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Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures (FARM)
as an intervention to agrarian crisis and farmers suicides in Wayanad.
Kerala Social Service Forum
Wynad: ITS PEOPLES AND TRADITIONS
Panoramic view from the top of Tamarasseri ghat towards the Arabian Sea, a distance of thirty-nine miles.
“High mountains rise to the left with water glistering on bare black rocks like tears of gladness in the eyes of sorrow; forests stretch away here with gentle slope and easy undulation, there down precipice and steep declivity; far below lie swamps choked with thorny thicket and rank coarse grasses, breed-ing fevers and miasma, but yet in whose bosoms are stored the streams which water those long stretches of rice fields, here sere and yellow after the sickle of the reaper, there whitening unto harvest or again a vivid green where the second crop natures. Hills everywhere some arid, red and unfruitful, more covered in the feathery foliage of the Eastern orchards. Here and there smoke curls up in the still noon-tide air; or the glint of some mosque or temple or rirverpool catches the eye. As the distance groves farther, hill and field all merge into one green plain, and beyond gleams the sea, hard to be discerned from the heaven that bends down and meets it. As you gaze, the thought rise from the heart that in such fair and well-ordered beauty, the affairs of this world may perchance appear from the Thorne of Heaven with all their inequality, so strange, so little comprehendable by us the dwellers amid its hills and valleys.”
—MADRAS TIMES. RAO BAHADUR C. GOPALAN NAIR Deputy Collector, Malabar
Participatory Action research on Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures as an intervention to agrarian crisis and farmers suicides in Wayanad
Executive Summary Key Findings Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Backdrop 1.2. Agrarian Crisis of Wayanad 1.3. Transect of FARM Wayanad 1.4. SFC Network 1.5. Activities implemented- A flash back 2. Participatory Action Research 2.1. Pedagogy 2.2. Scope and Relevance 2.3. Synopsis of the PAR 2.4. Profile of the Action Research Universe 3. Analysis of the Secondary Data 3.1. Review of Literature 3.2. Sustainable Agriculture Measures of Kerala 3.3. Interpretations 4. Participatory Action Research on Sustainable Agriculture 4.1. Backdrop 4.2. Homestead Nutrition Gardens 4.3. Action Research on Nutrition Gardening 4.4. Case Study Analysis of Nutrition Gardens 4.5. Action Research on System of Rice Intensification 4.6. Case Study Analysis of System of Rice Intensification 4.7. Promotion of Farmers Rights 4.8. Interpretations 5. Participatory Rural Appraisal 5.1. Appraisal of Farmer’s Groups 5.2. Interpretations 6. Analysis of Programmes in Other Sectors 6.1. Cost Benefit Analysis of the IGP 6.2. Case Study Analysis of IGP 6.3. Interpretations 6.4. Analysis of Befriending Programmes 6.5. Case Study Analysis of Befriending 6.6. Interpretations 6.7. FGD on interventions of FARM 6.8. Interpretations 7. Analysis of the Convergence Programmes 7.1. Analysis of Consultation Workshops 7.2. Analysis of Technology Transfer Programmes 7.3. Analysis of Research Output Dissemination 7.4. Interpretations 8. Recommendations and Suggestions
Participatory Action Research
List of Tables and Charts
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Chart 1 Chart 2 Details of the Target Panchayaths Distribution of units of the Nutrition Gardening based on tribal hamlets Distribution of units of based on the cultivation selected Distribution of units based on the tribes Distribution of the Nutrition Garden covered under the research Cost Benefit Analysis of the Nutrition Gardening and Chemical Farming Distribution of the units of System of Rice Intensification Comparison of SRI against conventional practices Cost Benefit Analysis of System of Rice Intensification Relative quantity of Participation in the Participatory Rural Appraisal Historical timeline of the agriculture Seasonal Calendar of Vegetable Farming Daily Routine of the farmers Distribution of IGP beneficiaries based on age Distribution of the beneficiaries on the basis of IGP selected Details of the beneficiary’s contribution to IGPs Details of the input cost required for IGPs Distribution of Income based on monthly basis from IGPs Distribution of IGP beneficiaries based on monthly expenses Cross tabling of Income and Expenditure Distribution of the beneficiaries based on savings Data on the suicides in Wayanad from 2000 to 2010 Data on the interview among the befriending clients Details of the befriending services offered in the reference Panchayaths Relative quantity of the participation in Focus Group Discussion Income sources of farmers Expenditure of the farmers 24 41 41 42 42 43 49 50 51 58 60 62 63 69 69 70 70 70 71 71 72 81 81 83 89 61 61
Save Farmers Campaign
would like to appreciate the commendable work done by Kerala Social Service Forum (KSSF) and along with the NGO network in Wayanad to address the hard core pressing issue of agrarian crisis together with Caritas. With the agrarian crisis looming in the frontline, the concerns of the farmers are to be addressed more sensitively. The numbers of deaths resulting out of the crisis are vast and causes for this were many. A major cause for the crisis resulted from crop failure and economic conditions. Through the active participation of KSSF and other Nongovernmental organizations to conduct Participatory Action Research on Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures as an intervention to agrarian crisis and farmers’ suicides in Wayanad, it has brought about a distinct perspective to the whole cause. It helped the farmers to change the outlook of farming by taking sustainable agricultural measures. The strategies taken up for sustainable farming will definitely benefit a large number of people who are in despair. Organic farming taken up under this initiative will greatly benefit the community at large and the environment. Nutrition gardening will improve the nutrition status and ensure food security for the family. The two major programmes implemented for the promotion of Nutrition Gardening - Homestead Farming and System of Rice Intensification will also improve the life style of the people with increased self sufficiency and reduced risk to income from climatic, biological or market impacts on particular crops/products. Participatory Action Research will now enlighten the farmers on the use of techniques for socioeconomic development. Caritas strongly believes in improving the lifestyle of the needy by combating poverty. It supports the promotion of growth and development of local and regional structures thereby bringing in equality among all. Empowering the local communities to initiate and sustain their own humanization process is one of the major roles played by Caritas India. Facilitating the activities that is bound to improve the social and environmental standards is of high concer for Caritas India and it continually strives to promot such interests and issues. Caritas is of the belief that we have to promote these types of pilot novel initiatives and models which can be replicated by Government or Non-Governmental Organization/Civil societies to address the issues of the poor and needy.
Participatory Action Research
Fr. Varghese Mattamana Executive Director Caritas India
Policy formulations must be made to earmark area for food crops and commercial crops with stipulations that may not be overstepped. System of Rice Intensification alone has the potential to turn the Wayanad into the granary of Kerala. encompassing the agrarian. Kerala Social Service Forum and FARM Wayanad are proud to be part of the larger national network to rejuvenate agriculture. Intervention is any distress situation must go beyond relief and consolation. Man stepped into farming for food and unless food crops prevail over cash crops the crisis in food security will only escalate. the knowledge of the farmers and those who till the soil go often unheeded. FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign I Fr. The temptation to amass wealth in a short duration forces one to reroute farming practices with little concern for environmental values. Traditional organic input preparations are proposed as an answer to the havoc of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The participatory action research herein dwells with the human interference with nature’s unwritten laws and should help us to think critically. Both the national and the regional media has written at length about the debacle of Wayanad with the Central and State Governments coming out with packages aimed at providing relief to farmers. And the ultimate answer is an all out exploration of organic farming. tribal and environmental arena. Unlike the studies undertaken by arm chair writers. Revival of Homestead Gardens and possibility of Biodynamic Farming are two recommendations that need to be explored further. Retaining the soil conditions is part of the creed of farmers which of course is now the key deteriorating factor with over use of fertilisers. People are the masters and the scholars very often try to misguide them with their nauseating theories. Scores of Studies have been conducted on the distress of Wayanad and the scenario has been well articulated. In a liberalised economy where the masters elsewhere try to control our agriculture and industry. The rare combination of natural conditions with economic variations which determine the status of agriculture. Wayanad can turn out to be a model in planned revival of agriculture if only the farmers and the government plan together strategies and action plans.Foreword am happy to present the FARM as an intervention to agrarian crisis and farmers suicide in Wayanad with the ardent hope that the findings of this study will contribute in some manner to the evolution of a comprehensive plan to salvage the agrarian sector of Wayanad from its crisis. Return to paddy cultivation is a must for the revival of Wayanad. Kerala Social Service Forum made an attempt to document the multi-stakeholder responses to the agrarian crisis in Wayanad in 2009. Overuse of land is a cardinal sin as regards farm sector is concerned. this study is parented by the men and women who toil in the soil and are exposed to an uncertain future. Study was conducted at Edavaka and Ambalavayal Grama Panchayaths and the report was well accepted by the NGO sector and the social scientists. We are now presenting this Participatory Action Research report which had a much bigger coverage area than the 2009 study. I am sure this multi stake holder analysis of issues related to ecological and livelihood crisis will usher in serious deliberations leading to lasting solutions. The farmer and the farming community must be ready for a resilience operation beginning with an introspection and readiness to accept their share in aggravating the crisis followed up with appropriate corrective measures. The study offers pertinent suggestions and recommendations which are supposed to be taken up by the various stakeholders as catalyzing agent in the agricultural regeneration measures of Wayanad. As for allied income generating ventures linkage of farm to milch cows and goat is proposed. Romance Antony Executive Director-KSSF 7 . Unfortunately no serious efforts have been made to analyse the malaise and put in place contingency plans for possible mitigation. The focus group discussions undertaken as part of this study bring out both the frustrations of the farm community as well as their answers to the vexing problems studied by the scholars.
FARM Wayanad Message Participatory Action Research A n effort has been made by Caritas Asia to support the action research on Improved productivity. networking and linkage with Government departments. improved helath through nutrition gardening. protection of environment and health of farmers and their families in different parts of Asia. With an objective to analyze the actions towards the contribution on agriculture regeneration and the issues of farmers’ suicides. befriending of the victim families. improved confidence in organic farming etc. The programme includes capacity building of various aspects of sustainable agriculture. In order to help the farmers and the suicide victim families. Many families were supported through the initiatives as many have ventilated thier feelings through befriending. Haridas V. the participatory action research has been initiated. New Delhi 8 . From the interpretations of the data collected through research it can be noted that FARM project has emerged as a tool for the Sustainable Agriculture Regeneration as well and arrested the suicide rate in Wayanad. The action reaserch helped in bringing out the changes occured due to the implementation of FARM programme. The programme has been successfully implemented by a team of Staff and volunteers. group farming. The intervention initiated in the year 2007 and a Participatory Action Research was carried out in selected areas of to highlight the impact of the programme on the life of the people in District. This programme has also proved the effectiveness of collaborative effort. supporting the victim families with livelihood options. Dr. The programme is still continuing with more participation and actions. The Agrarian crisis due to many factors including impacts of globalized trade regimes and liberalized economic policies has caused suicides by farmers in Wayanad.R Manager (NRM) Caritas India. The Facilitating Agriculture Regeneration Programme (FARM) supported by Caritas India has been selected as one for doing action research. Caritas India initiated an intervention in Wayanad with a programme called “Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures (FARM)” in which 7 NGOs are partners under the coordination of Kerala Social Service Forum (KSSF). increased income through livelihood options.
Antonyto Paul for his initial guidance and supports in designing the PAR. V. Research & Documentation Consultant who closely accompanied the entire Participatory Action Research process and documented this report. Similarly. The Project Team of SFC provided unraveled support in the PAR and their spirits needs to be quoted as the guiding light. outcomes and impacts projected in this document will surely result in replication of such farming practices not only in Kerala but also in other parts of India. The SFC Network Partner NGOs . The entire process has been covered under the Participatory Action Research (PAR) conducted with the support of Caritas Asia. Voluntary Organization for Innovative and Collective Education (VOICE). considering the prime need of adoption of Organic system of agriculture as the only lasting solution to the damages caused to the region over the years due to the farming practices with the excessive use of chemicals. providing course corrections and guiding the entire implementation of the research project. I place on record the unchallengeable spirit and enthusiasm showed by Mr. Kerala. Haridas. The results.R. Varghese Mattamana. The continued support from Caritas Asia. Wayanad Social Service Society (WSSS). Executive Director Kerala Social Service Forum for the trust they have shown in me to coordinate the project in Wayanad. Malabar Social Service Society (MASSS) and A Society for Total Advancement and rehabilitation Centre (STARS) remains as the corner stones in the FARM Project. organic system has been familiarized and trials conducted in the target areas.Shreyas. Romance Antony.Acknowledgement FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign F acilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures (FARM) Programme implemented by Save Farmers Campaign (SFC) Network. Jeevana. during the last 3 years have gained remarkable positive changes in the burning issues of agrarian crisis and high level suicide rate in the small district of Wayanad. Fr. Caritas India and the farmers of Wayanad reflects our commitment to combat the agrarian crisis in Wayanad to redeem the pristine ecology thereby regenerating the lost paradise in Kerala. Fr. I would also like to thank Fr. I would like to express gratitude to Rev. Executive Director Caritas India and Rev. I express sincere thanks to Dr. the agrarian crisis of Wayanad will turn into pages in the history and we will move on to a prosperous era with the Sustainable Agricultural Practices. I wish to thank all the clientele especially the farmers who took the risk to conduct the trials and build up the model farms under organic system. comprising 7 leading Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) under the coordination of Kerala Social Service Forum (KSSF). I believe that in near future. Jaimon C Uthup. E J Jose Programme Manager Kerala Social Service Forum Wayanad Regional Office Kalpetta North (PO) 673122(PIN) Tel: 9446841910 Email: sfcwayanad@gmail. This intervention with the solid support of Caritas India has been assessed in a systematic manner in selected villages under participatory process.com 9 . the much awaited change for sustaining agriculture is on the anvil. I am optimistic that. NRM Asia Coordinator who accompanied us in the entire process sharing knowledge. Women’s’ Welfare Association (WWA).
Executive Summary .
How ever these century old practices disappeared in the wake of post independent era where the Green Revolution made thrust on Grow more Food. growing the time tested. traditional crops with or with out additional organic inputs. The tribal culture and ethos of Wayanad are the reflections of the agricultural practices as harvest is always connected to festivals. Microorganism declined and the soil lost its fertility and vitality resulting in the extinction of tested traditional varieties. Project had a glorified aim of empowering the farming communities in the Wayanad to address the issue in agriculture and to combat suicides. This led the Save Farmers Campaign to have a Farmers Participatory Action Research on the Sustainable Agricultural Measure propagated through the FARM project along with the validation of the various programmes offered to the community. But this unmindful development has reverted the ecological balances which was been practiced for centuries and has led seemingly irrevocable ecological and environmental catastrophes in the district. These crop varieties were alien to the soil and suffered new pest attacks and disease outbreaks making the farmer to pour huge quantities of pesticides. Water scarcity has emerged as a big problem even in Wayanad district which has a plethora of natural water resources. 12 . but deeply interwoven with the ecological systems and climatic conditions. Biodiversity of agricultural fields is now a fairly tale and the farmland has become silent.. Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures is an attempt of the catholic church of Kerala to address the Kerala’s biggest agrarian disaster. devoid of croak of frogs. Thus organic farming assumed very much importance and the broad principle of “Live and let live” attracted the people of Wayanad. chattering of warblers etc…which were an important parts of the chain of food cycle acting as host organisms. The Neolithic inscriptions in the Edakkal caves dates back to Stone Age from 5000 BC to 1000 BC and are having possible connections with the Indus Valley Civilization which was also founded on Sustainable Farming Practices. cost of the cultivation soared. Input cost skyrocketed several folds due to these exotic elements adopted in the farming and has resulted in multiple issues in the ecologically fragile land of Wayanad. weather suited.FARM Wayanad Agriculture in Wayanad is at the crossroads…. There have been demurs and doubts on the practicality of organic farming on the ground that the production would plummet and there will be another food crisis. Eternal relationship with farmer and farmland was lost and the sustainable agriculture system collapsed. Farmers have considered earth as “Mother God” and worshipped her before the cultivations. And thus came Agrarian Suicides numbering 1981 in Wayanad district the “Heaven of Kerala”. It is now three years of rejuvenation therapy offered for the crisis affected farmers and they are convinced that the only way is to return to the traditional ways of sustainable agriculture. The demand for organic products at the markets promoted by FARM project is high and the supply falls short. Sustainability has been a hallmark of our farming system from the time immemorial. income of farmers stagnated and food security became a daunting challenge. Green revolution has replaced the traditional varieties with the high yielding ones making the farmers depend on tones of fertilizers to get the high yields. Participatory Action Research W ayanad has a glorious history of farming dating back to several centuries which was founded on sustainable practices.
67 as against the cost benefit of 1. In Nutrition induced Cow pea cultivation the cost benefit was 2. 9.88 in the chemical farming. Nutrition Gardening has improved the soil texture. Experimentation of the Nutrition Gardening and Conventional Chemical farming shows a great difference in the cost benefits. In Nutrition induced Ginger cultivation the cost benefit was 2. where as the later is low input cost involved low risk farming producing organic produces which will ensure premium prices and will not do anything harm to the man and ecology. Seasonality of the farming has undergone drastic changes and in order to cope up with this issue the farmers have to adapt to the climate change by changing the old agricultural calendar with the new practical agricultural calendar. 4. 1. Women opted cow rearing as the most suitable one as they could generate income at 13 . In Nutrition induced yam cultivation the benefit against the cost is 4. A total of 1527 farmers are now practicing organic farming under the FARM Project and it is expected that they will become organic certified in another two years time. The main findings of the study are presented hereunder. Hence it is clear that the Organic Nutrition programme is a grand success in the cost benefit terms. Seed cost is reduced to 90%. Even though the effort and time required in the organic farming is high. This is only because they are aware that the agrarian crisis that hit the district in this decade is only because of the modern farming and the impact of the crisis can be recovered only if they get retrieved to the organic farming methods.550 in the conventional chemical farming. 3.Key Findings FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign T he main objective of the Participatory Action Research was to analyze whether the Sustainable Agriculture Measures propagated through the Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures (FARM) Project has contributed to agriculture regeneration and has addressed the issues of farmers’ suicides. 7. The agricultural crisis that prevailed in this decade has made the farmers of Wayanad to understand the need to take up the Sustainable Farming.80 in the chemical farming. Farmers of Wayanad are now very much aware of the difference between the conventional chemical farming and the traditional organic farming as the former is high input cost involved high risk farming producing inorganic products which ensures medium price harming the ecology and wellbeing of man. 2. Marketing ensured under the FARM Project has resulted in farmers getting gaining prices.35 as against the cost benefit of 3. Cow rearing provided an income on a monthly basis. 5. farmers are slowly shifting to the traditional farming methods. 8. 10. soil fertility and water usage became minimal. From the interpretations of the data collected through research it can be said that FARM project has emerged as a tool for the Sustainable Agriculture Regeneration as well and arrested the Suicide rate in Wayanad. There was 30% increase of productivity and mixed cropping helped the farmer to ensure food security and nutritional security of the family.13 as against the cost benefit of 2.61 in the chemical farming. Farmers became aware of their rights and are now actively engaged in dialogues with the Government for ensuring their right to live. Productivity in the SRI is one fold higher than the conventional farming and is less prone to pest attacks.860 as against the Rs 9.11 as against the cost benefit of 1. In SRI the input cost is very low as compared to the conventional farming. But it has found that the demand of organic products is high whereas the supply falls short. 6.73 in the chemical farming. Net Income from SRI method in an acre is Rs 24. In Nutrition induced Tapioca cultivation the cost benefit was 4.
14 . 15. 13. 19. the tools applied by the FARM project has resulted in behaviour change among the farmers of Wayanad resulting in more and more taking up Organic Farming. Networking and Lobbying carried out in the FARM project the partners were able to source out convergence programmes from Government departments which has resulted in the value addition of the Sustainable Agriculture Measures promoted by the project. which was well above the national rates. Dissemination of the research outputs of the project has further resulted in solicitation of the partnership of the SFC network in various Government programmes aiming at the Sustainable Agriculture Development of Wayanad District. 20. 12. Ecological protection has gained importance among the recipient community and the notable interventions are the youth and children taking up the campaign in the schools where the FARM project has offered awareness. All the beneficiaries indicated that the IGPs have helped them to tide over the difficulties they had experienced due the onset of the agrarian crisis. The suicide rate of Wayanad has now fallen down to 25. It can be said that on the road map to Sustainable Agriculture Development. 18.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research the homestead and could link with the Organic Farming as they got enough raw materials for the organic input preparations. 57% of the beneficiaries of the IGP support could save an amount worth Rs 1500 and above on a monthly basis after meeting their household requirements. As an output of the lobbying with the Panchayaths. As an outcome of the Advocacy.02 from 45. IGPs have helped the women to become economically independent in a situation when other opportunities are limited. Government of Kerala preparing Organic Farming Policy to present findings and suggestion towards framing the policy. As an outcome of the research works. Dissemination of knowledge on the preparation of organic inputs has helped thousand of farmers to adopt the nutrition induced organic farming. It can be noted that in the year 2010 the suicide number is 38 as against the highest number of 229 suicides in 2007. Befriending deems to be quoted as the most sought out psycho social service by the suicide victim families as well as the distress families and has helped hundreds from the bridge of life to death. these Local Self Government Institutions (LSG’s) have taken up the matter of issues behind chemical farming and has initiated certain steps in the regeneration of the chemical farms through organic farming. SFC network was invited by Subject Committee of the Legislative Assembly. 16. 11. 14. Documentation of these Bio.fertilizers. 17. Awareness programmes in the health sector has resulted in people understanding the reasons behind the increasing rate of killer diseases as well as lifestyle diseases and thus the concept of Organic Farming has got wide acceptance.01 per Lakh in the severe crisis period. Biopesticides etc… has helped in conservation of the traditional farmer’s knowledge regarding the eco friendly farming.
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 1 Introduction 15 .
This crisis has manifested itself in increasing poverty. In the recent years. The name Wayanad comes from ‘Vayal nadu’ which means land of paddy and these are the water reservoirs of the region. falling prices of primary products. Despite some advances in social indicators. Agrarian Crisis of Wayanad Decline in crop yield. This crisis has been characterized by the low productivity. pepper and arecanut) together constitute 38% of cropped area. The major plantation crops (tea. For years. 12th in literacy etc 1. pepper and wildlife it was once famous for.4% of the total district population. thus contributing substantially to the GDP of the state. coupled with sharp fall in their prices. high incidence of crop diseases and pest attacks. Though the cause of the crisis is apparently found in the changing trade scenario worldwide. Backdrop Wayanad district in Kerala lies on the edge of the Deccan plateau and is unique because of its elevation (700-2100 metres above mean sea level) compared to the rest of the plains in the state. some inherent in the functioning of the country and the others as influences from outside. mounting debts and also in suicide of farmers. Wayanad is also famous for its paddy lands. this region has been a major producer and exporter of spices and other major cash crops produced in India.619 inhabitants (2001 census). natural calamities 16 Paddy ready for harvest . The district is one of the most backward regions in the State with fourteen districts.560 hectares and is home to 780. coffee and other spices. A comparative data with rest of the State shows that the district is ranked 14th in terms of urban population. 13th in sex ratio. 12th in condition of houses. This district has a purely agriculture-dependent economy and is among the most underdeveloped regions. with the highest proportion of aboriginal tribes. Wayanad district is famous for its pepper and coffee in the international market and almost 80. land performs important hydrological and watershed functions. The social fabric of the district is distinctly different from the rest of Kerala. Aboriginal tribes form 17. and an environmentally fragile ecosystem. Wayanad is now announced as crisis hit district by the Government of India and is placed in the category of Backward District by the Ministry of Panchayath Raj.1. Wayanad has come to be more known for the suicide of farmers rather than for the coffee. a low sex ratio. however. The district covers an area of 212.5 acres. created severe distress in all sections of agricultural population from the year 2000 onwards. The farmers here were dependent on paddy for their sustenance and their main income was from pepper. poverty remains a major problem in Wayanad.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 1. coffee. 14th in telephone facility. Since Wayanad is a largely montane area that receives high annual rainfall within a short span of three to four months. Rural economy of Wayanad is totally dependent on agriculture unlike other districts in the state.2.90% of the farmers are small and marginal with an average land holding size of 0. its features and the reasons for its escalation has been related with a variety of factors.
SFC Network as people taking their own lives due to despair and Save Farmers Campaign network consists of seven 17 . promote organic farming. Individuals and social development organizations have the vital responsibility to collectively Many households failing to cope up with the distress committed suicide and there emerged a pandemic involve to mitigate the causative factors behind the situation in the agrarian terrain of Wayanad. something as morbid 1. promotion of price Caritas India to forge an alliance of NGOs to address stability. Sathyian Mokeri. Public investment in agriculture has been on the decline. livelihoods to the distress families.caused the concerns of the civil society. MASSS. output has been growing only at a rate of 1. When nightmares become a pleasant and preferable to 650 for pepper. Suicides. support systems and creation of alternative the agrarian crisis. Varghese Mattamana. Coffee and Paddy which Inauguration of Save Farmers Campaign Network home the major producer of the area have witnessed steep fall in prices from INR 2600 helplessness has translated into mere statistics now. This gave birth to the Save Farmers Campaign Network in Wayanad to WWA and STARS was formed. Jeevana. output. continuous psycho social support.4. many more in the fray . increase in cost of cultivation. maintained a rather ‘blind eye’ and did little or nothing of agrarian distress required not only debt relief but a long term regeneration strategy containing activities to save the victims. Going by indicators like agricultural investment. Thus the consortium of likeminded NGOs.3. and death an liberalization has resulted in imports of several agricultural commodities to the domestic market opportunity for a better life its time to jam the brakes thereby adversely affecting prices. by Rev. VOICE. prices and incomes. 2006 and the situation aggravated in 2007.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign (Climate Change) like flood. WSSS. Executive Director Caritas India in the presence of Shri P Krishna Prasad 1. Trade preoccupation for an entire community. . Kerala Social Service Forum climbed up the Tamarasherry Ghats in 2007 along with to rejuvenate agriculture.5 to 2% per annum. Shreyas. Member of the State Agrarian sector of Wayanad became stained with Agriculture Debt Relief Commission. Transect of FARM Wayanad MLA and Mr. The FARM project was sculpt agricultural regeneration programme in the launched on the 8th of August 2007 at Sulthan Bathery history of Kerala. the emerging picture is not at all satisfactory. outmigration of farmers and labourers. suicides in the years 2005. The mounting rate of ‘farmer suicides’ because of the loss of livelihood resource base. the prices of Black Pepper. Mitigation issue. Agrarian distress and farmers suicide is a subject of widespread discussion in recent years. Indebtedness of and take a check. Fr.and small and medium farmers and low production has caused further deterioration of the situation. drought and landslides. INR 6000 to 2300 for Coffee. rising unemployment. especially when the state responsible.
Shreyas Social Service Centre (Shreyas) is the social work concern of the Malankara Catholic Diocese of Bathery and is a leading organization in the agriculture especially organic farming. In the second phase the programmes of the partner network were characterized into social. Society for Total Advancement and Rehabilitation Services (STARS) is the social work organization of the Calicut CMI province in Wayanad and are a pioneering agency in inclusion of vulnerable such as mentally and physically disabled in all programmes. An accurate data base on the statistics related to the various aspects of the agrarian crisis with the suicide data was prepared. one network organization and Caritas India as the facilitating organization. economic. Kerala Social Service Forum the implementing coordinator of the FARM project (Justice Peace Development Commission of the Kerala Catholic Bishops Council) has a track record of engaging in social work from 1981 onwards.5 Activities implemented . Sustainable Livelihood Supports to 850 suicide victim families. The second phase of FARM Wayanad project began in November 2008 after the successful completion of the first Phase. Second phase of the project proposed for two years is completing by the October 2010. The unique experience of the network of NGOs in Wayanad to address the burning issues of agrarian crisis and suicides by farmers is being appreciated by the social web of Wayanad. Voluntary Organization for Innovative Collective Action (VOICE) is a non governmental organization engaged in local resource mobilization to resource management. An army of fifty social workers with adequate training and capacitation are working for the regeneration measures. scientific know how. technical expertise and monitoring of the project. KSSF is a pioneering agency of Kerala in capacity development as well as social research and was the agency behind diocesan social works institutions paradigm shift from charity to sustainable development. Wayanad Social Service Society (WSSS) is the official social work arm of the Catholic Diocese of Mananthavady and is specially noted for its pioneering roles and the multi dimensional activities and undertakings thereto dealing with agricultural developments through organic farming.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research grass root organizations. collaborative efforts with local self governments (Panchayath Raj Institutions) etc… Impacts and Achievements of the FARM Ist & IInd Phase Consortium of seven partner NGOs in the district under the coordination of Kerala Social Service Forum named as Save Farmers Network Campaign emerged. This intense campaign to seek a lasting solution to heart rending tragedies has yielded positive results. (July 2007 – October 2008). 1. A total of 865 families out of the 1981 suicide 18 . The implementation of the 1st phase and 2nd phase of the project was done very well and the visibility of the project has reached not only in the district of Wayanad but also grabbed the state and national wide attention. Caritas India. tribal and health. psychological. the social work organ of the Catholic Bishops Council of India having expertise of 49 years in addressing the problems of the poor in India facilitated the project by providing funds. Massive awareness building and Capacitation. ecological. Calicut Diocesan Social Service Society (Jeevana) is another pioneering agency in the economical development of the poor and marginalized in the district. IEC.A flash back The duration of the first phase of FARM Wayanad was for 16 months. Women’s Welfare Association (WWA) is a voluntary non governmental organization working with rural people of Wayanad and is noted for its integrated and people centered rural development activities for improving the quality of life of the villagers. Similarly the coordination level activities are characterized under Community based Human Right Befriending. Malabar Social Service Society (MASSS) is the social service wing of the Arch Diocese of Kottayam for its rural development initiatives in Malabar region. Workshops and Research studies. All the Panchayath Raj Institutions have become more concerned and vibrant in addressing the survival problems and issues faced by the farmers after the mobilizations at the PRI level.
Befriending the most sought out form of psycho social support was obtained by 6831 persons in the three years time. This has resulted in arresting the suicide to the lowest one in the last ten year time. 19 .FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Flowering of coffee plants victims’ family were supported with income generation programme through the first and second phase. 38. Alternative bio-inputs were widely propagated. The consortium was invited as member in various platforms of government as the network emerged as the single consortium in the district addressing the root causes of the agrarian crisis. 494 farmers were brought in to the process of organic cultivation and certification. Networked with the government service providers such as NABARD. vegetables and plantain were promoted among the farmers especially among the tribals. The feasibility and sustainability of organic farming & sustainable agriculture could be facilitated and promoted as alternative in the present crisis. Recognition from the government by inviting for the policy level discussions of the Kerala State Organic Policy was yet another achievement. paddy.000 farmers and general community participated in various awareness sessions and familiarized the concepts and intervention strategies of the project. State Horticulture Mission for up scaling the organic farming concept. Food crops such as tubers.
FARM Wayanad 20 Participatory Action Research .
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 2 Participatory Action Research 21 .
Group Farming using organic inputs for establishing the successfulness of the productivity and to intensify the paddy cultivation in the region though System of Rice Intensification. poor. it is imperative to speak about these social groups in the community (women. marginal. Befriending programme is found to be successful in mitigating the stress. Therefore. and strengthening local capacity and options to act on those plans. and hopelessness of many victim persons and families. Karen. This led the Save Farmers Campaign to have a Farmers Participatory Action Research on the Sustainable Agricultural Measure propagated through the FARM project along with the validation of the various programmes offered to the community. tools and approaches. role of farmers participation in the discussions. do farming in the traditional ways and other interested farmers visiting the farm to learn organic farming can help developing sustainable agriculture livelihood. encouraging them to collect. FARM project has propagated the idea of Sustainable Agriculture. Pedagogy Participatory Research can be defined by different levels and types of local involvement of local stakeholders in and control over the research process. organize and analyze information relevant to their situation. 2. Scope and Relevance of the Study Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Project was launched in the year 2007 and is now in the third year of being with the farming community of Wayanad. process of decision making. different ethnic and social status group) with the objective of understanding the different social perspectives because there are a myriad of social issues in the agriculture regeneration. conflict resolution and other relevant group dynamics. Starting a model organic farm in which selected farmers. it needs to promote Nutrition Gardening among them. and in management of local resources. Participatory Research is thought to catalyze social change by increasing local awareness of problems and issues.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 2.2. The short term goal of mobilizing local people to solve immediate practical problem is intended to lead to long term shifts in power relations in favor of community and governments. men. in order to improve their ability to act on their own behalf. In order to make the tribes aware of the necessity of nutrition gardening to ensure food security. Given the fact that different social groups have different knowledge about agricultural management and different issues relate to that. Another reason may be for empowerment or social transformation to strengthen the local people’s capacity in decision making in research. The methods experimented are Nutrition Gardening to ensure household food security. Daniel Selener in his treatise. implementation. There have been demurs and doubts on the practicality of organic farming on the ground that the production would plummet and there will be another food crisis. The rationale for using Participatory Research is to encourage community participation in order to improve the usefulness of research to local people (McAllister. 2002). shock. mobilizing them to develop their own options and plans for dealing with problems. It also encompasses different methods. It was also decided to analyze the behaviour changes of the farmers towards the concept of sustainable agriculture in the light of socially relevant programmes offered through the Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures Project. 1999). it was suggested to be beneficial if the whole processes 22 .1. Participatory observation was also and important research method for recording the necessary qualitative information on individual or group dominations in the discussions. Action research builds on a cyclical process in four stages: planning. ‘Participatory Action Research and Social Change’ clearly explicates the raison de’etre of conducting the participatory action research to induce the change. trained in organic farming. Plethora of programmes categorized under several sectors was offered to ensure the regeneration of the pristine ecology of Wayanad and to address the agrarian crisis issues. monitoring and evaluation and finally reflection to adjust planning (Zuber Skerrit.
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign involved in befriending could be documented. preparation of case studies and field visits. participatory rural appraisals. project participants. are to be examined. Muttil. To analyze the cost benefit of IGPs and examine whether they are sustainable or not. government. whether they break even giving those engaged a normal profit. Hence a Participatory Action Research to analyze and document the FARM project was proposed. For the suicide victim families IGPs were provided and this PAR attempts to evaluate how far these Income Support has helped them to take Sustainable Agriculture in their homes. The process involved and the changes in their socioeconomic situation need to be documented through collecting information on the process. focus group discussions. Sources of Data Collection Primary data collection through questionnaires. Tribal clusters of Noolpuzha. interview schedules. The overall aim of the study is to analyze how far the concept of sustainable agriculture has been actualized by the recipient community. How far the IGPs have helped them to rebuild the livelihoods. civil society etc. Objectives of the Research To document the entire process with active participation of all stake-holders – community. Pozhuthana and Padinjarathara. Synopsis of the Participatory Action Research Title of the Research: Participatory Action Research on Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures as an intervention to agrarian crisis and farmers suicides in Wayanad. Secondary Data Collection through literature review. To evaluate the peoples owning up of the concepts of Sustainable Agriculture Measures delivered through the project as a tool for overcoming the Agrarian Crisis To facilitate technology transfer from lab to field through workshops and live demonstrations and to document its impacts. It would also be interesting to look into the linkages between befriending and livelihood rehabilitation. library visits. This includes the information on the situation before implementation and the changes happened due to the process of building awareness on Sustainable agriculture. Unit of the Study Farmers who are beneficiaries of the Facilitating 23 . other published and unpublished research reports about Wayanad and internet surfing Transect visits in the PAR area Process Documentation Reports about the project available at the Project Coordination Office 2. linking Community Based Organizations with the Panchayath Raj Institutions. helping the victim families through befriending. To promote nutrition gardening among 200 farmers and to validate its effectiveness towards Sustainable Agriculture. (Researcher visited around 30 institutions in Wayanad and Trivandrum as a part of the PAR in 2010 and collected significant data regarding sustainable agriculture promotion. An analysis of the factors that have contributed to the success or failure of the rehabilitation activities could provide insights regarding their replicability. supporting small farmers in sustainable agriculture promotion. Meenangadi.3. To disseminate the outcomes & learning’s of the researches and impacts among all the stakeholders especially among the farming community for owning up and replications Design of the Study Participatory Action Research incorporating predesigned and unstructured tools were been planned for the Study. Universe of the study Reference area of the Project consists of Vellamunda. and is sustainable etc. To make case studies of successful as well as failed cases of rehabilitation under FARM.
Sampling Strategy Random Sampling is been followed in the research programme Limitation Few units of Nutrition Gardens were attacked by wild animal as they were so close to the forests. sudden climate change issues. Yam. Local Self Government Department . Noolpuzha. attack of wild animals. Cashew. Vegetable cultivation is also an important step taken by the Panchayath but GP 2. Muttil. Chemical farming method of banana cultivation is on increase in the GP and this has necessitated the authorities to promote Organic farming. shift from food crops to cash crops. Agriculture is the main source of income for the people and the GP has taken keen interest in the revival of paddy cultivation. Vellamunda. Ginger. Coconut. Unprecedented rain affected the vegetable cultivation which was a component of the Nutrition Garden. The main agriculture based issues of the these Panchayaths are crop diseases. Turmeric. Meenangadi. Rubber. Banana Cardamom. price fall.76 445 16 4917 Total 492. Mango. Paddy.4 Profile of the Participatory Action Research Area Areas selected for the participatory Action Research were six Gram Panchayaths viz. Vanilla. Transfer of IGP beneficiaries of the FARM project also resulted in selecting alternative samples. Cocoa.64 133 17 5604 26184 13265 12919 10288 5179 5109 662 341 321 Pozhuthana Padinjarathara 68.5 556 21 7037 36415 18359 18056 5720 2821 2899 683 341 342 59. Coffee. Table 1: Details of the Target Panchayaths Index \ GP Area in Sq km Density of Population No of Wards No of Households Total Population Male Female Scheduled Tribes Male Female Schedule Castes Male Female 24 Vellamunda Meenangadi 65.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Agricultural Regeneration Measures Project of Wayanad were selected as the unit of the study.25 541 19 7220 32067 16176 15891 7094 3513 3581 1039 513 526 Muttil 46.7 253 13 3770 17458 8810 8648 3266 1594 1672 1199 590 609 55. Pozhuthana and Padinjarathara. extensive use of pesticides and chemicals.56 2597 105 36955 24823 168174 12318 12505 2647 1324 1323 1718 838 880 84463 83711 33577 16712 16865 6370 3155 3215 Source: District level Database. Arecanut. less water and soil conservation measures. Pineapple. Availability of respective officers of government institutions for interview also posed to be a time consuming activity. Vellamunda Gram Panchayath is a typical agricultural village coming under Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad District.71 669 19 8407 31227 15535 15692 4562 2281 2281 1069 532 537 Noolpuzha 196. These are basically agricultural villages with the major crops such as Pepper. poor fertility.. Tapioca.
Chemical farming method of banana cultivation is on increase in the GP and this has necessitated the authorities to promote Organic farming. Vegetable cultivation is also an important step taken by the Panchayath but GP shares boundaries with Thavinjal GP in the north. Edavaka GP in the east. 2034 are marginal agricultural labourers and the rest engaged in other non agricultural sectors. Panchayath shares boundary with Poothadi GP in the north. Majority of the people in the Panchayath depends 25 .727 workers are there in this GP. Of this 1964 are main cultivators. Agriculture is the main source of income for the people and the GP has taken keen interest in the revival of paddy cultivation. 2724 are main agricultural labourers.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Vellamunda Gram Panchayath is a typical agricultural village coming under Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad District. Sulthan Bathery GP in the east. Ambalavayal GP in the South and Muttil GP in the west. As per the statistics of the government a total of 12. Meenangadi Gram Panchayath is an agrarian village coming under the revenue village of Purkkadi and Krishnagiri. Padinjarathara GP in the South and Kozhikodu District in the west. 493 are marginal cultivators.
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in the east. A total of 8930 workers are there in this gram Panchayath. Thrikkaripatta GP in the South and Kalpetta Municipality in the west. Kottathara and Thariode GP in the east.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research on the agriculture for livelihood. 517 marginal agricultural labourers and the rest engaged in non agricultural sectors.503 agricultural workers. Animal Husbandry is another source of income in the GP. Vellamunda GP in the West and Kozhikodu district in the South. 2211 marginal agricultural labourers and the rest engaged in non agricultural sectors. Of this 211 are main cultivators. Kurichiyarmala and Suganthagiri are rich in biodiversity and most of the areas of this GP are tea and coffee estates. This GP holds the lowest number workers which come around 6813. In this Panchayath there are around 11. Panchayath has around 12 watersheds to conserve natural resources such as soil and water and to promote eco restoration. The tribal hamlets of the GP were selected for the participatory action research. Muttil Gram Panchayath is another agrarian village consisting of the revenue villages of Muttil North and Muttil South. Panchayath shares boundary with Kaniyambetta GP in the north. 2684 are main agricultural labourers. Padinjarathara Gram Panchayath is an agrarian village coming under the revenue villages of Padinjarathara and Kuppadithara. Tribal clusters of this GP were selected for the PAR. Vythiri GP in the South and Puthupady GP in the East. 207 marginal cultivators. Tamil Nadu and Nenmeni GP and Tamil Nadu in the south and Sulthan Bathery and Nenmeni GPs in the West. Pozhuthana Gram Panchayath is a special grade Gram Panchayath sharing boundary with Thariode GP in the north. Ambalavayal GP in the east. Of this 1935 are main cultivators. 409 marginal cultivators. Muthanaga forest comes under the GP and shares the boundary with the two states. 2101 marginal agricultural labourers and the rest engaged in non agricultural sectors. 334 are main agricultural labourers. Kuruvanthode. Of this 1189 are main cultivators. Of this 1291 are main cultivators. 26 . 1921 are main agricultural labourers. Of this 1746 are main cultivators. A total of 11220 workers are there in this forest clad Panchayath. 315 marginal cultivators. Kalpetta Municipality and Vengapally GP in the east. Gram Panchayath also has taken keen interest in the agriculture promotion and one of the notable steps taken is the survey of biodiversity. Panchayath has taken steps in promotion of organic farming by promoting the organic cultivation practices. 1659 are main agricultural labourers. Further the GP has also implemented steps in reducing the pesticide usage to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Noolpuzha Gram Panchayath is a Panchayath having most of the area protected as reserved forest. 1346 are main agricultural labourers. 263 marginal cultivators. 539 marginal cultivators.317 workers. Watershed programmes to ensure the irrigation to agricultural plots of the small farmer is been envisaged in the development plan of the Panchayath. In the north GP shares boundary with Karnataka. GP shares boundary with Vellamunda and Panamaram GP in the North. In this Panchayath there are around 13. 1438 marginal agricultural labourers and the rest engaged in non agricultural sectors. 2091 marginal agricultural labourers and the rest engaged in non agricultural sectors.
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 3 Analysis of the Secondary Data 27 .
tea. Some of its special features are (1) a highly fragmented and small size of holdings.1 Review of Literature The experience of Kerala during the past decade shows how and to what extent a traditional export-oriented agricultural sector in a small local economy can suffer due to trade liberalisation. (2) homestead farming with mixed crops yielding high income. (3) a larger area under commercial crops. farmers cultivating commercial crops have been affected by higher imports 28 Spices of Wayanad . etc. With a decline in exports. However. etc. stagnant production and productivity. A sad manifestation of the severity of the situation was the widespread suicides by farmers in the state (P D Jeromi 2005) Uniqueness of Kerala Agriculture Kerala’s agriculture sector is unique in several ways. and (6) higher indebtedness of farmers. is high. coupled with frequent droughts. coffee. tea. especially capital intensive perennial tree crops. Some of these features are now found to be the handicaps of the sector in the open trade environment that has emerged after the formation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). farm income declined drastically and increased the indebtedness of farmers. cashew. (5) credit2 and hired labour-intensive cultivation.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 3. was fairly profitable even without much improvement in productivity and value addition because of a protected internal market and prospects for exports. rise in imports and a consequent drop in prices. coffee. cashew. As Kerala’s economy was relatively closed until the mid-1990s. (4) export orientation of crops. trade liberalisation adversely affected the agricultural sector in Kerala because more than 80 per cent of the agricultural commodities/products produced in the state are dependent on domestic and/or international market situation [GoK 2003]. Export intensity of production of some of the crops like pepper. etc. such as spices. rubber. [Joseph and Joseph 2005] Impacts of Trade Liberalizations Unlike other states in the country. cardamom. spices. rubber. cultivation of commercial crops such as coconut. with the removal of quantitative restrictions (QRs) on imports and lowering of tariff levels.
Though around four years have been passed by now. including its share of Rs.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign and stiff competition for exports in the international market.65 Crore.93Crore were rescheduled under the Vidarbha package. the general suicide rate in Wayanad was higher than the state average and the HDI was one of the lowest.68. Official records show that 63.000 farmers committed suicide in the state [GoK 2006a]. Perhaps. there was a significant rise in imports of commodities like pepper. a sharp decline in prices. (ii) money spent for ad hoc schemes and subsidies went down the drain. in turn. Loans totaling Agricultural Suicides & Reasons The study conducted by KSSF shows that 30. What it shows is that the agricultural crisis undoubtedly is the major reason. small and marginal farmers. In general. the implementation of the package was uneven because many farmers refused to reschedule their loans at the original rate of interest. A study conducted by Shreyas show that nearly 58 per cent of the families of the deceased farmers did not receive any assistance from government. the financial position of the cultivators. 29 .000. etc. However. cardamom. The imports further increased following the free trade agreement (FTA). and (v) some of the relief measures were announced very late and implemented very slowly (hence people are calling the packages as “paper package”). but it is not the sole reason for taking this drastic step. Agricultural crisis was the reason for suicide in case of 38. are not able to compete with other commodity producing countries due to continued lower yields and high cost of cultivation as no restructuring programme has been undertaken to improve export competitiveness in the new trade environment. According to the study conducted by Jeromi P D.112. in particular.15 Crore to cooperative societies and banks. Their inability to repay these loans (liquidity) is considered as the proximate reason (trigger point) for committing suicide. farmers’ suicide was more in Wayanad which is concentrating more on cultivation of exportoriented commercial crops. Reasons for the lack of effectiveness of the schemes could be (i) lack of critical minimum effort in redressing the problem. loss from farming could be a trigger point for already depressed persons due to other sociological and psychological reasons. many farmers had private borrowings from friends and relatives. Wayanad and Palakkad districts. (iii) schemes of banks only postponed and increased the debt burden. The small and poor farmers who took loan from private money lenders and micro financing programmes were not considered for any relief schemes and thus the extreme poor never benefitted from any of such schemes. which produces and exports many of the commodities which are produced and exported from the state. As indicated earlier. Despite quick decisions on relief and waiver schemes. In the liberalized trade environment.9 per cent farmers who committed suicide. the problem worsened due to a deficiency in rainfall. Loan waiver schemes fail to address the agrarian crisis of poor farmers The debt waiver schemes have left behind inequities. Mohanakumar and Sharma (2006) reported that accumulation of debt beyond the repayment capacity during a few years was the immediate provocation for resorting to the extreme step of suicide.391 farm loans totaling Rs. tea. lower production and the consequent increase in debt burden of farmers. In the recent period. there is no abatement of the situation as measures taken so far have not been effective.81. In short. Besides this. the measures could not address the issue of debt burden of the farmers in its totality. During the last few years. the State government released Rs. (iv) some of the measures like watershed development programme may need years to fructify. which seems to have affected domestic prices of these crops in the state and. after the aggravation of the problem. there has been considerable delay in releasing assistance to the cooperative societies and banks for a variety of reasons. As a result. Under the Vidarbha package implemented in Kasaragod.7% of the farmer’s suicides was mainly due to economic reasons. Most farmers who committed suicide had landholdings below one acre and average loan liability was Rs 72. close to 2.
and more costly. Over time. Objectives of the 30 . forestry. a joint body of FAO/WHO is “a holistic food production management system. weeds. The total dependence of farmers for agriculture inputs started affecting their economies leading to desperation among the farming communities and ultimately to agrarian crisis. low input agriculture thus gained momentum. Another problem has developed with the use of pesticides. and the soil. dairy. are common to all forms of ‘industrial’ agriculture got exacerbated by the India low levels of environmental Definition of Organic Farming A wide quoted definition on Organic Farming as defined by Codex Alimentarius Commission. promoted by the Indian government as part of the technological package to compensate for the HYV’s lack of in-bred resistance to native insects. herbal plant cultivation. however.11 Crore related to cooperative loans to the extent of Rs. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs. Organic agriculture production is not limited to crop production alone but encompass animal husbandry. resulting in these very serious consequences. a system with the broad principle of live and let live came up which was recognized globally. These problems. More importantly. and fungus. poultry.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Rs. where possible. multiple-crop farming. As an alternative to make farming sustainable. 32. The farmers of Kerala as well as Wayanad are now convinced that the only way to overcome the crisis is to return to the traditional sustainable ways of cultivation without harming the ecosystem.7 Crore was allocated as production cost relief (5 per cent on all loans of Rs.000 paid without defaulting during the period 2006-2009). increasing poorer farmers’ vulnerability to increased oil prices. the government took over the entire commitment of loan waiver worth Rs. pesticide use has lead to resistance in the target species. Beginning in the early 1970’s research on the Green Revolution began to uncover significant ecological problems related to the technological ‘package’ of inputs required to maximize the yield of the new varieties. The Kerala State Organic Farming Policy The state government of Kerala has also seized of the importance of Organic Farming and realized the health hazards and un-sustainability of chemical farming as it clearly states its Biodiversity Action Plan that the State has to have organic farming policy to protect it rich biodiversity and thus sustain various livelihoods dependent on the precious resource. The State government has now demanded that these loans also be considered for relief under the package.14.36 Crore that were not rescheduled became ineligible for debt waiver or relief. Under the Special Package for Wayanad District. necessitating larger. biological and mechanical methods. provided little or no training in their use. These include the higher requirement for energy inputs to manufacture fertilizer and power tube wells. sources said. This is accomplished by using. Thus the organic farming system. piggery.000 each taken up to June 30. fisheries. resulting in hundreds of deaths in and thousands of disabilities in India In the Indian state’s haste to implement the Green Revolution. they present a substantial risk to the health of farmers who were (and are) often illiterate. reducing farmers’ profits and increasing damage to wildlife. regulation. agronomic. taking into account that region conditions require adapted systems.25. and unable to afford adequate safety equipment. the water. A sum of Rs. placed these invisible problems were in the background. bee keeping etc… Green Revolution and Agricultural Crisis The Indian government’s decision to embrace the ‘Green Revolution’ was an emergency response to a perceived crisis in food production caused by agricultural sector failures. as opposed to using synthetic materials. Realization of the need for Organic Farming Hundreds of farmers who had learnt the bitter lessons of ‘chemical farming’ and mono cropping practiced hitherto in the name of ‘scientific agriculture’ are making a come back to organic.25. applications of these chemicals. however. 2006 by farmers with up to one acre of farm land. to fulfill any specific function within the system”.
) which is based on locally adapted agro-diverse cropping Jackfruits collected for sale in organic shops 31 . building on the theory of neoendogenous development (Ray 1998). The concept.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign policy are 1) Make farming sustainable. 7) Ensure seed and food sovereignty. provides benefits for organic farmers as well as for the region. The mission is to convert Kerala into an organic state focusing on potential crops and areas in a phased and compact manner with the aim of converting a minimum 20% of the cultivable land into entirely organic every year and thus achieving the target in five years (Organic Farming Policy of Kerala State). Organic Farming and Rural Development Another well researched out by product of organic Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture can be defined as an integrated farming system (with crops. 8) Promote biodiversity based ecological farming. 9) Ensure quality control in organic inputs and agricultural produces. soil and food. 6) Prevent the use of agrochemicals and other hazardous material and ensure chemical free water. 3) Ensure soil and water productivity. farming is rural development. Researches carried out in Hungary regarding linking organic farming and territorial development found that Organic farming is supposed to contribute to rural development more than other forms of farming. 10) Enable human health promotion by providing safe agricultural products and commodities. For the organic sector the concept provides a possibility to reconnect production to a given territory and to focus on regional value chains as counterstrategy to the “conventionalization trap” (Kratochvil & Leitner 2005) which is progressing with the increasing demand for organic products by consumers and the globalisation of trade relations. trees. in particular due to the close ties between producers and consumers. For rural development the concept provides the possibility to sharpen the notion of sustainability by providing a concrete example (Schermer. remunerative and respectable. 2) Enhance natural soil fertility and productivity. 4) Ensure agricultural bio-security and food nutritional security. 5) Create and ensure domestic market for organic products controlled by the farmers. 2006). livestock etc.
Community Seed Banks. b. are other ways of achieving this. as per FAO (2007). Legume production. This is done by returning bio-mass to the soil. Organic agriculture improves food access by increasing productivity. based on local knowledge. cultural and conditions. without converting wild lands to agriculture and without using N-fertilizers would result in a global agricultural supply of 2640 to 4380 Kcal/person/day”. Locally adopted crop varieties especially in flood prone areas. intercropping systems with legume components. for soil productivity management. Organic yields on average are comparable to conventional yields although yields do decline initially when converting from high-input systems and almost double when converting from lowinput systems. This is reinforced by an FAO report (2007) which says that “conversion of global agriculture to organic management. Many of these practices are based on indigenous knowledge and focus on building soil biological productivity. Pest management also does not depend on chemical Strategies of Sustainable Farming a. Developing suitable farming systems integrating agriculture. System of Rice Intensification. making suitable selections adopting Participatory Plant Breeding and Participatory Varietal Selection. is economically viable. therefore. farmer’s bears out on the ground. Reduction in GHG emissions: Changes in farming models and practices towards sustainable agriculture offer a significant opportunity at reducing GHG emissions. does not harm the resource base. Organic farming reduces its fossil fuel dependence in many ways. crop rotation. Many climate and weather risk management strategies fit squarely into sustainable agriculture practices and can. Crop rotation. It can be said that sustainable agriculture does not imply lowered yields. as experience of successful 32 . be promoted with several of the programs and policies targeting environmentally responsible production. understood as agricultural production that: ensures adequacy of food production. Ecological farming practices which can maximize the local resource use. Sustainable intensification in developing countries through organic practices would increase production by 56 per cent. Multiple/mixed cropping.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research patterns and use of local resources (natural resources and natural processes). by raising incomes. The capacity of a farming system to adapt to changing climate and weather conditions is based on its natural resource endowment and associated economic. access to food will increase by livelihood improvement both for farmers and agricultural workers through organic farming. a feature that is common in developing countries. at the individual and community level too. improving employment and by reducing risks. A meta-analysis of 133 scientific papers concluded that organic agriculture was particularly competitive under lower yield environments. Organic farms use on an average 33 to 56 per cent less energy per hectare. For instance. Questions raised by Opponents of Organic Farming Food security: A question that is often posed with regard to sustainable agriculture or organic farming is whether it will be able to feed the growing population. The viability of these elements also constitutes the basis for sustainable agriculture. social. soil moisture management etc have already proven to be useful. skills and innovations. Improvement in rural livelihoods: While macro-level food production and availability levels are likely to increase through sustainable agriculture. strip cropping etc. Changes cropping patterns and cropping systems to suit the local resource and weather conditions.. Organic Soil Management. It has been recorded that shift to sustainable agriculture practices can reduce the outward migration from rural areas. horticulture and livestock. d. internal inputs and practices are used rather than chemical fertilizers – for instance. mixed cropping etc. and enhances quality of life. c. drought prone areas. Non Pesticidal Management. diversity and conservation of natural resources. there are bound to be improvements. As FAO notes again. creating the micro-climate required for increased soil (beneficial) microbial activity.
What the situation then requires are resilient and adaptive farming systems with the least amount of loss to the productive resources. If due regard is taken of the soil’s ecosystem and biodiversity it is possible to cultivate healthy plants or to put it another way. The organic idea comprises two key concepts: living soil and biodiversity. The better drainage and Water Holding Capacity (WHC) of organic soils reduces the risk of drought and soil erosion. In the industrial world the transition to organic farming can solve the problem of surpluses and most of agriculture’s environmental problems. notes a recent technical paper from International Trade Center (WTO). However. for instance. Diversity also plays a role in helping to maintain plants in a healthy condition. that plants cultivated on compost fertilized soil are less exposed to fungal infections than plants cultivated on artificially fertilized land. namely. organic farms will be better suited. for instance. top soil swarms with living organisms 3. It is the earth’s ecosystem that literally speaking forms the basis of organic agriculture. Creation of resilient systems leading to better adaptation: Extreme and unpredictable weather conditions are part of the reality of climate change even as temperature rise and changes in rainfall. Organic agriculture has matured sufficiently to be taken seriously by world leaders as an agricultural type capable of solving agriculture’s environmental problems without the risk of compromising food supply.. Traditional food practices Future of Organic Farming The environmental problems facing the agricultural industry cannot be solved by pesticide free zones in periphery areas or by improved spraying equipment. It is well documented. If the ecosystem is left intact with broad biodiversity it has the possibility of carrying out the mission designed for it by nature.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign pesticides but a variety of local resources and practices. If environmental degradation is to be avoided pollution must be stopped. Sustainable Agriculture initiatives in Kerala A series of parallel efforts are in place in Wayanad for the Sustainable Agriculture Development and FARM 33 .2. production and the farmer. from the common earthworm to bacteria and microscopic fungi. will also be the stark reality for farmers. This paper notes that soils under organic management retain significantly more rainwater thanks to the “sponge properties” of organic matter. changes in pest and disease incidence etc. Top soil is an ecosystem much like a forest. irregular rainfall events and rising temperatures. The basis of Organic Farming: Living soil & Healthy Plants Describing soil as “living” is probably foreign to most people. to supply plant life with necessary nourishment. Organic farming practices are in a good position to maintain productivity in the event of drought. plants that do not require “protection” from the chemical industry. To address extreme weather conditions. In the developing countries new research indicates the organic farming methods can help peasant farmers produce considerably more food.
documentation. basic standards. Agrarian crisis in Wayanad was a result of multiple reasons ranging from stagnant production. 5. Besides organizing demonstrations to educate and motivate prospective organic spice growers. increase in exports due to liberalization. sustainability. As per the study of KSSF reasons behind the suicide was several. principles. decline of farm income. livestock. Spice Board of India has taken a major initiative in promoting the production and export of organic spices in a big way. droughts. The Board encourages non-governmental organisations and farmers’ groups to promote and adopt organic farming techniques. curiosity about farming sector and lifestyle. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry. rural recreation and educational value of agritourism. The District Mental Health Programme under the aegis of National Rural Health Mission has allocated funds for free psychiatric care including drugs with technical support from Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (IMHANS) Kozhikode. is expected to emerge as a trend setter in Wayanad. Of India launched the National Programme on Organic Production (NPOP) under the Foreign Trade & Development Act (FTDA). The impact of trade liberalization had adverse effect on the farm economy of Wayanad as the produces of the Wayanad couldn’t compete with the imports at a time when they were going through lower yields and increasing cost of cultivation. Community Radio Mattoli has also linked with the FARM Project and is offering documentaries on the Sustainable Agriculture propagated through the FARM Project. Interpretations 1. the Board is simultaneously involved in training programmes to existing spice growers on organic principles and practices. The aims of the NPOP include the following: a) To provide the means of evaluation of certification programmes for organic agriculture and products as per approved criteria.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research project is expecting more convergence with these programmes. health consciousness of the urban population and finding solace with nature friendly means. interest in natural environment.9%. All the mainstream Medias are projecting the need for Organic farming and this has led to policy level discussions. poultry and fisheries which maintained high level of productivity. It features the organic concepts. nostalgia for the roots. cash crops. Economic reasons mounted to 30. 4. Media personnel’s are aware of the need for sustainable agriculture development in Wayanad and they are now actively participating in the likeminded efforts. stability. Wayanad had widespread homestead farming integrating trees. production guidelines. Hence it is expected that the Agri-Tourism. SHM. desire for peace and tranquility. an inexpensive gateway for tourists. The agricultural crisis that prevailed in this decade 34 . It can be noted that the root causes for the agricultural crisis started governments decision to Grow More Food through the Green Revolution promoting High Yielding Varieties (HYV) and Chemical farming 6. NABARD etc… (Details of these interventions are presented in the chapter 7. c) To facilitate certification of organic products in conformity to the National Standards for organic production and d) To encourage the development of organic farming and organic processing The District Tourism Promotion Council and Kerala Tourism have a vision on Responsible Tourism and have adopted Agri-Tourism as an emerging area in the district of Wayanad. Agri-Tourism has a great scope in Wayanad due to certain reasons such as . Spices Board India has prepared a document on production of organic spices.1). drop in prices etc… 2. 3. Govt. disillusionment with overcrowded places. Coffee Board also has taken some focused and well directed development of organic agriculture in the country. inspection and certification. strong demand for wholesome family oriented recreational activities.72% and another study conducted by P D Jeromi states that agricultural crisis alone contributed to the death of 38. food crops. b) To accredit certification programmes. Research programmes on organic cultivation of important spices have commenced. The major players are the Agriculture Department.
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Farm tourism – Learning the heart beats of agriculture of Wayanad has made the farmers of Wayanad to understand the need to take up the Sustainable Farming. Farmers of Wayanad are now very much aware of the difference between the conventional chemical farming and the traditional organic farmer as the former is high input cost involved high risk farming producing inorganic products which will ensure medium price harming the ecology and wellbeing of man. where as the later is low input cost involved low risk farming producing organic produces which will ensure premium prices and will not do anything harm to the ecology 7. 8. Organic Farming is found on the principle of live and let live and the basic pillars are living soil and health plants. 35 . There are proven researches that show the great relation between organic farming and rural development. Kerala State Organic Farming Policy is a welcome movement from the Kerala Government as it aims to convert the entire farmers into organic in a period of five years.
FARM Wayanad 36 Participatory Action Research .
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 4 Participatory Action Research on Sustainable Agriculture 37 .
the life expectancy has improved. the staple food of the region. Group Farms System of Rice Intensification. Nutrition Gardens. A fundamental concept of crop rotation is the effect of different crops on the land. Companion planting. vegetables and banana. Homestead Nutrition Gardens – A tool for Sustainable Agriculture Nutrition Gardening is fast becoming important in the agriculture sector of Kerala. The traditional agro-forestry systems composed mainly of home gardens. Backdrop Intensive chemical agriculture that has been followed after green revolution success is causing heavy pollution to food. the sequential planting of the crops is honed to a fine level of Nutrition Gardening. only the under-storey plants were replaced by crops. SFC Network is promoting organic farming as a major tool in the regeneration measures and has created three kinds of models. “Humusdepleting” and “humus-restoring” crops. Third model is the creation of the paddy fields which practices the System of Rice Intensification is to promote an alternative method of paddy cultivation focusing on organic farming ensuring high yields and low input costs. higher yield) is derived. FARM Project is on the march towards regeneration of the agriculture sector of Wayanad through up scaling Sustainable Agricultural Practices. air. Microbes facilitate decomposition of these green manures breaks down and humus buildup Crop rotation. the native tree composition of farmlands was largely left intact. Paddy. Promotion of the Farmers Rights 4.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 4. 38 . especially in Wayanad largely through the efforts of small groups of farmers. coffee and pepper. Farmers make use of organic practices for accumulation of soil nutrients. The first model creation is to ensure food safety and security of the households. along with many trees. It has come out of the exploitative agriculture that has been followed by all these years. The district of Wayanad is characterized by homestead farming at the subsistence level and smallholder plantations. Second one is the creation of Group Farming Models where the joint labours of the farmers have resulted in emergence of model farms practicing organic farming. 2. Paddy-based cropping systems involve paddy. 4. a specialized form of crop rotation commonly used in nutrition gardening.1. fertilizers. “soilexhausting” and “soil-restoring” crops.331 hectares. The rural economy is in ruins because of over-dependence of outside inputs in agriculture such as seed. The uplands adjoining the wetlands are characterized by homestead farming with tubers. companion planting increases biodiversity on the farm which leads to a more stable agro ecosystem. growth-promoting chemicals etc. nematode control. is cultivated on 11. drinking water. Promotion of the farmer’s rights was also adopted by the network as yet another tool for promotion of Sustainable Agriculture. entails the planned association of two or more plant species in close proximity so that some cultural benefit (pest control. nitrogen fixation etc… Green manure now receives special attention from farmers. consumer demand for organically produced food and fiber products provide new market opportunities for farmers and farmbusiness. are the most prevalent land use patterns. and “organic matter exhausting” and “organic matter restoring” crops should be planted in alternate seasons. Though a small percentage of farmers have taken up organic farming.2. 3. 1. It is even said that the chemical agriculture has destroyed our ability to think about the right way to go forward. pepper and ginger. In addition to beneficial associations. pesticides. resulting into damaging impacts on environment. Coffee-based cropping systems involving coffee. It is now well known that the increased use of chemical pesticides (rather abuse) and fertilizers have created a chain of problems. All the beneficiaries of the Income Generation Progamme started the Nutrition Gardening as it was a mandate criterion in selection of the beneficiaries. but the quality of life has substantially deteriorated. human and animal health. Fortunately. alternatives to chemical agriculture are available in Organic farming making use of Nutrition Gardening and Biodynamic farming.
Crop diversity in homesteads results in a range of output from a given area. Osteoporosis. maintaining high levels of productivity. and better taste are often cited. as in Wayanad. Pulses. colocasia. leafy vegetables are cultivated in the house premises and in the homestead gardens as intercrops. Consumer surveys have consistently identified food quality as the main reason for purchasing organic food. raise a combination of animals. It results in diseased plants/ crops that constantly require pesticides and antibiotics to survive. the farmers have their hut. The farmer’s are trained in preparation of bio-inputs and its systematic application systems in various crops. Higher nutrition value. “certified organic” is generally left to stand on its own as self-explanatory. 3. home gardens also provide large portions of staple foods. Major food and beverage corporations such as Reliance. Heart Disease. Motivations for the Nutrition Gardening Within the food industry. birds and fish and run their agribusiness enterprises (mostly managed by women). This has resulted in weak and sick plants having poor nutrition value. Home gardens constitute a dominant and promising land use system. Diabetes. fruits and spices from home gardens make up a significant part of the nutritional requirements of the household. Conservation of soil moisture is ensured through 39 . How can we replenish the nutrition contents? It is simple and the most cost effective technology of using the organic nutrients. Hypertension. End result is these harmful pesticides and chemicals are consumed by the man kind and we gets the pay back as Cancer. 7. More etc… have rapidly moved to acquire significant stake in both fresh and processed organic products. Tubers. Obesity and a plethora of chronic ailments. pumpkins. The problem can be corrected by inducing the soil conditions by changing over to Nutrition Gardening with out use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. slopes and hill tops). Colocasia. defining the benefits of organic food is largely left to word of mouth. the specific sales points of “organics” go largely unmentioned on product packaging and in mainstream media advertising. assisted only by general terms like “natural”. Seeds and planting materials are collected from organic sources. the nutrition in the soil has gone down tremendously. increasing self-sufficiency and reducing the economic risks associated with adverse climatic. and the promotional efforts of organic advocates. Within the homesteads. By contrast. Indigenous farming practitioners adopted in land preparation for the pest repellent measures. “no trans-fat” and other commonly advertised benefits.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Homesteads are hallmark of staggered settlement pattern in tribal hamlets and are the most valuable heritage that influences the unique living standards. media coverage. cultural identity and other socio-economic features. “whole grain”. Why do we need Nutrition Gardening? Due to over cultivation and the use of synthetic fertilizers. bitter guards. with “low fat”. as is the positive impact of organic production on the environment. biological and market impacts on particular crops. 5. all in marginal to small holdings. no toxic residues from pesticides. Diaspora. 2. Claims of improved food quality are regularly used in conventional food marketing. Steps in Nutrition Gardening 1. Home gardens play an important role in the food security of the region as they supply varied products throughout the seasons. matching in vegetable cultivation. stability. Bio-inputs are applied instead of chemical fertilizers and pesticides from seed treatment onwards. Yam is also cultivated organically. 6. All these are the results of the synthetic pesticides and chemicals that we intake on a daily basis. 4. “high fiber”. Still. vegetables. It is a kind of Aromatherapy in which the deficiencies of the depleted soil is corrected which in turn will result in good nutrient rich products capable of warding of pest attacks and disease ensuring high productivity. In densely populated or heavily degraded areas without sufficient staple crop fields. grow a variety of crops with dominance of perennials (corresponding to the valleys. Tapioca. sustainability and equitability. “vitamin enriched”. “low sodium”.
Most traditional medicinal plants are encountered in home gardens. Coli bacteria present. they are not cultivated. and bears the imprint of their choices. like coconut and sesame. primarily non-grain materials. Most of the income from a home garden is from marketable surplus derived from perennials such as fruit trees. Home gardens also fulfill ecological functions. and selection of crop varieties for nutrition and taste instead of size. Coli present in non-organic manure Organic proponents cite evidence that some chemicals used in conventional farming. A main goal of organic farming is minimizing impact to the environment. The exchange of home garden products and planting material is common in many traditional societies. Proponents of organic farming say that “conventional” 40 . While both methods rely on nitrates to provide nitrogen to the soil. appearance. Oils extracted from varied sources. and if large-scale chemical production methods are damaging to the environment. is manure from animals that eat mainly hay and other organic. And they spread the need for labour inputs more evenly seasonally. This is seen as a way to reduce the amount of E. Some of the points projected by the Farmers and Organic food advocates for the promotion of the Organic Nutrition Gardening. typically that of cattle. in most cases. The multi-layered vegetation structure of home gardens. including pesticides and herbicides. mimic hormones . Organic animal manure. Most cooking fuel requirements are met through twigs and other forms of litter collected from the home garden. the last refuge for species that are useful but not commercially viable for cultivation. organic foods might also have more flavor because organic farmers often breed with taste instead of marketability as the primary factor Every food purchase supports the system that delivers it. Income from a home garden could account for more than 50% of the total income of a household. This is primarily referred to regarding fresh food. and the fodder from home gardens fed to the cows would serve as the major mechanical energy source used in farming. organic agriculture gets the majority of its nitrates from manure and composting sources. and the feces of organically-raised cattle have only 1% of the E. offers a habitat to a diverse community of wild plants and animals.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Another important function of home gardens is the generation of a cash income. This structure appears to contribute substantially to the sustainability of home garden systems. These sources of nitrogen have a slower transfer of nitrogen to the soil spreading out the release of nitrogen over the growing season and helping to reduce the leeching of nitrates into water sources where they can cause health problems. Home gardens also meet a significant portion of the household’s energy requirements. Home gardens also help farmers by supplying raw materials (such as leaf compost) for agriculture. Farmers are able to utilize family labour as a part-time activity without requiring a change in occupation for the landholder. Organic food proponents express concern over the potential negative effects of various chemical cultivation methods and genetic modification techniques used in modern conventional agriculture. which resemble natural forests. they increase the value of output per unit of land through spatial or inter-temporal intercropping of trees and other species.usually estrogen . Moreover. The green leaves and cow dung from home gardens used to be a major source of chemical energy in the household. used to serve as the source of lighting fuel in traditional homesteads before the advent of electricity. and shipping characteristics are claimed to be reasons for higher nutrient density of organic foods. Farmers derive a variety of services and products from home gardens. The biodiversity of a home garden is the result of generations of conscious selection by farmers. thus reducing the effects of sharp peaks and troughs characteristic of tropical agriculture. Many claim that organic food tastes better. these components are. then purchasing these foods supports this damage. greater attention to quality. and maintain or increase site productivity through nutrient recycling and soil protection. Some plant species in home gardens are necessary for religious ceremonies. not being commercially viable. particularly in landscapes where large. monotonous and mono-functional agricultural fields dominate. Home gardens save agricultural lands from the degradation resulting from intensive agriculture. Increased soil quality. One of the major differences in the production of organically produced food from traditional techniques is its reliance on so-called natural methods of providing soil nutrients.when inside a person Some organic advocates claim that organic food is more nutritious.
For the Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures (FARM) ten tribal clusters were identified for the Nutrition Gardening. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected for the Participatory Action Research. crop rotation. and that despite technological advancements. The cultivation of monocultures. one being the trial plot in which the organic inputs were applied and the second was control plot where the chemical inputs were applied. Outcomes of the research findings of the FARM project were delivered at first to make them understand the need of the Nutrition Gardening. Initial grants were given for the procurement of seeds.2. In the Participatory Action Research the stake holders especially the farmers were channeled for the experimentation in the systematic manner. etc. Mundakolli and Kayalkunnu colony from Nenmeni Panchayath.) that ultimately require energy in the form of fossil fuels. many acres planted with the same crop year after year. Pesticide runoff also causes many problems Table 2: Distribution of Nutrition Gardening based on of tribal hamlets (n =200) Category Sugandhagiri Eddiyam vayal Palakkara Ellakolly Ponkuzhy Koloor Mundakolli Kayalkunnu Arikkalam Cheerapoyil Frequency 22 20 15 25 18 16 24 19 22 19 % 11 10 7. Ellakolly colony from Poothadi Panchayath. while eliminating most native flora and fauna. Many claim that without cheap fossil fuels and government subsidies. and other processes that eventually render the soil infertile. Farmer’s psychology is simple that they believe in the models rather than the routine awareness programmes and lectures. Ponkuzhy and Koloor colony from Noolpuzha Panchayath. this sometimes results in algal blooms which deplete the water of oxygen resulting in fish kills. increases susceptibility to pests and diseases and depletes the soil. there will eventually be an agricultural crisis as a result of depleted soil. In addition to posing a threat to human health and disrupting aquatic ecosystems. Action Research on Nutrition Gardening The two main objectives of this Participatory Action Research were the promotion and validation of Nutrition Gardening and System of Rice Intensification as tools for agricultural regeneration. Seeing is believing for farmers and these exposures framed the mindset to experiment their plots with NG. conventional agriculture would not be possible. and handholding support.5 9 8 12 9. and because the land is degraded through soil erosion. This enabled us to assess the variance in the farming process from each stage. machinery. which pollutes watersheds.5 12.5 4. morale. and integrated pest management to promote biodiversity and preserve the health of the soil while minimizing the risk of diseases. The highest number of nutrition farm developed was in the Table 3: Distribution of the beneficiaries of the Nutrition Garden on the basis of Cultivation (n =200) Category Homestead Farm SRI Frequency 190 10 % 95 5 41 . strip cropping. Then they were given trainings on the practice in the NG and provided exposure visits to the farmers practicing the same. Arikkalam and Cheerapoyil Panchayath from Padinjarathara GP. so organic farms seek to minimize dependence on outside resources and be self-sufficient. The main goal of organic farming is sustainability. Further the capacitated community facilitators walked with them in every point of the research and assisted with knowledge. salinization. because it relies on artificial inputs (synthetic fertilizers and other chemicals. Two types of plots were used. fallow periods. They were Sugandhagiri and Eddiyamvayal colony from Pozhuthana Gram Panchayath. In contrast. organic farming often utilizes intercropping.5 11 9. Palakkara colony from Panamaram Gram Panchayath.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign farming is unsustainable. mixed cropping. Modern agricultural practices often result in large amounts of nitrogen runoff from the heavy use of fertilizer.
and Padinjarathara depends on ecosystem services from forests and agricultural lands for their survival. A typical home garden represents an operational farm unit that integrates trees with field crops. marginal. timber. Oorali and Naika tribal were the reference population selected for the Nutrition Gardening Progamme. livestock. Tribal folk from the Sugandhagiri region had the most fertile land which was given by the government of Kerala as a part of their resettlement plan. Kurumar. The other tribes were not actively present in the reference area and they showed least interest in the promotion of the Nutrition Gardening. The tribes selected on the basis of random sampling for the Participatory Action Research consisted of the following. A total of sixty nutrition units belonged to the reference area of the PAR. Tribal farmers who implemented homestead farming units making use of organic nutrition inputs was 190. A large proportion of the tribal folk from the tribal clusters of Noolpuzha.5 15 23. 7 from Kurumar. Most of them had some sort of cultivation in their plots. and tend to grow multiple sets of crop on their farmlands mostly granted by the government giving title deeds. poultry and/ or fish. medicines and/ or ornamentals. Though the nature and mode of extractive dependence have changed over time. four from Kurumar and sixteen from Naika. fodder.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Table 4: Distribution of the Nutrition Gardens allotted to tribes (n =200) Category Paniya Kurichiya Kurumar Oorali Naika Frequency 84 32 7 30 47 % 42 16 3. 10 tribal farmers experimented the System of Rice Intensification in their plots (Table). Paniya tribe formed the majority as they were traditional agrarian labours. fruits. less agriculturally productive land where harvests are more vulnerable to deterioration of soil and water quality. fuel. people’s dependence on forests continues. Pozhuthana. Farmers maintain a spectacular variety of plants in their home gardens to meet their varied needs. Kurichiya. Table 5: For this Participatory Action Research the universe of the study was Sugandhagiri. Koloor and Cheerapoyil colonies. They inhabit marginal. 32 were from Kurichiya. with the basic objective of ensuring sustained availability of multiple products such as food. sixteen from Kurichiya. Those who had atleast five cents of land participated in the promotion of Nutrition Gardening and cultivated basic items required for the household food security in their premises. The two major programmes implemented for the Promotion of Nutrition Gardening were the Homestead Farming and System of Rice Intensification. vegetables. Paniya. Koloor and Arikkalam also were agrarian villages and the tribal folk had prior experience in the agriculture. Twenty four farmers were selected from Paniya tribe.5 Mundakolli Colony and the least number was developed in the Palakkara Colony (Table 2). 84 beneficiaries of he Nutrition Gardening were Paniya. Criteria behind selection of the thirty famers were mainly Distribution of the Nutrition Garden covered under the PAR (n = 60) Category Sugandhagiri Koloor Arikkalam 42 Frequency 22 16 22 % 37 26 37 . besides generating employment and cash income. 30 from Oorali and 47 from Naika. For the Participatory Action Research sixty units were visited and careful examination of thirty units is been carried out to analyse the results and outcomes of the Homestead Nutrition Gardening Programme. Criteria of the unit selection in the Research Most tribal farmers in Wayanad are small. 200 units were implemented in the entire project spread over 10 tribal clusters.
80 NG 6000 1000 250 0 7250 1875 Rs 16 CF 6000 1000 600 0 7650 1250 Rs 16 20000 2.000 15. Species of cultivation varied in different plots and the table hereafter referred as the Cost Benefit Analysis was tabulated by calculating the records kept by the farmers as well as in-depth field study conducted by the researcher.700 2.900 1900 Rs 10 NG Banana 800 15.400 14.35 1.600 CF 10000 7000 2330 400 2100 Rs 17 15970 1. Cost Benefit Analysis gives us the clear picture of the success of the Nutrition Gardening carried out in the selected tribal clusters of Wayanad.100 2.000 22350 12. banana.35 in the Nutrition Gardening as against the 3.750 Note: This table was prepared after consultations with the thirty tribal farmers who practiced Nutrition Gardening in the trial plot and chemical farming in the control plots 43 . Community Facilitators visited on a weekly basis and recorded the events happening in the Nutrition garden. The FARM team oriented the selected beneficiaries in the first phase itself about the relevance of the research being carried out.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign those who had more than one acre of land cultivating multiple crops and interested in developing trial and control plots of 25 cents each for a single crop. Five each farmers developed both trial and control plots on tapioca.600 2000 Rs 12 CF 200 4000 500 200 4.000 2.99 9.400 4.750 32.730 20. Farmers were trained to keep the note of the activities with support of the Community Facilitators as none of them had literacy. Hence all the families took part in the research actively.700 1900 Rs 22 41.450 2.100 35. Tapioca showed a cost benefit of 4. In all the cases the farmers got increased yield in Nutrition Gardening which earned them produces worth 2 quintal Cost Effectiveness and the comparison of the Nutrition Gardening (NG) and Chemical Farming (CF) in 25 cents Table 6: Cost Benefit Analysis of the Nutrition Gardening and Chemical farming based on the study in he PRA (n 5 Tapioca farmers + 5 banana farmers + 5 cow pea farmers + 5 ginger farmers + 10 yam farmers = 30 ) NF Crop Seed Cost Labour Fertilizers Cost Pesticides Cost Input Cost Productivity/kg Price /Kg Income Net Benefit CBA Additional Savings in N F 200 4000 400 0 4. They were persuaded to create one trial plot and another control plot to validate the effectiveness of the Nutrition inputs.300 1950 Rs 25 48.530 19. The following is the depiction of the results of the PAR carried out.61 Tapioca Cow pea Elephant Yam 18.24 NG 300 1800 400 100 2.88 39.73 NG Ginger 10000 6500 1930 100 2300 Rs 17 20.800 23.300 380 Rs 15 5.000 3. Research team provided concurrent monitoring in the farm and the FARM project team offered continuous accompaniment. cow pea and Elephant yam. The cost benefit study projected hereafter is the output of the close examination and field visits the PAR team made to the sites in the one year of the research.400 400 Rs 16 6.000 4. In the trial plot the farmers practiced Nutrition gardening and in the control plots they carried out the conventional chemical farming.000 19.570 2.000 400 100 16.11 4.700 30. Ten farmers developed both trial and control plot on Ginger.100 4.000 2500 400 18.400 1.350 CF 800 15.600 CF 300 1800 1100 500 3.13 10.67 1.88 in conventional farming.
Elephant yam production showed a cost benefit of 4. Demand of the organic cow pea was high in the markets where as the production was short against the demand.350 in Nutrition Gardening as the organic plantain got average price of Rs 25 per kilogram. While analyzing the table it can be said that the productivity in the Nutrition Gardening is considerably high and differs in the crops.4 quintal sourcing Rs 6.000. Considering all these aspects it can be coined very well that the productivity in the Nutrition Gardening is higher due to lower pest attacks.73 in conventional farming. In all the cases the farmers got increased yield in Nutrition Gardening which earned them produces worth 1.25 quintal sourcing Rs 20.61 in conventional farming.750 against the chemical farming having production worth 1.700.000 in Nutrition Gardening. 2.38 quintal sourcing Rs 5.87 quintal sourcing Rs 30. In all the cases the farmers got increased yield in Nutrition Gardening which earned them produces worth .1 quintal sourcing Rs 35. Food consumed from the Nutrition Home Garden improves the Nutrition status and ensures the food security of the family.13 in the Nutrition Gardening as against the 2.400 against the conventional farming having production worth . It can partially be a income generation activity for 44 Inauguration of Organic Produces Selling Shop .11 in the Nutrition Gardening as against the 1. In all the cases the farmers got increased yield in Nutrition Gardening which earned them produces worth 1. It was also noticed that the production cost also was very much less as against the chemical farming since the input cost in the form of fertilizers. Input cost also decreased considerably in the Nutrition Gardening.600 in Nutrition Gardening. Ginger fields showed a cost benefit of 2.000 in Nutrition Gardening.100 against the chemical farming having production worth 2.600 in Nutrition Gardening.80 in conventional farming. Banana showed a cost benefit of 2. Cow pea cultivation showed a cost benefit of 2. diseases as well as the nutrients provides good growth.95 quintal sourcing Rs 48. Results of the Nutrition induced Homestead Farming 1.67 in the Nutrition Gardening as against the1. In all the cases the farmers got increased yield in Nutrition Gardening which earned them produces worth 2.700. pesticides and in some cases even the labour also fall short against the other.9 quintal sourcing Rs 41.29 in the Nutrition Gardening as against the 2. Hence there is an additional income of Rs 10. Hence there is an additional income of Rs 4.000 against the chemical farming having production worth 1.24 in conventional farming.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research sourcing Rs 20. Prices also were fair for the products in the Nutrition Gardening as there was demand in the marketing outlets of SFC Network.000.3 quintal sourcing Rs 39.800.000 against the chemical farming having production worth 1.9 quintal sourcing Rs 19. Hence there is an additional income of Rs 1. Hence there is an additional income of Rs 1. Hence there is an additional income of Rs 9. In Elephant yam and Ginger the production was the highest as against the conventional form.
He cultivated Ginger. He was using chemical fertilizers and pesticides in his farm from the beginning of agriculture. Even where women play a primary role in homestead farming's. biological or market impacts on particular crops/products 12. 15. 17. goats. Higher income with increased stability. Turmeric. Pumpkin. bullocks. labor or capital. greater equity and improved standards of living 13. Increased self sufficiency and reduced risk to income from climatic. He failed to repay a bank loan which was taken for promoting plantain cultivation in his farm. Production from Homestead Nutrition Gardening sourced out higher value in the SFC Network organic markets as the demands for the organic production were high from the public. buffaloes. 4. Cost benefit analysis of the Chemical Farming and Nutrition Gardening shows that there are atleast one third increases in the production and two third decreases in the input cost such as seed and labour.cows. Nutrition induced Homestead farming is one strategy for addressing malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among tribal. Low capital requirements and labor costs . Increased fulfillment of social and cultural needs through sharing or exchange of produces and recreational opportunities 16. 10. Ash Gourd.suitable for resource poor and small-holder farming situation. Green Amaranths. Nutrition homestead gardening results in better utilization of resources. Bitter Gourd. He went for an integrated farm inside the coffee plantation which was specially designed for this purpose. He was also given an opportunity to visit model organic farm under the patronage of Save Farmers Campaign and it inspired him to turn into organic farming. Cluster Beans. By this time he happened to be a recipient of the organic farmers training programme facilitated by Jeevana under the FARM project. He suffered a great loss due to pest attacks in the banana cultivation and was in great turmoil in 2009. and timber requirements of the society. Quite apart from providing cash income and subsistence products to the growers. Another potential impact of homestead farming is land conservation. 9. 7. fodder. Lady's Finger. Elephant Yam.4. Case Study Analysis of Nutrition Farms Case 1 Krishnankutty aged fifty is a tribal farmer from Pozhuthana Gram Panchayath in Wayanad District and he is in the farming sector for the last 27 years. 5. fuel. There are potential environmental benefits from Homestead farming 4. greater efficiency of labor. He witnessed wide pest attacks and low productivity for the last five years and was really worried about continuing the agriculture. He was selected for the Promotion of Nutrition Gardening on experimental basis and he was willing to turn his one acre plot into an integrated organic farm making use of the organic bio-inputs. sheep. even distribution of labor inputs and more efficient management 11. Bottle Gourd. French Beans. He attended the organic bio input preparation class organized by the community facilitator of the FARM project and replicated the application in his one acre plot. He initiated the process in the last months of 2009 and in one year time he could develop a model integrated farm. it can be important to involve the entire family in projects to promote homestead farming. especially in tribal cultures where women have little contact with outsiders and may hesitate to become involved in projects without the approval of their husbands 6. besides creating capital stocks to meet intermittent costs or unforeseen contingencies 14. and birds such as chicken and ducks.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign the tribals with small holdings 3. Better use of underutilized land. Enhanced food/Nutrition security and ability to meet the food. Most homestead farming's support a variety of animals . homestead farming have a tremendous potential for rural employment generation among tribal 8. Ridged Luffa etc… He prepared the bio-inputs 45 .
spices and tubers worth Rs 10. The greenery is always enchanting.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research such as Amrithapani.000 in the coming season as he is very much confident about the rejuvenation created by Amrithapani and the pest control by aromatic flower Mari Gold. Amrithapani has helped in the remarkable growth of plants. Tonal Tonic. He gets visitors from nearby Panchayaths as his nutrition farm has acclaimed wide news coverage in the nearing Panchayaths. He Krishnan in his integrated farm Green organic vegetables harvested 46 . Thick growth of plants is another important matter to be noticed in the farm. He recollected the effects of the organic inputs he has applied. Organic NPK solution etc… and planted Marigold inside the plot as a biological fencing to the farmland. Attack of pests and insects at the time of flowering has compromised the productivity earlier in farm and such a situation is absent in the Nutrition Gardening method. Krishnan was selected as a model famer in the year 2010 by the Agricultural Office and was awarded Rs 5000. Earlier there were presence of pests and insects in the farm and now there is complete absence of such intruders and hence the attacks are negligible. He could start the harvest with in two month of planting and there is steady supply of vegetables and legumes from the plot. They are. He has the determination that he will produce vegetables. Fish Tonic. The following photographical representations of the Nutrition farm of Krishnan will give more validations for Organic Nutrition Gardening He has already initiated steps to launch organic farming in paddy cultivation and banana cultivation in large scale. Demand from the locality itself is high and the supply falls short to demand. Fish Tonic has dual effect of herbal fertilizer and pesticide etc… He has recorded the remarkable differences that have been visible in the farm for the last one year.
he had to invest a lot of money for the control and has to abandon some portion of the yields. But the production reduced against the chemical farming and he was about to get back to conventional farming. In one plot he cultivated ginger by providing Organic nutrition and another plot by Chemical farming. Colocasia. He practiced conventional farming for years and shifted over to organic farming in the year 2008. In the homestead farming he also experimented the cultivation of vegetables such as leafy vegetables.06 kg of ginger. In the organic plot there were low pest attacks and the sapling had thick growth. He had decided to convert his entire farming into Nutrition induced organic farming and has emerged as a model farmer in the entire Padinjarathara Panchayath. Organic NPK. He got 92. In order to validate the impacts of him Nutrition Gardening he developed two plots. Fish tonic. Disease such as yellowing and decaying affected the chemical farming plot. Tubers. He cultivated ginger in five cent of land of which both plots were of 2. He provided chemical fertilizers such as 18:18. a Kurichiya farmer from Muttil Gram Panchayath was practicing Conventional Organic farming till he attended the Organic Input preparation training offered by the FARM project. pesticides. Complex and NPK to the chemical farming plot and provided organic nutrients such as Amrithapani. Case 2 Santosh a young farmer from Padinjarathara Gram Panchayath had a model homestead farming in his conducive for the organic farm. Ladies Finger. Being attracted to the Nutrition Gardening he decided to convert his one and a half acre of land into nutrition 47 .5 cents.07 kg of organic ginger from the trial plot and from the chemical plot he got only 67. While the chemical plot suffered several diseases from time to time. He was practicing organic farming for three years but never adopted any additional nutrition other than cow dung. At this time he attended the training on Nutrition Gardening provided by FARM project and decided to experiment the same in his field. The result was Santhosh Kudukkattu. He cultivated Ginger. Tapioca and Rice. He is getting visitors on a daily basis and he has emerged as trainer on the input preparations. He experimented crop rotation prior to the nutrition farm experimentation and this turned to be successful. Bone powder. It was noticed that the production was higher in the organic plot and the input cost for the organic plot was considerably less than the chemical plot.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign adds that now there is an aroma of agriculture in the farm and it has a magical touch of keeping rejuvenated while at work. Cow pea etc… He had proved that the pest attacks and diseases in the Nutrition Gardening was very low and the input cost in the form of fertilizers. Organic Pest repellents etc… to the organic plot. labour and seeds were also very low in the organic farming process. Case 3 Santhosh showing the growth of the Ginger cultivation practicing Nutrition Gardening house premise.
Where as in the conventional plot he applied cow dung only and the input cost was very low. He plotted 25 cents into conventional organic and the remaining 25 cents as trial plot for Nutrition Gardening. In the Nutrition Gardening he spent around Rs 1600 as labour and preparation of organic inputs. He got around 150 kg of Colocasia which fetched a price of Rs 3600. He was cultivating tubers. He got around 1900 kilogram of produce from the Nutrition induced farming model where as in the conventional plot the productivity was only two third of the production in the Nutrition Gardening. His land was a fertile land nearing river bed having sufficient irrigation facility.5 Kg raised through onventional farming 48 . 600 kilogram of Ginger fetching around Rs 8000. ginger etc… through conventional farming method. Elephant Yam. He cultivated around 750 units of Elephant Yam in fifty cents of land. He converted the entire plot into organic farming. 300 Kilogram of Tapioca fetched Rs 3000. As there were low pest attacks in both the plots he didn't have to apply any kind of pesticides.000. He could also produce 100 kilogram of cow pea from his nutrition induced homestead farming which was sold at a price of Rs 2. He cultivated the same products but applied the first step of Nutrition Gardening the crop rotation. tapioca. cow pea. Santhosh with Elephant Yam weighing 7. He raised one control plot and another trial plot of Elephant Yam in twenty five cents of land to validate the effectiveness of the Nutrition Gardening as suggested by the FARM project.5 kg raised through Organic Farming using Amrithapani & Fish Tonic Elephant Yam weighing 2.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research induced organic farming. In six months time both the plots were ready for harvesting. This was a record earning for him and he is planning to take land for lease and to increase his cultivation in Nutrition induced organic farming in the next season. He spent around Rs 6000 for the seeds.
the profit multiplies to 1. and developing eco friendly pest and disease management practices.000. The concept of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) focuses on managing the soil. thimate etc. water. plants and nutrients in a balanced relationship. However the full testing of the system did not occur until some years later. reducing labour costs. Women used to get substantial labour opportunities in rice (27 person-days per acre per season).000 labor-days per season.000. Due to the conversion to banana. The conversion of paddy fields to banana fields has resulted in many ecological and social problems. We have experimented SRI in ten plots in the three Gram Panchayaths selected for the PAR. System of Rice Intensification as tool for Sustainable Agriculture Regeneration The System of Rice Intensification. System of Rice Intensification was selected by few farmers only as they need models to get convinced. at the cost of depleting ground water and loss of local biodiversity due to the intensive application of toxic pesticides like carbofuran (forate). Technological intervention. The SRI method can increase the Table 7: Distribution of the units of System of Rice Intensification in the PAR (n = 10) Category Paniya Kurichiya Kurumar Naika Frequency 3 3 2 2 % 30 30 20 20 49 .30 per kg. method was developed in Madagascar Island by the farmers and NGOs under the leadership French Jesuit Father Henri de Laulanie in Madagascar. While the profit from one acre of rice per season is Rs. However ten industrious farmers took the risk and developed model plots for System of Rice Intensification. When the banana price hits its peak.000 hectares) and areca nut and other non-farm activities. enabling maximum growth of rice plants. like Rs. Action Research on System of Rice Intensification Wayanad once had nearly 40. banana from the same area will give a profit of Rs. 50.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 4. two by Kurumar and two plots by Naika. it could be estimated that women lost nearly 150.000 hectares of paddy cultivation. Today. This should focus on increasing productivity. But these huge profits are earned by destroying the natural ecosystem. three by Kurichiya. innovations and support services are prerequisite to bring back our rice cultivation. The remaining area is occupied by banana (12. Farmers gave up rice cultivation because of its low profitability due to high labour costs as well as low level of productivity. 00.000 hectares.5. The System of Rice Intensification as mentioned above has proved to be a technical intervention with the potential to revive the rice cultivation in Wayanad. Three plots were developed by the Paniya tribal family. 5000 to 7000. rice is cultivated only in 17.
FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research production of paddy per hectare by using only 5% the usual seeds. Cambodia. Vietnam. non chemical weed management herbicides and insecticides Continuous irrigation 2t/acre moist conditions. 50% of usual water. was discovered serendipitously. compost made from any decomposed biomass turned out to give even better results than chemical fertilizer. de Laulanie's observation of 'positive-deviant' farmer practices. Planting with wider spacing in a square pattern. In 1983. Sri Lanka and China Assembly of the practices that culminated in SRI began in the 1960s based on Fr. SRI Methodology The SRI method transplants double plants in hills at a distance of 25x25 or 30 x 30 cm. This causes trauma to the young plant as its roots take 12 to 14 FARM Volunteers demonstrating the cultivation of SRI Comparison of SRI against Conventional Practices (acre) Conventional Method Seed Input Transplanting of seedlings Number of hills/ m2 Number of seedlings/hill Fertilization 25 kg/acre after 25-35 days about 30 – 40 hills 4 or more SRI Method 2 kg/acre after 8 – 12 days about 16 hills (with a spacing of 25 cm between the hills) two application of chemical application of organic fertilization. The uniqueness of this method is that the transplanting is being done between 7th and 9th day after sprouting of the seeds. pesticides. rather than randomly or in rows. and 80% of labour. 50% of manuring. when fertilizer prices increased. fertilizers. and often 5 to 10 plants in one clump (hill). Subsequently. less than 15 days old. SRI concepts and practices continue to evolve as they are being adapted to rainTable 8: fed (un-irrigated) conditions and with transplanting being superseded by direct-seeding sometimes. It is currently being adopted in 25 countries in the world including India. starting with planting single seedlings instead of multiple seedlings in a clump. no submergence 3t/acre Water Management Productivity 50 . as did controlling weed growth by use of a soil-aerating push-weeder (rotating hoe). The current practice is to transplant after 4 to 8 weeks. and not keeping irrigated paddy fields flooded during the rice plants' vegetative growth stage. the beneficial effect of transplanting very young seedlings. followed.
The major varieties cultivated through this experiment were Uma. On the other hand. Steps in practicing SRI 1. 6. Input cost decreased from 14. resulting in lower nutrient uptake from different zones. 10. 3. Needs 50% more man days for transplanting and weeding.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign days to reestablish themselves after transplanting. Sabari and IR 8. 5. But the weeding cost is higher as additional weeding is required in SRI.550 30 q 36. roots of the plant cannot grow widely and deeply.860 51 4000 240 1800 2000 300 2800 11. while Table 9: Cost Benefit Analysis of SRI (Productivity in one Acre) Particulars Ploughing Seed Transplanting Weeding Fertilizers Harvesting & Thrashing Total Yield Gross Income @ Rs 1200 per q Net Income Conventional Input Cost 4000 900 3750 1500 1500 2800 14450 Yield and Income 20 q 24.000. total expenses with SRI show decreases (5 to 13%) compared to conventional methods. 2. The following table gives the differences between the conventional and the SRI. This could be reduced in the coming years with effective water management as well as adopting small weeding machines. The total income per acre from SRI plots varies from Rs. 3. 25. Kanchana.450 to 11. Thirty farmers participated in the experiments and conducted a total of trials using various seeds.30. This analysis shows that SRI can be very well propagated in the district. 7.000 to Rs. 4. 4. 11. The profit with SRI methods increased from 50 % to 75% in different plots compared to the conventional plots. 2. Adukkan. 8. Income and Expenditure Analysis Yield has increased up to 55 % to 70% in the SRI plots. In the conventional way of dense planting (50 to 60 clumps in a square meter). Preparing the Nursery Selection of the seeds Growing seedlings in a miniature plot Field Preparations Taking seedlings from Nursery Transplanting the seedlings Water controlling Weeding Pest and Disease Control Measures Management after flowering Harvest that in conventional plot varies from Rs. Results of the SRI done by the Tribal Farmers 1.000 24. Tiller production showed up to 256 % increase in different varieties. 9. 20.150 per acre.140 SRI . which puts in their family labour.000 per acre. It offers an alternative to resource poor. 000 to 36.000 9. Productivity per acre in crops increased from 20 quintals to 30 quintals in the Nutrition Gardening. and rice farming could also be rejuvenated.
non lodging.6. He was practicing conventional rice farming from mid nineties. Reduced duration (by 10 days) 12. Higher weed management costs 15. 9. Less water requirement. Cold tolerance. Soil health improves through biological activity. More resistance to pest and diseases has been found in SRI method. Profuse and strong tillers . 30 tillers per plant are fairly easy to achieve and 50 tillers pen plant are quite attainable. Input cost increased significantly and cost of production became unbearable for them. Less vulnerable to heavy rainfall and strong wind. 10. View of tillers in SRI plot when water was provided ——— SRI field ready for harvest 52 . Rice cultivation was a part of their lifestyle as well as their livelihood. They considered rice cultivation as a divine activity and the rice farming was an inherited high valued ritual for the Kattunayka tribes. Chemical Fertilizers. Case Studies of the SRI Farmers Case 1 Kattunayka Colony of Noolpuzha becomes self sufficient in rice production Velukkan from Kattunayka Colony was a small scale rice farmer belonging to the Noolpuzha Gram Panchayath.Both grain and straw 11. weed management etc… became too costly and the entire colony lost the interest in farming. Gradually they moved on to other sectors leaving the paddy field uncultivated. Grain weight increased without change in grain size. SRI plants were found to be better prepared to survive short periods of water stress associated with water shortages. Higher head rice recovery. 17. 4. They practiced rice cultivation not with an intention of making huge profit but for the food security of the colony. Higher yields .FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 5. 13. Less chaffy grain 14. Through the deeper root systems. More and well filled spikelet's and higher grain weight 7. Less expenditure giving more yields 16. Resists insects because it allows rice to grow naturally 8. SRI requires only about half as much water as normally applied in irrigated rice. big panicle 6. Large root volume. But in the early years of this decade things had undergone drastic changes.
Project Manager and Community Facilitator visited the hamlet and provided elaborate training on SRI. Fish Tonic etc… in those fields. They had around five acres System of Rice Intensification Nursery Team behind the SRI experimentation in Arikkalam Colony 53 . Together they arranged two and a half acre of land and planted the traditional variety named Adukkan. Being one of the traditional farming families in Wayanad this family was selected for the experimentation of System of Rice Intensification. They raised the seedlings in the conventional nurseries and cultivated the traditional variety through SRI. They provided organic nutrients and fertilizers such as Amrithapani. The tribal family became interested to shift to SRI and they prepared one acre Chandu the Karanavar (Head) of Arikkalam Colony in Padinjarathara Panchayath has emerged as a model farmer in Wayanad regarding the System of Rice Intensification. They noticed it that they could manage most of the pest through the water management. they practiced agriculture for their requirement and they used to sell the surplus production in the market. Case 2 Arikkalam colony emerges as a model SRI plot in entire Wayanad of land and they practiced mixed cropping. Being a joint family. The group members and their family members worked hard in the paddy fields. They practiced traditional agriculture from time since they started inhabitation in Arikkalam hamlet. They belong to Kurichiya clang of the tribes and their family is the biggest joint family among the tribals of Wayanad with a total membership of seventy. It required more intensive weed management in the System of Rice Intensification method as the fields were not kept flooded. the NGO working in the Panchayath identified the Kattunayka Colony of Keloor and provided capacitation to retrieve the paddy cultivation experimenting System of Rice Intensification.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign In 2009. A ten member team under the leadership of Velukkan joined this endeavor and prepared the field for cultivation of rice. They had paddy fields around one hectare and they practiced conventional farming till 2009. Community Facilitator from Shreyas.
In order to maintain the required moisture level uniformly they carefully leveled and raked the land. He divided his land into two portions and cultivated paddy in conventional method in 10 cents and practiced System of Rice Intensification in the other 10 cent of land. Drainage also was corrected as per the specifications. Now the name itself signifies the tradition of the hamlet as Arikkalam in Malayalam means treasure of rice. Water application was intermittent leaving plant roots with sufficiency of water not surfeit of water. Coconut Tonic etc… They kept the roots moist but not submerged. Fish tonic. Profitably being a key factor in attracting the farmers towards the new experiments has resulted in decision from the almost all farmers in the Arikkalam Colony to shift to the SRI method from the next cultivation onwards. They applied the organic inputs such as Amritapani. The seedling was transplanted singly with their roots intact. The production from the 1 acre of land was 1200 kilogram as against the 850 kilogram they produced through the conventional farming method. Through out the experimentation more than hundred tribal and general farmers has visited the Arikkalam colony to know more about the SRI method and the tribal head himself has emerged as a local trainer for the farmers. Case 3 Sasi's scientific vigor makes fellow farmers to practice SRI Sasi belonging to Sugandhagiri Colony of Pozhuthana Gram Panchayath was a tribal farmer with two acre of land of which 20 cent was paddy fields. Jeevamridham. He used Jaya variety of rice for cultivation in the two fields. They sowed the seeds into nursery beds as in the conventional rice cultivation. This encouraged more extensive. They cleared the weeds manually in intervals of 12 days. They prepared the nursery bed close to the main field to reduce the time and cost in replanting. Neem Pesticide. The rice was ready for harvest in 125 days time. health root systems which supported water and nutrient uptake and avoided degeneration of roots. In 2010 he attended a capacitation programme provided by FARM project on System of Rice Intensification and decided to shift into the same. while the seed sac was still attached.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research of land. At the 15th day of sowing they transplanted the seedlings with two leafs as against the conventional method where they kept in the nursery for 25 days. He 54 SRI in the 45th day of planting SRI in the 60th day of planting . He practiced conventional farming till 2009. They had kept farm book regarding the expenses incurred in the cultivation and the comprehensive analysis of the data on yields and inputs indicates that shifting to SRI raised profitability and income from production. He belonged to Paniya tribe and is an ardent lover of agriculture. Organic NPK. They planted it at a distance of 25 centimeter each.
the same people who had criticized started closely observing the growth of paddy in his field. lesser cost in inputs and remarkable production. Promotion of Farmers Rights Save Farmer's Network has networked with several campaigns to protect the farmer's rights. as SRI required less seeds. Reduction in the required seeds to the tune of 1/10th of the quantity. On an average there were 40 tillers with more grains per panicle. According to Sasi the benefits of SRI can said as simple technology. the yield was doubled in the same piece of his land by reducing the inputs used. There was reduction in pest and disease incidence in SRI Field. The network was an active participant of the Anti GM Campaign carried out in Kerala. the use of Aluminum trays is found ideal for transporting seedlings. A series of awareness campaigns and protest marches were organized in the district. With SRI. nursery. Interpretations of the Nutrition Gardening experimentation in Tribal Clusters Some of the results of the Nutrition Gardening experimentation as a part of the Participatory Action Research can be put in general as 1. which helped in the management of leaf folders. Soil texture and quality is improved and life is Organic tubers and vegetable selling units 55 . good aeration. was used to carry seedlings from the nursery to the main field. Further the partner's organized similar campaigns in their operational areas attracted the attention of the various government agencies. every one termed it as a foolish decision to do this suicidal act of planting young seedlings so early. fungal and bacterial diseases were controlled. . Pseudomonas. which is almost double than the conventional system. 1/10th of the area earlier required for nursery is only required. Aluminum tray. less nursery area and enough spacing between plants for the spraying. After the planting. which was used for rubber latex setting. SRI Fields gave yields of 115 Kg from 10 cent. it was relatively less in his SRI Field. less water requirement. 4.7. Application of Pseudomonas was practically easier to adopt. Weeding was done manually and this helped in turning up of the soil and reduced the time taken for weeding. 4. SFC network was an active facilitator of the Kisan Swaraj Yathra (Farmers Freedom Travel) a nation wide protest march organized to bring attention of the government and the general public towards the right of the farmers. was used while seed treatment. an effective bio control agent. transporting and planting. As rubber is grown in most of Kerala. After 1-2 months. Because of this. Similarly.8.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign practiced all the practices under the SRI method With regard to pest incidence. and in the field also. The spacing between plants provided enough space for monitoring. The decision to shift to SRI cultivation created lot of uproar among other paddy farmers of his area. Constant support and supervision from the staff of FARM Project helped him to overcome the criticisms faced in the beginning. Planting of young seedlings in wider spacing did reduce the drudgery involved in uplifting the seedlings.
. Productivity in the SRI is one fold higher than the conventional farming.. 4.67 as against the cost benefit of 1. 7. Continuous enhancement of soil fertility is carried out in Nutrition Homestead Gardening. The indebtedness of farming community is drastically reduced. 5. Seed cost is reduced to 90%. In Nutrition induced Banana cultivation the benefit against the cost is 2. This was achieved only because of the health saplings.550 in the conventional chemical farming.88 in the chemical farming. as the natural farming helps the farmer to get relieved from the clutches of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.99 as against the cost benefit of 2. In Nutrition induced yam cultivation the benefit against the cost is 4.24 in the chemical farming. 56 . Nutrition Gardening has a lot of potential and most of the practices remain un unexplored. Experimentation of the Nutrition Gardening and Conventional Chemical farming shows a great difference in the cost benefits.73 in the chemical farming. As the labour cost. In Nutrition induced Cow pea cultivation 10. 15.13 as against the cost benefit of 2. Low pest attacks in the SRI method resulting in low dependence of bio-pesticides. 17. 12. 16. Food quality and productivity shows that the crops are best than the crops produced through chemical farming. Farmers are now aware about their rights and hence they are actively engaged in dialogues with the government for ensuring their right to live. the farmer's families are able to consume diversified food and thus malnutrition problem is also addressed thus resulting in farmers embracing the Nutrition Gardening. In SRI the input cost is very low as compared to the conventional farming. In Nutrition induced Ginger cultivation the benefit against the cost is 2. brought back to the soil. Diversified farming helps the farmer receive continuous farm income around the year. In Nutrition induced Tapioca cultivation the benefit against the cost is 4.11 as against the cost benefit of 1. 9.80 in the chemical farming. the farmers are relieved from higher cultivation cost. 11.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 2. rain etc. PRIs also is now aware of the increase in production of the SRI and this has resulted in PRI offering promotional grants to Women Self Help Groups for cultivating paddy in land as well as paddy fields. seed rate and input cost are considerably reduced by techniques like SRI method of cultivation. Per capita yield increased by 20 to 30 per cent within a short span of time. Pesticide residue free food products are produced through this method. Farmers are educated to utilize neighborhood resources effectively and it was found that this was found to be an agribusiness venture run by women. Hence it is clear that the Organic Nutrition programme is a grand success in the cost benefit terms. In this mixed farming. Nutrition Gardening increases the earning of the farmer against the chemical farming in which a considerable portion is spending on chemical pesticides and fertilizers. 13. Water usage is minimized to more than 20% when compared to normal consumption. 8. 14.860 as against the Rs 9. cold. 6. SRI method has more resistance to the climatic conditions such as wind.35 as against the cost benefit of 3. Tribal farmers became very much interested in the SRI method and this has resulted in the several replications. the benefit against the cost is 2. Net Income from SRI method in an acre is Rs 24.61 in the chemical farming. 3.
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 5 Participatory Rural Appraisal 57 .
Appraisal of Farmers Groups Participatory Rural Appraisal's of the Farmers' Group formed under the Save Farmers Campaign Network was conducted to analyze the trends and situations before the implementation of the project and the impacts and outcomes towards achieving sustainable agricultural measures after the implementation of the project. Owning up of the Sustainable Agriculture initiatives were Historical Timeline. Income and Expenditure Pattern. Economic situation analysis was offered to analyze the differences the farming community had in the due course and how this has contributed to the agrarian crisis. how far the concept of Sustainable Agriculture has been taken up by the recipient community.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 5. Half of the participants of the PRA were the beneficiaries of the Nutrition Gardening programme and the rest were members of the Organic Farmers Group formed under the patronship of SFC. Six NGOs responding to the reference areas supported the PRAs.5%) No of Females 3 17 6 0 6 2 34 (35. Participatory Rural Appraisals focused on the collection of process and outcome of the FARM intervention and validated that.4%) Total 16 17 18 14 18 13 96 (100%) . A total of six PRAs were carried out in the six reference areas. Tools used for the assessment Historical timeline attempted to map the changes in the agricultural practices in the two decades and validated how far it has affected or contributed to the agricultural crisis. The tools used to analyze the Table 10 : Organic Farming Historical Time Line Daily routine analysis Seasonal calendar Economic situation analysis Relative quantity of Participation in the PAR study activities in the FARM Project Sl No Types of PRA – PAR Place Participation by Gender No of Males 1 2 3 4 5 6 58 PRA of the Organic Farmers Group PRA of the Organic Women Farmers Group PRA of the Farmers group PRA of the Nutrition Gardening Farmers PRA of the Nutrition Group Farmers PRA of the Organic Farmers Total Participants Padinjarathara Meenangadi Muttil Pozhuthana Noolpuzha Vellamunda 13 0 12 14 12 11 62 (64. All of them are having small or marginal landholdings and practiced leased farming for cultivating perennial crop cultivation. Seasonal calendar attempted to grab information from the farmers regarding the changes in Profile of the Participants and PRA Methodology They are mainly depending on agriculture for their livelihood together.1. Further the exercise also made an attempt to document on the present scenario about Sustainable Agricultural practices being taken up by the farmers. Seasonal Calendar and Daily Routine Analysis. Three PRAs were conducted among the general community and another three in the tribal clusters.
Changes in the agriculture practices (Historical Timeline) Team applied tools for mapping the changes by Historical Time Line and the respondents tried their best to gather information related to the changes in agriculture practices over a period of time. There was a good system of homestead farming that included rearing of livestock and using bio materials for cultivation during the 1990-2000 periods whereas it has changed and very few farmers having livestock practicing organic cultivation. Daily routine analysis was to study a gender division of work among the farming community. The team assessed the changes occurred during 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. It caused to exorbitant use of chemical fertilizers which adversely affected the human as well as the soil. The process of participatory learning exercise at the field reveled the changes happened over a period of time with related to the farming practices.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign the agriculture and the ways to adapt to the climate change. 2. Women in mapping of Seasonal Calendar 59 . It revealed that over a period of 20 years there are considerable changes had been taken place in the farming practices in the particular area and following are the major finding: 1. It also increased the cost of production considerably which ultimately lead farming as a non profitable venture for the small and marginal farmers. During the period 1990-2000 paddy cultivation is predominant in the areas whereas it has reduced drastically during the period 2000-2010. It is because of the high cost for rearing livestock comparing with previous years. Similarly food crops are replaced by cash crops which threatened the food safety and security of the poor.
2010 Agriculture is not profitable Shifting cultivation from food crops to cash crops Changes in climate with related to rain pattern Lack of good quality seeds (more resisting seeds) Mechanization in farming practices Lack of interest of youth in farming practices High usage of chemical fertilizers Conversion of paddy fields into areca and plantain Increased cost of animal husbandry practices Depending on daily labor for livelihood Low productivity Increased pest attacks and diseases Conversion of wet land into dry land Agrarian Crisis and Suicides Migration of tribal farmers to other states Mighty interventions from voluntary organizations Programmes through SFC to promote sustainable agriculture Slow progress regarding the organic farming Farmers are now convinced about the relevance of Organic Farming Nutrition Gardening has resulted in the attitudinal change More and more replications are happening regarding the Organic farming. 4. 5. The seeds from the market do not ensure quality that caused farming practices failure together with non availability of the seeds in time.2000 Majority of the area was under paddy cultivation Animal husbandry was practiced as subsidiary income source Food crops were largely cultivated Favorable climatic conditions Less pest attacks and diseases Bio fertilizers were widely used Seeds were preserved and used for next cultivation Quantity of bio repellents were more Depending on manual labor for farming rather than machines Existed a farming culture Presence of tribal people in farming practices were high Collective farming and sharing of manual labor was existed Indigenous knowledge and skills of farmers Soil fertility was high More interest in farming practices 2001 . During the period 1990-2000 the number of tribal people involved in the farming was more comparing to the present day. Increasing need of organic food from the consumers Fair prices are being ensured through the organic markets set up by the FARM Project.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 3. It is mainly related to paddy cultivation and the tribal people were more skilled Historical timeline of the agriculture 1990 . 60 . It is also noticed that in the year 1990-2000 farmers were able to collect and preserve seeds for the next season whereas 2000-2010 period farmers are fully depending on market for seed availability. The farmers observed that pest attacks specially to vegetables are less or even nothing and the number of host pest repellents are more during Table11 : the period 1990-2000 but in the period 2000-2010 it is high and farmers are using different chemicals for controlling the pest attack which deteriorated the quality of vegetables and the volume of poisons are high in the products which is causing health problems.
But presently it is difficult to find laborers in time for farming activities. 9. 8. A different kind of farming culture existed in the earlier period where all the family members are part of it but presently the younger generation has less interest in farming practices and they feel farming is not a viable or profitable enterprise for them. 7. 45% of the total income comes from their agriculture and 25% income comes from labour and 5% income from animal husbandry activities followed by 25% income comes in the form of loans either from formal financial institutions or from the SHG and a negligible portion from the money lenders. Farmers are getting fair prices for the organic products through the organic markets constituted under the SFC project. It is noticed that 50% of the income comes from agriculture and animal husbandry and they are spending 25% for agriculture and 25% for meeting food requirements. It revealed that there are four main sources of income for the members and Chart 1: Income Sources of Farmers INCOME SOURCES EXPENDITURE PATTERN 61 . It is evident that men and women are working long hours for ensuring their livelihood and keeping their living standards. Similarly collective farming and exchange of manual laborers between farmers prevailed during the period 19902000. 2. Participants pointed that not only farmers but also the consumers are now aware of the menace of the chemical farming and hence the demand for organic food is growing.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 6. The participants observed that a reverse application is in the limelight where the farmers are after the traditional sustainable agricultural practices which existed here from the time since their forefathers and views that it is a slow and gradual process. Whereas in the earlier periods they had to spend only 10% for the food and 15% for the agriculture. The learning process revealed that income from agriculture is primary source of the rural poor for their livelihood. Regarding the expenditure pattern group members have identified six major heads of expenditure occurring on annual basis. The group members calculated the expenditure pattern and revealed that there are 25% of the expenditure goes to meeting the food expenditure and 25% expenditure goes to agriculture and 17% goes to repaying the existing loans and 15% goes for the education of children and 10% for medical care and 8% for festivals. The income and expenditure pattern of the particular group is a cross section of the rural people in general and observed the following facts: 1. than others in paddy cultivation practices. It will take another five to seven years of time to get back to the original position. Agriculture input cost has Chart 2: Expenditure of the Farmers Income and Expenditure Pattern The team also assessed the income and expenditure pattern of the faming community.
6. It also understood that the farmers have skills and indigenous knowledge on farming systems and practices. People are spending 10% amount for the medical needs. colocasia. cultivation. 5. beans. Seasonal calendar on vegetable cultivation Discussions were facilitated to prepare seasonal calendar on organic vegetable cultivation through. These loans are taken for different purposes for meeting the needs of the family instead of investing directly for the farming practices. This considerable change in income expenditure affected the family budget. ladies finger etc Harvesting of yam. preparation of land Harvesting of plantain and planting of seedlings Preparation of land and planting of seedlings Applying of bio pesticides and bio manure for plantain. The process of discussions and seasonal calendar prepared by the Nutrition Farmers reveals that farming is a continuous activity needs more attention to bring out better results and returns. They were also educated to organic preparations for better farming practices and the SHG is practicing the same Seasonal Calendar followed in the Organic Farming of Vegetables Month January February March April May June July August September October November December 62 Activity Land preparation Land preparation and collection of seeds Germination of seeds. applying bio manure. Hence the loan. Integrated farming practices are less familiar with the farmers. Harvesting of beans. fixing of supporting stumps. collection of seedlings. cheera Applying of bio pesticides and bio manure for plantain. tomato. It is also understood that the farmers are in the clutches of loans and 25% of the calculated income comes in the form of loans. applying bio manure Applying bio pesticides. Self sufficiency of the farmers is the first step in overcoming the financial crisis. preparation of bio manure Planting the seedlings. tapioca. fixing of supporting stumps. 4. harvesting of banana. 3. the nutrition gardening requires drastic changes to adapt to the climate changes and similar factors. harvesting of beans.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research increased and hence the cost of cultivation increased and the production of cash crops increased where as the food crops decreased letting the marginal and small farmers to depend on the markets for meeting their food requirements. Besides the safe and secure food production at Table 12: the family level which reduce the dependency to market and reduce health problems. It was noted that from the conventional chemical farming agricultural calendar. The number of livestock is less due to high cost for maintaining livestock which increased spending for chemical agriculture inputs. Farmers noticed that the possible way to overcome their familial financial crisis is to decrease the family budget by producing more food crops and reducing the input cost by shifting to sustainable agricultural practices. Applying of bio pesticides and bio manure for plantain . loan repayment chain is like a spiral and set aside considerable portion of their saving for repaying the loans. weeding and mulching Applying of bio pesticides and bio manure for plantain. Presently they are aware of the medical insurance schemes launched by the government for the welfare of the vulnerable families in the state. weeding.
05.00 .30 08.07.20 .00 05.05.00 .00 03.00 04. bathing and cleaning Preparation of food Prayer Supper.00 .07.45 05.05.03.12.00 .00 .00 07.00 05.03.20 05. Coolie works Work in the farm/Coolie labour Lunch and rest Work in the farm/ Coolie works Return to home and Animal Husbandry Milking the cow and fetching fodder Fetching firewood.30 01. entertainments Sleep Men Wake up Morning ablutions Selling the milk at milk society Going for agricultural works Breakfast Working in the farm Lunch and rest Work in the farm Work in the farm Work in the farm Irrigation and similar activities Work in the farm Returning to house Going for the town and market Return to house and rest Supper Sleep Documentation of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Charts 63 .15 05.01.08.05.08.30 07.30 03.00 06.00 . preparations for going to work Agricultural Works Bringing breakfast to farm.00 10.00 08.30 .30 05.15 .30 .30 .00 Women Wake up Morning ablutions Prayer Milking the cow Preparation of food Animal husbandry activities Breakfast.30 12.45 .07.00 .FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Table 13: Daily routine of farmers Time 5.00 .30 .30 .04.30 .30 .08.00 08.06.30 07. household activities Cleaning of house and surroundings Tea.05.10.
Germination rate is less with the seeds purchased from the market 7. Non availability of seeds and quality seeds in time is major concern of the farmers 6. Farmers strictly follow organic farming even then the production is low or stable comparing with applying chemical fertilizers 5. It clearly states the long working hours of women for sustaining the family. This gives us the impression on their acceptance of the Sustainable Agricultural Measures of the FARM project. They could not market the organic vegetables with an added price 8. Homestead farming also was prevalent in the last decade and this was a major source of the food crops of the farmers and this has reduced drastically resulting in the farmers dependent on Daily routine of women The team also looked into the daily routine of men and women in the group. Shortage of cow dung and manure due to less livestock 9. In order to understand the laborious daily routine of the farmers a daily routine mapping was applied to analyze the working pattern of men and women in the Organic Farming. Skills and knowledge were improved for organic preparation and applications 3. 5. 2. Even though chemical farming is time reducing.2. and 29% time for sleeping and the remaining 16% time is using for entertainment and personal hygiene etc. Not only farmers. Pest attacks are increased and number of repellents are reduced 4. Sustainable Farming has thus emerged as the hope for the Wayanad district. Increasing price for leased lands is making problems to continuous cultivation Hence it is concluded that the farmers have very much adapted to the traditional farming practice but with remarkable change in the cultivation practices to adapt to the climate changes occurred. It is understood from the focus group discussions that the major chunk of the time is spend on the agricultural practices.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research on vegetable cultivation. Continuous efforts are made by the farmers for getting better results and returns from the farming practices. All these roles made her restless working hours on daily basis for winning bread for the family. The discussions on vegetable cultivation noticed the following points: 1. farmers are slowly shifting to the traditional farming methods. the consumers of food also are now very much aware about the need to consume organic food as the recent lifestyle disease menace has made the general people at its heights. the participants of the PRA are interested to work more to live long. practicing farmer as well as the caring mother. The daily routine chart prepared hereafter is as per the new lifestyle in the Organic Farming. 5. It revealed that women are working long hours as agriculture labor. This is only because they are now aware that the agrarian crisis that hit the district in this decade is only because of the modern farming and the impact of the crisis can be recovered only if they get retrieved to the organic farming methods. It reveals that 34% of time being spent for farming and 21% time being spent for works at home 64 . Men have to work around ten to twelve hours in the agricultural sector as against the eight hours required in the chemical farming. Interpretations of the Participatory Rural Appraisal It can be said that the farmers of Wayanad are now convinced about the efficiency of the Sustainable Agricultural Practices. It can be said that Wayanad in the period between 1990 and 2000 is predominant with paddy cultivation and this drastically reduced in he period 2000-2010. Climate change and changes in rain pattern affecting the vegetable production 10. 1. Even though the effort and time required in the organic farming is high. Contribution of the FARM project towards the farmers taking up and promoting the traditional practices can be said to be an important achievement of the project. 3. 2. 4.
the market. 19. Consumers also are very much aware of the need of the organic foods. quality planting materials. 17. Women are found to work more in the farm having multiple responsibilities of looking after home as well as supporting the husband in the farm land. Migration of tribals to other states in search of job and those trafficking deaths also has links to the agrarian failure as the agrarian failure only made them migrate. long germinating time. Farmers views that the support price structure should be made available for the organic products also. 65 . 8. In this context the awareness generation of the children in the schools and colleges will result in a positive attitude building. Even though organic farming is time consuming. 11. People are now very much aware of the need of reversal of chemical farms to organic farms to live and let live. This can be reversed only by switching over to organic farming and homestead farming giving more importance for food crops. Marketing ensured under the FARM project has resulted in the farmers getting premium prices. low health of saplings. farmers are ready to depend on organic farming as they are interested to live longer. 20. 7. Rain fall pattern also has changed drastically due to climate change and often farm failure is due to he unexpected rain. farming and the high food cost is because of the dropping of the cultivation of food crops letting them to depend on the market for each and everything. The income from the farming practices varies year by year depending on different factors such as seasonal availability of rainfall and favorable climate. 12. market price. Promotion of indigenous seed was practiced in the past where as the farmers have shifted to High Yielding Varieties thus results in the high input cost and dependence on the chemical farming. Always the farmer fails to repay the loan in time and this is only because of the over expenditures and the low returns from the farms. 15. low germinating rate etc… and this makes the farmers go after chemicals where as the traditional indigenous varieties doesn't have any such problems. 13. This is a result of the over greed of the farmers as they dropped the cultivation of food crops and shifted to cash crops. 10. Pest attacks and diseases in this decade are high as compared to past and this is only because of the shift to High Yielding Varieties which has low resistance to such attacks. 16. 9. High Yielding Seeds are found to have a lot of issues. Younger generation has avoided farming as a profession and this has resulted in lands remaining un-cultivated as there is no one to go on with the profession. Seasonality of the farming has gone drastic changes and in order to cope up with this issue the farmers have to adapt to the climate change by changing the old agricultural calendar with the new practical agricultural calendar. Input cost in the farming as well as the cost of food also has increased drastically resulting in the over expenditure of farmers family budget. Rain at the time of harvesting is a disaster to the farmers and there is no possible alternative to this issue.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 6. But it has found that the demand is high whereas the supply falls short. 18. crop diseases etc. Loans are taken mainly for agrarian purpose as there is easy availability of loan for those with land title deeds. High input cost in the farming is because of the chemical 14. high pest attacks.
FARM Wayanad 66 Participatory Action Research .
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 6 Analysis of Programmes in Other Sectors 67 .
FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 6. It was noticed that all of the beneficiaries lived in makeshift houses which needs immediate repairs. women bore the brunt of the crisis and hence most of the beneficiaries selected for the IGP support were women. Nearly 95% of the samples selected from the universe villages consist of females and this picture is same when we take the entire district also. How ever the IGPs have attempted to make positive effects in terms of empowerment. The programme has taken sincere effort to devise IGPs to create genuine wealth through a sustainable manner. One of the novel initiatives of the project. Practices followed up in the IGP Programme Assessment & Planning Appropriate timing and through assessment was carried out to determine the appropriate action plan A thorough socio-economic assessment and profile of each family was taken. FARM project has taken pain to identify the causes of the poverty in the distress families and tried to counteract those powerful negative forces. but trains the same person to be more dependants upon that charity. It can be noticed that 95% of the beneficiaries opted for animal husbandry as their plan was to use animal husbandry as a direct/alternate income along with the farming. What causes the distress in the agricultural crisis affected families? It is nothing but poverty. Of which ten interviews were failed IGPs. In most of the families. repatriation and reintegration. the Income generation programme was as step to address poverty and thereby reduce the vulnerability or the susceptibility of the family towards suicides. it can be noted that around 95% of the beneficiaries hails from agricultural families of which 50% only have skills in farming. Proper market analysis/business plan was prepared. Analyzed the existing skills and raw materials/ inputs available with the family.1. The reverberations of the agrarian crisis have been felt at all levels of community and thousands have been reported to be crossing over to neighboring states in search of wage labor and thousands of children have dropped out from school as their parents cant afford the expenses. FARM programme has explored the possibilities of reducing the boundary between food security and income security of households. A total of 40 beneficiaries were interviewed to analyze the cost benefits. Process & Abstract of study Data for the analysis of the cost benefit was collected through using a pretested interview schedule incorporating special tool. IGPs of FARM project has tried to provide an alternative means to make the living of the beneficiaries in a dignified way. Cost Benefit Analysis of Income Generation Program The inhumanity of agrarian crisis created great havoc on the survival of the families in Wayanad and becoming aware of the pervasiveness FARM project through the good will programme of income generation made an attempt to fight the economic crisis. It has created opportunities by providing resources with an objective of making fewer dependants. Implementation Skill development training was provided on the respective trades Cash grant was provided to the beneficiaries in official functions Support on selection and procurement of the units also was provided Day bay day accounting formats were provided to the beneficiaries Linkages with SHGs for micro credit savings were promoted 68 . While analyzing the IGPs. self reliance and community development. a) the principal right to selfdetermination and b) the objectives of integration. more self-reliant and able to care for the family. Giving charity to a person in need reduces her or his pain of poverty in the short run. In simple words it is creation of income. Save Farmers Campaign defines "Income Generation Programmes" as small scale projects that create an income source to the crisis hit/distress agrarian families whilst promoting.
It was planned to find and quantify the positive effects of the IGP as well as the failures. The living conditions of the beneficiaries were poor and it is believed that this has a direct relation to the education. those who considers IGP as primary source of income. Field visits were carried out atleast twice a month. those who considers IGP and agriculture as equal sources of income and finally those who perceives It was noticed that most of the beneficiaries opted for cow rearing as it is a most trusted source of income having easy market. In this context the CBA is to evaluate whether the cost incurred has provided the expected returns.5 30 50 7. health and attitude of children. General Profile of the Units Analysis of the data reveals that there are three types of beneficiaries for the Income Generation Programme viz. Hence the number of samples for this analysis is 30 and the respective failed IGPs are 10. Table 14: Distribution of the beneficiaries based on age (n = 40) Category Below 25 25 to 35 35 to 45 45above Frequency 5 12 20 3 % 12. Further it was noticed that those who are genuinely interested in having monthly income and ready to hard work will be interested to have the animal husbandry income generation programmes especially the cow rearing. Table 15: Distribution of the beneficiaries based on type of IGP selected (n = 40) Category Cow rearing Goat rearing Petty Shops Other Frequency 18 6 3 3 % 60 20 10 10 Forty samples of IGPs were selected as units in the Participatory Action Research for the Cost Benefit Analysis. 60% of the respondents of this study are earning from the cow rearing followed by goat rearing 20%. It can be interpreted that most of them became widows/widower at a mean age stated above. Cost benefit analysis has analyzed the data in two methods. The purpose of the Cost Benefit analysis is to assess the financial viability of the IGPs from the view point of the donor and implementer. Support/Advices for the marketing of the products were provided Lobbying and advocacy for ensuring the best prices also was given.5 Basic criteria used for the selection of the beneficiaries Year of suicide of the breadwinner of the family (Since January 2005) Volume of indebtedness Area of landholdings possessed Surviving members with chronic diseases Dependency Status Family Situations Skills and employment opportunities Monthly income of the family IGP as a minor component to the primary occupation.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Linkages with Local banks for savings was promoted Linkages with Life Insurance Corporation was also obtained for insuring the IGPs Monitoring and Evaluation A robust monitoring and evaluation system was put in place. (Table 2) Beneficiaries who doesn't have enough raw materials for animal husbandry and having additional skills have opted for 69 . Petty Shops 10% and other innovative ideas constitutes 10%. Successful IGPs are analyzed to validate the cost benefit at first. Further it was noticed that there is a tendency for younger women to engage in animal husbandry and allied activities. The mean age of the respondents was between 35 and 45 (Table1).
This was achieved through investing the savings of the first year for purchasing the second unit of cow. It was noted that in the two to three months time where there is no much production the beneficiaries sold the cow dung and met the family expenses.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Table 16: Details of the beneficiaries contribution on type of IGP selected (n = 30) Category Cow rearing Goat rearing Petty Shops Other Frequency 5000 Nil 2500 4000 . mess house. For the petty shops the contribution was Rs 2500 and for the other innovative IGPs it ranged between 4000 and 10000. But for the goat rearing IGP there will be no monthly income as the milk from goat in all cases are sufficient for the household use only. 5125 with cow rearing units. It was noted that in the first phase of the IGP distribution the grant amount was 10. But goat rearing requires very less expenses per month as it is the most cost effective IGP. Hence it can be said that the cow rearing IGP provide income round the year.10000 Table 18: Distribution of the income on monthly basis form IGPs (n = 30) Category Cow rearing Goat rearing Petty Shops Other Average Amount 5125 Nil 6000 Varies other IGPs such as Tailoring. Mess House etc… Goat rearing has been identified as an additional income generation to the family and the main source of income will be other sectors. On an average a beneficiary earns around Rs. In hotels/mess house the input cost is high while in Tailoring shops it is very low. Table 17: Details of the input cost required for IGPs (n = 30) Category Cow rearing Goat rearing Petty Shops Other Frequency 1415 350 3000 5000 Input cost for the maintenance of the IGP on a monthly basis is as follows. Goat's food menu mainly consists of the raw grass and hence handy food is less required. Analysis of the data reveals earnings per month also are different according to IGPs selected. For petty shops the average input cost per month is Rs 3000. repairing of machineries in other IGPs. In almost all the IGPs the beneficiaries have abundant raw materials available at their homesteads. Cow rearing needs an average input cost of Rs 1415 per month to purchase cattle feeds. tailoring shops etc… the beneficiary selected the same as it is direct source of income and they lacked skills/health for pursuing agriculture related IGPs. In case of petty shops. In almost all the cases the beneficiary contributed to the IGP as cash itself. It was further noticed that the beneficiaries with goat rearing units could sell atleast two lamps/billys in a year Cost benefit Analysis of the Successful IGPs As a first step in the cost benefit analysis 30 successful IGPs are analyzed. But for the Goat rearing there required no beneficiary contribution as the grant was sufficient to initiate the IGP. In some instances there requires additional inputs as in the case of the medical attention for cows. 70 . In almost all the cases analyzed the beneficiary had two units of cow. In case of other IGPs it varies according to the IGP selected. For cow rearing the average beneficiary contribution was Rs 5000. In some exceptional cases only the beneficiary earned around Rs 500 to Rs 1000 by selling the milk and that to for few months time. Cow rearing provides a steady income for not less than ten months.000 and in the subsequent year it was 9000.
In case of mess house the monthly earning has even reached Rs 13.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign earning around Rs 3000 per unit.000. This is ensuring a stable income for the family.4 56. In almost all cases there are atleast two cows and a calf in two and a half year time.3 0 Cross tabling of Income and Expenditure (n=30) Loss: Family expenses are higher than the income from IGP Equal: Family expenses equals to the income from IGP Savings: Family expenses are lower than the income and hence savings is initiated 71 . For an average family of four it requires a minimum amount of Rs 2000 (56. Table 20: Monthly expenditure of the families was also analyzed as a part of the CBA. In the cow units itself we can note the industriousness of the beneficiary by analyzing the number of cows kept as against the cow purchased through the grant. In petty shops also there is a stable income of Rs 6. It was noticed that the main components of the expenses are provisions for food.7%) to meet their basic requirements. Further it is identified as suitable venture for women as it provides both income as well as employment on the homestead.3% requires around 4000 to meet their family expenses. It Table 19: Distribution of the beneficiaries based on monthly expenses (n = 30) Category Below 1000 > 2000 > 3000 > 4000 Above 4000 Frequency 4 17 8 1 Nil % 13. Almost all the respondents articulated it that they have cut short their family budget as per the training given on the family budgeting and this has helped them to have savings for the future.6% of the beneficiaries requires around 3000 and 3. In case of the families having expenses above 2000 it was noticed that the large share of the expenses is meant for the medicines. But these never fall in the monthly income criteria.000 per month and this income is available in all the months.6 3. Another factor for beneficiaries taking up the cow rearing is that they will get organic manure for their homestead farming which will ensure their household food security. Further the marketing of milk is an easy task in Wayanad as there is atleast one collection centre in a town. 26. medicines and education.7 26.000 where as for the tailoring units the minimum earning per month is Rs 3. In other IGPs the income varies according to the IGP selected. Cow rearing is found to be the most suitable IGP for the beneficiaries as it gives a stable income and the cost of maintenance also is less.
It can be noted that regardless of the savings all the 30 beneficiaries studied in this CBA has joined in either SHG micro credit savings. Could save atleast Rs 2000 per month which can . education and housing thereby improving the quality of life. 4.0 10. Engagement in the productive sector alleviates/has erased their painful past 6. 7. Could provide good food for the family as against poverty they had at the distress time. 1.7% of the beneficiaries are successful in having savings for the future. It can be noted that 57% of the beneficiaries are saving more than Rs 1500 in a month and this will surely help them to meet their expenses in contingencies as well as to increase the unit of IGPs in future.7% of the families were met through the IGP support.3 100. 9. This table gives us the inference on the savings initiated by the beneficiary families and that too from a past where they don't even have hope for future.7% of the beneficiaries doesn't have monthly income and savings and mostly belonged the Goat rearing units. As per the inferences of the respondents the outcome of the IGP are the following.7 16. Monthly expenses of 76. Competition was not there in the Animal husbandry IGP as marketing of milks was an easy task through the milk societies ensuring good prices. SHGs and LIC. It can be noted that 16. The following table gives us the cross tabulation of the Income and Expenditure. This can be considered as a meritorious achievement as in the case of the 72 Outcomes of the IGP In simple the IGP Cost Evaluation can be projected in two ways.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Table 21: Distribution of beneficiaries based on Savings (n-30) Table 8 0 500 1000 Saving Amount beneficiaries who have undergone the bitter most in the past due to lack of saving habits.7 10.7 10.0 16. It can be noted that 90% of the beneficiaries have income sufficiently and they labels the IGP as the primary income generation source.0 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 5000 Total was noticed that atleast one member of the family in these category has some sort of illness which required medical attention on a regular basis. 13% of the beneficiaries earn the amount required for their monthly expenses and 76. Analysis of the expenses of the family and its cross tabling with the income earned from the IGP gives us the inference about the percentage of the expenses met through IGP.7 3. Frequency 5 5 3 3 5 3 3 2 1 30 Percent 16.0 10. When we compare the expenditure of the family with the income earned we get the inference that most of our IGPs can be categorized as direct income providers. Animal husbandry units especially the Cow rearing turned to be a monthly income generating unit for the crisis affected families. Only 10% of the beneficiaries mostly the goat rearing IGP owners only consider the unit as an additional income source and they fetches their daily bread by working in other areas. 8. Could improve the life status considerably as they could provide medical attention. RD Deposit in Postal Savings or have insured the family by joining the Life Insurance Corporation policies. 3. In general the IGPs have emerged as a tool for savings to the beneficiaries and the continuous accompaniment of the FARM project team has ensured them to divert this savings into banks. This again poses questions on the suitability of Goat rearing as monthly income generation programme.0 6. Stable income sources for the family was provided through the IGP 2. 5. One is what the outcome of the IGP is and the other is what would have happened without IGP Intervention. Could rebuild the torn away life into normalcy.
Sustainability of the family is ensured as the IGP has ensured economic security and self sufficiency for almost families. Further she received an assistance to purchase another cow and buffalo through the government scheme of debt relief under the Vidarbha Package. the cow from which she rebuild the family 6. But Sajida recovered from the mental shock gradually and emerged as successful women through the befriending support and Income Generation Support offered later. Jeevana. Ahammad committed suicide due to financial crisis owing from the failure of the agriculture for which he had taken debts from the local money lenders.Innovative IGPs such as pottery making. Grand Mother and Son.000 per month. 11.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign be used for contingencies in past 10. Her mother in law also showed symptoms of mental breakdown. In 2008 she started the Income Generation Programme with one cow and in 2010 she has emerged as a small diary owner. the answer given by most of them are simple. Sajida suffered from mental illness on the shock of the sudden departure of her husband and remained desperate for months. Sajida was only 18 when she got married to Ahammed from Pozhuthana and she became a widow at the tender age of 20. They would have walked in the way of their family members who have committed suicide. She is planning to sell two cows and buy a hybrid cow so that the expenses are lower and the yield is high. Petty Shops etc… also is found to be a viable income generating activity but having the risk of good completion. She was isolated in her family as they feared that she will be a burden for them. two Oxen and a Buffalo. Hence it is very much evident that the Income Generation Progamme has resulted in building back better life. She added that she will not sell Jicku. Sajida is now earning around Rs 15.Saving habit has come up in most families and around 57% of them had started savings for future in Banks. In the initial stages she earned Rs 4500 from the IGP and saved Rs 2000 per month. Postal Deposits and Life Insurance Corporation. 12. So it can be put into words that the IGP programme has resulted in all the beneficiaries to come back to normal life like a phoenix bird rising from ashes.2 Case Study Analysis of IGP's Case 1 Sajida weaving dreams from the cattle shed Sajida in her cattle shed 73 . It took six months time for them to reintegrate her to the normal life. She is now the breadwinner of the family consisting of Grand Father. Mess House. the Non Profit Organization working in the area provided her grant support under the FARM project to purchase a Cow. When we take the inference on the second question of what would have happened with the intervention. SHGs. By this time the befriender of this region came to know about the family and initiated the befriending process. She joined the local milk society and then applied for soft loans for purchasing cows and then she could add more cows to the diary farm in the five cent of land. She is rearing six Cows. Befriender visited her house atleast once in a week and provided the room for ventilation.
She could settle some personal loans in between and is waiting for the writing off of farm loans by the bank. She dreams of finishing the works of the house and to provide good schooling to her only son from the cattle shed where she began her second life. Mathai committed suicide. Their elder son who is now studying in tenth standard goes for selling the milk and now the cow rearing programme is a familial matter. Owing to recovery issues and severe failure of the crops in 2007. Wayanad Social Service Society identified this family at a crucial moment and the community facilitator walked with them to reintegrate into normal life. Case 2 Bond of Mary and her mother in law reach new definitions in retrieving crisis hit family Mary Mathai aged 39 and her mother in law remains an exceptional case of bond in building up crisis hit family. Mary is now bold enough to face the reality of life and is now very much accustomed to the new life. Family consisting of Mary. she showed the courage to give emotional support to the entire family as encouraged by the befriender. In order to support the family Mary started to work as a coolie labour prior to the provision of IGP. This again created havoc in the family. She has three cows ready for milking and expects more income in the coming months. She was successful in finishing the preliminary works of the house and is waiting anxiously to finish the plastering and flooring soon which was left not completed due the financial problems. Chinnamma also helps her daughter in law in the cow rearing with what all she can do in her age.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research social support. They earned around Rs 6. mother in law and two children were taken aback. From 2005 onwards there were challenges in the production and gradually the family fell in prey to debts from co-operative bank. She with the constant support of the mother in law stitched their life back to normal. At this time the Community Facilitator recommended for the IGP support and the same was provided. But she soon fell ill as she was not accustomed with that sort of hard labour. She is spending around eight hours for the cow rearing programme and this Mary with the Cow IGP unit in two years time. Befriender from the FARM project approached the family and provided psycho 74 . They could sell an average of ten liter milk a day and could very well fetch the requirements of the family. Mary's family was an agrarian family in Padinjarathara G P mainly engaged in the cultivation of tubers and plantains. End result was an exceptional story of fighting back to normal life by a middle aged house wife and mother in law who is in her eighties. the mother in law of Mary provided her enormous support and she regained her normalcy gradually. Even though Chinnamma was suffering from various ailments. Mary whom once showed suicidal tendency has now recovered very well and has become a model for distress women in the region. Mary also showed suicidal tendency at this period. Mary's family was provided an Income Generation Support of Cow rearing in the year 2008. They could start the earnings with in four months time.300 per month. Chinnamma.
She has now provided the land for leased farming for a banana cultivator and is exploring alternative sources other than IGP. Both of them begin their routine early in the morning and works till sun set as per their cultural practices. community facilitator recommended them for the Income Generation Support programme. But he miserably failed and debt engulfed him. She along with her husband Gopalan used to earn from pottery making and their younger son left the traditional occupation and became a leased farmer. Mary also became convinced on the family budgeting and has emerged successful in saving for the future. she would have gone in the foot prints of her husband.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign engagement makes her forget all the past. She also realized the need for cultivation in their farm land after the organic farming trainings provided by the WSSS. It was a period where the family required diversion from these thoughts by engaging in some productive programmes. He became nervous and became missing for few weeks. Case 3 Ammini Chenankollil of Muttil Panchayath belongs to Kumbaran caste who is traditional pottery makers.000 per month and they could save around 2. RD progamme of Postal Department and micro credit savings in SHGs. In order to Ammini reincarnates her family by returning to traditional occupation of pottery making Ammini and husband in pottery making 75 . gardening pots. Gopalan and family are earning around Rs 8. Realizing the need. convinced to return back to family. Ammini also became attracted to suicidal thoughts due to the gap made by his son. Ammini and Gopalan with the support of the FARM project returned to the traditional occupation by purchasing necessary raw materials and rebuilt the smoke choolas and other pottery making infrastructures. They are making earthen pots for cookery items. Mary recollects the support of her mother in law in rebuilding their life and says it aloud that without befriending and handholding support of mother in law. But he committed suicide soon after he returned. Ammini and family slowly left their traditional occupation as their son brought enough money from the farm sector. Ammini and Gopalan became disheartened as they lost him forever. It was a blow for the family as the younger son was the bread winner of the family. thandoori choolas and their products have high demand in the market. After a while they identified him.500 from this after meeting the input costs and household requirements. VOICE the partner NGO of the FARM project working in the Muttil Gram Panchayath identified this family and provided befriending services to the entire family. Ammini and family opted for reestablishing Pottery Making were not familiar with other occupations. He was successful in the early years and took more land on lease in 2007. She has joined in the LIC. The befriender provided effective ventilation to Ammini who was possessed with suicidal thoughts.
For the primary income generation. She added that. She remained in her hut without food for a week and became pale and finally she was taken to the nearest government hospital. They are now leading a busy life and never get time to think about the past experiences. Case 5 Stitching back life: An young farmers anecdote Kurian K M was a student when he lost his father in 2007. From 2006 onwards there was a steep decline in the paddy cultivation in the area and this resulted in the livelihood crisis of the tribals in the Chundappally colony. Her family also was supportive and she was recommended for the IGP assistance. she goes for the works of NREGA when ever she gets opportunity in nearing villages. The traffickers tried to dispose his body in Karnataka itself but due to protest from other tribals labours took initiative to arrange conveyance for the deceased. But she decided not to end up her life in ginger fields and wanted to earn for the two children. Ammini also came back to the colony with the dead body and became depressed with the sudden dismissal of her husband. Her parents who are staying nearby also help her in the Income Generation Programme. As an alternative they fell in prey to the tribal traffickers who took them to the Ginger cultivation farms in the Karnataka State. if you haven't come across our life we would have surely ended up. At times their elder daughter who was married in nearby village also comes home and joins the pottery making. Extensive use of pesticides in these fields made the labours sick and the health condition of Sasi deteriorated very much and finally in order to escape from the pain he committed suicide. She could earn around Rs 1500 per month by selling milk and in two years time her IGP increased up to six units. She was provided grants to purchase goats and she bought two. She was given the opportunity to ventilate and the continuous accompaniment of the befriender resulted in brining her back to normal life.000 from that. Shreyas. the voluntary organization working in the Noolpuzha Panchayath came to know about this incident and started providing befriending support to Ammini. Ammini and family whispered about the six months in which they literally were on the verge of suicide. She also joined the micro credit saving programme of the NGO and is having a deposit of 3500 in the scheme. They used to engage in the paddy cultivation of the Noolpuzha Gram Panchayath till 2005. At this time she was contacted again by the traffickers to return to work in the ginger fields by giving luring promises. She believes that the service of befrienders is exactly the blessing of angels whom really brought them back to life.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research meet the demand they have now engaged one labourer in the pottery making unit. His father was a famous farmer in the Vellamunda Gram Panchayath because of his integrated farming style coupled with food crops and 76 Ammini with her IGP unit . Case 4 Rebuilding the hope of the tribal trafficking survivors Ammini and Sasi of Chundappally colony in Noolpuzha Gram Panchayath were farm labours for the past three decades. She sold two Billy's and earned around 6.
In 2006 itself. He sold one acre of land and repaid the loans. Befriender could help his mother to ventilate her feelings and in four months time she was brought back to normal life. He has started small nursery in house premises after constructing a polythene glass house. He also has innovative ideas and experiments the same in his agricultural plots. Case 6 Fighting against the fate Bindhu Chalil aged 35. hailing from the Meenangadi Gram Panchayath is an exceptional case of brave women who fought back life from the extreme situation Bindhu grazing the cattle’s 77 . Both Kurian and mother have recovered well from the shock of the death of his father and now never get time to think of the past days. It was a beginning and he never had to look back.5000 from the IGP and has initiated organic farming in his remaining land. Realizing the problems. he sent his daughter in marriage and this aggravated his doubts. He was of the expectation of getting fair prices from his production in the years to come and to repay the loans taken for both agriculture and marriage purpose. He bought a cow and started cow rearing. He was successful till 2006 and the steep fall of the prices of crops in 2007 ruined his entire wealth. His experiment in budding and grafting has given him fame in selling the pepper vines. Kurian who became confused of sudden departure of father also benefitted from the psycho social support and took the decision to enter into agriculture to rebuild their life. Both Kurian and mother are actively engaged in the homestead faming and forget the past sorrows. He practices integrated farming in his land and has ensured the household food security. He had the determination to overcome the financial crisis and to lead the family. He has taken land in lease as he has only one acre of land. Kurian and his mother became depressed as they didn't have any idea on how to repay the loans and to move forward. This has ensured productivity as well as disease resistance. Kurian also completed his degree which he dropped earlier due to familial constraints. MASSS provided him grant to initiate IGP.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign cash crops. Kurian at the age of 26 was not prepared to take up the responsibilities of the family. His father was selected as model farmer in 2000 as his integrated farm model in two acre of land became a success. But he had recurring loss in 2006 and 2007 which made the debt doubled. His mother became mentally depressed and at this time the community facilitator of Malabar Social Service Society identified the family and brought under the befriending. He earns around Rs. At present he has two cows and a calf. In a compromising situation he committed suicide and left the burden to the shoulder of his elder son. He has shown a model of linking the IGP with agriculture and never sells the cow dung outside as he prepares organic inputs with the dung. Kurian's father practiced chemical farming but he practices organic farming only. He is a hard worker and is now emerging as a full time farmer. Kurian now possess a dream of becoming model farmer in the Panchayath which once his father was titled. He gets fair prices for his products.
She could get income from the fourth month onwards. from Vellamunda was selected for the Income Generation Programme after her husband committed suicide due to agricultural debts in 2007.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research of life. She has emerged as an Iron Lady in the village as she fought back from the extreme depth of pains and sorrows. At present she is earning around Rs 7500 per month. She has the hope that one day her husband will recover entirely and this hope let her live.000 as his contribution against the contribution of 10. It was an inter caste marriage and it resulted in the isolation of the both the families. She opted for cow rearing and bought the same. Case 1 . Ten failed cases are presented here. But they stood up against all those problems and started a new life. She gets around 13 liters of milk a day and both the children helps her in this endeavor. For the last two years she has never left the house as she spends her entire time for the care of the husband and the income generation programme. He was in coma for months and after three months he recovered from coma but was being paralyzed. Bu in the sixth month there was an engine trouble to the Auto Rickshaw and he came to know that he was cheated by the intermediaries by selling Auto Rickshaw of bad engine condition. With this support and the earnings from the IGP she finished the construction of the house with Asbestos roofing. He is still in bed but the condition has improved. The entire family was given befriending support and the children's started back going to school. She sighs about the day when both of them decided to commit suicide as they thought there is no hope for life and acclaims it that with out the support of the FARM project they would have been no more. He continued his agriculture and was successful in earning for the family from the small hut made of mud. At home things became difficult as she found difficult in meeting the expenses of the medicine as well as the household requirement. She invested all her savings in the hospital and after six months of hospitalization he was discharged from the hospital. The family moved to the new house and the mud house which they used earlier is now being used as cattle shed. He bought a second hand Auto Rickshaw which seemed to be in good condition. She belonged to a small agricultural family in Choodupara and fell in love with a marginal farmer near by her house. Befriender introduced the family to the pain and palliative care facility and they are offering the entire medicines free of cost. They had two sons who are now studying in upper primary schools. Thressiamma was aged and she depended on only son who was suffering from some health complications making him unable to practice hard labour. He drove it successfully for five months and earned around Rs 7500 per month. She dreams to provide enough education to the children as both of them are good in studies. She could buy a water bed for her husband as he was suffering from bed sore. In one year time she could construct a basement in the nearby land and thus got assistance for house construction from the Panchayath and nearby parish. She has two cows and a calf now. In a vulnerable moment entire family thought of committing suicide and at this moment the community facilitator from Women's Welfare Association identified the family. She started to provide befriending services at first and learning the extreme situation of survival she was recommended for the medical assistance. At first she made use of a temporary shelter for the cows.000 from the project. So he opted for a Three Wheeler Auto as an income generation programme and raised 60. She was further given assistance to initiate an IGP as she was identified as a crisis family. The happiness lasted only five years. Case Study Analysis of failed IGPs In order to analyze the reasons for the failure of the IGP's the researcher visited the failed units and carried out a study of the failed projects. He had to 78 . This helped the family a lot and this was the turning point in their life where they learned that somebody is there for the family and it is foolishness to put an abrupt end to the life which is the gift of the god.Thressiamma. Her husband met with a fatal accident in 2007 when he fell from a tree while cutting the branch.
In the fourth month her daughter became infected with Pneumonia and the condition deteriorated day by day. It was the season of agricultural labour and after that she couldn't earn even fifty rupees a day. She reared the goats for four months. Her son fell ill due to Chicken Pox and was hospitalized. Case 3 . 6. In some cases the in experience. She sold the two goats in the fourth month to meet the medical expenses.000 and she diverted that amount for the treatment of the family. Her mother in law fell ill and in order to meet the hospital expenses she sold the entire unit. 79 . She got assistance to initiate goat rearing IGP. Income Generation Programme for the victims of the suicide has helped to address the inhumanity of the agrarian crisis by offering sustainable income to beneficiaries at their home itself and has reintegrated all the families to take up the Organic Farming. Interpretations of the Cost Benefit Analysis 1. Sarojini and members of the family had sickle cell disease and hence she selected Goat rearing as IGP due to her health constraints.Pushpa Sivan from the Meenangadi Panchayath was selected for the Income Generation Programme as her husband committed suicide due to agricultural debts. As she failed to meet the household expenses.Bindu Chukkalikuni from Noolpuzha Gram Panchayath was selected for the IGP support as her husband committed suicide due to the failure in the leased farming.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign spend around 25. It was noted that most of the beneficiaries of the IGP support were women in the mean age of 35 to 45. Unfortunately in some cases the beneficiaries avoided the Insurance Programme and this increased the impact of the loss of the IGP. She bought two goats and constructed a temporary shelter for the goat with the assistance. They found Animal Husbandry as the most trusted income generation method in the Wayanad. Here the inexperience. ignorance and the lack of clear cut business plans resulted in the failure. Analysis of the failed Cases Failure of the Income Generation Programme was not because of the failure in the marketing but due to unprecedented happenings in life. She was given an assistance of Rs 9000 and she bought two goats with the grant support. She could save her daughter but had to compromise with the IGP support. In the initial months she earned enough for the survival of the family. Case 5 . She launched a goat rearing IGP and reared it for six months. She invested all the money for the health of mother in law and hence she could not go on with the IGP. 2. she had to shut down the shop and migrate for agricultural labour. In order to meet the medical expense she sold the goat. Case 4 . In order to overcome the crisis he sold the IGP with no other options. Case 2 .000 for the works and he again fell in big debt. Hence it can be said that those failure are behind the control of the beneficiaries. She opted for petty shop and was given an assistance of Rs 10.Sarojini from Muttil GP was selected for the IGP programme as the father committed suicide in 2007. In few cases diseases resulted in the failure of the IGP and it was noticed that the impact of the failure could have been avoided if the same was insured.Sunitha Prakash hails from Padinjarathara Gram Panchayath and was selected for the Income Generation Programme as her husband committed suicide in 2007.3.Jameela P K. ignorance and lack of clear cut business plan resulted in the failure. Having no other way to survive they sold the IGP units and met the contingencies. Unforeseen competition to the units has also resulted in winding up of the IGPs in some cases. Case 6 . But after three month all the goats were infected with disease and became dead.000 in 2008. from poovathumkandi was selected as a beneficiary of the IGP as she was selected as distress farmer and was provided assistance of Rs 10.000. It is evident from the case study analysis of the failed cases that none has stopped the IGP intentionally. She got insurance amount of Rs 4.
Goat rearing cannot be considered as a monthly income option as it doesn't provide income on monthly basis. In case of mess houses the average income was Rs 10000 per month and other IGP provided a minimum of Rs 6000. Befriending offered to the beneficiaries turned to be a handholding support to them and this has helped them to move on. All the beneficiaries indicated that the IGPs have helped them to tide over the difficulties they had experienced due the onset of the crisis. Women opted cow rearing as the most opted one as they could generate income at the homestead and could link with the Organic Farming as the got enough raw materials for the organic input preparations. All of the beneficiaries studied were interested to take up animal husbandry on a large scale in a more systematic manner. 6.500 (One Cow) per month in the first year and in the second year Rs 5. Cow rearing offered around Rs 3. 9.000 and in the case of the Goat rearing there were no beneficiary contributions. In cow rearing IGP it was noticed that all the beneficiaries increased the units to two and three in the second year and this shows their industriousness as well as the emotional buildups. It was noticed that goat rearing even though a relatively low cost -high return enterprise having no difficulty in marketing was found to be a failure as an enterprise providing monthly returns. 86% of the women responded that the life has become sustained due the IGP support.57% of the beneficiaries of the IGP support could save an amount Rs 1500 and above on a monthly basis after meeting their household requirements. 80 Cow rearing was found to be the most successful as well as the most opted out IGP (60%). 12. The House visits and befriending . 10. 8. Failure in the IGPs was found due to unprecedented happening such as diseases. IGPs have helped the women to become economically independent in a situation when other opportunities are limited. emergence of new competition and immediate need of money tempting the beneficiary to sell of the units to meet their requirement. Beneficiary contribution for the cow rearing was around Rs 5. It is noted that the average monthly expenses of the IGP beneficiaries was below Rs 2000 (56.7%). But it was noticed that there were daring competition in innovative IGPs from similar firms. It can be also said that the house visits offered in the befriending is a monitoring mechanism. 11. 7. Cow rearing provided an income on a monthly basis and those who lacked skills and resources for animal husbandry went for other programmes. In other cases the high monthly expense was due to heath issues as they spend more money for medication. 5.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 3. 4. Input cost of the Goat rearing was the lowest as it required handy food only and the cow rearing required around Rs 1415 apart from the raw grass and rice soup. Also the returns from the cow rearing shows that the IGP support can be offered as loans thereby creating a revolving fund through loan repayment helping more and more distress families.125 per month (Two Cow).
6.6 21. the Human Development Index (HDI) was relatively lower. kills himself today. For instance.6 16.4. would have wished to live had he waited a week. among the 14 districts. The former are predisposing in nature and are internal to the individual whereas the latter are the precipitating ones and are external to the individual. Befriending was adopted as the major tool of the network programmes to relieve the sorrows and pains of the victim families and suicidal. which was widespread. Often statements have been made suggesting that the victims needed cash assistance immediately and the state responded to the crisis through financial packages ignoring the psychological aspects of the distress farmers and the family members of victims of the suicide. In 2007 August Kerala Social Service Forum with support from Caritas India formed the network of seven voluntary organizations of Wayanad to address the growing incidences of agrarian suicides. Suicide being a multifaceted and complex phenomenon. . social.6 81 . price. as compared to the other districts. psychological and other factors.6 16. The year wise data of the suicide shows that 2007 with 229 suicides was the highest.6 16. the risks is identified either in the neurobiological and socioeconomic conditions domain.Voltaire The first thought that comes to the mind when we hear about the agrarian crisis of Wayanad is the suicides. This is accentuated by the multiple risks that farmers faces such as yield. In 2009 it reduced Table 23: chances of selling goats for money to meet contingency are found high and hence such IGPs are less recommended.6 16. in a fit of melancholy. A total of 1981 agricultural suicides have occurred till 2010 August. followed by 220 in 2008. Analysis of the Befriending Programme The man who. input. The state has attributed these deaths largely on the crop failures.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Table22 : Data on the suicide from 2000 onwards Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Source: District crime Records No of Suicides 148 181 188 210 177 211 213 229 220 166 38 1981 large numbers of people over a prolonged period of time can only be explained by a combination of economic. Poor returns to the cultivation and absence of non farm opportunities are indicative of the larger socio-economic malaise of the Wayanad. technology and credit. An act of extreme desperation committed by such a Data on the interview among the befriending clients (the suicide attempted) (n = 30) Panchayath Vellamunda Meenangady Muttil Noolpuzha Pozhuthana Padinjarathara Frequency 5 5 5 5 5 13 % 16. Risk mitigation strategies were limited only to the credit issues in the earlier stages and there was a requirement of psycho social support for the farmers at this phase. The increased incidence of farmer's suicide till 2009 was symptomatic of a larger crisis. Wayanad ranked 13th in the HDI. Further in case of the farm distressed district of Wayanad.
Suicide attempted clients were visited and had interaction with them. we identified ten each clients from the six reference Panchayaths and studied their case history. Case studies from the year 2007 till 2010 were analyzed. there were 38 suicides in the district of Wayanad. referring and providing the preliminary psycho social support to the suicidal. In almost all case. came in search of them. Five each clients were selected from each gram Panchayaths stated as the universe in the Participatory Action Research. the befriending coordinator from the FARM project reached the home of the distressed/ victim and provided befriending. .Part 3. FARM Project befriending team consisted of four befriending staff at coordination office level and 21 community facilitators attached to the Non Governmental Organization having good expertise in offering befriending and hundreds of village level volunteers capable of identifying. This was widely accepted by the clients as they feel secure at the home to open up. Depression is there in some point of life of every human and those depressions which lasts longer and are intense has the potential of being suicidal. Notes were taken down and there was no hesitation from the interviewees as they all were reintegrated into the life in a good manner. Distress families having different kinds of problems sought the help of the befrienders and it was noticed that by 2009 those needed the service of the befriender. The idea behind the selection of the suicide attempted clients was to gather the impact of the befriending programme and the various stages the client had to undergo in the distress moments. The following remarks are based on the unstructured interviews with the clients about the befriending process. Analysis of the Befriending offered Befriending service can be considered as the single largest tool that has provided wide acclaim to the project in the entire Wayanad especially the reference areas of the research. by alleviating the depression which has the potential of suicide. Hence a total of thirty cases were carefully analyzed and the following remarks are based on the elaborate studies carried out among the clients. 82 In the first stage of the Befriending impact assessment through Participatory Action Research. In-depth study of suicide attempted was carried out in the second stage. Case study analysis provides the impacts of the befriending to the victim families and distress. There were no structured interviews and the interviewer elicited the information by casual discussion covering the different aspects that made them attempt for suicide. In the initial phases of the FARM project special attention was made on the clients of the agrarian crisis and in the year 2009 and 2010 the befriending services were provided to other people also who were in the suicidal thoughts. Befrienders never attempted to solve the problems but helped them to solve the problem by their own.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Befriending at house of the client to 166 and as per the records available till October 2010. Depressions pointed out by the clients and volunteers are projected in the Annexure 3 . Clients belonged to the lowest economic strata and belonged to the family of suicide victims.
Most of those vulnerable clients were provided income generation programmes and they have now emerged as true models of phoenix bird. distress persons and vulnerable people. Now the service of befriending has emerged as immediate response for emotional crisis. Befrienders steered towards the client's pain. But in the befriending programme it was noticed that all the requirements were even met by the volunteers who were not necessarily professionally qualified but had the human attributes of care and compassion and are willing to listen constructively. In this way the befrienders offered the emotional support to those for whom life may be getting too much to bear and who may be in the danger of suicide. An important aspect of the service noted is that those who use it are in control . The table given under is from the reference area of the PAR. Thus the clients were encouraged to ventilate their anger and to talk about their distress and frustration. Statistics on the befriending offered in the universe of the research From the very beginning of the project. While they listen to the clients stories. in confidence with acceptance and compassion.the decision to make contact is theirs. Even in the form of house visits befriending supports can be provided and it was noted that the sessions were higher in the context of Wayanad. In the conventional form of counseling the care given to the individual clients is very much lower and the hospice setting is not at all conducive for the distressed to open up. Unlike the counseling session. the prime concern is to listen to the client's talk about their sense of despair and their suicidal feelings. most anguished thoughts. The highest numbers of clients were from the Meenangadi 83 . some one who would be prepared to listen. A total of 473 people have benefitted from the befriending services in the PAR area. and with acceptance. The majority of the distressed wanted someone to talk to who would give them time and space and to whom they could express their deepest.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Table24 : Details of befriending service provided in the PAR area from the beginning of the FARM project Gram Panchayath Pozhuthana Meenangadi Vellamunda Padinjarathara Noolpuzha Muttil Total Suicide victims M 01 04 11 14 01 13 44 F 06 18 27 34 03 52 140 02 5 01 22 3 24 Attempted M 01 02 F 09 10 01 01 01 Prone M 01 01 F 07 07 02 05 03 Distress M 13 26 14 14 06 03 76 F 38 46 21 18 01 35 159 Total M 16 33 25 28 08 18 128 F 60 81 51 58 07 88 345 76 114 76 86 15 106 473 Grand Total Earlier it was noticed that the people from the nearby areas of the client looked at the befriender with a suspicion and now it can be said that these peoples are warmly welcoming the befrienders as they themselves became aware of the recovery made by the clients. as is the freedom to end it. Unfortunately the psychological support systems from the government failed to provide such a kind of support and this aggravated the suicide scenario of Wayanad. befriending services were provided to the victims of suicide. befriending service cannot be stopped in few settings. non-judgmentally. It was noted that prior to the intervention of the befriending support the distressed folk of Wayanad had nowhere to go for emotional and psychological support.
He had continuous yawning and it suffocated him unable to breathe and it lasted for two weeks until he got treatment for it. He was depressed and restless that he attempted to commit suicide consuming the pesticide he bought for banana cultivation. One each case study from PAR reference area is presented here. He got violent tremor on his neck and fell unconscious. He began to get engaged in the timber work two years ago as he could not meet the needs of the family with the limited income from his farm alone. Sivan used to be a helper everywhere in his neighbourhood if there were any celebrations or deaths. befrienders have to provide a service to help people in crisis and those who may be suicidal. The lowest number of clients was from Noolpuzha Panchayath where only 15 clients were provided with the service. He was found on time and was rescued. But Sivan lost his sleep completely with that. The irresponsible behavior of his son is hurting him too. Meanwhile. Further they have to make sure that they don't do anything that would upset the service. Besides. befrienders would like to help the people in need. Attempted cases also were mostly women and the prone families otherwise those with suicidal tendency were also women. tension and fears about his health and the situation in the family.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Panchayath where 114 were provided befriending. He struggled for two more weeks with lack of sleep and being unable to go for work. He and his wife Radha have a son and a daughter. It is therefore important to understand the type of help one can provide. He had been admitted in the famous hospitals and had a bit of improvement in his condition. for the most part. He expressed his concern whether he would be cured totally to work 6. but has to recognize the boundaries and operating procedures of the organization. He was medicated for his mental disturbance. Sivan began to get the violent attacks of tremors on his neck and the consequent black outs.5 Case Study Analysis of Befriending Names of the clients in the case study and place have changed to respect the confidentiality in the service provided. Volunteers also never talks about themselves. offering support. He had failures in the agriculture for twice and this made heavy debts for the marginal farmer. Hence he found it hard to go out alone or to socialize with people. sharing their joys and sorrow. Neurological tests and scan reports revealed normalcy. Hence he was unable to work. befriending and providing a listening ear. Sivan is a hardworking farmer and has two acres of land. women tend to commit suicide more than men as the suicide victims were mostly women (76%). It is also to bear in mind that we cannot end the service to the clients in an abrupt manner as it will erode the entire efforts taken in a single moment of melancholy. Presently he finds it hard to face emotional situations and confines to his home. The help they provide is. Distress clients also were mostly women and in all the sectors the chances of women being in compromising situation of suicides was two third. Primarily. He gets the tremor once he begin to converse with people for some time. A total of 128 males and 345 females were provided the befriending service. Again the treatment continued. Decisions are to be taken by the clients and hence in any circumstance befriender will not provide advices. It can be noted that. due to the medication he is acquiring weight and feels weak with wheezing though the intake of food is less. But he couldn't repay the loan in time and this made the money lenders to manhandle him. Case Study 1 Name 84 : Sivan .Sivan ventilated his feelings of anxiety. letting the client wasting time to disclose himself. Similarly the befriender are forbidden to impose their convictions and hence not to be pressed into giving opinions. He earned a good income from his work and supported his family and the education of his children. Age Financial status Type of case Panchayath : : : : 43 years low income Suicide attempt Meenangadi Perspectives of the Befrienders about the service Although in every day life there may be all sorts of things.
The befriender was contacted for befriending intervention by the FARM Project volunteer when Roni was drinking continuously for four days(until the befriender's visit) and picked up fights as he got more and more irritated with Simi's response and also due to the hang over of the previous day. Simi began to work as an anganwadi helper. He gradually got into the habit of drinking alcohol and the disharmony at home provoked him to be dependent on it. Roni reduced the regularity of his drinking but he becomes devilish when he is drunk (he consumes excessively as he loses control on himself once he tastes the liquor) and gets into fights with every one. His father was an alcoholic and used to torture his wife very badly. He could produce the food crops for household requirements and became convinced about the success of the organic farming.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign and support the family. Meanwhile his agricultural land had 85 . He was an exception until his marriage 10 years ago. The befriender discussed with Roni about the behavior pattern and suicidal Name Age Financial status Type of case Panchayath : : : : : Roni 40 years Middle income Distress case Pozhuthana Roni was the youngest son of his parents' 9 children. She also was suicide prone like her mother. Simi whose medication was discontinued with out the doctor's advice (due to fatigue and the huge expense of medicine) gets tensed. She was short tempered and had constant conflicts with the mother in law. He was persuaded to attend the organic farming training sessions and he became convinced about the organic farming. frustration and regrets as they expressed their concerns about each other's behavior pattern. Sivan and family were deeply grateful for the improved health condition of Sivan and the reduced financial burden through the timely intervention of befriending and referral. Simi was enabled to reflect on the impact of her reactions on such occasions. in front of Roni. fearful. Case Study 2 infection of wasp disease and this ruined his entire wealth. especially with those whom he has some grudge. The befriender listened with empathy and understanding to Roni and Simi individually as they ventilated their feelings of anger. as Roni had to sell his farm land to meet the consumerist attitudes of the wife. Once Simi attempted suicide (setting fire on herself) at a slight provocation. Now he is cultivating the entire land practicing sustainable agriculture measures as promoted by the FARM Project. Roni expressed his desire to drop his habit. He cared for his elderly parents and he expected a supporting hand when he married Simi but shattering his dreams. He said. insecure and wild when Roni comes home drunk. The befriender found greater improvement in Sivan during the follow up session and he continues the medication from DMHP. She survived the ordeal. Due to the over expenditure of his wife he was bankrupt already. Roni mobilized some finance through land brokerage and bought some land again and constructed a good house. Roni was enabled to reflect on the impact of alcohol on him who is at high risk of addiction due to his family background and its consequences on his family. She extended the emotional support by being with him as he got an attack of tremor during the befriending. Simi became very upset and showed suicide tendency. His parents had expired by then. hurt. "If I don't improve my health and become a burden to the family by losing all the assets on my treatment. He adopted organic cultivation in a portion of the land which was left uncultivated due to heavy loss. She uses abusive language and irritates him in response to his attacks on her. I would again attempt suicide and end my life…" The befriender listened to his distress and concerns with great understanding and empathy. He was referred to District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) as he expressed his concern on financial constrain to buy the costly medicines for him. All the brothers of Roni also turned to be alcoholics. He managed to save her and spent a lot of money on her treatment (both physical and Psychiatric) and sold his property for it. He abuses them verbally and ends in physical fight.
The relatives of Thomas used to blame her for the incident. He too had developed the habit of drinking after the marriage. Thomas' father was a very good farmer and he bought 18 acres of land when came to Wayanad. son and family. Roni started to work again as an agricultural labour. The deceased had 3 brothers and 3 sisters. She also had spent a lot of money for her own treatment. After some years they had sold some land and Thomas got only one acre land as his father's property. He was given grants to procure seeds and seedlings. Thomas was practicing ginger cultivation in Coorg for so many years.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research tendency of Simi and referred her to resume her treatment with District Mental Health Programme. The families of her husband were migrants from Kottayam District about 50 years back. At present they are living out of the money they get by rearing a cow. he decided to have a Homestead Nutrition Garden and could develop the same in six months time.4 Name Age Type of client Panchayath : : : : Viji 37 Suicide victim Muttil Name Age Type of client Panchayath : : : : Shanmughan 56 Suicide victim Padinjarathara Viji's husband Thomas committed suicide on 15th May 2008. the Police found his decayed dead body in a quarry near by Kalpetta. He was migrated from Kottayam 35 years back. Case. He could produce the food crop to ensure the household food security and could have a check on the family budget. She is now suffering from Asthma and Arthritis so that she cannot do tough work. The family members. He was also persuaded to attend the awareness programmes on sustainable agricultural measures. She is really struggling hard to look after the family. She said "I was really longing for some one to listen to my problems.5 acres of land. The elder son is studying in 10th standard and the younger son in 7th standard. Shanmughan was staying with his wife. Some of the neighbors were really helpful to the family after the incident. On 8th August 2008 Madhu found missing from the house for many days. His son was doing milk business and the family was leading a harmonious life till a tragedy struck over the family. He had spent lot money for these and it put him in indebtedness. The family consists of Viji and her two children. In August 2008 his son Madhu committed suicide due to some debt issues. The family was having more than 50000 Rupees during the time of suicide took place. Case: 03 Thomas do not care about the family. At present the family is having only 43 cents of land as he had sold the rest of the land before the death. She becomes very sad on hearing such comments from the relatives. His daughter got married and staying with her husband. The post. They used to say that it was due to Viji's fault that her husband committed suicide. Sometimes Shanmughan used to quarrel with the son and used to scold him for this. He has now emerged as a resource person in homestead nutrition farming and is engaged in promoting the same to his friends and neighbors. I feel relaxed when I shared with you". Having found as an option to overcome the agrarian crisis. He was an active volunteer of SNDP and a very good farmer.mortem report revealed that he had taken . The family is living in a pathetic condition now as Viji is not physically fit now. The befriending service was really useful her to share her sorrows. Thomas had taken loan from banks and money lenders and he was not able to pay back the money fully. He had one son and a daughter. He also had the habit consuming alcohol for many years. He had the habit of taking lottery tickets in abundance. The relatives of 86 56 years old Shanmughan is a middle class farmer having 1. He after working as an agricultural labour finds time with the family to work in the homestead garden. relatives and neighbors searched him for many days and after 5 days. Shanmughan gave a man missing complaint at the Police Station.
In 1990. It resulted in profit as well as the engagement of the farmer into the field made him forget his painful past.5 acre to repay the bank loan which was taken for housing. He did not wish to go outside and tried to be always at home. He could emerge as an organic cultivator in six months time and could find comparative changes in the conventional method and sustainable agriculture method. When drunken he used to become violent and scold and beat Liza. He started back to cultivate the land which was left barren due to the crisis and family problems. During the first two visits the befriender paid special attention to listen him as he was not able to share his feelings in front of anyone. The elder daughter is studying in 12th standard and the younger son is in 10th standard. But he was very calm and loving when not drunken. Some people gossiped that he had illegal relationship with Madhus's wife and that made Madhu to commit suicide. Her mother-in-law is also staying with them now. Indebtedness along with alcoholism contributed a lot to the suicide of Abraham. The befriending interventions strengthened him psychologically and helped him to come out of the suicidal thoughts. But during the second and third visit he became open up.5 Name Age Type of client Panchayath : : : : Liza 42 Suicide Victim Vellamunda Liza's husband Abraham committed suicide on 29th October 2006.10000/. He was a farmer having 2 acres of land. He stopped talking to others including the family members. Case . He said that he does not find any meaning in living any more. He was given promotional grants to cultivate his farm land through organic farming and after attending the series of sessions of sustainable agriculture he became convinced. After the third visit he has started to go outside and also has begun to attend the SNDP meetings. The befriending visits made him to ventilate the feelings. Many of the neighbors are of the opinion that he should not have committed suicide as it was possible for him to recover from the indebtedness. The Family was not included in the State Government's compensation package. Many rumors were spread about the relationship between Shanmughan and the wife of his son. He shared that he was thinking of committing suicide. He was not ready to talk at the time of the first visit.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign poison to commit suicide Shanmughan was really sad after the death of the son. If she could not go for work for one day. Liza said "I suffered a lot when he was alive. She got Rs. Now he seems to be happy and expects more befriending visits. He was happy that some one could listen to his feelings. The Parents of Thomas was migrated from Kottayam District to Kannur District 35 years back. they again migrated to Wayanad. It was during this situation the befriender visited this family.from the District Collectors fund for suicide victims. He was very much ashamed and sad about the rumors spread around him. But he was really shocked when the neighbors started to spread rumors about the cause of the suicide. they had to starve. He had stopped going out of the house after the death of the son. He also is now an active campaigner for the organic farming in the region. the wife was struggling a lot to meet their daily expenses. Some neighbors said 87 . He also had borrowed money from private money lenders at a higher interest. Liza is going for manual labor for daily wages and it is the only income source of the family. Thomas has 5 siblings and all of them are staying in Kannur District. Beside she is suffering respiratory deceases. Thomas was an alcoholic and he used to spend lot of money for this purpose." "He also had the habit of playing cards and spent a lot of money for it and it was the major reason for indebtedness. Shanmughan was an active volunteer of SNDP and due to the rumors he stopped going to SNDP Meetings. he used to beat me and stamp me and I was really frightened of him. After the death of the husband. but later he sold 1. Though they have 50 cents of land they do not get any income out of it.
Name Age Type of Client Panchayath : : : : Sidharthan 55 Suicide Prone Noolpuzha Analysis of the Outcome of the Befriending In the national level still a sense of gloom persists in the farming community regarding suicide.6 Interpretations of the Analysis of Befriending 1. He fell down from a tree while plucking the pepper 9 years back and his spinal code was broken. The family had spent a lot of money for the treatment of Sidharthan. They have started an income generation programme with the support from the FARM project. The befriending visits helped Sidharthan to share his feelings to the befriender. We made many visits. She also initiated a nutrition home garden in the premises of the house and is producing food crops. I am a burden for my family and no use for my family". But all the attempts of the family were in vein. They tried all types of treatment including Ayurveda. Hence the major outcome of the befriending is the decline in the suicide ratio which was the primary objective of the formation of the Save Farmers Network Campaign. Befriending to the distressed farmers and routine house visits had made an impact. The ventilation of feelings of the family members especially of the wife of the deceased was possible through the befriending visits. His elder daughter is married and the only son is looking after him. Case 6 could visit him. 10000/. It was in this situation the volunteers of Pain and Palliative care informed us about his condition and we 88 6. They bought a cow by making some contribution by their own along with the SFC support.02 per Lakh.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research that the indebtedness was caused by the miss management of money that he had taken from the bank and money lenders. This figure is been prepared by the District Mental Health Authority. This has helped her to reduce the family budget to a considerable level. Sidharthan was very much depressed about his condition and started showing no interest for treatment. the predominant agriculture district of Kerala suicide rates have been arrested. They had to spend a huge amount for his treatment and it also resulted in indebtedness. In 2007 the suicide rate was 45 per Lakh and now it has fallen down to 25. I would have killed my self". He was also helped by the volunteers of Pain and Palliative Care. He said "If I were able to move from this bed. "Why should I live. The community facilitator and the befriending coordinator of SFC made befriending visits to the family several times and listened to her grief. talked to him and listened to him patiently. He shared his feelings during the befriending visits. He shared his tendency to commit suicide during our visit. In Wayanad. Befriending deems to be quoted as the most sought . The fall in the suicide rates can be cross read with the FARM project which is addressing the awry of the farmers in the Wayanad. though he was very good in studies. Many times he had asked the doctors and also to the volunteers about the possibilities of mercy killing. The family was selected as a beneficiary of alternative livelihood support programme under SFC and they were provided Rs.For starting an income generation programme. He was bedridden in different hospitals for so many months. He was paralyzed and now he is bed ridden for the last 9 years. but in Kerala the rate is declining. The family members also expressed their happiness about the visits. He had lost the hope of coming back to the normal life. They also had taken loan over the security of their land. Since he was bedridden he was feeling loneliness and boredom. Befriending programme has been successful in arresting the suicides among the farmers. It also helped him to come out of his suicide tendencies and encouraged him to think positively. He said that because of his pathetic condition his son had to stop his education after graduation. Sidharthan was a farmer having 3 acres of land. He has two children and wife. Now people with any kind of mental agonies are approaching the Befrienders. His wife is cardiac patient.
out psycho social service by the suicide victim families as well as the distress families and has helped hundreds from the bridge of life to death.2%) 162 (100%) 89 . anguish and mental stress and they got relieved Identified 27 suicide attempted and prone persons including tribals and enabled them to overcome suicidal thoughts and to regain self confidence. guilt. trauma. 6. Media. The primary aim of the service is to give emotional support to the clients when they are suicidal. self esteem and dignity and were empowered to face reality. grief. 9. loneliness. It can be noted that in the year 2010 the suicide number is 38. marital problems.7 Focus Group Discussions on the Impacts of the FARM Project This report is a part of the primary data collection of the Participatory Action Research designed to collect Table: 25 Relative quantity of Participation in the PAR study activities in the FARM Project Types of FGD – PAR Place Participation by Gender No of Males FGD of farmers and stakeholders FGD of farmers FGD of PRI members.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 2. 10. Rendered emotional support through befriending service to 473 suicide victim families.02 per Lakh from 45 per Lakh.8%) 83 (51. Voluntary initiatives like Pain & Palliative Care Centres and Senior Citizens Forum. 6. financial crisis and allied reasons. The suicide rate of Wayanad has fall down to 25. Befriending gave wide publicity for the FARM project. persons attempted suicide. health related issues. Befriending alleviates misery. Government Officials and other stakeholders Focus Group Discussion of Organic Farmers Group Focus Group Discussion of Farmers and volunteers Focus Group Discussion of Staff of the FARM Project Total Participants Padinjarathara Soojipara Meppadi Suganthagiri Pozhuthana Kalpetta 17 14 19 11 11 7 No of Females 22 0 23 6 16 16 Total 39 14 42 17 27 23 79 (48. 3. persons with suicide tendency and in distress due to family conflict. Even though two month is reaming in 2010 the number is very much lower as against the highest number of 229 suicides in 2007. 7. despair and depression by listening to anyone who feels they have nowhere else to turn. alcoholism & drug abuse.Befriending has helped the clients to get reintegrated to agriculture adopting sustainable agricultural practices such as Organic Farming and this has ensured household food security. 4. From the remarks of the clients it is clear that they are sure that the agricultural crisis is as a result of the chemical farming practices. and to patients and family members of psychiatric illness Created space for persons in distress to ventilate their feelings of anxieties. fear. tension. There is a remarkable increase in the number of clients availing befriending service recognizing its relevance 8. Govt agencies. 5. Better recognition to SFC intervention among PRIs.
Facilitators of the project pointed out the extreme difference in the attitude of the PRI when they were isolated in the first months of the project and now being invited for almost all programmes in the Panchayath. ecological. But the commercialization of the organic farming is still a dream and in order to attain sustainability in terms of the organic farming. A good and warmth relationship between the Panchayath Raj Institutions is the achievement of the project. Regeneration of the agriculture has been induced in the minds of the farmers and the process is a slow and time consuming one. psycho social etc… The following table gives a gist on the sector wise programmes implemented and its relevance envisaged. Awareness sessions for improvising the coverage under the reference area was taken up by the project and this has resulted in welfare of the people in the reference area in various forms. This seminar resulted in the increased participation (30% ) of the public in the Gram Sabha as well as the quality of the programmes planned in the Gram Sabha meeting also improvised considerably. Further there were misleading perceptions from the various platforms that this programme but the SFC network could tide over such issues through successful implementation of the project. Discussions on the FARM Practices According to the inferences of the various stake holders. Farmers are now aware of the loss in the fertility of the soil due to inorganic farming and have taken steps to rejuvenate the soil fertility through organic methods. Coverage of the programme was ensured by the facilitators by communicating the benefits of the scheme to the neediest and soliciting the job card to these categories. The active participation of the people in the Gram Sabha resulted in lobbying for organic promotion and eco restoration programmes through the development plans of the PRIs. commercialization is a must. In these awareness programmes the participation of PRI members were solicited and this helped them to know more about the project and they 90 . In order to regenerate the cultivations farmers have been increasingly using the schemes of the spices board. One of the important convergences FARM programme had was the association with Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. forest department for awareness generation on rights of tribal on collection of forest minor produces. Regeneration of agriculture through the organic farming has begun and the progress is high in the homestead farms. coffee board etc…. Major focus of the programmes under the NREGA is on the agrarian sector and the capacitation programmes has resulted in authorities and beneficiaries to elect the most productive opportunities under the scheme. one of the integral concepts of the FARM project is on the right track and this can be noticed by increase in the number of model organic farms. Special tools for guiding the discussion. All of them agreed on the fact that they could improvise their own leadership qualities and could make fame as a social activist engaged in the noble cause of protection of "Mother Nature". Details of the FGD carried out are project in the following table. The general view of the stakeholders about the FARM project was very much promising. Sense Discussions about the Social Sector Programmes FARM project was not widely welcomed by the politicians in the initial stages and the acceptance now witnessing started from the orientation seminar on PRI to the community. Six Focus Group discussions were carried out in the reference area of the PAR to get first hand response from the stake holders. Agricultural Regeneration. became active promoters of the project. Inferences given by the participants are projected below. FGDs were one day programmes taking a minimum time of four hours and maximum time of seven hours. Other convergences in this regard were the linkages with the excise department for awareness programmes on de-addiction. Focus Group Discussion was to collect the responses on the beneficiaries on the Sustainable Agriculture Measures taken up by the project through the programmes in the economic.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research feedback from the stakeholders of the Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures in Wayanad District of Kerala.
Farmers are now aware of the difference between the indigenous varieties and hybrid varieties. Even though there is a high demand and price for the products. People who have applied organic inputs without the scientific knowledge have resulted in defaming the process as there was total failure. It can be perceived as an occupational therapy as it reduces the mental stress of the distress persons. Discussions on the Economic Sector Programmes on the Economic sector invited heated discussion in an all the FGDs as the visibility and output had provided fame for the project. it will result in the total drying up of the plants. Exchange of seeds between farmers is now widely accepted as it improves the productivity and pest resistance. the market strategy is yet a matter of concern. Hence almost all who had undergone the awareness session are now completely shifted to the cultivation of the indigenous seed variety. It was noticed that awareness generation and demonstration of the production of the inputs and application are needed to make the farmers aware of the nutrition farming process. Even visitors from other districts are attracted to these model farms. It was noticed that the resistance capacity of the farmers regarding health was higher as they suffered infections lower than that they had in previous times. Organic farming is something that has to be accepted in the heart of the farmers and there needs a vigorous behaviour change communication to achieve this. System of Rice Intensification was widely promoted among the farmers and nutrition farming also got wide acceptance among them. Protection and promotion of the indigenous variety of seeds was another elegant achievement of the FARM project. It can be noticed that the participation of the entire family members in the income generation programme makes it the most successful. Crisis families also have to be given the support as the chance of the distress person attempting suicide can be reduced to a considerable level. They also became aware of the decrease in productivity of hybrid seeds when they are used again and again. It was noted that there were failures in few cases due to unprecedented health issues resulting the beneficiary to sell and seek medical help. 91 . business plan. Marketing facility has to be launched for the sustainability of organic farming. Also farmers have tested it that the indigenous seeds ensuring consistent production. Fertility of the soil has been degraded and this can be regenerated only through the nutrition farming. Internal Control System is the best applicable monitoring system in the context of organic farming. It has been noted that befriending with the income generation supports results in the client to emerge as the breadwinner of the family and keeps the mind an angel's workshop apart from the idle mind which is the devils workshop. Organic farming has to be seen in a movement context rather than a project context which always gets stuck up by the end of the project. Concept of seed bank among the voluntary organization also got high importance and few of them established the same. A total of 1527 farmers were facilitated to practice organic farming. Strength of the organic inputs is high and if not applied in the correct manner. marketing appraisal etc… has helped the beneficiaries to select the viable trades. Skill training. 40% of the beneficiaries have doubled the income by increasing the units by constant savings and controlling family expenditure. Facilitators themselves have identified that there is measurable difference in the health indicators of the farmers who are practicing organic nutrition farming. It is cost effective and the most applicable in the situation of agricultural regeneration. Nutrition farms have ensured the food security of the households. Cow rearing is seen as the most benefited ones. It is expected that almost 80% of these farmers can be channeled for the organic certification in another two years time. Development of the model farms has resulted in more farmers replicating the nutrition practices in their agriculture fields.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign of group ownership in the form of Group Farming and Farmers Club has got wide acceptance among the farmers. Organic farming is now well rooted in the hearts of farmers. Income generation programme has ensured the rehabilitation of the suicide affected families.
Those who have sourced out the benefits of the befriending referred more cases in the locality and this could improve the services in the community Befriending has helped the client to improve their life status. Promotional grants to purchase seeds and seedlings to the group farms have yielded positive results. In few schools the project could facilitate the formation of Eco clubs. Another important achievement of the FARM Project had been the generation of the school children's interest in homestead farming in the school premises. A feeling of necessity 92 . Discussions on Health Sector Workshops on Food Safety. From an isolated mental stage the client is reintegrated to a more socialized situation and this remains as the remarkable output. Listening capacity of the befrienders have improved consistently over the period of three years. Another inference was that while at the client's premises the understanding of the psychological situation is better than the other form. Preparations of organic manure have envisaged the traditional know how of the tribals who had a glorious past as agriculturists. Some of the qualitative outcomes pointed out by the facilitators were as follows. Climate Change and Organic Farming were remarked as a curtain raiser for building up the attitude of the farmers towards sustainable agriculture. Befriending has advantage in building good rapport with the client other than counseling. Family relationship among the distress families could be improved considerably. Food Security.Befriending Befriending was referred as one of the pillars in the FARM project. Facilitators could intervene in the psycho-social problems of a number of clients. It was projected by the facilitators that they could avoid suicidal thoughts and tendencies of 33 persons in the year 2010 itself in the PAR area. A quality of self control was achieved by the befrienders. It has contributed to the food security of the tribal hamlets. Discussion on the activities for Ecological Protection Ecological protection through agricultural regeneration was the central part of the discussion among the organic farmers. the second phase had special programmes for the generation of the interest of the tribals. In quantitative terms there is an arrest in the suicide rate among the farmers in the district and this is an output of the befriending service. Political parties also have come forward to appreciate the services of the befrienders.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research Discussions in the Psychological Sector . Awareness programmes on protection and promotion of Indigenous varieties of crops has been now widely accepted among the farmers. At an average a facilitator could provide befriending and could achieve positive results to a minimum of 75 distressed and to a maximum of 125 clients. It was noticed that the community befriending is a time consuming process as the befriender has to visit the client's houses and has to be cautious about the external interventions. Befriending has increased the social interaction of the distressed persons. Social sensitivity of the community facilitators had improved a lot. The basic and advanced trainings in befriending have sharpened the skills of the facilitators and the volunteers. It was a silent revolution and as per the records the suicide rate is normal as compared to other districts. Self confidence of the clients increased consistently and this has resulted in the women mostly emerging as the breadwinner of the family. It was noted that the effort of providing befriending in the house premises of the client is hectic than the counseling offered at the counseling centers. Further through this tool facilitators could identify the real beneficiaries for the income generation programmes. As a result of the awareness programmes provided through FARM partner organizations there are commendable steps taken scale up the ecological protection. Injection of the concept of organic farming has resulted in the attitudinal changes among the tribals and there are instances of abandoning of chemical agriculture. Discussion on the programmes in the tribal sector Apart from the first phase. Now the clients are coming forward for the utilization of the service and this is a clear cut evidence of the acceptance of the befriending service.
Model plots on the nutrition farming promoted through the project have attracted several in the locality to the plots and on returning they have decided to replicate the same. Non Partisan and Non religious nature of the project was identified as the advantage that has resulted in the victory of the programme. Almost all the participants of the workshop have conceived the idea of promoting nutrition gardening as a part of their homestead farming to ensure house hold food security. Media coverage was another important pillar to the success of the programme. Facilitators could refer several persons to the Pain and Palliative Care unit as a follow up. In a Panchayath the awareness programmes could be provided to hundred persons where as the actual interested persons was five times higher than that. Awareness seminars on the harmful effects of the tobacco and allied products were also widely welcomed among the school going children. Launching programme ensured the state level visibility of the project. For example there was no follow up for the awareness session on PRI and now the participation of the people in the gram Sabha has decreased. Workshops and the convergence programmes with various state and central government agencies has given wide publicity to the project. Facilitation Programmes. It was unanimously acknowledged the fact that FARM programme has been accepted by the farming community of Wayanad. Apart from providing awareness through theoretical sessions and leaving the farmer into the farm. Non political. vegetables etc… which once was bunged by farmers has been regenerated by the influence of the FARM Project. Trainings on preparation of Bio inputs have helped the facilitators to address almost all concerns raised by the organic farmers. Day by day clipping of the new was there in the vernacular dailies. Kerala Agricultural University etc…Solicitation of the participation of Panchayath representatives in similar programmes has resulted in the acceptance of the PRIs in future course. For some programmes there was no follow up and this has resulted in derailing the achievement. Save Farmers Campaign has walked with the farmer and has facilitated the organic farming practice. Media coverage Project launching programme. Small grants in the form of medical assistance to the tribal and other famers has also attributed well as the most needy and deserving people benefitted from the cash assistance. Discussions on the Challenges Faced Few numbers of programmes and higher demand from the community tend to be a challenge. Lobbying workshops. Organic Farming alone could not survive and this was overcome by the trainings on nutrition inputs. 93 Discussions on Advocacy. Participants concluded that in the history of Wayanad FARM programme is the only programme that has got such a wide coverage and inclusive nature in the welfare of the agriculture community. Homestead farming of tubers. Concluding Discussion In order to analyze the overall impact of the FARM project a simple tool of ranking was carried out at the end of the each FGDs. State Horticulture Mission. It has resulted in fruitful linkages with .FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign of organic farming rather than compulsion is been evoked among the farmers. De-addicts took interest for the formation of Alcoholic Anonymous groups also. Awareness generated on the killer diseases also has had an impact among the community and further there was a linkage with the pain and palliative care programme in the District. More over the members of the PRIs has now turned into the spokes person of the FARM programme. the NABARD. Awareness programmes on de-addiction has helped some clients to undergo treatment in de-addiction centers. Demands for similar awareness sessions were higher after the pilot programmes. FARM programme is now well-known to the majority of the farmers in the Wayanad District. Documentation of the news clippings in the PCU office and the partner's office is the clear cut indicator for the achievement. Participants of the PAR was asked to rate the Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Project on a Five Point Scale with 0 as the poor performance and 5 as the best performance the mean average of the raking by the six FGD's is 4.
Advocacy. Income generation programmes offered to the suicide victims/distressed has not only resulted in the self sufficiency but also has resulted in those families taking up sustainable agricultural measures by practicing Nutrition Farming. 12. A total of 1527 farmers are now practicing organic farming under the FARM Project and it is expected that they will become organic certified farmers in another two years time.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 6. 8. 4. Ecological protection has gained importance among the recipient community and the notable achievements are the youth and children taking up the campaign in the schools. 13. 10. 2. Lobbying and Networking offered in the programme has resulted in the value added services to the farming community as all the partner NGOs of the FARM project could source out convergence projects from various Government organizations. Organic FARM Models developed in each GP are attracting several farmers and thus it results in the large scale replications. FARM Project has created an impact among the various folks of Wayanad and the recipient stakeholder's rates the entire progamme as 4 in a five point scale. As an output of the lobbying with the Panchayaths. 11. Beneficiaries both direct and indirect. 6. 30% increase in the Gram Sabha participation was found in the Padinjarathara Gram Panchayath. 3. 9. 15. of the FARM project stated that the project has resulted in the people returning to traditional sustainable agricultural practices and has become Green Volunteers. Awareness programmes in the health sector has resulted in people understanding the reasons behind the increasing rate of killer diseases as well as lifestyle diseases and thus the concept of Organic Farming has got wide acceptance. 7. Clear cut evidence is there with the facilitators in the reference area of the PAR regarding the saving of 33 distressed from suicide. Tribal sector programmes is another glorious intervention of the FARM project in the second phase as it has helped hundreds of tribal farmers to ensure food security and practice sustainable farming. The figure is more or less same in other GPs also.8 Interpretations of the Focus Group Discussion 1. Awareness programmes on the PRI's increased the participation of the public in the Gram Sabha level decision making process. Exchange of the seeds is now widely accepted between farmers as this increases the disease resistance and production. 94 . It has to be noted that the official records of the government provides vague figure on the tribal suicides in the agricultural crisis. A good and warmth relationship between the Panchayath Raj Institutions was developed and this resulted in framing supporting programmes on Organic farming from several GPs. Protection and Promotion of the Indigenous variety of seed turned to be one of the elegant achievements of the Project. 14. 5. Awareness offered on the issues behind addiction has helped around 50 farmers to go for de-addiction programmes and they have emerged as the volunteers of the Alcohol Anonymous Groups and are now actively participating in the similar initiatives. Befriending deems to be quoted as the magnificent intervention of the FARM project as each facilitator provided support to 100 distressed on an average. these Local Self Government Institutions have taken up the matter of issues behind chemical farming and has initiated certain steps in the regeneration of the chemical farms through organic farming.
FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 7 Analysis of the Convergence Programmes 95 .
promotion of organic farming. It aims at the optimum balance of the demand and use of natural resources so that they remain sustainable overtime. As an outcome the consortium NGOs sourced out various schemes and projects from these institutions adding value to the existing sustainable agriculture interventions of the FARM project. Project involves conservation. Analysis of the Consultation Workshops The project has created networking with various government and non government agencies as a part of the advocacy and lobbying programmes to upscale the activities in the field of Sustainable Agriculture. SFABC provides financial support for bankable detailed project reports. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) Save Farmers Campaign Network initiated discussion with the district level authorities of the NABARD as this agency was an important player in the agricultural regeneration scenario of the Wayanad District. State Horticulture Mission . creation of water resources. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 96 Workshop introducing the schemes of Horticulture Mission . This workshop gave the NGO partners about the schemes of the government in the horticulture sector such as creation of model nurseries for production and distribution of planting materials. Another unique intervention of the FARM project was transferring the technology of preparation and application of the bioinputs. As a result six NGO partners of the network submitted proposals for creating Watershed Projects and sourced funds worth Fifty Lakhs each for watersheds. post harvest management and training to farmers on the scientific production of planting materials and various management issues regarding value addition.1.Kerala (SHMK) One of the magnificent networking the FARM project was the linkage with the State Horticulture Mission of Kerala government. Apart from familiarization of the schemes a special session on the scientific preparation of the projects as per the SHM guidelines was also offered to the participants. Small Farmers Agri-Business Consortium Farming is the single largest private sector activity in the district of Wayanad as more than 70% of the inhabitants depends primarily in the agriculture. post harvesting management and marketing. Partners have submitted proposals with the agency and the projects are on the anvil. regeneration and judicious utilization of natural resources. A workshop on familiarizing the schemes and projects of the Small Farmers AgriBusiness Consortium whom works to assist the agripreneurs to make investments in setting up agribusiness projects through equity participation.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research 7. Horticulture Mission in as central sponsored scheme envisaged for an end to end development of the horticulture sector covering production. creation of green houses. A two day workshop familiarizing the schemes and projects of the SHMK was jointly convened as a part of the FARM project.
the fertile soil. the privileges like good health. endangered. Revathy offering inputs on organic pesticides and fertilizers 97 . a government run district level society of Key stakeholders involved in activities for sustainable agricultural development also accepted the FARM project as one of the superb project being run in the district for the regeneration of the sustainable agriculture.'the right to live'. the SFC Network to participate in the exposure visit programme at the South India level. SFC Network also actively participated in the ATMA fest organized for exhibiting the agricultural products and providing inputs on the topics regarding animal husbandry. could familiarize propagation techniques of rare.2. forest. District Mental Health Programme DMHP Being an approach to decentralize the mental heath care of the community using public health infrastructure. A new perspective of the Act was introduced in the context of the whole issue of "Justice" . the District Mental Health Programme is fast emerging as a very much desired service by the public. Further the social audit training has helped the community facilitators to help the people to chalk out relevant projects in the Gram Sabha. The exposure helped the farmers and volunteers to study about the sustainable models of vegetables and fruits cultivation and the services extended to the farming community by the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research.ATMA ATMA. Lobbying done by the farming community as well as the Networks of NGOs working in Wayanad has resulted in channeling the scheme as an appropriate strategy to conserve the biodiversity of Wayanad by channeling the poverty reduction programme for creation of employability in the agricultural sector. 7.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign MGNREGA deems to be quoted as yet another intervention from the government that has resulted in the suicide rates as it has resulted in the employability of the distressed agricultural labours in Wayanad. This scheme aims at enhancing the livelihood security of the people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Analysis of the Technology Transfer Programmes Traditional farmers made use of various kinds of organic Agricultural Technology Management .has been made to lose on the process of wrong development decisions and implementations. SFC network has established a good rapport with this institution which has been launched very recently and is referring the clients who require medical attention along with psycho social support. threatened herbal species and internalized alternative appropriate health care system. A two days workshop on MNREGA and Social Auditing was offered to the community facilitators of the FARM project. safe water. Hence the assurance of employment doesn't just stop with the job alone. employment opportunities . ATMA invited the participation of the selected volunteers and farmers of Ms. Farmers could get familiarized with the new varieties of seeds. the culture. The department has solicited our participation in several policy level consultation workshops and awareness programmes. rather it is a challenge to recapture all that .
It develops both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. flavor. Application of the Jeevajalam through irrigation ensures the microbial increase in the soil resulting in the growth promotion of the plants. SFC network has created a group of master trainers and they are providing the field level training by live demonstration. It helps the plant to strengthen the immune system. more and more farmers became interested in switching on to the organic farming by utilizing organic inputs.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research inputs as a part of the cultivation and in the advent of the green revolution. As the chemical agriculture has created a great havoc to the ecology and human beings. Cow urine. curd. When earth worms are introduced to the partially decomposed matter the compost is converted into high quality organic manure. It enhances the soil fertility and induces the taste. Bacterial Fertilizers. which supports the soil to get back its biological properties at a faster rate. Jeevajalam: It is another organically prepared input using Cow dung. This results in the richness of Carbon. all these knowledge repositories were ignored by the chemical farmers. 98 . Haritaki (Kadukka). and Practices in organic farming. within a shorter duration. Horn Solution: It's powerful organic manure made by packing fresh cow dung inside horn and burying in inverted position. water and rich fertile top soil from forest. R K Solution: It is yet another plant growth promoter. But the knowledge about the preparation of organic inputs can be said to be in a stage of extinction. water. colour. cow dung and urine of cow and is having a relation to the five elements such as earth. Indigenous Micro Organism and Sustainable Agricultural Practices were imparted as a part of the technology transfer programme. FARM project has taken interest in offering workshops and demonstration programmes on preparation of organic inputs to the farmers. Composting & Vermi wash: It's the natural method of decomposition of available organic matters in a stipulated time period. Knowledge on Organic Input Preparation. In order to revitalize such information's. air. ghee. When applied as foliar spray it increases the vegetative growth and yield of the crop. It is prepared from Cow dung. Horn manure improves the soil fertility at a faster rate. It serves as a pest repellent and increases the microbial activity of the soil. It is prepared from inputs such as milk. weight and size of the products. Jaggery. Effective Micro Nutrient Solution/Fruit Tonic: It is an effective microbial solution rich in anaerobic microbes that brings back the physio-chemical and biological properties of the soil. Starter solution is the organic solution. Organic Pesticides. Licorice (Eratti Madhuram) and water. FARM Programme tried to reincarnate the knowledge by soliciting the expertise of the resource persons from various parts of the country and provided the training sessions to the farmers. It increases the size and quality of flowers as well as promotes uniform flowering. Panchgavyam: It is an organic preparation having wider application potential in the plants. fire and sky. Nitrogen and Some of the advantages of the technology transfer programmes Soil fertility enhancement Seed selection and seed treatment Cost effective bio inputs preparation Integrated plant protection techniques Weed management Minimizing the water requirement Animal-Tree-Crop integration Organic Inputs disseminated through the FARM Project and its impacts Starter Solution (Amrithapani): It's a microbial solution which gradually enriches the soil fertility by converting the dead soil into living one. Farmers Cytosome (Coconut Tonic): It is a bio solution made of butter milk and coconut milk which encourages the plant reproductive growth of the plants. An attempt to document this knowledge also has been undertaken by the project. It prevents early falling of the flowers and promotes flowering. Jaggery.
So as the irrigation water flows through these gunny bags the neem seed. moths and insects. It is the most cost effective way of preparing organic matter. The attracted insects get stick to the castor oil and dies. Neem. Leucas. Neem Seed Extract (Veppinkuru Sathu): It is an organic pest repellent made of the powder of the Need seed along with Cow urine and water. It controls around 11 insects. Vermin wash also can be collected as it is a highly nutritious solution that carries the enzymes secreted by earth worms. Fish Tonic: It is a proteinaceous solution that fastens the vegetative growth of the plants and also acts as an effective pest repellent. Garlic Natural Remedy (Veluthulli Kashayam): It is also an effective pest repellent made of Garlic. bitter taste. This contols the attack of Aphids. Neem Oil Emulsion: This emulsion is prepared with 99 . Neem Seed Bag (Veppinkuru Sathu): Neem seed kernel are crushed coarsely and tied loosely into the gunny bags and placed on the field. bad or strong smell and not eaten by the cattle. Using small tins coated with yellow paint over which sticky castor oil is smeared. and her larvae consume the embryo and other contents of the egg. Ginger.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign other micronutrients. Adathoda. Yellow Sticky Trap: It is a pest repellent used to attract the adult insects to the yellow colour thereby killing the adult results in reduction in the pest population. Neem oil. This natural remedy controls the pest infection on the leaves and diseases. Lantana. Squahs bugs and Tarnished plant bug in the vegetables such as Cow pea. extract is dissolved and spread to the entire field which repelles the insect from the field. select any five plants. Female wasps inject their own eggs into the egg of the pest. Organic Pest Repellents preparation and Impacts Tobacco Natural Remedy (Pukayila Kashayam): It was used as an effective organic pest repellent in ancient times and now its importance has increased several folds. Chiretha Plant Mixture (Kiriyath Mishritham): The Chiretha Plant extract along with Bar Soap and Garlic is used for the pest control. Bar Soap and water. Herbal Tee: It is a pest repellant of biological formulation that can be sprayed in order to control the pest and insects. Kerosene and Chilli powder. This solution controls the insects and moths that sucks the sapplings of the plants. Select plants having milky latex. To the yellow colour the adult insects are attracted. It controls almost all types of bugs.. Bitter gourd etc. The collected plants are crushed or chopped / mixed well and placed in a mud pot or plastic container. It is an effective way of converting waste fish into amino acids and proteinaceous.. Based on those categories. which parasitize the eggs of many types of agricultural pest insects. Datura is some of the examples that can be effectively used in herbal pest repellant preparation. Eruku. It counters the yellowness of leaves and protects the plant from insects and other diseases. They are easy to rear and release in fields suffering from pest outbreaks. Trichogramma wasps are tiny Hymenopteran insects. Trichogramma: The wasps of genus Trichogramma is commonly known as "stingless wasps.
dried leaves etc… Green mulching is practiced by using the nearby green plants and spread like a blanket on the field. Soil fertility is maintained as the mulch adds organic value . hormones. Photosynthetic bacteria have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen so that plants can use the same. Pebbles/stones nearby are collected and arranged to cover the land. reach the various parts of the plant system and act as a systemic biocontrol agent against various fungal and bacterial diseases. Vigorous growth of biological trichoderma viride fungicide overshadows the pathogenic fungi. For example. A farmer showing the organic inputs Poochi Viratti: The plant-based concoction called `Poochi viratti'. Live mulching is growing the leguminous plants along with the crop which enhances the nitrogen fixation too. enzymes vitamins etc. around the plant. It is used in making compost (natural fertiliser). Complex substances in plant parts and animal wastes are converted into organic acids. wilts. who are overpowered and prevented from infecting the plants. Paddy straw. is made by soaking equal quantities of leaves of Vitex negundo (Karinochi). This microbe has the unique ability to enter the plant vascular system. Competitive exclusion of pathogens as the 100 Practices in Organic Farming and Impacts Mulching (Puthayidal): Mulching is a practice of covering the topsoil surface by any fresh/dry organic matter so as to reduce the direct evaporation by more than 50%. Stone mulching is followed in the absence of all the three methods. and promote healthy growth in early stages of crop. There are four different methods of mulching practices are commonly practiced depending on the available neighbourhood resources. Trichoderma: It is an eco friendly biological fungicide containing spores and conidia of mycoparasitic fungi Trichoderma virid. Michorisa: It is an effective microorganism that suppresses the harmful ones while promoting the neutral micro-organisms to act as beneficial ones through genetic manipulation.. Aloe vera (Shathveri) and Pongamia pinnata (Pongam) in cow's urine for seven days in shade.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research result of rapid colonization of the rhizosphere by pseudomonas fluorescens may also be an important factor in disease control. siderophores and hydrogen cyanide. damping offs. Sugarcane thrush. Pseudomonas fluorescens suppress plant diseases by production of number of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. leaf blights spots etc. Dry mulching is done by covering the field with dry organic matter. Nerium (Arali). water and plant surface environments. Calotropis gigantea (Erukku). Trichoderma when introduced along with seeds or at root zone protect the seedlings from attack by soil borne pathogens that cause root / collar / stem rots. nucleic acids. The fermented liquid is diluted ten times in water and sprayed over the crop to repel sucking and chewing pests Preparation of Micro Organism Fertilizers and Impacts Pseudomonas: It is is an non-pathogenic saprophytes that colonize soil. It promotes the growth and proliferation of fungi Vesicular arbacus (Michorisa) which lives symbiotically on crop roots.
and organic fertilizers enter the soil. IMO break these down into simpler compounds or elements that can undergo ionic interactions. It is collected from nearby forest or fields using a simple wooden lunch box with steamed rice. complex organic materials such as plants. Leucas. poly culture or diversified planting with many varieties is very much appreciable and helps to improve the overall farm economy. as mulching material is the feeding material for them. Bio-Fencing: It is a method of growing some plants as a fence around the main crop that will prevent the entry of pests and insects as they emit bitter smell. Datura have best pest repelling characters. By this method farmers can easily eliminate the seeds with low seed content. Creates microclimate that favors the microbial growth Integrated Cropping: Instead of cultivating single crop in the field. Selection of good quality paddy seeds is most important for getting the better quantity harvest. It is one component of poly-culture. Seed treatment with cow urine and Seed treatment with Amirthapani (Starter solution) are the two important methods of nourishing the seeds Integrated Crop Management: The integrated plant protection is aimed to bring back the natural ecological balance and sustaining the prey-predator relationship. Practices in Sustainable Agriculture and impacts Multiple Weed Sowing: It's a method to enhancing the soil fertility through ensuring soil texture. For example. Plants like Adathoda. To avoid all the major issues of farming. bitter taste. mono cropping affects the farmer in many ways. When 101 . Preparation of Indigenous Micro Organisms and impacts Indigenous microorganism is a powerful input that improves soil condition and crop health. Sudden outburst of diseases. Enhances the soil microbial population. animals. if we select multiple crops then we can control very well the pest attack and spread of diseases. Hence the farmers can get the 100 per cent quality seeds for sowing. It helps to prevent the pests in a natural way that involves no chemicals. this method is commonly followed. A traditional element of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. Selection of Quality seeds and Seed treatment: Simple salt solution method help to identify the quality paddy seeds. Plants having milky latex. and bitter smell generally keep the insects away. pest attack and frequent market fluctuations are the curse of mono cropping. excrements. Neem. Moreover. and are converted to a form readily absorbable by plants. This enriches the top soil with all macro and micronutrients as well as the water holding capacity. farm eco balance is well maintained. cheap yet powerful microorganism input. Crop Rotation: Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped. we can have safe.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign to the soil. Animal Husbandry: It helps the farmers to avail the organic fertilizer in immense quantity. microbial population and necessary soil nutrients through out enabling the quick growth of the plant. It helps the composting of grasses which are not easily degradable through these animals and ensures the decrease of the nitrogen and carbon in these grasses. Lantana. Crop rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deeprooted and shallow-rooted plants. Eruku. Because of the diversity of standing crops. By utilizing microorganisms that survived and adapted to that local place for numerous generations. Even the diverse inorganic matters decomposed by IMO increase in their effectiveness. Seed treatment: Seed treatment refers to treating of seeds with plant growth promoting or anti fungal or antibacterial substances to impart vigour and to develop pest and disease resistance of the seed. Crop rotation also seeks to balance the fertility demands of various crops to avoid excessive depletion of soil nutrients.
helps the farmer to receive diversified products and diversified income. (ii) rising costs of cultivation. poultry. special meetings were facilitated in each Gram Panchayaths soliciting the participation of the various stakeholders of the FARM project.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research soil fertility and makes farming easier. rabbit. an approach of animal tree crop integration is very much essential. green manure trees and crops should be part of the farm system. Farm must have animals like goat. SFC network has facilitated three research works and two documentaries. 2) Wayanad Suicides . Fruit trees.Documentary and 5) Fire in the belly Documentary. Farming becomes economically profitable even for the small and marginal farmers. Farm animals. Farmers also are convinced about the findings of the research and several farmers organizations have taken up these findings seriously.3. Analysis of the Research Output Dissemination On the march to ensure sustainable agricultural development in the region. 4) Sorrows of Wayanad . Connections and relations between various elements of the farm. and Planning Board. In order to disseminate the findings of these researches. It maintains the natural balance between the predator and the prey. Agricultural Department. The mixed farming is known as Animal-tree-crop integration. fodder crops. The research report of Agrarian crisis in Wayanad came forth with factual information's behind the factors that led to the crisis in farming sector. Research study on the suicides of Wayanad was an Releasing the research reports When these plants are grown around the field. 7. they act as a bio fence. (iii) plummeting prices of farm commodities. Companion Planting: It is a method of growing some special along with the main crop plant which secretes bitter secretions. These secretions support the main plant and save it from insects. herbal plants. Some of the obvious factors that turned agriculture into a negative economy projected by the research are: (i) crop failure. farm animals are grown all together so each will help the other in many ways.A psycho social autopsy 3) Food Safety and Health issues and its correlation with farming practices using chemicals. vegetables. (iv) climatic change. fish and other. controlling the entry of insects into the field. Plants having yellow colour flower such as Chrysanthemum have natural insect repelling property. Then each one's waste will be the food at the next level. cow. Gram Panchayaths have taken up these research findings seriously and it is found that incorporating steps in their plan funds. Animal-tree-crop integration: To sustain the farming activities. (v) lack of credit availability for small farmers (vi) absence of adequate social support infrastructure at the level of the village and district (vii) absence of policies. buffaloes. fodder trees. They were 1) "Agrarian crisis in Wayanad". Integrated farming retains and enhances the 102 . SFC network has submitted the reports with the district administration and other governmental organizations such as Horticulture Mission.
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eye opener for the government as the findings projected the death of around 1690 people. Some of the recurring reasons suggested by the suicide victims are indebtedness, depression, addiction to alcohol, chronic ailments, family conflicts, marital disharmony, economic crisis and stress prevailing within the families. Indebtedness was identified by 27.73% of the surveyed as the principal causative factor for suicide. In contravention to the conventional perceptions that there are no suicides among Field level research output dissemination meetings the indigenous/tribal communities, the study revealed high incidence of suicides among organic farms. This association also helped the the tribal population particularly among Paniyas. representatives of the SFC network to be selected for various decision making bodies of the The Research on the Food Safety and Health Issues government. 4. Dissemination of knowledge on the preparation of projects that, cropping pattern of Wayanad has undergone a major change. The use of fertilizers has organic inputs has helped thousand of farmers to been gone up leaps and bounds over the years with adopt the nutrition induced organic farming. Documentation of these Bio- fertilizers, Biothe change in cropping pattern. There is prevalence of chronic diseases like cancer, heart ailments, asthma pesticides etc… has helped in conservation of the traditional farmer's knowledge regarding the eco etc in the Panchayath and there is a coincidence in friendly farming. the period from which such diseases started to spread and the intensity of the agrochemical usage gone up 5. As an outcome of the research works, SFC network by the introduction of crops such as banana and was invited by SUBJECT COMMITTEE of the LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, GOVERNMENT OF vegetables such as bitter guard. KERALA preparing ORGANIC FARMING POLICY 7.4 Interpretations to present our findings and suggestion towards framing the policy. 1. As an outcome of the networking with the State 6. Dissemination of these research outputs have Horticulture Mission seven network organizations of the FARM project submitted proposals to the further resulted in solicitation of the partnership of the SFC network in various government Horticulture Mission and sourced out One Lakh to programmes aiming at the Sustainable Agriculture Ten lakhs from the government organization 2. Networking and association with the MGNREGA Development of Wayanad District. 7. It can be said that on the road map to sustainable programmes has resulted in policy level changes agricultural development of Wayanad, the research in the act as agriculture activities and eco restoration activities are included in the rural findings has had tremendous influence in framing policies and programmes of Government. employment programme. 3. Association with ATMA helped the farmers to have exposure visits to other states and learn from
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Recommendations and Suggestions
State Organic Policy has a wide scope and this welcome sign for the regeneration of the agriculture which is yet going through the crisis. Hence it is recommended that Cow Rearing IGPs should only be focused if there are any more similar efforts. It is proposed to initiate research on the traditional organic input preparations.FARM Wayanad Participatory Action Research he present study proposes some suggestions and recommendations which are supposed to be taken up by the various stakeholders as catalyzing agent in the agricultural regeneration measures of Wayanad. This can be considered as a first step towards the Sustainable Agriculture Development. 7. It doesn't provide any month income and hence the integral concept of income generation for a poverty affected is always compromised. Anti GM Campaign: Even though Indian Government has said No to GM. For this government should plan and implement special programmes and packages. It can be noted that Animal Husbandry. Special Packages for Homestead Nutrition Gardens: Participatory Action Research conducted in the Six Panchayaths gives us the inference that revival of Homestead Gardens which were a hallmark of Wayanad is required. 1. 3. In Wayanad only few are practicing this method and it is recommended having a Farmers Participatory Action Research and Information Dissemination on the possibility of Biodynamic Farming. The Agriculture Department should take effective steps in regenerating the depleted paddy fields cultivated through inorganic farming through promoting organic System of Rice Intensification. 8. There is no competition in the field as the demand for milk is higher than the supply. especially the cow rearing is found to be the most successful IGP in the geography of Wayanad as there are abundance of raw materials available as well as the marketing mechanism is fool proof . As a policy level suggestion the research is putting forth that Goat Rearing IGP should not be considered as sustainable one as the study has found several impediments in promoting the same. Bio-Dynamic Farming: It was found that BioDynamic Farming also has a great potential to be explored. 4. 2. 106 . The effective implementation of the State Organic Policy is what the farmers are looking for. It was learned through the study that the traditional farmers practiced a lot of Organic Inputs made from the raw materials available in the homesteads. Further the sustainability of the IGP is also very low as in several cases the beneficiaries sold the units frequently and met their personal expenses. The main suggestion is to the government to take up the findings of the research towards drafting the policies and packages for the Agricultural Sustainability and Farmers Rights Protection in Kerala especially Wayanad. This indigenous knowledge is supposed to become vanished with the passage of the old farmers and hence in order to regenerate those practices there requires a documentation and scientific study on the Preparation and usefulness of the Organic Inputs. Hence the awareness has to be promoted widely to make the people understand the situation. there are chances of reemergence of those multinationals promoting GM seeds. Hence the viability of the Goat Rearing IGP is not promising. 6. Scientific research on the SRI is required: System of Rice Intensification alone has the potential to turn the Wayanad into the granary of Kerala and it is recommended that the government as well as the other stakeholders should initiate a scientific T 5. Future of the Organic Farming in Kerala entirely depends on the government's will power to implement the plans made in the policy in an effective and time bound manner. research.
New Frontiers in Participatory Research and Gender Analysis”. Cornell Participatory Action Research Network. Historical Food Insecurity. J. Agro forestry System 24: 203–213. College of Forestry. Ch: Culture. Australia. 2002. April 22. Andheri West. Laya Prasad: “Participatory Action Research in Community Forestry: A case study of a Community Forest Users Group from a hill village of Eastern Nepal. Sept 9-14 . Uprety. Santhakumar V: Biodiversity in home gardens. Impact of Agricultural Trade Liberalization in Kerala. 1998. P.K.. Intellectual Property and Territorial Rural Development. Dr Santhosh Kumar AV. 2002 (2006a): Draft Approach Paper for Kerala’s Eleventh FiveYear Plan. M. 1996 Davis. Program Design and Evaluation Methodology Report No. Tulika Books. Vol.B and Passfield.A: Socio-economic characteristics of homestead farming in south Kerala.Annexure 1 - Bibliography Arena. the Indian State. June 6. In: International Workshop. Skerritt O: Action Learning and Action Research: Paradigm. Kerala. State Planning Board. Centre for Rural Development and Appropriate Technology. B. Cornell University. Southern Cross University Press. Dick. 2006 Patnaik. 2005 Mohanakumar and Sharma: ‘Analysis of Farmer Suicides in Kerala’. H: The “Trap of Conventionalization”: Organic farming between Vision and Reality Paper for Working Group 5 at the XXI congress of the ESRS. Consultant. Tropical Agriculture. Prabhat: “Agricultural Production and Prices under Globalization”. in association with IRTC.1999 Jose D. Pramod: “Nutrition Gardening – As opposed to Organic Farming”.S. (2006b): Kerala Human Development Report 2005. R – Leitner. Assistant Professor. 61: 135–152. Agro forestry and Natural Resource Management. 2005. London: Verso. K: Conducting focus group interviews in developing countries. Perspectives. Mumbai. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis for Technology Development. 2003 Raghavan M: “Changing pattern of Input use and Cost of Cultivation”: Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. Lismore. a sustainable human ecosystem. Kumar. D: Participatory Action Research and social Change. July 2010. and Nair.38 Nr. Keszthely. The Retreat to Unfreedom.: U. June 28. 8. J. Thiruvananthapuram. pp 123-129. Washington. and the Green Revolution. EL Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World. 1993 Joseph. Economic and Political Weekly. Processes and Applications. New York. (Hrsg) Effective Change Management through Action Research and Action Learning: Concepts. Ray. 2001.1. John. South Asian Economic Journal. Sultan Bathery. Zuber. 2007 Jeromi P D: Farmers’ Indebtedness and Suicides. FAO: The state of Food and Agriculture. 2004 Kumar. and Shanmugaratnam N: Traditional home gardens of Kerala. Palakkad. towards a viable conservation strategy.R: The enigma of tropical home gardens. 37:107–109.M and Nair. Sociologca Ruralis. Brigit and K J Joseph: “Commercial Agriculture in Kerala after WTO. 2002 Selener. August 2007.I. Kerala Government & Dr Kaoru Ichikawa. Published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2009. 1997 Shreyas (2006): Agricultural Crisis and Debt Suicide in Wayanad. Agro forestry System. J A: “What do we mean by Participatory Research in Agriculture. 2008. An article written when studying in University of Warwick.C. 2005.S. Joseph A: Confronting Agrarian Crisis. State Planning Board.D. Mike: Late Victorian Holocausts. Hungary 22-27. United Nations University of Advanced Studies: “The home gardens of Wayanad. Ashby. 1987 Kratochvil. Thiruvananthapuram. A. Agency for International Development. Columbia. D. Praxis and Programs In: Sankara. Wayanad. SpaceAge Concepts India Ltd.pp 3-20. FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign 107 . Cochin University of Science and Technology. New Delhi. R. New Era Kathmandu Vora.
FARM Wayanad Abbreviations CBA CBO DMHP FARM FGD FTA GHG GoK GP HYV IGP KSSF LIC NG MASSS MGNREGA PAR PRA PRI QR SA SFABC SFC SHMK SRI STARS VOICE WHC WSSS WTO WWA Cost Benefit Analysis Community Based Organization District Mental Health Programme Facilitating Agricultural Regeneration Measures Focus Group Discussion Free Trade Agreement Green House Gas Government of Kerala Gram Panchayath High Yielding Varieties Income Generation Programme Kerala Social Service Forum Life Insurance Corporation Nutrition Gardening Malabar Social Service Society Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Participatory Action Research Participatory Rural Appraisal Panchayath Raj Institutions Quantitative Restrictions Sustainable Agriculture Small Farmers Agri-Business Consortium Save Farmer’s Campaign State Horticulture Mission Kerala System of Rice Intensification Society for Total Advancement and Rehabilitation Services Voluntary Organization for Innovative Collective Action Water Holding Capacity Wayanad Social Service Society World Trade Organization Women’s Welfare Association 108 Participatory Action Research .
V. Dr.R Haridas Manager NRM Caritas Asia SFC Network Partners & FARM Wayanad Project Team Mr. Romance Antony Director.FARM Wayanad Save Farmers Campaign Wayanad Research Series IV: Participatory Action Research on FARM as an intervention to Agrarian Crisis and Farmers Suicide in Wayanad October 2010 Published by Fr. Jaimon C Uthup Consultant . Antonytopaul External Consultant Study done by Mr.Research & Documentation Save Farmers Campaign Network Project Team 109 . Kerala Social Service Forum Contributing Team Dr. E J Jose Programme Manger Kerala Social Service Forum Fr.
Adichira.A Study Report Published by Kerala Social Service Forum AMOS Centre. Kottayam. India Pin . Kerala.com www. India. Tel: +91-481-2594802.686016.kssf. Wayanad.673122 Tel: 04936206473 Email: email@example.com . PIN . Thellakom PO.org FARM Programme Coordination Office: KSSF Regional Office Kalpetta North.Kerala. Fax: + 91-481-2591795 kssforum@yahoo.
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