom Management Approach
y This is an approach, which is to be done based on the contention that carefully designed and implemented instruction will prevent problems. The approach argues that effective management is the result of high quality instructional planning. Thus, the teacher needs to plan his/her lesson by considering the needs, interests, etc of students. It plays both preventing and solving managerial problems. However, well designed and implemented instructional activities contribute more to prevention than to solving problems that have already occurred in a classroom. y Advocates to this approach suggest that the teacher should consider the following instructional managerial strategies:
i. providing interesting, relevant and appropriate curriculum and instruction;
y providing for environmental changes.y employing effective movement management. y establishing classroom routines. y giving clear directions. y utilizing interest boosting mechanisms. and y restructuring the situation 124 . y planning and modifying the classroom environment.
this is an approach that conceives the classroom as a social system in which group processes are of major importance. in turn. Obviously. At this point the role of the teacher is to foster the development 125 and operation of an effective classroom group. the nature and behavior of the classroom group are viewed as having significant effects on learning. stems from positive interpersonal relationships. which assumes that learning is maximized in a positive classroom climate.6. which. Thus. . It strongly assumes that instruction takes place within a group context. both teacher student and student student relationships can be easily achieved if the teacher creates a favorable and friendly classroom atmosphere. even though learning is seen as an individual process. Creating a Positive Social Emotional Climate in the Classroom y It is an approach. y Therefore.
y Sharing Responsibilities y The Provision of Incentives y Establishing and maintaining good Interpersonal Relationships y Making Effective / Good Teaching y Co-operative rule making y Explaining Procedures 126 .The Preventive Techniques y Disciplining: y The Provision of Freedom.
if not entirely. Thus. the teacher is required to master and apply the factors identified above. punishment. y learning is influenced largely. extinction and negative reinforcements. y The four factors are related to positive reinforcement. y These different approaches can further be classified into specific classroom management techniques. 127 .7. by events in the environment. The principle of Behavior Modification Approach y This views classroom management as the process of modifying students behavior.
giving them the energizer or activator allow them to sing their favorite song.Curative / Remedial Techniques Ignoring y Eye Contact: y Closing in or Proximity. physical closeness: Touch and signal y Humor y Separating Misbehaving Children y Out of sight Technique y Restructuring y changing the teaching method. physical exercise. etc. . giving the class five 128 minutes rest. tell them jokes or short stories. (give individual work).
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