This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DEVELOPING READING SKILLS
Deanne K. Milan
City College of San Francisco
" Ii - ~- ,J;';",~'."""''' _
~ , -, ,', \/1,1
- ;:'f,~-JL'::~~"~ Ii!
'<." _ ','.
.t: .~.~::.:~?!!.== McGraw-Hili
New York st. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Caracas Hamburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal New Delhi Oklahoma City Paris San Juan Sao Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
Second Edition 987654 DEVELOPING READING SKILLS Copyright © 1987, 1983 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Milan, Deanne K. Developing reading skills. Includes index. 1. Reading (Higher education) 2. Reading comprehension. I. Title. LB1050.42.M55 1987 428.4'07'11 86-21949 ISBN 0-07-554217-X Data
McGraw-Hill staff members also deserve thanks for their work on the text, especially C. Steven Pensinger and Anna Marie Muskelly.
Photo Credits p. 232, left: Courtesy of Apple Computer Company; p. 232, right: Courtesy of John Deere & Company; p. 235, top left: Randy MatusowlMonkmeyer; p. 235, top right: Freda LeinwandIMonkmeyer; p. 235, below: Courtesy of Guerlain, Inc.
E. J. Kahn, from The Big Drink: The Story of Coca-Cola, by E. J. Kahn. Copyright © 1960 by E. J. Kahn. Reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc. CHAPTER 1 Selma Fraiberg, from The Magic Years, by Selma H. Fraiberg. Copyright © 1959 by Selma H. Fraiberg. Reprinted with permission of Charles Scribner's Sons. Lewis Thomas, from The Medusa and the Snail, by Lewis Thomas. Copyright © 1972 by Lewis Thomas. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Olga Knopf, from Successful Aging, by Olga Knopf. Copyright © 1975 by Olga Knopf. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Alexander Petrunkevitch, from "The Spider and the Wasp," by Alexander Petrunkevitch. Copyright 1952 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Lewis Thomas, from The Lives of a Cell, by Lewis Thomas. Copyright © 1971, 1972 by the Massachusetts Medical Society. Originally appeared in The New England Journal of Medicine. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Gerald Durrell, from The Overloaded Ark, by Gerald Durrell. Copyright 1953, renewed © 1981 by Gerald Durrell. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. and Faber and Faber Ltd. Eugene Kinkead, from "Tennessee Small Fry," by Eugene Kinkead. Copyright © 1979 by The New Yorker Magazine, Inc. Reprinted by permission. John Steinbeck, from America and Americans, by John Steinbeck. Copyright © 1966 by John Steinbeck. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. John McPhee, from Oranges, by John McPhee. Copyright © 1966, 1967 by John McPhee. Reprinted by perrnission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc. Jonathan Schell, from The Fate of the Earth, by Jonathan Schell. Copyright © 1982 by Jonathan Schell. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Jane Goodall, from "Nonverbal Communication Patterns," by Jane Goodall. In Human Origins: LOllis Leakey and the East African Evidence, Glynn Isaac and Elizabeth McCown, eds. Reprinted by permission of The Benjamin/ Cummings Publishing Co. CHAPTER 2 Lewis Thomas, from The Lives of a Cell, by Lewis Thomas. Copyright © 1971, 1972 by the Massachusetts Medical Society. Originally appeared in The New England Journal of Medicine. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Lewis Thomas, from Late Night Thoughts While Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony, by Lewis Thomas. Copyright © 1982 by Lewis Thomas. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Bruno Bettelheim, from The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, by Bruno Bettelheim. Copyright © 1976 by Bruno Bettelheim. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Marie Winn, from Children Without Childhood, by Marie Winn. Copyright © 1981, 1983 by Marie Winn. Reprinted by permission of Pantheon Books, a Division of Random House, Inc. Peter Farb, from Word Play: What Happens When People Talk, by Peter Farb. Copyright © 1973 by Peter Farb. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Jonathan Norton Leonard, from Great Ages of Man/Ancient America, by Jonathan Norton Leonard and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Copyright © 1967 by Time-Life Books, Inc. John Steinbeck, from America and Americans, by John Steinbeck. Copyright © 1966 by John Steinbeck. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Marie Winn, from The Plug-In Drug, by Marie Winn. Copyright © 1977 by Marie Winn Miller. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Pauline Kael, from State of the Art, by Pauline Kael. Copyright © 1983, 1984, 1985 by Pauline Kael. Originally appeared in The New Yorker. Reprinted by permission of the publisher, E. P. Dutton, a division of New American Library. John McPhee, from Oranges, by John McPhee. Copyright © 1966, 1967 by John McPhee. Reprinted by permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc.
CHAPTER 3 Irving Howe, from World of Our Fathers, by Irving Howe. Copyright © 1976 by Irving Howe. Reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Selma Fraiberg, from The Magic Years, by Selma Fraiberg. Copyright © 1959 by Selma H. Fraiberg. Reprinted with the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons. John Simon, from Paradigms Lost, by John Simon. Copyright © 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980 by John Simon. Used by permission of Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. Olga Knopf, from Successful Aging, by Olga Knopf. Copyright © 1975 by Olga Knopf. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. James Agee and Walker Evans, from Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, by James Agee and Walker Evans. Copyright 1939 and 1940 by James Agee. Copyright 1941 by James Agee and Walker Evans. Copyright 1960 by Walker Evans. Copyright © renewed 1969 by Mia Fritsch Agee. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. John Updike, from "A Soft Spring Night in Shillington," by John Updike. Copyright © 1984 by John Updike. Originally appeared in The New Yorker. Reprinted by permission. David Rains Wallace, from The Klamath Knot, by David Rains Wallace. Copyright © 1983 by David Rains Wallace. Reprinted by permission of Sierra Club Books. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe Cousteau, from The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea, by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe Cousteau. Reprinted by permission of Doubleday & Company, Inc. CHAPTER 4 Eugene Kinkead, from "Tennessee Small Fry," by Eugene Kinkead. Copyright © 1979 by The New Yorker Magazine, Inc. Reprinted by permission. Jonathan Norton Leonard, from Great Ages of Man/Ancient America, by Jonathan Norton Leonard and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Copyright © 1967 by Time-Life Books, Inc. Berton Roueche, from In Search of Small Town America, by Berton Roueche. Copyright © 1982 by Berton Roueche, Reprinted by permission of Little, Brown and Company. Barry Holstun Lopez, from "A Presentation of Whales," by Barry Holstun Lopez. Copyright © 1980 by Harper's Magazine. All rights reserved. Reprinted from the March 1980 issue by special permission. Marie Winn, from The Plug-In Drug, by Marie Winn. Copyright © 1977 by Marie Winn Miller. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Calvin Trillin, from "I've Got Problems," by Calvin Trillin. Copyright © 1985 by Calvin Trillin. Originally published in The New Yorker. Reprinted by permission. Marie Winn, from Children Without Childhood, by Marie Winn. Copyright © 1981, 1983 by Marie Winn. Reprinted by permission of Pantheon Books, a Division of Random House, Inc. Peter Farb, from Word Play: What Happens When People Talk, by Peter Farb. Copyright © 1973 by Peter Farb. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Barbara Ehrenreich, from "A Feminist's View of the New Men," by Barbara Ehrenreich. Copyright © 1984 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission. Rachel Carson, from The Edge of the Sea, by Rachel Carson. Copyright © 1955 by Rachel Carson. Copyright © 1983 renewed by Roger Christie. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe Cousteau, from The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea, by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe Cousteau. Reprinted by permission of Doubleday & Company, Inc. Thomas Whiteside, from "Cable: Part III," by Thomas Whiteside. Copyright © 1985 by Thomas Whiteside. Originally published in The New Yorker. Reprinted by permission. John Knowles, from "Everybody's Sport," by John Knowles. Originally published in Holiday, July 1956. Reprinted by permission. CHAPTER 5 William Safire, from "Sneer Words in the News," by William Safire. Copyright © 1980 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission. Russell Baker, from "Little Red Riding Hood Revisited," by Russell Baker. Copyright © 1980 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission. William Overend, "His Heart's in the Trite Place," by William Overend. Copyright © 1976 by the Los Angeles Times. Reprinted by permission. Maya Angelou, from I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, by Maya Angelou. Copyright © 1969 by Maya Angelou. Reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc. Cynthia Ozick, from "Rosa," by Cynthia Ozick. Copyright © 1983 by Cynthia Ozick. Originally published in The New Yorker. Reprinted by permission of Cynthia Ozick and her agents, Raines and Raines, 71 Park Ave., New York, New York. Richard Altick, from Preface to Critical Reading, 4th ed., by Richard D. Altick. Copyright 1946, 1951, © 1956, 1960 by Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc. Reprinted by permission of CBS College Publishing.
Paul Fussell, from "My War," by Paul Fussell. Copyright © 1982 by Harper's Magazine. All rights reserved. Reprinted from the January 1982 issue by special permission. Jon Carroll, "Innkeeper to the Seriously Disgruntled," by Jon Carroll. Copyright © 1984 by the San Francisco Chronicle. Reprinted by permission. Virginia Woolf, from Mrs. Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf. Copyright 1925 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.; renewed 1953 by Leonard Woolf. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, from "Hotel California," by Barbara Grizzuti Harrison. Copyright © 1981 by Harper's Magazine. All rights reserved. Reprinted from the February 1981 issue by special permission.
Caskie Stinnett, from ''ARoom with a View," by Caskie Stinnett. Copyright © 1980 by Down East Enterprise, Inc. Reprinted from Down East Magazine. Russell Baker, "Universal Military Motion," by Russell Baker. Copyright © 1981 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission. Lewis Thomas, from The Lives of a Cell, by Lewis Thomas. Copyright © 1971, 1972 by the Massachusetts Medical Society. Originally appeared in The New England Journal of Medicine. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. Gerald Durrell, from The Overloaded Ark, by Gerald Durrell. Copyright 1953, renewed © 1981 by Gerald Durrell. Reprinted by permission of Viking Penguin Inc. and Faber and Faber Ltd. Stanley Mieses, "Notes and Comment," by Stanley Mieses. Copyright © 1985 by The New Yorker Magazine, Inc. Reprinted by permission.
''ACLU Challenges Plan for D.C.Nativity Scene," from the San Francisco Chronicle. Reprinted with permission of United Press International, Inc. Richard B. Levin, Letter to the Editor, Los Angeles Times, by Richard B. Levin, M.D. Reprinted by permission. "Censorship in Braille" and ''A Grand Old Anthem," editorials from The Boston Globe. Reprinted courtesy of The Boston Globe. Richard A. Viguerie, "Thunder on the Right: A Plea for Home Schooling," by Richard A. Viguerie. Copyright © 1984 by Richard A. Viguerie. Doug Wilhide, "In the Battle Against Grade Inflation, the Winners Are Often the Losers," by Doug Wilhide. Copyright © 1986 by the Chronicle of Higher Education. Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher. Tom Wicker, "Not So Neat a War," by Tom Wicker. Copyright © 1985 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission. Merle Ellis, ''A Beef Against Vegetarians," by Merle Ellis. Merle Ellis's column is reprinted by permission of Chronicle Features, San Francisco. H. L. Mencken, ''The Penalty of Death," by H. L. Mencken. Copyright 1926 and renewed 1954 by H. L. Mencken. Reprinted from A Mencken Chrestomathy, by H. L. Mencken, by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Sandra Scarr and James Vander Zanden, from Understanding Psychology, 4th ed., by Sandra Scarr and James Vander Zanden. Copyright © 1974, 1977, 1980, 1984 by Random House, Inc. Reprinted by permission of CRM Books, a Division of Random House, Inc. David J. Rachman and Michael H. Mescon, from Business Today, 4th ed., by David J. Rachman and Michael H. Mescon. Copyright © 1985 by Random House, Inc. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Alexander Petrunkevitch, from "The Spider and the Wasp," by Alexander Petrunkevitch. Copyright 1952 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, from The Harmless People, by Elizabeth Marshall Thomas. Copyright © 1958, 1959 by Elizabeth Marshall Thomas. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Russell Baker, from Growing Up, by Russell Baker. Copyright © 1982 by Russell Baker. Reprinted by permission of Congdon & Weed, Inc. Barry Holstun Lopez, from Of Wolves and Men, by Barry Holstun Lopez. Copyright © 1978 by Barry Holstun Lopez. Reprinted with permission of Charles Scribner's Sons, Inc. Calvin Trillin, from Killings, by Calvin Trillin. Copyright © 1984 by Calvin Trillin. Published by Ticknor & Fields. Edward T. Hall, from The Silent Language, by Edward T. Hall. Copyright © 1959 by Edward T. Hall. Reprinted by permission of Doubleday & Company, Inc. Susan Allen Toth, from Blooming: A Small Town Girlhood, by Susan Allen Toth. Copyright © 1978, 1981 by Susan Allen Toth. Reprinted by permission of Little, Brown and Company. William M. Carley, from "Danger Aloft," by William M. Carley. Copyright © 1979 by Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission of The Wall Street Journal.
George Orwell, from Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays, by George Orwell. Copyright 1950 by Sonia Brownell Orwell; renewed 1978 by Sonia Pitt-Rivers. Reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., the estate of Sonia Brownell Orwell, and Martin Seeker & Warburg Ltd. A. J. Liebling, from Liebling at Home, by A. J. Liebling. Copyright 1938, 1941, 1952, 1962, renewed 1966, 1969, 1980 by A. J. Liebling. Reprinted by permission of Russell & Volkening, Inc., as agents for the author. John Bleibtreu, from The Parable of the Beast, by John N. Bleibtreu. Copyright © 1968 by John N. Bleibtreu. Reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Company. Andrea Lee, from Russian Journal, by Andrea Lee. Copyright © 1979, 1980 by Andrea Lee. Reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc. Irving Howe, from World of Our Fathers, by Irving Howe. Copyright © 1976 by Irving Howe. Reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Peter Farb, from Word Play: What Happens When People Talk, by Peter Farb. Copyright © 1973 by Peter Farb. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Michael Arlen, from The Camera Age, by Michael Arlen. Copyright © 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981 by Michael Arlen. Reprinted by permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc. Marchette Chute, from Shakespeare of London, by Marchette Chute. Copyright 1949 by E. P. Dutton, renewed 1977 by Marchette Chute. Reprinted by permission of the publisher, E. P. Dutton, a division of New American Library. Richard Rodriguez, "Does America Still Exist?" by Richard Rodriguez. Copyright © 1984 by Harper's Magazine. Reprinted from the March 1984 issue by special permission. Marie Winn, from Children Without Childhood, by Marie Winn. Copyright © 1981, 1983 by Marie Winn. Reprinted by permission of Pantheon Books, a Division of Random House, Inc. Jonathan Schell, from The Fate of the Earth, by Jonathan Schell. Copyright © 1982 by Jonathan Schell. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Katherine Mansfield, "Miss Brill" from The Short Stories of Katherine Mansfield. Copyright 1922 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., and renewed 1950 by John Middleton Murry. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. John Updike, "Separating" from Problems and Other Stories by John Updike. Copyright © 1975 by John Updike. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Flannery O'Connor, "Good Country People" from A Good Man Is Hard to Find, by Flannery O'Connor. Copyright 1955 by Flannery O'Connor; renewed 1983 by Regina O'Connor. Reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
.M. M. and C. M.
The second edition of Developing Reading Skills proceeds from the same premise that governed the first edition: good reading and clear thinking go hand in hand. The book is organized around the principle that students can best improve their comprehension and thinking skills first by intensive, analytical practice with short reading passages, followed by the application of these skills to longer and increasingly difficult essays and articles. As in the first edition, the reprinted selections represent a variety of topics intended to appeal to students and general readers alike. The emphasis, then, remains on helping students develop two kinds of skills: first, the ability to comprehend accurately the sort of prose that they can expect to encounter in their college courses and in the world at large, and, second, the ability to read this material critically and analytically. Developing these skills requires concentration and an intense engagement with the text. Accordingly,the second edition of Developing Reading Skills, like its predecessor, deliberately excludes discussing speed techniques. The wisdom of this decision has been borne out as the nation's teachers have become increasingly concerned in the past few years about the inability of students at all levels of education to read perceptively or to think critically. This concern is similarly reflected by the inclusion of critical reading and thinking skills in the nation's elementary and high school curricula and in the proliferation of required critical reading and critical thinking courses in the college curriculum. The second edition of Developing Reading Skills thus retains the underlying principles that made the first edition successful, while making some changes that should make the book more useful and appealing for both students and teachers. For an author, a second edition gives one the opportunity to undo mistakes, to clarify what was not clear the first time around, and to respond to and implement the many comments and suggestions one has gathered along the way.
Content and Organization
Within this general framework, the chapters and their accompanying exercises are directed at improving these specificskills: • Finding or identifying the main idea in a paragraph and the thesis of an essay • Determining the author's purpose • Discerning methods of development, patterns of organization, and logical relationships between ideas • Making accurate inferences and judgments xi
with a fuller and better organized discussion of argument.xii PREFACE Determining the author's tone Recognizing irony and its various shades and subtleties Understanding and analyzing connotative and figurative language Distinguishing between fact and opinion Finding unstated assumptions." includes the earlier • • • • • . vocabulary. In addition. and satire. and other hints for using the dictionary profitably. I have clarified and simplified the explanations in these six chapters. with particular emphasis on using context clues This edition begins with a considerably expanded prefatory section. Chapter 6 discusses tone. Part 1. and logical fallacies. "Reading and Studying Textbook Material. Instructors should consult the teacher's manual for a detailed explanation of the exercise material throughout the text. and evaluating arguments • Identifying common logical fallacies • Improving vocabulary. these selections are both readable and unintimidating in terms of length and subject matter. Another new feature of this edition is the inclusion of a short Practice Essay at the end of each chapter in Part 1. in particular a more complete explanation of context clues. determining appeals. unstated assumptions. including questions on comprehension. "Reading Paragraphs. however. Part 2 ends with five short persuasive articles or editorials for analysis and evaluation and a Practice Essay. wit. Chapter 5 now takes up language. each concerned with some aspect of the skills fundamental to good reading. and inference. with an expanded section on analyzing metaphors and similes. Part 3. Part 2. followed by a paragraph or two exemplifying it. usage labdls in the dictionary. Instructors will find the treatment of critical reading skills in the second edition considerably expanded. dictionary pronunciation symbols." consists of six chapters. "Reading Critically: Evaluating What You Read. "The Reading Process" includes a discussion of the skills requisite for good comprehension and for making accurate inferences and judgments. At the end of each chapter are exercises in the form of paragraphs for analysis. with a more detailed discussion of irony. The main text is divided into five parts. sarcasm.is the division of Chapter 5 (Tone and Language in the first edition) into two chapters. deductive and inductive reasoning. Each chapter contains a brief explanation of the particular topic under discussion. Chapters 5 and 6 contain separate exercises for analyzing figurative language and determining tone. In addition to exercises on valid arguments and logical fallacies. Throughout the discussion is an emphasis on evaluating evidence." now (more logically) followsPart 1. In response to questions and comments from students over the past few semesters. "Improving Your Vocabulary" adds new material. The most important change in Part 1. Intended to give students an opportunity to apply their skills to a sustained piece of writing.
" The exercises following each selection in Part 4 are more extensive than those in Part 1. Robert Stamps. of the San Francisco Public Library. The remainder of Part 4 consists of twenty essays arranged into four groups. and vocabulary in context. I have included these stories. Calvin Trillin's essay on the tragic death of a rebel teenager. "Reading Articles and Essays. Denise Dinwiddie. and Bruno Bettelheim's "The Three Little Pigs" (along with the original fairy tale). structure. The four stories in Part 5 are followed by discussion questions on content and structure. Of the twenty selections. Helen Keller's "My First Meeting with Miss Sullivan". there is more emphasis on "human interest" reading material. along with new sections on taking notes and on preparing for and taking objective and subjective tests. Michael Hulbert. Before students begin working through Part 4." as its point of departure. Liebling's humorous piece. because they are a good way to get students involved with reading imaginative literature. with such selections as Russell Baker's autobiographical piece from Growing Up. The teacher's manual contains a brief synopsis of each selection in Part 4 and an explanation of their arrangement according to readability levels. as well as by multiple-choice vocabulary exercises. "It's Just Too Late". of Diablo Valley College. such as George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant". eleven are new to the second edition. Acknowledgments The following people deserve special thanks for their contributions: MeMe Riordan." they should be directed to read the new introductory section on how to read an essay. Using Alexander Petrunkevitch's classic essay. Instructors should find their old favorites. all of City College of San Francisco. California . A. however. because they sharpen interpretive skills. this discussion helps students learn what to look for when they are assigned to read a college-levelessay. three of them new to the second edition. Steven Pensinger and Anna Marie Muskelly.PREFACE xiii discussion of the SQ3R study skills method. and because they provide enjoyment (and perhaps a respite) for both students and instructors. "The Spider and the Wasp. "The Jollity Building". particularly in terms of testing for inference. especially C. and it provides them with a list of questions to use during their analysis. Donald Cunningham. The premise underlying the choice of readings remains the same: students need to practice with first-rate material. A number of McGraw-Hill staff members also deserve thanks for their work on the text. A packet of tests is available for instructors who adopt the second edition. not only because good writing is easier to read (by virtue of its clarity and organization) but also because it is usually good writing that unnecessarily intimidates the student. and Susan Allen Toth's "Girlfriends. and Marcia Schneider. J. Barry Lopez's "The Wolf". In this edition. I have retained those that my students over the past three years have particularly enjoyed reading or that I have found useful for teaching and demonstrating certain problems in reading longer works. DEANNE MILAN San Francisco.
to distinguish between facts and opinions. to make accurate inferences and judgments. Although the writer is physically absent. in Part 1. the active reader engages in a kind of silent dialogue with the writer. are seldom read in isolation). you must take the author's words and internalize them-not only for what they mean on the surface but for what they suggest beyond that. you enter into a peculiar kind of relationship with the writer. one at a time. What we will be concerned with. sitting back and letting the author do all the work. learning to read beyond the superficial in order to see relationships between ideas. But reading involves more than merely decoding print. "The Reading Process" and "Improving Your Vocabulary. When you read. While at first it may seem odd-or at least artificial-to devote so much time to single paragraphs (which. and informs (the kind of writing usually found in textbooksr-you will also be reading newspaper and magazine articles. Following the process of accretion. we might redefine "reading" and describe it as a process of decoding print that requires internal translation. then. The purpose of Developing Reading Skills is to help you accomplish what is expected of you. you must learn to read actively. While the bulk of your required reading will be expository-that is. Then. and exercises for you to practice with. shows. perhaps even challenged. In this way. The text begins with two introductory sections. interpreted. biographies. a two-way process of communication. The chapters and readings are arranged in a way that will help you tackle successively harder reading tasks. is a variety of interesting readings and accompanying exercises to give you intensive practice both in comprehension and in analytical skills." You should read both of these carefully before you begin work in the main portion of the text. illustrative passages. xv . the words on the page are nonetheless there to be analyzed. You are undoubtedly aware that as a college student you are required to do an immense amount of reading for your courses. prose writing that explains. In fact. Rather than reading passively. questioned. and short stories.TO THE STUDENT Learning to read well is a difficult task but not an impossible one. But the next step is just as essential for the college reader-learning to read critically and analytically. that is. In other words. to determine the author's purpose and tone. The first step is to understand accurately the content of what you readthe surface meaning. after all. each portion of the text contains questions and exercises building on the skills you have already mastered. the paragraph is treated extensively with both explanations.
in the second part. currents. tides" by putting these things into a general category. implying by his choice and arrangement of words that even the strongest swimmer is helpless against the immense power of the ocean. that the structure of a passage can determine meaning and emphasis as well as reveal the writer's purpose and point of view. In addition. At the end of each chapter. that they use particular methods to develop and support those ideas. The relationship between the two parts. for the busy executive who must wade through a stack of correspondence each day. Finally. tides-things titanic and even cosmic. or for the reader of "Dear Abby.or statement and explanation. let's examine a sentence from John Knowles's essay. The first part of the sentence sets up a general statement to be proved: the subject "surf swimming" is limited by the controlling idea. intensive practice of newly acquired critical skills is easier and less intimidating with a one-hundred-wordparagraph than with a five-pageessay. Toshow you how this works. Each term is followed by an example paragraph or two and an explanation of how the author employs the particular device or technique under discussion. Further. As you work through Part 1. you will be asked to read additional paragraphs and work through a series of exercises. currents. the study of written prose. You will see that writers normally impose a pattern on their ideas. for the student looking through the library's card catalog for likely research sources. these words explain and reinforce the word "elemental" in the first part. studying its structure and examining the author's ideas allow you to slow down and analyze on a small scale what he or she is trying to accomplish." The second part. then. it is as important to understand the way a writer expresses his or her ideas-the methods used and the words chosen-as it is to understand the ideas themselves. "cosmic" is an adjective describing the entire universe. "things titanic and even cosmic. "Everybody's Sport. In this fashion." "Titanic" means huge or colossal. . Knowles classifies "waves. for the sports page reader who wants to find out which team won. The paragraph is the basic unit of writing. In other words. Knowles thus builds the sentence appropriately to a climax. on zooming through material simply to get the "drift" of what the author is saying." which appears as the Practice Essay at the end of Chapter 4: Surf swimming is perhaps the most elemental of all athletic experiences: you give your being to the action of the waves.XVI TO THE STUDENT forcing you to concentrate on short passages both promotes and ensures careful reading on your part. "the most elemental of all athletic experiences. followingthe colon. you will be introduced to key terms in rhetoric. you will learn to analyze the structure of what you read at the same time that you improve your comprehension. on skimming and scanning. is between general and specific. is a specific explanation of that controlling idea. These techniques are useful and appropriate in certain circumstances-for example." But they are inappropriate for the major part of the reading you will have to do in college. Entirely too much importance has been placed on building up one's reading speed.
"The Long Habit" 158 • Selection 2. "The Fall of the House of Usher" 138 Practice Essay: Maya Angelou. Carl Sagan. Edgar Allan Poe. The Living Planet 136 • Selection 4.CONTENTS xxi C. Logical Fallacies 184 183 Ad Hominem Argument 185 • Bandwagon Appeal 185 • Begging the Question 185 • Either-Or Fallacy 185 • False Analogy 186 • . The Dragons of Eden 160 • Selection 3: Gerald Durrell.Sweeping Generalization 179. Uncovering Arguments B. Appeals in Arguments Appeal to the Emotions 182 • Appeal to Patriotism 182 • Appeal to Prejudice 182 • Appeal to Fear 182 • Appeal to Authority 183 E. An Explanation of Tone B. Rumors of Peace 134 • Selection 3. Joyce Maynard. Ella Leffland. David Attenborough. Figurative Exercises-Part Exercises-Part Language I II 131 132 130 Analyzing Figurative Language 131 Selection 1. The Question of Authority F. "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" 140 chapter 6 TONE 146 A. Unreliable. The Ironic Stance 148 146 Wit 150 • Irony 150 • Satire 151 • Cynicism 151 • Sarcasm 151 • Sardonicism 152 • Deadpan Humor 154 Exercises-Part I 155 Determining Tone 155 Exercises-Part II 158 Selection 1. Unstated Assumptions C. Asa Arthur Berger. or Unavailable Evidence 180 Exercises 180 182 D. Generalizing from Insufficient. Lewis Thomas. Looking Back 132 • Selection 2. Hasty Generalization 180. Kinds of Reasoning 171 173 175 171 Deductive Reasoning 175 • Inductive Reasoning 178 ." The New Yorker 166 part 2 READING CRITICALLY: EVALUATING WHAT YOU READ A. "The Life and Death of Cholmondeley" 162 • Selection 4. "Blondie: The Irrelevance of the American Husband" 164 Practice Essay: "Notes and Comment.
L. Hall. Russell Baker. J. "Girlfriends." The Story of My Life 264 3. "In the Battle Against Grade Inflation. Liebling." The Boston Globe 192 • Selection 3.) 213 Textbook Selection: David J." Prejudices. "The Voicesof Time." Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays 323 10." Blooming 303 8. "The Wolf." Understanding Psychology (4th ed. "The Jollity Building: Indians. Taking Tests 209 Taking Objective Tests 210 • Taking Essay Tests 213 Textbook Selection: Sandra Scarr and James Vander Zanden." San Francisco Chronicle 192 • Selection 4." The Chronicle of Higher Education 193 • Selection 5.XXII CONTENTS False Cause 186 • Post hoc. Tom Wicker." The New York Times 195 • Selection 6. William M. "Memory. Elizabeth Thomas." San Francisco Chronicle 196 Practice Essay: H. Edward T. "An Introduction to Marketing. ergo propter hoc 186 • Slippery Slope 187 • Two Wrongs Make a Right 187 Exercises Exercises 187 189 191 • Selection 2. "The Spider and the Wasp" 253 1. "It's Just TooLate. the Winners Are Often the Losers. Susan Allen Toth." The Boston Globe "A Grand Old Anthem. Mencken. Fifth Series 197 part 3 READING AND STUDYING B. "Growing Up. The Reader's Responsibility 190 Selection 1." Business Today (4th ed. Barry Holstun Lopez. Mescon. "Censorship in Braille. The SQ3R Study Skills Method 208 C." Growing Up 269 4. "Shooting an Elephant." The Harmless People 260 2." The Silent Language 294· 7." The Wall Street Journal 315 9. Rachman and Michael H. Carley." The Jollity Building 332 . "My First Meeting With Miss Sullivan.) 229 part 4 READING ESSAYSAND ARTICLES 249 Introduction: How to Read an Essay 249 Sample Essay: Alexander Petrunkevitch." Of Wolves and Men 277 5. Helen Keller. "The Desert. "Thunder on the Right: A Plea for Home Schooling. Merle Ellis. George Orwell. A." Killings 282 6. Heels. "Danger Aloft. Taking Notes TEXTBOOK MATERIAL 206 206 A. Calvin Trillin. "Ready for Another 'Splendid Little War'?. and Tenants. G. "A Beef Against Vegetarians. "The Penalty of Death.
" The Parable of the Beast 345 12. "The End of Play. Michael J. 3. Marie Winn." Word Play 370 16. "The Ordeal of Steerage." Shakespeare of London 385 18. Bruno Bettelheim. Leo Tolstoy. Jonathan Schell. John N. "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" Katherine Mansfield. "Linguistic Chauvinism. Arlen. "Miss Brill" 433 John Updike. Bleibtreu." The Camera Age 379 17. "The Three Little Pigs. "Acting on the Elizabethan Stage.CONTENTS xxiii 11. "Good Country People" 447 465 420 Index . Marchette Chute. "Separating" 437 Flannery O'Connor." Russian Journal 350 13. Peter Farb. "Mayakovsky Billboard. 4." Children Without Childhood 398 20." World of Our Fathers 363 15. 2. ''A Republic of Insects and Grass. "The Moment of Being. Andrea Lee." The Uses of Enchantment 354 "The Three Little Pigs" (original fairy tale) 361 14. "Does America Still Exist?" Harper's 391 19. "Ode to Thanksgiving. Irving Howe." The Fate of the Earth 409 part 5 READING SHORT STORIES 417 419 Analyzing the Short Story 417 General Questions about the Short Story Questions about Plot 419 • Questions about Character 420 • Questions about Theme 420 1. Richard Rodriguez.
INTRODUCTION A. Marriage was not designed as a mechanism for providing friendship.\ But 1 these steps must be preceded by a more fundamental activitydecoding--meaning the process of recognizing the individual words on the page. erotic experience. let us practice with a short paragraph.you can begin the comprehension step. Youmust first pronounce the words as you read (to yourself. or recreation. the key to which is careful and thoughtful readinglThe good reader is actively involved with the text through thinking.The very idea 1 . but unstated motive? To repeat: The good reader is an active reader. romantic love. continuous lay psychotherapy. THE READING PROCESS Steps to Good Comprehension This introduction will explore and illustrate some of the fundamentals involved in the reading process: What exactly are the attributes of a good reader? What distinguishes a good reader from a merely competent one? The following is an explanation of the steps required for good comprehension. Then look at the relationship between the words and sentences. The explanatory material and the exercises in the first six chapters will give you ample practice with these skills. ask yourself. Do the ideas seem reasonable to you? Has the writer provided sufficient support? What other information do you need before you can intelligently accept or reject the ideas? How do the author's ideas fit with what you know about the subject? Is there any evidence of bias? Of an underlying. then you can begin the final step-evaluating what the author has said. Given its present structure. The real meaning of any text lies in the relationship that the words have with one anotheri First. what is the author saying? What is the main idea ofthe passage? What does he or she want me to understand about the main idea? Try to paraphrase (put into your own words) what each sentence says.personal fulfillment. The Western European family was not designed to carry a lifelong load of highly emotional romantic freight. questioning. look them up in the dictionary. of course). Good comprehension requires more than simply knowing what each word means. 'Ib illustrate what the good reader does subconsciously. and if you are unsure about the meaning of any unfamiliar words. and evaluating. thinking and questioning all the way through the text. it simply has to fail when asked to do so. Do you see a pattern? How is the main idea supported? Once you have asked these questions. Once you have decodedthe words'.
As you read through the paragraph. Finally. Since nowhere in the paragraph is there any mention of a railroad. The third problematic word occurs in the last sentence: irrevocable. in sentence 2 is used in an unusual way. constant amateur psychological therapy. then. is a bit tricky.as one might expect.can only fail when partners are asked to make that lifelong commitment." and the suffix -able is self-evident. secular: a lay preacher. so you can skip the verb definitions in the dictionary. Mervyn Cadwallader. Irrevocable is not pronounced (I-rI vok: a-bel). personal fulfillment for one's ambitions. 3. The first.means "not. Definition 2 best fits the context. "able to. or serving the laity. judging from the context clue "psychotherapy. freight. Here you might try to break the word into its constituent parts to see if you can determine its meaning before you reach for the dictionaryEmbedded in the middle is the root revoke. of. paraphrase Cadwallader's paragraph before comparing your version with the one provided here. however. but (I-REV' o-ko-bal). sexual experience. try your own hand at this step. we can infer that freight-as it is used in the phrase "a lifelong load of highly emotional romantic freight" . and it can confuse the unwary reader. (Note that the phrase "when asked to do so" refers to the phrase in the second sentence about marriage "carrying a lifelong load of highly emotional romantic freight. Of these three adjective definitions." This technique.) The final .refers metaphorically to a burden. paraphrasing each to yourself." The prefix ir. 2.The third sentence suggests that marriage. look them up before continuing. . omitting a word or phrase from a previous statement. in particular.To give yourself some practice. coming from. pertaining to. Sentence 1 says that marriage is not designed as a system to provide friendship. Using a sheet of paper. might cause some difficulty. if any other words in the paragraph caused you difficulty. practicing psychoanalysis but not having a medical degree: a layanalyst. or play. The pronunciation." Putting all of this together. is called an ellipsis. lay._ Three words. which appears to be the most appropriate? 1. first determine if there are any words whose meaning you are not sure of. or typical of." Atlantic Monthly . according to the way the institution works now. "Marriage as a Wretched Institution." The second word.2 INTRODUCTION of an irrevocable contract obligating the parties concerned to a lifetime of romantic effort is utterly absurd. the average or common man: lay opinion. The author assumes that the reader sees the connection between the first idea and the unstated second one. meaning "to annul or cancel. The next step is to go through the passage one sentence at a time. romantic love.with the accent on the second syllable. The second sentence can be paraphrased to say that in the Western European family marriage partners were not intended to be burdened with a lifelong commitment to romantic love. yields a definition something like this-"not able to be annulled or canceled"-a perfectly acceptable definition for this context. in the phrase "lay psychotherapy" is used as an adjective.
if it is not intended to perpetuate romantic love? What are the reasons that impel people in other cultures to marry? Are we wrong to hold the expectation that romantic love will endure for a lifetime? A glance at the title of the article. "Marriage as a Wretched Institution. As you work through this book. you will be able to deal with much longer passages than this. Indeed. there is little in the way of support for the main idea. therefore. What support for these observations does Cadwallader present? Since he concentrates on what the institution of marriage was not designed to do. Since the paragraph has a negative tone (emphasizing what marriage was not intended to do). accomplishingjust as much in a short period of time. . (The statement that you haven't really understood an idea if you can't put it into your own words is true not only for your writing but for your reading. Sentence 3 draws a conclusion from the first two sentences. Thus. you can briefly summarize the paragraph .we need to ask what marriage can do. yet sometimes the practice of restating the author's meaning in your own words is useful if the ideas are complex or if you want to ensure that you are coming away with an accurate understanding of the original. Although there are no facts or explanations to support the main idea. but it is nonetheless an accurate restatement of the original. Now that you have restated the author's ideas. Intensive reading of short pieces is the best way to promote critical and analytical reading. and we can expect the author to strengthen his argument by presenting us with a reasoned explanation of what marriage can accomplish. In the everyday world. it is obviously impractical to write a paraphrase of every sentence you read. because the process will have become automatic.) If these steps seem unduly tedious. The author wants us to understand that the institution of marriage is destined to fail because people hold the erroneous expectation that romantic love can be sustained for a lifetime. it is probably fair to expect that support for this opinion will be provided in the body of the article.INTRODUCTION 3 sentence can be paraphrased to say that it is ridiculous to expect marriage to be an irrevocable contract which requires the partners to commit themselves to a lifelong romantic effort. sentence 4 restates the main idea and ends with an emphatic statement of opinion.Cadwallader is concerned with the subject of marriage. we must remember that this paragraph comes from a larger context (a magazine article). as well. that our high expectations for marriage are utterly absurd. we can assume that he means his ideas to pertain to the marriage custom of the United States as well. and since American marriage patterns are based on the European. remember that with practice you will get better and faster. Furthermore. the good reader asks questions." confirms that the author's position will be from a critical viewpoint. Obviously this paraphrase is not as elegant as the original. specifically the Western European version of this institution. and that is the aim of everything in this text. How do other cultures view marriage. the paragraph presents only the author's subjective opinion. Each sentence in the paragraph builds to his conclusion: Sentences 1 and 2 state what marriage was not designed to do. the good reader anticipates..
In other words. as concerns us here. 4He settled in Atlanta in 1869. perhaps the owners of the house operate a day-care center and do not have any children of their own.. arrangement of words. Pemberton was a pharmacist who. eighty miles away. You infer that an older man cashing a Social Security check at the bank is retired. during the Civil War. and recruited the services of a bookkeeper named Frank M. 'The legal definition is perhaps more instructive and precise: A presumption of fact or an inference is nothing more than a probable or natural explanation of facts . 3Sometimes known as Doctor. Georgia. If a yard contains a sandbox and a swing set. 2d Evidence. Th give you a notion of how the inference process works. As for the play equipment in the yard. Notice that in each case these inferences derive from our "commonly accepted experiences. who not only had a good head for . the man at the bank may be receiving disability payments. The woman wearing the wedding ring may be a widow. This technique might be used by someone who receives a love letter. reasonably draw from a situation or a series of facts. Robinson. American Jurisprudence. In reading." although none of them is necessarily true. you infer that children are among the residents of the house.4 INTRODUCTION Making Accurate Inferences and Judgments Before you begin Chapter 1. he registered a trademark for something called French Wine Coca-Ideal Nerve and 'Ibnic Stimulant. and make predictions about the sender's future actions. but on the day of his funeral every drugstore in town testimonially shut up shop. read this paragraph on the origin of Coca-Cola and the explanation of inferences that follows it: "I'he man who invented Coca-Cola was not a native Atlantan. a few months later he formed the Pemberton Chemical Company. and the author's apparent attitude toward the subject. 5In 1885. You infer that a library book with a shabby cover and torn pages is frequently borrowed. and arises from the commonly accepted experiences of mankind and the inferences which reasonable men would draw from these experiences. as they examine the fine meanings of each wordjtry to see just what emotion (and intention) lies behind each phrase. inferences are merely reasonable conclusi~ns that may be drawn from a situation or. Vol. 2He was John Styth Pemberton. An inference is a conclusion that one can r. born in 1833 in Knoxville. making inferences (sometimes called "reading between the lines") requires more careful attentionnot only to what the author states explicitly or directly. one other basic skill must be introduced-drawing accurate inferences and judgments from what you read. the library book may be worn simply because the library staff does not have the time or funds to repair tattered books. Section 161 For example. you infer that a woman wearing a ring on the fourth finger of her left hand is married.. conclusions we can draw from what we read. and soon began brewing such patent medicines as Triplex Liver Pills and Globe of Flower Cough Syrup. unlike real life. led a cavalry troop under General Joe Wheeler. selection of details. but also to what he or she implies by word choice. 29.
"Doctor. not medicine. sHe had taken out the wine and added a pinch of caffeine. when the end product tasted awful. presently devised a label. An unabridged dictionary is worth consulting here: The cola tree is quite different from the coca tree. as contemporary Coca-Cola officials like to point out. with his flowing bookkeeper's script. attached to it. had thrown in some extract of cola (or kola) nut and a few other oils. blending the mixture in a three-legged iron pot in his back yard and swishing it around with an oar. "thrown in. and that adding some extract of cola nut and "other oils" improved the flavor. suggested by the fact that shopkeepers in Atlanta closed their shops on the day of Pemberton's funeral. 6In 1886-a year in which. meaning that they paid Pemberton an important tribute. 9He distributed it to soda fountains in used beer bottles. (Notice. This is suggested by Kahn's choice of words. 110n a morning late in 1886. we can infer that the original version of Coca-Cola contained alcohol. sentence 8 suggests that the Pemberton Chemical Company was not exactly the nineteenth-century version of a contemporary "high tech" industry. but in this instance the factotum on duty was too lazy to walk to the fresh-water tap. on which "Coca-Cola" was written in the fashion that is still employed. In addition. that we cannot infer from this paragraph that the original Coca-Cola contained cocaine-a common assumption. we can infer that Pemberton produced several concoctions before hitting on the formula that was eventually to become the successful Coca-Cola. l4The suffering customer perked up almost at once. 7It was a modification of his French Wine Coca. especially for people whose throbbing temples could be traced to overindulgence. which was closer at hand. Conan Doyle unveiled Sherlock Holmes and France unveiled the Statue of LibertyPemberton unveiled a syrup that he called Coca-Cola.) We can infer from sentence 3 that the title by which Pemberton was sometimes called. E. The Big Drink From sentence 1 we can infer that the man who invented Coca-Cola was well-respected for his role in inventing the drink. he mixed the syrup with some charged water." was a nickname. although Pemberton apparently did not use exact measurements. Kahn. J. and word quickly spread that the best Coca-Cola was a fizzy one. so exceptional a nose that he could audit the composition of a batch of syrup merely by sniffing it. however. however. one such victim of the night before dragged himself into an Atlanta drugstore and asked for a dollop of Coca-Cola.INTRODUCTION 5 figures but. does . l2Druggists customarily stirred a teaspoonful of syrup into a glass of water." Furthermore. the leaves of which are used in making cocaine. we can infer from sentence 6 that Coca-Cola officials are proud that their drink is a century old. The cola nut. judging from the makeshift contraptions (the iron pot and oar) Pemberton used to mix his concoctions. ("Testimonially" is a key word here. since his real profession was pharmacy. From sentences 7 and 8. and Robinson. lOPemberton looked upon his concoction less as a refreshment than as a headache cure. l3Instead. 5. and. From sentences 4. and 6. a couple of feet off.
retention. It is accepted as a relatively innocuous stimulant. an accident of circumstances instead of a calculated action stemming from years of market research. Most important. B. The final answer. Finally. casually used by those who . After all. In other inference exercises. even if some words remain unfamilian'Most often/however. insufficient evidence. remember that you may be asked to justify your answer by pointing to the phrase or sentence that led you to it. evaluating=depends on your knowledge of words and their meanings in particular settings. making inferences. which probably accounts for the persisting notion that the original Coca-Cola was addictive because it contained cocaine rather than caffeine. 'Ib demonstrate how imperative your understanding of a new word can be.-and especially with the careful reading you will be asked to do in this text. Above all. consider the following sentences which appeared in an article from Psychology 7bday titled "Cocaine: A Social History": "Cocaine is rapidly attaining unofficial respectability the way marijuana did in the 1960s. we can infer from the last sentence that Coca-Cola'ssuccess was rapid. if you don't know the meaning of the words on the page. k situation where guessing is hazardous. as is now the case when a company introduces a new product.)From sentence 10 we can infer that Pemberton considered his drink to be more a therapeutic substance (to cure hangovers) than a refreshment. the result of a soda jerk's laziness. In several of the exercises in this book. from the brief incident recounted in sentences 11 through 14. means that there is not enough information provided in the original from which you can draw any sort of inference. either because the statement in the exercise is worded incorrectly or because it represents a misinterpretation of the original. You saw an example of an inference based on insufficient evidence in the Coca-Colapassage about the question of whether cocaine was present in the original beverage. you can hardly understand what the writer is trying to say. you will be asked to label inference statements as follows:An accurate inference is one that the reader can reasonably make from the passage."meaning that you can get the gist of the writer's main idea. we can infer the main idea of the paragraph.l=comprehension. Sometimes it is possible to "wing it. IMPROVING YOUR VOCABULARY A good reading vocabulary is probably the single most important requirement for good readingEvery other skilf. What judgment can we make about the invention of Coca-Colafrom the way Kahn has described it? I think it is fair to say that Kahn suggests that the whole affair was rather haphazard. which the author has not stated explicitly: that the making of the Coca-Cola we know today was a pure accident. the questions will be openended. whereas an inaccurate inference cannot reasonably be made.6 INTRODUCTION yield a stimulant. meaning that you will be referred to a sentence in the passage from which you must draw your own inference. your accurate understanding of a passage may depend solely on the meaning of a single word.
from Old French. it explains and traces the derivation of the word and gives the original meaning. or choose an unabridged edition from this list of some of the best known: The Random House Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Websters New World Dictionary Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary The Oxford American Dictionary However. you can better evaluate what the authors say." Now that you have an accurate definition of this pivotal word.000 entries. foolish. ignorant. You can easily see how radically this ordinary (and now nearly ." Clearly. First. While the context may give you a clue that the word has a positive connotation (its emotional association). you will find some helpful suggestions for using the dictionary. and everyone's vocabulary can be improved since the number of words in the English language is sufficiently vast to make even the best reader reach for the dictionary. the dictionary traces the history of the word nice as follows:[Middle English. meaning that you can consider the worth of their statement. For instance. Everyone has to start somewhere. look it up.) Learning New Words An exhaustive treatment of vocabulary acquisition is not within the scope of this book. from nescire. Innocuous means "having no adverse [negative] effect. but the definitions will not reflect up-to-date usage. at least occasionally. develop an interest in language. the adjective innocuous carries a lot of weight in this sentence. but it has been estimated that the English language has well over 1. both abridged and unabridged. Therefore. In the next section. and while.] When you look words up in an unabridged dictionary. Second. be sure that your dictionary is a current editionl You may save a little money by using your father's old school dictionary. look at the etymology.INTRODUCTION 7 can afford it to brighten the day or the evening. and an unabridged or complete edition to keep at home. the etymology of a word is given in brackets following the definitions.i'I'here are several excellent dictionaries. representing a popular judgment of cocaine. what follows are simply some suggestions to enable you to start on an active program to learn the new words that you encounter in your reading. on the market. Here is a case where a hazy notion or an ill-considered guess can lead to a complete misinterpretation. you should have two dictionaries-an abridged (shortened) paperback edition for class. (Modern unabridged dictionaries generally have about 600.000. harmless. 'In the dictionary. and any number of excellent vocabulary guides are available. to be ignorant]. silly. learning dozens of new words may appear to be a staggering task. at first. So the task of improving your vocabulary is inescapable. shy. Ask your instructor to recommend one.since language changes constantly. it is possible.000 words. wanton. from Latin nescius. The message is: When in doubt. since many words have unusual origins. you are much safer consulting a dictionary if you are in doubt.
" "sticky" -as in adhesive tape). Note that the word's connotation has changed. Mary annointed Christ's feet as He carried the cross. Another example is the word maudlin. and later became identified with tearful repentance. A knowledge of common Latin and Greek prefixes. or "a supporter" as a noun). New words are best learned (and retained) when they occur as part of your reading. usually in a bedroom"). for example.8 INTRODUCTION meaningless) word has changed over the centuries. so that it now has strongly negative overtones. also adultery). Reviewing these words periodically will ensure your mastery of them. Christ had cured her of evil spirits. Paying attention to a word's etymology when you look it up in the dictionary will give you a sense of the language's complexity. several related words derive from the Latin root verb adhaerere ("to stick to"): adhere ("to stick fast or together"). But more central for your purposes are the other reasons that the dictionary can quickly become the most thumbed-through book on your desk:_The dictionary is most often referred to for (1) correct spelling. This is a tempting. this time from the French phrase serge de Nimes ("serge from Nimes"). do not memorize long lists of words in isolation. roots. if necessary) in a -small notebook or on index cards. its negative form infidelity (lack of religious faith.rhe word dormant. . and in the case of maudlin. way of proceeding. as to a cause or individual"). devise a system for learning important words you look up} Write new words and their meanings (and the context. you won't remember many words. (2) correct pronunciation. which represents another corruption. 'a kind of cloth. and you will have no idea of the subtleties in their meanings or the ways the words are used in context. . Third. Using the Dictionary You have already seen that the dictionary can provide the curious reader with information about a word's history. and (3) the best definition according to the context. From the Latin root fides. A final example is the common word denim. knowing the word's etymology may help you remember the meaning when you next encounter it in your reading." Next. that is. adherent ("sticking or holding fast" as an adjective. try to think of words that share similar meanings and origins as belonging to groups or families. the way the word is used in a passage: Our concern here is with the second and third uses. Serge. that is. which means "inactive" (from the French verb dormir. a city in southern France. Similarly. Fido. and the stereotyped name for a dog. \." This word is a corruption of the name Mary Magdalene. meaning "effusively sentimental. but inefficient. but the fabric eventually came to be called "de Nimes" ("denim"). According to the New Testament. and suffixes is ~ good way to build your stock of vocabulary. adhesion ("attachment or devotion. the prostitute who was present at Christ's crucifixion. we derive fidelity (faithfulness). how it came into the English language. was manufactured in Nimes. "to sleep") might also suggest dormitory ("a place where one sleeps"). IFinally. and adhesive ("tending to adhere. or dormer ("a window under a sloping roof.
and equally crucial for the correct pronunciation of new words. I Every dictionary contains a detailed key listing the pronunciation symbols in its front matter-the pages preceding the first definition on the A page." If you are unfamiliar with these pronunciation symbols. the third syllable receives primary or heaviest stress. Here are some difficult words for you to practice pronouncing. the relative degree of loudness with which syllables in a word are pronounced. Primary stress." and a (long a) is pronounced as it is in the word "pay. the second syllable is unstressed (the funnylooking upside-down e symbol is called a schwa and is always unstressed and pronounced "uh"). you will find sample words illustrating each symbol: a pat/ a pay means that a (short a) is pronounced as in the word "pat. If you are uncertain about the marks over the vowels (called diacritical marks). Rather than referring to the front matter every time you need to see how a word is pronounced. and unstressed syllables are unmarked.INTRODUCTION 9 Pronunciation. The secret to correct pronunciation of English words is to locate the syllable with the primary stress first. are stress or accent marks. then the rest of the word usually falls into place. which is the louder. for example. coup ribald blackguard vapid flaccid gamin tropism nuclear strophe schism antithesis charisma chameleon inchoate thermography onomatopoeia ersatz (koo) (rib' ~ld) (blag: ord) (vap'Td) (flak'sid) (gam' In) (tro' plz am) (noo' kle-ar) (stro' fe) (slz: om) or (sklz' om) (an-tith' o-sfs) (ka-rlz/ mo) (ke-rnel' yon) (In-ko'Tt) (thor-mog' ro-fe) (on' a-mat: ~-pe'~) (er-zats') . iThus. the word apparatus is printed in. it is easier to look at the brief pronunciation key provided at the bottom of each page in the dictionary. is indicated by a boldface (') mark. while secondary stress is indicated by a similar mark in regular type ('). pronunciation symbols like this: Cap'~-ra' tos). it would be a good idea to spend a few minutes looking at the bottom of both the lefthand and righthand pages of your dictionary until you can pronounce all of them without hesitation. if necessary. The first syllable receives secondary stress. referring to the brief pronunciation guide in your dictionary. then pronounce the rest of the word. '[Stress. the final syllable is also unstressed. locate the accented or stressed syllable (one-syllable words will not have any stress mark). I Second. however. is indicated in three different ways. First.
unproductive. The American Heritage Dictionary. the American fiction writer. a barren effort. . reflecting his interest _ in cutting excessive government spending for unnecessary items. or incapable of producing.lit is critical that you pay attention to the word's context-what comes before and after the word in question or. for example. = adjective. unfruitful: barren land. lacking (usually followedby of): barren of tender feelings. 2. = noun. and the most frequently encountered meaning I appears as the first definition for each part of speech. _. You should have chosen definition 2 for the first two sentences. and so on. inhospitable region. The word obscure is one example of a word . is a barren. not producing. so that the first definition is the earliest.) The dictionary labels parts of speech with abbreviations (n. refer to any grammar handbook to review the parts of speech. Scott Fitzgerald. Whatever method your dictionary uses. destitute. a vast area in southern Africa. (If your knowledge of grammar is shaky. This system provides the reader with a good historical sense of a word's evolution. the next definition is the next in historical usage. adv. in other words. v. and so forth). Which meanings would you assign the word barren in these three sentences? __ The Kalahari Desert. without features of interest. "the most common part of speech is listed first. since words in English often fall into more than one grammatical category. adj. and definition 3 for the third sentence. As an illustration. bereft.t'I'he context will help you choose the word's most appropriate definition if itJ has several senses." meaning that "the first definition is the central meaning about which the other senses may be most logically organized. ___ During his later years.10 INTRODUCTION amanuensis chiton apotheosis (o-man' yeo-err' SIS) (klt'n) (o-poth' e-o' SIS) Order of Definitions." In The Random House Dictionary._ The walls in the mayor's officeare barren. uses a method the editors call "synchronic semantic analysis. Merriam' Websters Collegiate Dictionary and Websters New World Dictionary both order definitions chronologically. here are the four definitions for the adjective barren from The Random House Dictionary: 1." In contrast. F. endured a barren period when he could no longer write. the specific environment in which the word occurs. Be certain that you know the order in which your dictionary lists multiple definitions. dull: a barren period in American architecture. = adverb. but it also means that you must be sure to read past the first definitions of a word to find its current meanings. A knowledge of grammar also helps when you look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary. 3. which information can be found in the front matter. 4. offspring: a barren woman. = verb.
then write the part of speech and the best definition for the word as it is used in these two sentences: 1. In the following sentence. Look up the word obscure in your dictionary. that make themselves apparent abruptly or unexpectedly. on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. the word headlong means not only abruptness. whereas the next six definitions refer to the adjective form. headlong. but also strongly implies recklessness: _ . when heavy fog obscured the runway and two jets collided during takeoff. Georgia. sudden: These adjectives describe persons and their actions and decisions when marked by an abruptness or lack of deliberation. Look up fine in your dictionary. you will find these synonyms and a detailed explanation of each following the last definition: impetuous. or to personal attributes such as moods." Shades of Meaning. Part of speech ~eaning---------------------------':Even seemingly easy words may pose difficulties when you cons~lt the dictionary!For example. From his beginnings in the obscure town of Plains. then. Which is the best definition for the way the word is used in the following context? The professor made a fine distinction between negligence and neglect. Heedless implies carelessness or lack of a sense of responsibility or proper regard for the consequences of action. ~eaning--------------------------The best meaning is "subtle" or "precise. Sudden is applied to action. the latter especially implying recklessness. consider the definitions in the two grammatical categories. Impetuous suggests impulsiveness. Part of speech ~eaning------------------------------ _ 2. rSome dictionariesr' notably those of Random House and American Heritage." as in "a fine shade of meaning." but The American Heritage Dictionary shows fourteen meanings for this adjective.INTRODUCTION 11 that crosses over grammatical lines. Hasty and headlong both stress hurried action. or lack of thoughtfulness. the word fine usually means "pleasant" or "agreeable. provide extremely useful notes on synonyms to help you determine subtle differences in meaning between related words: For example. if you look up the word impetuous in The American Heritage -Dictionary. hasty. the first eight definitions in The American Heritage Dictionary define the word as a verb. The worst airplane disaster in history occurred in 1977. in conversation. Jimmy Carter launched a grassroots campaign for the American presidency. impatience. heedless.
or the" accompanying words or phrases that clarify the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Here are three of the most common kinds of context clues." Another kind of context clue is a key word or key phrase-one that is not a synonym but that nevertheless reveals the meaning of an unfamiliar word:" Spencer's attention to most tasks was dilatory at best. for related words is extremely useful." This flipping of pages to find one definition may seem like an annoying and tiresome process. her instructor always commented that her papers' were verbose. on the surface. Let's suppose that you don't know the meaning of the word beleaguered as it is used in this sentence: All around the beleaguered city of Phnom Penh homeless children wandered. then." Beleaguered. consulting an unabridged dictionary would have yielded a clear definition the first time. may seem to be synonymous. since you will develop a facility for understanding the subtleties underlying a cluster of related words which. . when the dictionary provides them.) Using Context Clues. Here verbose clearly means "using unnecessary words. but the search does have its rewards in that it gives you both an accurate definition and it adds three new words to your vocabulary stock. means "surrounded by troops.not much help if you don't know the root siege.] defined earlier as the way the word is used in a sentence or passage. A good dictionary is clearly an indispensable possession. however. If you look up the word siege. (Incidentally. The abridged edition of The American Heritage Dictionary defines beleaguer as "to besiege" . Notice that if the sentence is rewritten with sudden substituted for headlong.12 INTRODUCTION Mary's headlong decision to marry astonished her family. you will find that it means "the surrounding and blockading of a town or fortress by any army bent on capturing it. by paying attention to the context.results. ' No matter how much Sarah tried to cut unnecessary words from her essays. Context is particularly useful when it is not essential that you have a precise definition. a writer may provide a synonym for an unfamiliar word. Taking this extra step will serve you well. when it came time to wash and wax his Mazda RX7. more positive. One last word on using the dictionary: Frequently you will have to consult the dictionary (especially an abridged edition) more than once to get the precise meaning of a word. implication. First. or at least a satisfactorily close meaning. he never put it off or made excuses.If you are unsure about the exact connotation of a word. consulting the notes on synonyms. Yet good readers can often determine the meaning of a word. a different. Besiege is defined as "to lay siege to" -still not much help. .
_ crevices: (a) deep." This definition is also suggested by the example in the last part of the sentence. while George and Albert rested in sandy beds on the esker ridge. Shakespeare's tragedies.) 1. present. (d) naturally skilled. (Farley Mowat) __ lassitude: (a) anxiety.. and Popular Computing magazine. (c) gentle. and a general air of contented lassitude seemed to overcome all three. (The name of the author who wrote each passage is provided in parentheses. and then choose the best definition for the italicized word from the choices given. (Rachel Carson) __ . (b) slightness of stature. the mystery novels of Agatha Christie.. The only signs of life from any of them through the long morning were occasional changes of position. 3. First. a series of examples. or the general situation described. here are some exercises. (Elizabeth Marshall Thomas) _~ deft: (a) powerful.~. (d) a long life. read the passage carefully. wide holes. (d) perceived. . (b) foretold. Tide pools contain mysterious worlds within their depths. _. (Lew Dietz) __ discerned: (a) discussed. To test your ability to use context clues._. and lazy looks about the countryside. The next morning dawned fine and warm. may provide a good context clue:' Professor Simon's taste in reading is catholic: He enjoys modern French poetry. _ (c) meekness. and future cannot be separately discerned. at their seaward ends these crevices disappear under water. (b) peacefulness. which is strong and deft and lithe. (d) unexplored areas. but to a taste that is broad and all-inclusive. Some of the pools occupy deep crevices or fissures. From the five examples of reading material. Angeline lay at her ease on the rocks overlooking the summer den. suggesting that dilatory means "putting off" or "seeking to delay. paying attention to any clues that suggest the meaning for the italicized word. 4. The past. (b) clumsy. mildness. where all the beauty of the sea is subtly suggested and portrayed in miniature. you can deduce that catholic does not refer to a religion (in which case it would have been capitalized). because of the extreme grace in their way of moving. Finally. 2. chronicles of the Civil War. and to watch a Bushman walking or simply picking up something from the ground is like watching part of a dance. They did not go hunting at all that night. (b) narrow cracks. Underline the clue. (d) inactivity. Physically. Much of what we perceive as new tends to support the ancient wisdom that the more things change the more they remain the same. (c) earthquake faults. One day the wolves killed a caribou close to home and this convenient food supply gave them an opportunity to take a holiday. but stayed near the den and rested. (c) imagined.INTRODUCTION 13 The transitional word "however"signals a contrast. the Bushmen are a handsome people . (c) hunger. lithe: marked by (a) effortless grace.
This had worked in past centuries. was set up in order to permit creatures of one kind to locate others. 9. virtues more readily acquired if a child is set loose early from intimate ties with those who nurtured him in infancy. (b) are less offensive substitutions for others considered offensive. (Marie Winn) __ attributes: (a) facial features. (c)communicating. They sense each other exquisitely. Probably all bilingual SItuations equally stigmatize those who use low-prestige languages. and a Guarani [the Indian language of Paraguay] speaker. (c) represent abstract or general qualities. perseverance. in which one stalks the other for food. Termites make percussive sounds to each other by beating their heads against the floor in the dark. In such an 'economy the attributes required to carry out their assigned tasks successfully were persistence. they were imprisoned in West African camps. (c) prestigious. (b) close. 6. . who must have perfected the business long before evolution got around to us. probably beneficial association." for "processing" before being shipped out to "markets. so are the crabs." (Peter Farb) __ euphemistically: describing words that (a) accurately and fairly depict reality. courage. (d) predation. the beats occur in regular. The sound has been described as resembling. quickly feels his inferiority.14 INTRODUCTION 5. not for predation but to set up symbiotic households. sand falling on paper. euphemistically called "factories. to the human ear. The self-marking of invertebrate animals in the sea. In an increasingly complex society it was no longer possible for children simply to melt into the adult world and function as somewhat inferior but nevertheless useful versions of adults. (c)occupational skills. (d) nearly imperceptible. The history of the word "creole" itself dates back to the slave trade. resonating corridors of their nests. (b) clearly audible. but spectrographic analysis of sound records has recently revealed a high degree of organization in the drumming. (d) are substitutions for words that are too difficult to understand. (b) illiterate. (Peter Farb) __ stigmatize: to mark as (a) inferior. It is quite clear that Spanish is still the language of high prestige. (c) indifference. The anemones who live on the shells of crabs are precisely finicky. when children served as agricultural helpers or as workers in cottage industries or as apprentices to craftsmen. rhythmic phrases. coming to market in the city. (d) descriptive terms. (Hint: Why does the author use quotation marks around certain words in the last sentence?) 8. (Lewis Thomas) __ symbiotic: describing a relationship between two organisms based on (a) mutual dislike and hostility. and independence. lack of interest and attention. and live together as though made for each other. (b) distinctive characteristics. (d) peculiar. Only a single species of anemone will find its way to only a single species of crab. 7. After slaves had been gathered from many parts of Africa. CLewis Thomas) _' _ percussive: (a) produced by striking together. qualities.
going for a walk was as simple and natural as breathing. Context clue: "virtues" 10. When you stumble into a table and your friend teases you by saying "How gracefull" he or she is being ironic. usually to heighten the meaning. Context clue: "factories. stigmatize (a). (Irving Howe) __ impede: (a) encourage. and lithe (a). "watching part of a dance" 3. would begin to feel uncomfortable. even if favoring in principle an open door for aliens.set in . So that you can check your work. crevices (b). what seems remarkable is not the extent of antiforeign sentiment that swept the country but the fact that until the First World War it did not seriously impede the flow of immigration. Context clues: "extreme grace in their way of moving"." for example. But into this blameless tradition crept a tiny flaw. 'However. Context clue: "fissures" 2. From the vantage point of distance. (b) increase. Context clues: "stayed near the den and rested". for example. rhythmic phrases" 6. "drumming". The sheer magnitude of immigration from Europe during the last third of the nineteenth century made it certain that old-stock Americans. it is far safer to consult the dictionary. satisfying. changeless. Context clue: the last sentence 7. I Irony refers to the use of a word to conveythe opposite of the word's literal meaning. lassitude (d). here are the answers (given in parentheses) along with the context clues which point to the right definition: 1. Ours is an age of escalation. to make the real underlying idea more emphatic. "George and Albert rested".INTRODUCTION 15 10. percussive (a). Take. "the only signs of life" 5. walking. Going for a walk got to be known in elegant circles as "taking one's constitutional. (d) favor. it seems. Context clue: "perceive" 4. Context clues: "inferiority" and "low-prestige language" 9. especially if you suspect that the writer may be using the word in an unusual fashion or in an ironic sense. In this passage. "beats occur in regular. symbiotic (b). for thousands of years a pastime beyond improvement: pure. (c) obstruct. Writers also employ irony to good advantage. and ruin . Thus the insidious idea spread around that it was good for you. discerned (d)." insinuating the notion that walking might be done for reasons of health. impede (c). it was the most elementary form of recreation known to man. attributes (b). Context clue: the situation described and the logical progression of ideas The above exercises show that context can be useful. when you are in doubt about the meaning of a word. euphemistically (b). "Angeline lay at her ease". is a less harsh word than "slave camp" 8. the author uses two words ironically-insinuating and insidious-for humorous effect. deft (d). Only yesterday. Context clues: "beating".
even confirmed nonwalkers.the very reason you enrolled in this course. (Don't expect your vocabulary to improve by magic. The etymology for insidious and the notes on synonyms for insinuate (located at the word suggest) should help.j] In the exercises. getting interested in the etymology of words. the number of the sentence or paragraph in which the word occurred is provided in brackets. using the dictionary properly. other kinds of vocabulary exercises are included in addition to the usual multiple-choice questions. and so forth)." Harper's In its usual sense. "The End of Walking. In addition. and paying attention to context clues-will result not only in building your vocabulary. Vocabulary Exercises. believe that walking is good exercise. a good idea can't really be "insidious." since most people. however. you'll make little improvement. insinuate means "to suggest in an underhanded way. you soon will be pleasantly surprised. since the idea Jager "insinuates" is an idea most people readily accept.that more of it. consult your dictionary. with pristine American logic. . if you seldom read. ." and it implies that what is suggested is unpleasant." Here. If you followthe suggestions outlined at the beginning of this introductory section (keeping a notebook. All the skills explained here-seeing individual words as parts of larger groups. I I ~ . \New words will start to recur in your reading. Reading Essays and Articles. Ronald Jager. would be better. Insidious means "stealthy" or "treacherous. Jager uses both words ironically. But even reading for pleasure thirty minutes a day can quickly result in impressive gains. words you have skipped over will begin to look familiar.16 INTRODUCTION rapidly. In Part 4. Each exercise in the text is intended to promote a good reading vocabulary. at a faster pace. If the irony still escapes you. but also in enhancing your enjoyment of reading . From the premise that walking was good for the body the conclusion was drawn. religiously looking words up. in fact. This enables you to locate the word in the selection easily and to study its fuller context before choosing the best definition.
in some cases. the main idea is a general statement that most often appears at or near the beginning of the paragraph. and the controlling idea. In the exercises in this text. THE MAIN IDEA PARAGRAPHS THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS ~ .. . r ." and the controlling idea or limiting phrase is "a grueling and increasingly unrewarding job.. " . Most books use the term topic sentence to describe the main idea of a paragraph. qualifies.. A paragraph may be any length as long as it keeps to that one idea.part 1 II READING chapter 1 II A.. is the fundamental unit of written thought...-' The paragraph. two questions you learned in the introductory section on the reading process when you read the paragraph on marriage: What is the topic? What does the author want me to understand about that topic? The answers to these two questions will usually give you the paragraph's subject and controlling ideaiDiagrammed. or narrows down the subject so that it is manageable.usually a word or phrase that limits. the form we will study and analyze in this chapter.' "" 17 . A well-constructed sentence that expresses the main idea consists of two parts: the subject. Indeed. I Another way oflooking at the structure of the main idea is to remember the . i .. the subject is "The American presidency. you will be asked to choose the sentence that expresses the main idea or." In this example." Here is another example: ( . i.\. to write a sentence expressing the main idea if the author has not provided an explicit one.'a paragraph is a group of sentences that developsand supports one idea. . we will call this general statement the main idea rather than the topic sentence. the standard main-idea sentence might look like this: Main idea = Subject + Controlling idea Consider this sentence: "The American presidency is a grueling and increasingly unrewarding job.. but since in adult prose a writer may not express the subject in a single explicit topic" sentence. <.Although it may appear anywhere in the paragraph. Simply defined. you may have to formulate the main idea yourself from bits and pieces of information presented in the first two or three sentences.
and the word or phrase that acts as the controlling idea with two.. 5. 8.18 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS SUBJECT Learning to write on a word processor offers CONTROLLING IDEA great rewards for any writer. Psychologists agree that children who watch too much television may have difficulty distinguishing between fantasy and reality. My cat. therefore. even in the elementary grades. Here is a short exercise to give you practice in labeling main ideas. Again. 7. underscore the subject with one line. 6. the study of Latin is becoming more popular. Letter writing is becoming a lost art. a common occurrence. the first part should not be underlined. Even more important. an increasingly popular status symbol in suburban America is the hot tub. verdant farmlands and modern cities. Note that the subject is underlined once and the controlling idea is underlined twice. not status symbols. is the author's topic? (the hot tub). Read the following illustration: Although considered by many to be a foolish luxury. What. 3. The subject is the hot tub. even the most inexperienced. 10. ). What does the author want me to understand about that subject? (that it offers any writer great rewards). Irrelevant information in a main idea sentence should not be labeled. Ann Beattie's stories reveal the themes of loneliness and the inability to communicate. 4. Iowa is a state of great contrasts: frigid winters and broiling hot summers. 2. notice that in this example the order in which the subject and controlling idea appear is reversed. What does the author want you to understand about the hot tub? (that it is an increasingly popular status symbol . 9. For each.. The most tragic effect of overpopulation is the threat of starvation in the worl1's poor countries. exhibits some very bizarre traits. Vladimir. 1. The first clause does not properly have anything to do with the main idea. . The common garden snail is a terrible pest. Many critics are now urging that the practice of plea bargaining be abolished for violent crimes. Once out of fashion in the nation's schools. The most useful book a college student can own is an unabridged dictionary. then. remember the two basic questions: What is the author's subject? (learning to write on a word processor). The author mentions that many find hot tubs foolish only to concede a truth.
7. and 8 as general statements and the remaining sentences as specific. and he will look right into his father's eyes and say "mama" and his father. A frequent criticism of American automobiles is that they are designed to be obsolete within a few years of purchase. Serious gardeners may disagree. He will pursue the dog's tail chanting "mama. 2. while sentence 8 presents the reader with a conclusion based on the foregoing evidence. sounds uttered for pleasure and enjoyed indiscriminately to bring about a desired event.. 13." 4. label each sentence with either a G (for general statements) or an S (for specificor. 8. The Magic Years \ __ Let's see how you did. support. You should have marked sentences 1. •Now that you have had some practice separating the constituent parts of main idea sentences.each for a cookie yelling "mama" and he will lie in his crib murmuring "mamamamamamamama" . maintenance-free ground cover is the often-maligned English ivy. One couldn't hope for more delicious appetizers at a party than Chinese dim sum. 14. The baby is surprised and pleased at the excitement he creates in his parents and can easily be induced to repeat this performance dozens of times a day. he doesn't know who or what "mama" is. There is a tremendous difference in the directing styles of Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas. 15. He will look right into your eyes and say "mama" and you melt at the lovely sound. 12.supporting statements). corrects him. let us move to the paragraph as a whole.Which sentences represent main idea. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 1.that the baby cannot yet connect the word "mama" with his mother. . 6. but an easy. embarrassed. The pattern these sentences form is a fairly standard one: Sentence 1 makes a broad generalization.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 19 11. Unfortunately.As you read through the following paragraph. the sentences are printed in list form." and he will r. He doesn't connect the word and the person at this point. 3. and conclusion? For the purposes of this exercise. 2. Fraiberg. Language originates in magic. Then try to discern a pattern for these statements . but magic incantations. 5. The first "words" of a baby are not words at all.and he hasn't a thought in his head for M-O-T-H-E-R and the million things she gave him. One of the most serious problems in international affairs today is the threat of terrorism. Selma H. The sentences in the body of the paragraph (3-7) provide specific illustrations of a baby's speech and the parents' reactions to it. Sometime in the last quarter of the first year the baby makes the sounds "mama" or "dada. sentence 2 explains the first sentence and narrows down the generalization to a manageable topic.
concentration camp confinement. follows the established form-main idea + supportthat we have come to expect as the standard paragraph pattern. Here is another example of a paragraph whose main idea com es in the first sentence: Weve never been so self-conscious about our selves uu ••_ ::. heavy bombardment. Montagu begins with the topic sentence. which indeed the body of the paragraph does. The psychiatric casualties of civilian populations under such conditions are mostly masculine. The paragraph's direction. The Natural Superiority of Women In this paragraph.2em to be these days. it has a direction. they recover from illnesses more easily and more frequently than men. then. Then determine the extent to which the writer supports that topic. Many diseases from which men suffer can be shown to be largely influenced by their relation to the male Y-chromosome. men are physically more powerful than women-which is not the same thing as saying that they are stronger. More males die than females. As you read the following paragraph. women are stronger than men. Notice that the first half of the paragraph provides evidence for the statement that women are "psychically" stronger. the controlling idea-the words that restrict this broad assertion-are the adverbs "physically and psychically." In setting up the paragraph this way. while the second part (beginning with sentence 6) supports the statement that women are "physically" stronger." Physically and psychically women are by far the superior of men. His topic is that women are superior to men. THE DIRECTION OF PARAGRAPHS A paragraph does not simply consist of a topic sentence followed by a group of sentences written at random: As you saw in the preceding example by Selma Fraibergthe paragraph makes a point. Deaths from almost all causes are more frequent in males of all ages. first try to pick out the topic sentence and determine both the specific subject and the controlling idea. and there are far more men in our mental hospitals than there are women. The old chestnut about women being more emotional than men has been forever destroyed by the facts of two great wars.20 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS B. it proves what it sets out to prove. The steady hand at the helm is the hand that has had the practice at rocking the cradle. Women under blockade. The popular magazines are filled with advice on things to do . A man of the same size and weight as a woman of comparable background and occupational status would probably not be any more powerful than a woman. As far as constitutional strength is concerned. Montagu leads the reader to expect proof for both parts of the controlling idea with explanations and examples. and similar rigors withstand them vastly more successfully than men. Because of their greater size and weight. Though women are more frequently ill than men. Ashley Montagu.
In this case. but those that encrust the rocks of mountain peaks are particularly so.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 21 with a self: how to find it. self-help. Self-enlightenment can be taught in college electives. and many more. but for a long time they remain dormant. self-development.weekends. At high altitudes. nurture it. will provide you with other. and the remaining sentences offer specific examples as evidence. Other such illnesses are due to the changes that occur in the vascular systemamong them. there may be only a single day in a whole year when growth is possible and a lichen may take as long as sixty years to coverjust one square centimetre. There are instructive books. high blood pressure. heart conditions. David Attenborough. For now. Chronic illnesses begin to establish themselves in the organism much earlier. The Living Planet Another common instance where statement ofthe main idea of a paragraph is delayed is illustrated in the next paragraph. Successful Aging Chapter 4. such as diabetes. however. intestinal ulcers. that all species of lichens in the world are slow-growing. the first sentence serves only to introduce the reader to the general subject. are therefore likely to be hundreds if not thousands of years old. learning self-awareness. more sophisticated. Lichens as big as plates. All are slowgrowing. ways of organizing information. protect it. the writer begins the paragraph with a statement that she intends to disprove. for special occasions. I have in mind the various metabolic diseases. arthritis. which are very common. how to lose it transiently. Sentence 3 contains the topic sentence. There are some 16. although it is perfectly common for a writer to delay . The Medusa and the Snail In the next paragraph. best sellers on self-realization. stone formations. even. dramatic example. The aging process has been accused of causing the many prolonged illnesses that are prevalent among older people. and the main idea. is reserved for the second sentence. Groups of self-respecting people pay large fees for three-day sessions together. hardening of the arteries. It must be emphasized that this is not the case. Patterns of Paragraph Organization. a common misconception that is explained in sentences 1 and 2. Olga Knopf. Lewis Thomas.000 species of lichens in the world. suffice it to say that the main idea of a paragraph usually comes at or near the paragraph's beginning. All these afflictions can be precipitated and aggravated by stress-including aging itself and its psychological impact on the aging person. The rest of the paragraph offers support in the form of a single. displaying no symptoms. identify it.
" Saturday Review . but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. Another useful skill in analytical reading is the ability to distinguish between major supporting statements and minor ones: Briefly. Analysis of levels of support trains you to think logically because you must assign ideas to categories and weigh their relative importance-. and develop. LEVELSOF SUPPORT ".) +The second has a great many books-a few of them read through. 2The first has all the standard sets and best-sellers. with each parenthetical sentence serving to state the author's opinion of each type of book owner. ' c. shaken and loosened by continual use. the supporting statements might look like this: Main Idea (topic sentence) Major Support Minor Support Minor Support Major Support Minor Support Minor Support Conclusion The following paragraph nicely exemplifies the model above.unread. 5(This person would probably like to make books his own. but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance. 7(Thisman owns books. marked and scribbled in from front to back.Notice that each minor supporting sentence is printed in parentheses. "How to Mark a Book. not books.Diagrammed.) 6The third has a few books or many-every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated.) Mortimer Adler. untouched. I If you keep in mind the two basic questions-What is this paragraph about? and. using an ideal model paragraph. or otherwise develop the major ones. What does the writer want me to understand about the subject?-you should quickly succeed in developing the single most important skill involved in the reading process: finding the main idea of what you read. ow we can turn our attention to the supporting part of the paragraphN the body sentences.22 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS presenting the main idea for several sentences or even to omit a topic sentence altogether. most of them dipped into. in which case you have to determine the main idea for yourself. "I'here are three kinds of book owners. major statements directly relate to. illustrate. while minor ones further explain.the main idea. 3(This deluded individual owns wood-pulp and ink.
why the author chose one specificword with a peculiar . 7 An insect can walk under its hairy belly unharmed. not every paragraph works out as well as this one does. a good reader must also learn to establish the author's purpose in writing. Diagrammed. "The Spider and the Wasp" You should have marked sentences 4 and 6 as major and sentences 5 and 7 as minor. and classifying its supporting details. is thickly clothed with hair. The paragraph is beautifully constructed so that the supporting statements are balanced. Petrunkevitch's paragraph would look like this: Sentences 1 and Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: Descriptive Details 'Ibpic Sentence Major Support. 4When the spider is hungry. THE AUTHOR'S PURPOSE: MODES OF DISCOURSE In addition to determining the main idea of the paragraph. the stimulation of its hairs merely causes it to shake the touched limb. 2Some of it is short and woolly. At the end of this chapter. 'You must learn to ask yourself why the author wrote.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 23 The next paragraph is reprinted from an essay at the beginning of Part 4.\ Ascertaining the' purpose will help you accomplish other. the major details). Read the remainder of the paragraph carefully and label the sentences according to whether they represent major (MA)support or minor (M!) support: "I'he entire body of a tarantula. Alexander Petrunkevitch. more difficult skills that you will learn later in this text (such as detecting bias. 6But when the spider is not hungry. especially its legs. 5At the touch of a cricket's antennae the tarantula seizes the insect so swiftly that a motion picture taken at the rate of 64 frames per second shows only the result and not the process of capture.some long and stiff. The first two sentences describe the tarantula's body. its general direction. 3'Ibuching this body hair produces one of two distinct reactions. and minor ones (those that merely add to. it responds with an immediate and swift attack. Minor Support Major Support Minor Support Unhappily. D.while sentence 3 is the topic sentence. or explain. a few of the exercises will ask you to distinguish between major supporting ideas (those that directly reinforce the topic). understanding why the author chose one method of support over another.
calm. Two. Turning round again with a One. modes of discourse. and persuasion. __J Narration The first and most easily recognized mode of discourse is narration. But in simple terms. mode of discourse can be understood as the author's purpose in writing. description. in chronological order. either real or imagined. carrying them through in a haze of tranquillity. he remembered the episode in clear detail. . the practice of criticizing what you cannot have. he took a run and a jump. and walked away with his nose in the air. a short tale written or told to illustrate a moral truth. exposition. The writer's purpose is to . Again and again he tried after the tempting morsel." Folk-Lore and Fable: Aesop. and just missed the bunch. crushed across the chest in the animal's great jaws. however.Typically. narration is used along with the other modes (description. Later." Lives of a Cell Description This mode of discourse refers to writing that shows what someone or something looks like or what something feels like. switched on at the verge of death." meaning. Grimm. as the fable says. he jumped up.Tn other words. In a nineteenth-century memoir on an expedition in Africa. Lewis Thomas. Andersen This fable is the source of the expression. but at last had to give it up. exposition. Sir William Osler took this view: he disapproved of people who spoke of the agony of death. maintaining that there was no such thing. "The Long Habit.24 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS connotation over another. He was so amazed by the extraordinary sense of peace. and so on). but with no greater success. A writer employs narration because his or her purpose is to relate events." "IT IS EASY TO DESPISE WHAT YOU CANNOT GET.Three. "sour grapes. and saved in the instant by a lucky shot from a friend. as Lewis Thomas does in the followingparagraphs: We may be about to rediscover that dying is not such a bad thing to do after all. saying: "I am sure they are sour. and total painlessness associated with being killed that he constructed a theory that all creatures are provided with a protective physiologic mechanism. or persuasion) to support an idea or to illustrate a theory. actually refers to the various kinds of prose writing: narration. which is simply telling a story. there is a story by David Livingston about his own experience of near-death. One of the simplest forms of narration is the fable. as in this fable by Aesop: THE FOX AND THE GRAPES One hot summer's day a Fox was strolling through an orchard till he came to a bunch of Grapes just ripening on a vine which had been trained over a lofty branch. Drawing back a few paces. the choice of one mode over another reflects the author's purpose in writing. "Just the thing to quench my thirst. He was caught by a lion. The traditional term." quoth he.
Directly it begun to rain. in combination with other modes. Sometimes it would go into hiding. words and phrases that appeal to the reader's senseaWhile description may be used alone and for its own sake-to set the scene or to evoke a mood -it most often appears. It was one of these regular summer storms. Every day I gazed at those great cliffs that guarded the way to the thick forest on its ridged back. and it rained like all fury. and every day I had watched N'da Ali in its many moods. It would get so dark that it looked all blue-black outside. at least in longer pieces. at night it was purple and shapeless. Pretty soon it darkened up and begun to thunder and lighten. Twain describes a summer thunderstorm from Huck's point of view. when it was just about the bluest and blackest. Gerald Durrell. glowering over the landscape. cloud-veiledshape brooding over everything. and the imaginative description of thunder at the end. hundreds of yards further than you could see before. We spread the blankets inside for a carpet. dark as sin . by means of these visual details. and each day I grew more determined that I would go up there and see what it had to offer me. usually narration or exposition. and lovely. Notice in particular the informal language. G€rald Durrell describes a mountain in Africa by using concrete details that appeal primarily to the reader's sense of sight. and our little hill. away offyonder in the storm. brooding monster. fading to black as the sun sank. its heights guarded by sheer cliffs of gnarled granite so steep that no plant life could get a foothold.fst! it was as bright as glory and you'd have a little glimpse of tree-tops a-plunging about. N'da Ali was the largest mountain in the vicinity. and here would come a blast of wind that would bend the trees down and turn up the pale underside of the leaves. at noon it was all green and golden glitter of forest. and eat our dinner in there. and then a perfect ripper of a gust would followalong and set the branches to tossing their arms as if they was just wild.' In the next paragraph. its cliffs flushing pink in the sun. and sounds. so the birds was right about it. We put all the other things handy at the back of the cavern. that is. In the early morning it was a great mist-whitened monster. and the rain would thrash along by so thick that the trees off a little ways looked dim and spider-webby. too. and I never see the wind blow so. and next. sights.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 25 paint a picture in words. The Overloaded Ark The next example of descriptive writing is from Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn. From almost every vantage point you were aware of the mountain's mistentangled. It crouched at our backs. the concrete details referring to colors. Description always relies on sensory details. drawing the white clouds around itself and brooding in their depths for two or three days at a time. Every day I had looked longingly at the summit. the village. a dominant impression of N'da Ali as an inhospitable. Durrell conveys.
But the selection of the specific term was his. Margaret Mead. Russians. In Bali a baby is not given a human name at birth. was responsible for naming the new species. grumbling. it becomes a participating human being whose mother. see the baby as fragile and vulnerable to anything harmful in the environmentand they softly swaddle the infant to keep it quietly safe. tumbling down the sky towards the under side of the world. or expository writing. the Balinese refer to it as a caterpillar or a mouse. Every people has a quite definite image of what a child is at birth. They believe the "soul. David Etnier.26 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS again in a second. "A New Understanding of Childhood" In this next example. The French. where it's long stairs and they bounce a good deal. is reborn every fourth generation within the same family. says the words of polite social response. In this first example of expository writing. Scientific practice omits the final name. the name of the discoverer of a new species is placed after the generic and specific names. to make clear. to discuss. an ichthyologist who discoveredthe snail darter at the dam site. because his darter was obviously a member of that genus. people reproach it. Eugene Kinkead's subject is a particular species of snail darter discovered on the site of the TellicoDam in Tennessee. he relies only on facts-verifiable truths-as opposed to opinions. In scientific nomenclature. Next time stay and eat rice with us. speaking for it. and now you'd hear the thunder let go with an awful crash and then go rumbling. in contrast. when it is given a name. It is essentially factual writing with a straightforward purpose: to explain. This paragraph explains how new species are named. Because the darter was on the list of endangered species. Huckleberry Finn Exposition Exposition. like rolling empty barrels downstairs. or to set forth. explains the differences in the way babies are perceived in three different cultures." without any specific personality." For the Balinese believe in reincarnation. Margaret Mead. Mark Twain. Tanasi was the Cherokee name of a village on the Little Tennessee River which until 1725 was the capital of . so the new darter is usually known to ichthyologists as Percina tanasi or P tanasi. for example. saying "Youdidn't stay long enough. construction of the dam was halted for several years while environmentalists and dam supporters fought the issue in court. At three months. You will see that" the author's sole purpose is to explain. Until it seems clear it will live. is the most common mode of discourse you will encounter in your college reading. you know. which are statements reflecting one's subjective or personal point of view. see the newborn as so strong that they swaddle it firmly to protect it from harming itself. Etnier had no choice about the name Percina. the noted anthropologist. using Etnier's find as the primary example. But if the baby dies before this.
voting pamphlets.)n other words. refer to your dictionary. Most people assume that this automatically proves teenagers are also more sexually active now-after all. and was first used in 1762.the. "Tennessee Small Fry" Persuasion This last mode of discourse is sometimes called argumentation. though technically there is a difference. which derives from its main food-aquatic snails of two species-has become widely familiar: it is the snail darter. (Note that the first sentence contains a key word. Persuasion is an attempt to change another person's feelings or opinions by any effectivemeans. In this first example. some general statistics. she appeals to our reason rather than to our subjective feelings. political speeches. it represents a subjective or personal point of view. Therefore. to win the reader over to a certain point of view. precocity. you have to "do it" to get pregnant.' By its very nature. the dramatically increased number of teenagers having illegitimate babies during the last twenty years. by definition. persuasive writing relies more on opinion than on fact· since. she cites an authoritative study on the subject. Marie Winn seeks to convince us that the supposed rise in illegitimate teenage pregnancies is not necessarily the result of increased sexual activity. a Virginian serving with a combined force of British regulars and colonial militia stationed in the area. For evidence. if you are unsure of its meaning. either alone or in combination. Argumentation traditionally refers to the setting up of logically valid arguments that can be used in defense of a specific issue. Statistics gathered by the authors of the study confirm this hypothesis: great numbers of babies born to teenage .CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 27 the Cherokee nation. you will encounter a fuller discussion of persuasive writing. Pregnancy and Childbearing have an alternative explanation. for instance. Reading Critically.) P tanasi's common name. newspaper or magazine editorials. it is enough to know that the two essential components of persuasive writing are appeals to reason and appeals to the emotions. (The name Tennessee is a corruption of tanasi. or to get the reader to change his or her mind:'We see persuasive writing most often (and often at its worst) in advertisements. But the authors of the study Teenage Sexuality. There is. on maps and reports of Lieutenant Henry Timberlake. They propose that the teenager who became pregnant two decades ago was far more likely to legitimize her baby by getting married than today's teenager for whom illegitimacy no longer bears the same stigma. Eugene Kinkead. or other writing in which the writer seeks to make us change our minds or to clarify our notions about controversial issues.'In Part 2.) The belief in extensive sexual precocity among pre-teenagers and teenagers these days may also be traced to certain well-publicized statistics about sexuality. and her own explanation of the phenomenon. persuasive mode reflects the writer's attempt to convince the reader that a particular idea or opinion is worth holding. For now.
America and Americans You should have marked "savagery. They could tell a tale of days and months of mindless. each has demonstrated only one mode of discourse. washing and sewing and mending clothes that were forever being worn out or outgrown. John Steinbeck. especially lately.28 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS mothers in the 1950s and 1960s followedwithin seven or eight months of marriage. thankless tedium. negative) emotional impact.) What neutral words or phrases could be substituted for these emotional ones? E. the emotional feeling suggested is a positive one. blasted the streams. But prose writers often have more than one purpose in mind. ("My. set fire to the grass." Seen from this perspective. Marie Winn. Perhaps they felt that it was limitless and could never be exhausted and that a man could move on to new wonders endlessly. don't you wish some fairy would set those patches talkin' -what a tale they could tell!") My foot. mark these charged words or phrases. I have often wondered at the savagery and thoughtlessness with which our early settlers approached this rich continent. they swept the buffalo from the plains. and ran a reckless scythe through the virgin and noble timber. For every block of patchwork sewn in ." "blasted. Certainly there are many examples to the contrary." and "the virgin and noble timber. but to a large extent the early people pillaged the country as though they hated it. cooking food of a depressing sameness." "thoughtlessness. They came at it as though it were an enemy. who relies on charged languagewords that convey a strong (in this case." "ran a reckless scythe. a rise in teenage pregnancies does not necessarily prove a huge increase in teenage sexual activity. each of the paragraphs you have read in this chapter has reflected one dominant purpose. Children Without Childhood The aim to persuade by appealing to our emotions is also evident in this next example by John Steinbeck. As you read the paragraph." (In the case of the last phrase. as though they held it temporarily and might be driven off at any time. but most of the weddings it is clear. MULTIPLE PURPOSES Thus far. Perhaps a few of these babies were premature. They burned the forests and changed the rainfall. as does Beth Gutcheon in the following paragraph from the introduction to a book on how to make patchwork quilts: People talk a surprising amount of twaddle about the romance of patchwork. in contrast to the others. that is. were helped along by a "shotgun. frustrating days and sleepless nights with a whining child ill or dying of some disease that could have been cured by one shot of pencillin. which of course it was.
As a result. tired hour before sleep. EXERCISES Besides measuring your skill in determining the author's purpose." Spring Sowing . and description to counter romantic notions of pioneer life and show us the grim reality. when all had been snowbound for weeks. machine guns and rifles broke the silence of the night. For words that are not part of your active reading vocabulary. 5Republicans and Free Staters were waging civil war. (Refer to pp. Although her dominant purpose seems to be to persuade us that our notions about the "romance of patchwork" are a lot of "twaddle. or in Sweden or Slovakia. when hands and bodies were stiff with cold and fatigue. However.3Around the beleaguered Four Courts the heavy guns roared. casting a pale light as of approaching dawn over the streets and the dark waters of the Liffey. resulting from her need to support her assertion with proof. Liam O'Flaherty. to make inferences and to define vocabulary words in context. 4Here and there through the city. whether they were back home in Connecticut. Beth Gutcheon. The Perfect Patchwork Primer It is hard to pin down a single mode of discourse here. try first to determine the best meaning for the italicized word from its context. when the stillness of the work and of the night and of the long. 12-16 for a more detailed explanation of context. deadly boring white winter brought homesickness for places and people never to be seen again. even while you are working through exercises. Youshould followthis procedure for all the multiple-choice vocabulary exercises in this book.) Often you will be able to choose the best meaning in this way. 2Dublin lay enveloped in darkness but for the dim light of the moon that shone through fleecy clouds. the way in which the particular word is used in the passage. she uses exposition to explain the day-to-day drudgery of the pioneer housewife." two other modes of discourse are also evident. when the heat and the light from the fire were insufficient for other work. when the babies were in bed and the older children could be set to help with the sewing as the last chore of their care-full day. these exercises will also test your ability to ascertain the main idea.if you are unsure.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 29 a cheerful. many more were sewn in the last numb. "The Sniper. Selection 1 "The long June twilight faded into night. like dogs barking on lone farms. sunlit kitchen while fresh pies cooled on the window sill and happy children warbled in the front yard. or if referring to the original context does not provide a sufficiently useful clue-as may often be the case-then you should turn to the dictionary rather than merely making a blind stab at the meaning. It is not cheating to look up words you don't know. spasmodically.
laThe citizens of Keystone City changed the name of their town to Frostproof. 3The freeze of February. 5'Thmperatures on the Ridge on February 8. John McPhee. on being told what was happening out in the groves. situation. (d) annoyingly. went through the freeze of 1895 without damage. 1. (b) ammunition and weapons were in short supply. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. occurred in 1747. spasmodically : (a) continually. (b) fighting. (c) surprisingly. Keystone City became famous. (b) a river. 9Slightly higher than anything around it and studded with sizable lakes. 8The groves around Keystone City. it was apparent that the Florida citrus industry had been virtually wiped out. because more growers were affected. (b) description. Oranges A. waging : (a) pledging. prestige. the Great Freeze of 1895 seems to enjoy the same sort of status in Florida that the Blizzard of '88 once held in the North. . B. (d) dotted. 2Severe ones. 2. (c)popularity. got up from their dinner tables and left the state. (c)threatening. Selection 2 "The history of Florida is measured in freezes. (b) besieged. 1.1895. went into the teens for much of the night. in Polk County. and people from all over the Ridge came to marvel at this Garden of Eden in the middle of the new wasteland. 6It is said that some orange growers. virtually : (a) tragically.30 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS A. for example. probably refers to (a) an ocean. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. however. ill fame. 4. The Liffey. and 1774. (d) engaging in.1766. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. 1. 2. 3. status : (a) high standing. The topic sentence of this paragraph is expressed in sentence __ . (d) a little pond. 1835. (c)'" outbursts of fighting occurred even at night. (c)intermittently. (c)a public swimming pool. (c)exposition. beleaguered [sentence 3]: (a) conquered. (b) loudly. (d)persuasion. (b) state of affairs. In the first two sentences of this paragraph. 3. (d) normally. (d) most of the fighting took place in the countryside. studded : (a) constructed. (c)betrayed. 7In the morning. (d) heavily populated. 4But. We can infer from the weapon activity O'Flaherty mentions that (a) the Republicans were the stronger faction. 3. 2. (b) essentially. was probably the worst one in the state's history. (b) fortified. (c)blessed.mentioned in sentence 2. (d) notoriety. the mode of discourse is (a) narration. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. decorated.
C. once the Eastern coast ranges were crossed. some growers left the dinner table and the state on hearing the news because they were financially ruined. 3. I for inaccurate inferences. McPhee compares Keystone City to the Garden of Eden. 2. 6. Which two modes of discourse are most evident throughout the paragraph? (a) narration. According to sentence 1. 3Noless than eighteen imitative Bostons and New Bostons still appear. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. wonder at. and of the new towns and districts. The motivation for the citizens of Keystone City to change the name of their town to Frostproof was a sense of pride in their groves' ability to escape the Great Freeze. 7. (d) a place from which human beings were banished forever. R Content and Structure Choose the best answer. proceeded with unparalleled speed. Who do you think measures Florida's history in this way? (a) McPhee. 4. High elevations offer little protection to citrus groves from freezes. Selection 3 "The settlement of the continent. 2The result is the vast duplication of names that shows itself in the Postal Guide. peaks and valleys. (d) persuasion. 5. During the Freeze of 1895. 1. lakes. marvel : (a) admire. and so the naming of the new rivers. describe. The citrus industry is not particularly important to Florida's economy. 5. (c)a place of punishment for humanity's sins and errors injudgment. Frostproof is still a popular Florida tourist attraction. (d) a description. and there are nineteen . (c) an illustration intended to get the reader's attention. (c)citrus growers. The freeze that occurred in February 1835 affected more growers than the Great Freeze of 1895. "the history of Florida is measured in freezes. (b) praise highly. and IE for insufficient evidence. (b) a paradise where luscious fruit can grow. strained the inventiveness of the pioneers. (c) exposition. by which he means to suggest that the area represented (a) an area unspoiled by pollution or development. In relation to the rest of the paragraph. (b) description. 1. (d) write about. (d) weather officials. remain for a long time in." 2.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 31 4. is a citrus grower. Which of the first four sentences represents the main idea of the entire paragraph? Sentence __ . (b) all Americans. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. 4. the author of this paragraph. (c) visit. In sentence 9. 3. (b) a gradual narrowing down of the topic. John McPhee. sentences 1--4represent (a) a justification.
(d) unequaled. pulled. The relationship between sentences 1 and 2 is best described as (a) statement and an example of it.g. American Language A. (b) short examples. B. 3. 1. (b) imitating. (b) contrast. The mode of discourse in the paragraph is (a) narration. In your own words." 80f postoffices alone there are fully a hundred embodying Elk. (d) quotations from published sources. Kansas and nine other Western States. thus we find the whole land bespattered with Washingtons. Jeffersons and Jacksons. (c) exposition. Which word in sentence 5 is a synonym for Argonauts as it is used in sentence4? _ . counting in rivers. (d) statement of cause and effect. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. in its fourth report made a belated protest against this excessive duplication. Mencken. (c) injured. e. "are altogether too numerous. (c) incomprehensible. 6The Geographic Board. (c) statement and a reason to explain it. 7"The names Elk." it said. or statements of an opposite nature. 1. Richmonds in Iowa. (d) listing. Th support the main idea. unparalleled : (a) impressive. (b) exerted.32 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS Bristols. L. (c) representing. (b) unforeseen. Missouri and Tennessee. 2. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (c)opinions from authorities. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. 4. and Princetons in fifteen. (d) persuasion. impaired. creeks. lakes. 4 Argonauts starting out from an older settlement on the coast would take its name with them. Lafayettes. Beaver. (d) altered the relations between parts. Bear Creek. taxed to the utmost. and with names suggested by common and obvious natural objects. Bald Knob and Buffalo. H. twenty-eight Newports. and twenty-two Londons and New Londons.. mountains and valleys. 5Even when a new name was hit upon it seems to have been hit upon simultaneously by scores of scattered bands of settlers. 3. and so we find Philadelphias in Illinois. write the main idea and the controlling idea of this paragraph: Su~ect __ Controlling idea _ 2. Mississippi. embodying : (a) making part of a united whole. Mencken relies primarily on (a) definitions of key terms. the map of the United States probably shows at least twice as many such names. (b) description. strained : (a) stretched tight. Cottonwood and Bald. 5.
but in horizontal layers.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 33 6. it did not grow in bows or cupolas. twenty-two Londons and New Londons. What inference can you make about Mencken's opinion concerning the duplication of place names? (a) He probably thinks the settlers imitated the names of their original homes because they were homesick. Mississippi. and 'Thnnessee. and nine other Western states. but the early mornings and evenings were limpid and restful. Bald Knob. __ There is a vast duplication of place names in the United States. __ It was common for new locations to be named for common and obvious natural objects. (d) travelers would find it difficult to find their way around the country. and the formation gave to the tall solitary trees a likeness to the palms. near to the sun. __ Some new areas were named Bear Creek. b. Label these statements derived from the paragraph according to whether they are major (MA)or minor (M!)supporting details with respect to the main idea. like the colours in pottery. 7. c. Missouri. 7The trees had a light delicate foliage. a hundred miles to the North. __ Settlers moving from an old location on the coast took their old names with them. We can infer that the Geographic Board protested the excessive duplication of place names in the United States because (a) it showed that the pioneers weren't very imaginative. especially for post office workers. 2The Equator runs across these highlands. (b) He probably thinks that such duplication is foolish. 8. Selection 4 II had a farm in Africa. 6The colours were dry and burnt. 3In the day-time you felt that you had got high up. (d) His opinion is not evident from the paragraph. and Buffalo. a. at the foot of the Ngong Hills. 4The geographical position. it was Africa distilled up through six thousand feet. __ There are Philadelphias in Illinois.Richmonds in Iowa. and Princetons in fifteen states. 5There was no fat on it and no luxuriance anywhere. twenty-eight Newports. d. Kansas. f. the structure of which was different from that of the trees in Europe. like the strong and refined essence of a continent. and the farm lay at an altitude of over six thousand feet. or a heroic and romantic air like fullrigged ships with their sails . and the nights were cold. and the height of the land combined to create a landscape that had not its like in all the world. (c) such duplication was potentially confusing. (b) it showed that the pioneers cared more about their original homes than about their new settlements. (c) He probably thinks that the Geographic Board was getting concerned about an essentially trivial matter. __ There are eighteen Bostons and New Bostons. e.
(c)brown. (b) loneliness. The mode of discourse in this passage is (a) narration. and touch. (d) green. 3. 3. 11Everything that you saw made for greatness and freedom. with the lower corners raised up and tied. were diminutive like flowers of the downs. 4.* and to the edge of a wood a strange appearance as if the whole wood were faintly vibrating. (b) calm. The impression Dinesen conveys of this region in Africa is characterized by (a) gloom and dreariness. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (d) predictable." What does she mean by this phrase? 5. refined. referring to the landscape.**-only just in the beginning of the long rains a number of big. 9All the flowers that you found on the plains. Which sentence contains a metaphor (an imaginative comparison between two unlike things)? Sentence __ . Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. smell. (c)senses of sight. (d) persuasion. 1. (d) intellectual curiosity. (b) blue and yellow. and the grass was spiced like thyme and bog-myrtle. 7. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. (d) tiny. (b) description. limpid : (a) transparent. **Grassy. (c) described. (d) dense forest. 2. (d) extracted in small drops. (c) exposition. (d) openness. and unequalled nobility. The "colours in pottery" mentioned in sentence 6 probably refer to shades of (a) gray. (b) swampland. The landscape Dinesen refers to is primarily (a) high mountains." Out of Africa A. rolling uplands. diminutive : (a) large. Dinesen relies extensively on words that appeal to the reader's (a) emotions and feelings. What two things are being compared? _ 8. (c) hot. (b) own experience in the region. Dinesen says. in some places the scent was so strong. 2. lOTheviews were immensely wide. Which two sentences best express the dominant impression of the Ngong farm? Sentences __ and __ . . that it smarted in the nostrils. In the passage. (b) elevated. (c) grassland. 6. "The Ngong Farm. depicted. B.34 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS clewed up. or upon the creepers and liana in the native forest. massive heavy-scented lilies sprang out on the plains. (b) ordinary. characteristic of southern England. (c) inferior. distilled : (a) purified. 1. sUpon the grass of the great plains the crooked bare old thorn-trees were scattered. (c) barrenness. "there was no fat on it. Isak Dinesen. *That is. In sentence 5.
significant.. (c)moving spontaneously. 2. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (b) description. (b) special capability or power. clones. (d) any unexplainable event in nature. 2Uniqueness is so commonplace a property of living things that there is really nothing at all unique about it. 2. while others tumble differently and for different. free-swimming bacteria can be viewed as unique entities. (c) a person outstanding for some extreme quality or achievement. property : (a) characteristic trait or peculiarity. 4. The Medusa and the Snail A. so. (c)powered. (c)exposition. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. distinguishable from each other even when they are the progeny of a single clone. clone.(d)kept motionless. +Even individual. (b) an unusual. flagellae. be sure to look them up before you do the exercises. if you are unsure of their meanings. (c)quality serving to define or describe an objector substance. 5Spudich and Koshland have recently reported that motile microorganisms of the same species are like solitary eccentrics in their swimming behavior.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 35 Selection 5* lWe tend to think of our selves as the only wholly unique creations in nature. restricted.g. tethered : (a) guided. motile : Capable of (a) reproducing. microorganisms. 6 When they are searching for food. 7If you watch them closely. you can tell them from each other by the way they twirl. tethered by their flagellae to the surface of an antibody-coated slide. Lewis Thomas. (d) existing independently. 5. but characteristic. (b) in a dangerous environment. entities : Things existing (a) in a state of harmony. (d) inseparably from one another. periods of time. as accurately as though they had different names. (b) offspring.virtue. antibody). Which of the following best states the main idea of this paragraph? (a) Even free-swimming bacteria display unique characteristics when *Note: Some of the scientific names in this paragraph are excluded from the following vocabulary exercise (e. (d) persuasion. (b)tied. 6. 3A phenomenon can't be unique and universal at the same time. (c) exact replicas. separate from one another. (d) characteristic attribute possessed by all members of a class. a marvel. (b) perceiving through sense organs. phenomenon : (a) an event that can be perceived by the senses. some tumble in one direction for precisely so many seconds before quitting. 1. R Content and Structure Choose the best answer. (d) parents. . 3. but it is not so. The primary mode of discourse in this paragraph is (a) narration. 1. progeny : (a) representations. (c) independently. or unaccountable fact or occurrence.
are especially vulnerable to damage. Why do you think Thomas uses the swimming behavior of microorganisms rather than that of a more obvious creature. (b) disprove an erroneous idea. 4(Thegreater land mass of the Soviet Union and the lower megatonnage of the American forces might reduce the factor of overkill somewhat. even at "low" levels of attack. __ __ sentence 4 sentence 5 __ __ sentence 6 sentence 7 Selection 6 1It has sometimes been claimed that the United States could survive a nuclear attack by the Soviet Union. where population densities are high. most European countries would be annihilated by tens of megatons. (d) a discussion of reasons to explain the phenomenon. 'Ib support the main idea. The relationship between the words unique and universal.) 5Likewise. 8. (d) criticize us for being self-centered. (c) steps in a process. (b) Human beings are unique creatures in the universe. 2They spell the doom of the United States. the thermal pulses.36 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS searching for food. any country subjected to an attack of more than a few hundred megatons would be doomed. 5. 3And if one imagines the reverse attack on the Soviet Union. 6Japan. 6. for his example? 3. (c) provide us with a dramatic opening statement to stimulate our interest. The primary purpose of sentence 1 is to (a) establish the main idea. but the bare figures on the extent of the blast waves. (b) synonyms. Thomas relies primarily on (a) definitions of key scientific terms. (b) a single illustration. 4. and the accumulated local fallout dash this hope irrevocably. (d)Human beings are arrogant to think that they are the only unique organisms in the universe. 8And these conclusions emerge even before one takes into account the global ecological . 7. Label these sentences from the paragraph according to whether they represent details that are major (MA) or minor (M!) with respect to the main idea. (c)steps in a process. (b) each organism behaves in a solitary and strange manner. What Thomas wants us to understand about free-swimmingbacteria is that (a) they are used often in laboratory experiments. (c) each organism displays unique characteristics in its swimming behavior. is (a) antonyms or opposites. 7There is no country in Europe in which survival of the population would be appreciable after the detonation of several hundred megatons. and the countries of Europe. (c)Uniqueness is a quality universal to all living things. (d) words with the same etymology. as they are used in sentence 3. such as a seal or a whale. (d) their behavior can easily be observed on the surface of slides. its doom is spelled out in similar figures. China.
1. (d) to show that he wants to keep the word separate from the rest of the text. (b) reduced to starvation. (d) one million tons of TNT. 2. (c)to show that he is being sarcastic and questioning the sense of using a word like "low" to describe a level of nuclear attack. state the main idea of the paragraph. (c) one thousand tons of TNT. crevices : (a) narrow cracks. holocaust : (a) a sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames. 3. (b) placed on. superimposed on : (a) forced on. (c) dependent on. (b) insignificantly. annihilated : (a) severely affected. (c) destroyed. vulnerable : (a) susceptible to injury. 2. 9As human life and the structure of human existence are seen in the light of each person's daily life and experience. which would be superimposed on the local consequences. The Fate of the Earth A. 5. (d) deep. (d) persuasion." Schell puts low in quotation marks (a) to show that he is providing us with a direct quotation. 8. (d) undoubtedly. ecological : Referring to the relationship between (a) countries. (c) exposition. (b) description. (b) citizens of nations and their governments. (c)breakdown in negotiations. (d) supported by. Look again at sentence 6. (c) liable to criticism. 7. wide holes. (d) the defeated and their captors. (b) insufficiently defended. (b) to emphasize the word. 4. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. The mode of discourse in this paragraph is (a) narration. but when human things are seen in the light of the universal power unleashed onto the earth by nuclear weapons they prove to be limited and fragile. (d) destruction of a race of people. (c) surface areas. (b) distinctive features. 3. Which one sentence best reveals the author's purpose and serves to reinforce his main idea? Sentence __ . . as though they were nothing more than a mold or a lichen that appears in certain crevices of the landscape and can be burned off with relative ease by nuclear fire. (d) liable to succumb to persuasion or temptation. (b) one hundred tons of TNT. (d) militarily defeated. _ 4. (c) organisms and their environments. (b) total destruction by fire. 6. Jonathan Schell. 1. (c) irreversibly. irrevocably : (a) permanently.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 37 consequences of a holocaust. wiped out completely. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. In the phrase "low levels of attack. megaton : A unit of force equal to (a) one ton of TNT. they look impressively extensive and solid. In your own words. B.
(c) for example. As you work through the remaining questions. Read the passage carefully once. if necessary. C. decide what Schell is comparing to what. (c) all countries possessing nuclear weapons should have a summit meeting. (d) cynical. Measured in megatonnage. wry and amusing. (b) since an attack would destroy civilization. paying careful attention to paragraph structure and to any accurate inferences you can draw. distrusting human motives. 6. 2.38 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS 5. I for inaccurate inferences. likewise means (a) on the other hand. Then explain the meaning of the comparison in your own words. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. PRACTICE ESSAY The following selection provides you with the opportunity to practice your new skills with a short essay. 4. The USSR and the U. 8. (d) in addition. The last sentence contains an especially effective simile (an indirect imaginative comparison between two unlike things using "like" or "as"). As used in sentence 5. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. and IE for insufficient evidence. the nuclear strength of the Soviet Union is superior to that of the United States. A nuclear attack in one country would not have much effect on the environment of a neighboring country. The author's tone-his attitude toward his subject-can best be described as (a) sharply critical. The author apparently believes that (a) nuclear war is inevitable. (c) neutral. (d) developing nations should produce their own nuclear arms to counteract the threat from the Americans and the Soviets. you should feel free to refer to the selection. Look up any unfamiliar words in the dictionary. answer the comprehension questions without looking back at the selection. Next. First. . (b) ironic. 1. 6. The chances of surviving a nuclear attack are particularly slim for nations with high population densities. (b) in the same way. Most of the world's developed nations possess an arsenal of nuclear weapons. No country could survive a nuclear attack. 3. have voluntarily agreed to stop producing nuclear weapons. Check your answers against the text. Then read the essay again.S. ____________________ are being compared to Explain. _ 7. 5. showing little or no emotion. nuclear war should be prevented at all costs.
went to the Gombe Stream Game Reserve on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in 1960 to study chimpanzee behavior. 3 When chimpanzees have been separated for a while they may. and he slowly relaxes his tense posture. One individual may pat. and gorillas. embrace or kiss another. pull hair. 2 When a chimpanzee is frightened he may reach to touch or embrace a companion. Sometimes he seems quite calm by the time he moves away. if he . at the encouragement of the famous anthropologist and paleontologist. In the Shadow of Man. and take up a submissive. one of the most striking behavioral similarities between man and chimpanzee lies in the nonverbal communication system-the repertoire of postures and gestures by which one chimpanzee communicates with his fellows. The victim may approach the aggressor. if they are close associates. patting until it seems they are calmed by the physical contact with each other. For me. embracing. he may throw rocks or other objects. In response to such behavior the aggressor typically reaches out to touch. sometimes waving both arms. During an actual attack he may bite. When two chimpanzees are suddenly excited-if. for instance. crouching posture in front of him. for favored food in short supply or. patting on the back. hit or kick. This apparent need for physical contact with another in times of stress is often vividly illustrated by a young chimpanzee who has been threatened or attacked by another. Leakey. He may become irritable. his whimpers gradually cease. The following short selection discusses the similarities between the ways humans and chimps communicate. punch. 5 Aggression may occur when two chimpanzees are competing for social status. it is not only the gesture which is so similar to that of a human (such as kissing. for a female. often with good aim. kissing. holding hands) but also the contexts in which such patterns are likely to occur. and thus aggressive. and he seems to derive comfort from such contact. Louis B. or they may reach out and hold hands. scratch. Subsequent grants from the National Geographic Society have allowed her to expand her studies of primate life to include baboons. he may run towards the other in an upright posture. A chimpanzee may become aggressive if a: member of his immediate family is threatened or attacked. describes her experience during her first years in Africa. The effect of such a reassurance gesture on the victim is usually immediately apparent: his screams diminish. they come across an unexpected supply of food-they are likely to indulge in much contactseeking behavior of this sort. show friendly behavior which we may call greeting. screaming and tense. very occasionally.In many cases. 4 Some of the patterns and contexts of chimpanzee aggression are also similar to some of our own. pat or even embrace the screaming or whimpering subordinate. orangutans. A chimpanzee who threatens another may make vigorous movements of upraised arm.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 39 Nonverbal Communication Patterns Jane Goodall Jane Goodall is an English biologist who. which have become the subject of numerous television programs. or he may brandish a stick. touching. Her book.
I for inaccurate inferences. Chimpanzee aggression never results in any real physical injury. he redirects his aggressive feelings against a subordinate who happens to be nearby.40 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS is in pain. 3. (b) physical contact in times of stress. if a "stranger" is encountered. (c)there are many similarities between human and chimpanzee nonverbal communication systems. 5. C. . when one chimpanzee is threatened or attacked by a superior whom he dare not fight back. mark these statements as follows:A for accurate inferences. In addition. (d) for social status within the group. Comprehension Choose the answer that best completes each statement. B. and pain. or if subordinates make too much noise and commotion nearby. (c) aggression to establish dominance within the group. Chimpanzees observed in captivity display the same system of gestures as those in the wild do. Do not refer to the selection. and twice those that express the controlling idea. (b) observing chimpanzee behavior has yielded many new theories about the origin of human life. The main idea of the essay is that (a) chimpanzees in confinement display the same behavior patterns as those in the wild. (d) chimpanzee and human aggression and the contexts in which it occurs are remarkably similar. he or she may become the victim of a savage attack. then underline once the words that express the subject. the sight or sound of chimpanzees of a neighboring community may cause aggressive displays and. A. Chimpanzees are sensitive to the same situations as humans are. 2. 3. 1. tension. Youmay refer to the selection to answer the questions in this and in all the remaining exercises. Write the sentence that best expresses the main idea of the entire selection. such as fear. 1. Chimpanzees are territorial and are intolerant of another chimpanzee group's presence in their space. and IE for insufficient evidence. The victim of an aggressive attack stays as far away from the 2. 1. Structure aggressor as possible to avoid further attacks. Very often. Chimpanzees show an apparent need for (a) variety in their diet. (d) activities to release pent-up energy. Choose the best answer. Which of the following reasons for aggression among chimpanzees was not included among the several that Goodall mentions? Aggression may occur when chimpanzees are competing (a) for attention from a parent. 4. (c) for a female. (b) for favored food in short supply. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph.
for example) if necessary. (c)explanations to account for her observations. 1. D. (d) surrendering to another's will. (b) threatening. a submissive. (b) derive pleasure in. Which sentence represents the main idea? Sentence __ . (d) persuasion. (c) lifelike. Goodall relies mainly on (a) quotations from scientificarticles. (c)amazed. submit. (similar. sentence 1. One can describe the tone-the author's attitude toward the subject-as (a) admiring. (c) allow themselves some special pleasure. 3.. (b) emphatic. even laudatory. immediate. filled with wonder and awe. (c) interesting.(c)exposition. crouching position : (a) fearful. This apparent need . Variant Word Forms From the list of inflected forms in parentheses. (d) brilliant. (c)sharpen as if to make a weapon. Add endings (-s or -ed. 6. is vividly illustrated : Describing something that is (a) realistic. (d) search for.. (c) observable phenomena. 4. similarly. (d) opinions and subjective impressions. submissive.CHAPTER 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF READING PARAGRAPHS 41 2. amazing. (d) repetitious actions or behavior patterns. (b) objective. the aggressor actually calms the victim. 2. (b) overwhelming. (d) amused. ber of accomplishments of a particular group.neutral. E. Vocabulary For each of the following italicized words from the selection. they are likely to indulge in : (a) participate in. (d) communicate with one another. The mode of discoursein the selection is (a) narration. striking means (a) marvelous. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. 5. he may brandish a stick : (a) display in an ostentatious or showy manner. choose the form that grammatically fits into the space. submissively): Ironically. (submission. the repertoire of postures and gestures [paragraph 1]: (a) range or num- 2. when the victim of an aggressive attack approaches the aggressor and _____________ to his authority. similarity): The repertoire of gestures and postures by which chimpanzees communicate with one another are strikingly _____________ to that of human beings. 5. 7. 1. 4. As used in paragraph 1. . (b) wave or flourish in a menacing way. (b)kinds of performances to be presented to an audience. Th support her observations. (b) description. Look again at paragraph 4. distinct. Which two areas of chimpanzee communication does Goodall restrict herself to in the body of the essay? _______________________________________________________ and 3. (c)apologetic. (b) examples and illustrations. (d) prominent.
aggressor. aggressive. (vigor. a chimpanzee may move his upraised arm _ 4. (aggression. vigorously): During an aggressive attack.42 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS 3. 5. invigorate. (irritation. irritate. aggressively): Chimpanzee _______ and their victims behave differently from human beings. vigorous. . irritably): A chimpanzee may become _______ and therefore aggressive if he is in pain. irritable.
Lewis Thomas uses a single illustration of free-swimming bacteria to provide evidence for his main idea. indeed.relevant examples. (You have probably already noticed that Thomas's paragraphs are little masterpieces. Thomas provides the reader with a series of short examples to support his main idea which he states in the first sentence. a faint but audible ticking is made by the tiny beetle Lepinotus inquilinus.chapter 211 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT Now that you have developed some facility in picking out the topic sentence. which is less than two millimeters in length. the males of deathwatch beetles make a rapid ticking sound by percussion of a protuberance on the abdomen against the ground. The practice essay by Jane Goodall at the end of Chapter 1 makes extensive use of short examples to reinforce the main idea that humans and chimpanzees communicate in notably similar ways. (The other three methods are more difficult and will be taken up in Chapter 3. the writer supports a general statement by means of a series of specific. and drumming with special muscles against tuned inflated air bladders. created by beating the feet. is used by prairie hens. (3) comparison and contrast. you can begin to analyze the structure of paragraphs. blowing air. and mice. Here are two more passages by Lewis Thomas. and (4) definition. rabbits. making inferences. and determining the author's purpose. In this chapter we will be concerned with the first four of several methods of paragraph development: (1) examples and illustrations.) As you study the illustrative paragraphs. Solid structures are set to vibrating by toothed bows 43 . A. you will see that they are all examples of expository prose. some composition textbooks refer to these methods as expository methods of development. These four methods have to do with the particular kinds of evidence the author uses in the body of the paragraph. EXAMPLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS The method of paragraph development that uses examples and illustrations is the most common and the easiest to recognize. or sometimes by a single long illustration. The next skill we will take up is determining the method the writer uses to develop or support the topic sentence. Drumming.) In the first. (2) process. And in his paragraph about the uniqueness of organisms. Almost anything that an animal can employ to make a sound is put to use. the head is banged by woodpeckers and certain other birds. In this method. Fish make sounds by clicking their teeth.
The proboscisofthe death's-head hawk moth is used as a kind of reed instrument. Scientists who work on animal behavior are occupationally obliged to live chancier lives than most of their colleagues. reedy notes. the turn-of-the-century German horse now immortalized in the lexicon of behavioral science by the technical term. Gorillas beat their chests for certain kinds of discourse. unconscious gestures-nods of the head. always at risk of being fooled by the animals they are studying or. with one hoof. What is more. The risks are especially high when the scientist is engaged in training the animal to do something or other and must bank his professional reputation on the integrity of his experimental subject. Turtles. fooling themselves. engaging the attention of other leeches. which tap back. alligators. but even read the instructions on a blackboard and tap out infallibly. faint staccato notes in regular clusters. he was simply observing the behavior of the human experimenter. the "Clever Hans Error. get sounds from externally placed structures. Lewis Thomas. there is no end to the surprises that an animal can think up in the presence of an investigator. and even snakes make various more or less vocal sounds. it was discovered by Professor O. Pfungst that Hans was not really doing arithmetic at all. Thomas's main idea is that scientists who use animals for experiments always run the risk of being fooled by their subjects. owned and trained by Herr von Osten. Even earthworms make sounds. the holding of breath. he could perform the same computations when total strangers posed questions to him. Lewis Thomas." Lives of a Cell In the following short passage. like rattlesnakes. The most famous case in point is that of Clever Hans. especially psychologists. For several years Clever Hans was studied intensively by groups of puzzled scientists and taken seriously as a horse with something very like a human brain. crocodiles. could not only solve complex arithmetical problems. the right answer. It is supported by a single illustration about a German horse named Clever Hans. the cessation of nodding when the correct count was reached-were accurately read by the horse as cues to stop tapping. "Clever Animals. quite possibly even better than human." The horse. in synchrony. But finally in 1911. Whether their experiments involve domesticated laboratory animals or wild creatures in the field. worse. 'Ioads sing to each other." Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony .44 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS in crustaceans and insects. or. and their friends sing back in antiphony. Animals with loose skeletons rattle them. with his trainer nowhere nearby. blown through to make high-pitched. Sometimes it seems as if animals are genetically programmed to puzzle human beings. Subtle. Leeches have been heard to tap rhythmically on leaves. "The Music of This Sphere.
Brushes that have been used in a solvent-thinned paint should be washed out with several rinses of solvent (turpentine. called the informative type. This is followed by a thorough shaking to remove excess water. If the brush is to be used again within a day or so. benzine or mineral spirits) or with a commercially prepared liquid brush cleaner. rub the bristles vigorously against sheets of old newspaper to remove as much paint as possible before washing." and "in Triassic times"). After wiping offexcess paint. Bernard Gladstone. There are two kinds of process writing. phrases that show the transitions between stages ("about 1. virtually waterless. the author explains the steps. The author uses chronological order." "at the same time. This use of process writing is found most often in laboratory or technical manuals. . containing but one remote year-round stream. the bristles should be worked vigorously underneath the surface of the liquid till the solvent has removed as much paint as possible. The New York Times Complete Manual of Home Repair The second kind of process writing. a final rinsing with detergent and warm water is advisable. that one must followto complete a project or to perform a task . The following paragraph is reprinted from a standard reference book on home repairs and explains step by step how one goes about the task of cleaning paintbrushes. Comb the bristles smooth and let them dry completely.000 years ago. If the brush will be stored for a lengthy period of time. If a solvent is used.how something works or how something developedor came into existence. describes a phenomenon . but the underlying purpose is different since the writer does not expect us to attempt to duplicate the process described. taking care to flush all paint out of the center of the brush as well as off the outside. how to develop a photograph. Two or three rinses will be needed to get bristles completely clean. If a water-thinned paint was used. or in the thousands of "how-to"books that flood the book market each year. in chronological order.such as how to study for final exams. Notice that. Contrary to popular opinion. it can now be wrapped in heavy paper to preserve it. in this case. called the directive kind. the job of cleaning a brush is actually a simple task which should take only a few minutes if attended to promptly. In this paragraph. the brush should then be washed out in running water. PROCESS A second method of paragraph development is process. naturalist Edward Abbey shows the process by which Snow Canyon in Arizona was formed. or how to lose ten pounds in a month. In the first. Snow Canyon is dry.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 45 B. The stream that largely formed the canyon through corrasion and erosion was blocked and diverted by recent volcanic activity. then wrap in paper or foil to preserve the shape. the steps in the process are held together with time markers.
The following paragraph uses only contrast. formed above the volcanic vents. At Sunset Crater this is the collapsed remnant (12. depending on the subject at hand. two science fiction movies. of problems which beset a person to which he knows no solution and to which the dream finds none. cooling and solidifying as it moved into the head of what is now Snow Canyon. a caldera of vast dimensions from which issued in Triassic times the many flows of lava that can now be seen in the Virgin River Valley between Saint George and Zion National Park. The Journey Home C. involves a discussion of similarities between two seemingly unlike or unrelated things. For example. . in dreams more often than not the wish fulfillment is disguised. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST The comparison and contrast method is used to explain the similarities and differences between two things. very significant differences between fairy tales and dreams.46 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS About 1. Edward Abbey. For example. At the same time two cinder cones.650 feet high) called the San Francisco Peaks.360 feet high. while in fairy tales much of it is openly expressed. Contrast properly refers to a discussion of the differences between two related or like things-for example.' or two kinds of sports car. comparison. the Korean and the Vietnam wars. Arizona. Marie Winn contrasts two concepts of childhood: the first from what she calls the "Golden Age of Childhood" (referring to the period before the 1960s) and the second from the current generation. dreams are the result of inner pressures which have found no relief. The less common of the two. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales Another kind of comparison/contrast paragraph reflects a "then-now" pattern. In the background at both places stands a great volcanic mountain of a far more ancient period. each 800 to 900 feet high. 'Ib a considerable degree.000 years ago. molten magma found a weak point in the crustal structure and poured forth. jagged basaltic lava flows resemble those of Sunset Crater National Monument near Flagstaff. at Snow Canyon the old-timer that looms beyond is known as the Pine Valley Mountain. Bruno Bettelheim. since the author's purpose is to enumerate the essential differences between fairy tales and dreams. a writer might explain what the seemingly unrelated situations of interviewing for a new job and meeting a new girlfriend's or boyfriend's parents have in common. You may find comparison and contrast used together or singly. The cinder cones and the rough. In the following paragraph. The fairy tale does the opposite: it projects the relief of all pressures and not only offers ways to solve problems but promises that a "happy" solution will be found. There are. 10. of course.
it is said that whenever it pleased his gracious majesty to bring about the ruin of a courtier who had displeased him. too costly to discard.or eleven-year-oldsmight smoke dope or get involved in serious sexual activity or run away from home and fall into the clutches of a child-prostitution ring.or because the writer wants to ensure that the reader understands exactly how he or she is using a key term that might be open to varying interpretations. The kids were pretty well in hand. A writer defines a word. Children Without Childhood D.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 47 In the Golden Age of Childhood.defining and tracing the history of the term "white elephant. even the most stubborn and independent of the lot. As for child prostitution and the like-why. but which you hope will be more in keeping with your future home. He alone might ride or use such an animal. getting caught in a minor infraction such as sneaking into the movies or lifting a candy bar. A child might come to grief by breaking a window with a baseball or flunking a test in school or. perhaps because it may be unfamiliar to the reader.'As a method. definition is most often used in conjunction with other methods of development. but useless possessions. that sort of thing might go on in Tangier or the Casbah. at the worst. he would present . Parents then hardly knew that a drug called marijuana existed. But apart from the inevitable anxieties about sickness or accidents. the property of the emperor-who even today bears the title. DEFIN IliON Unlike the other methods described thus far. Never in their worst fantasies did they imagine that their ten. given by her and which you loathe but do not dare to take down from your wall. it is nearly self-explanatory. wouldn't have the sort of moral fiber it takes to grow up to be President. Because of that latter royal prerogative. The allusion takes us to Siam. Parents agonized over these problems. In that country it was the traditional custom for many centuries that a rare albino elephant was. but not around here! Marie Winn. parents believed. or because it has an unusual etymology. upon capture. worrying that their son or daughter wouldn't get into college. that large bookcase." That large portrait of your wealthy Aunt Jane. and none might be destroyed without his consent. as is the case with abstractions like honor or charisma. these. The following illustration is a good example of a paragraph that accomplishes the first two purposes named above. and a thousand other like items are "white elephants" -costly. Lord of the White Elephant-and was thereafter sacred to him. much less feared that junior-high-schoolage children might want to get high on it. parents rarely worried that their school-age children would get into any serious trouble in their hours away from home. mothers and fathers felt confident that nothing untoward was likely to happen in the course of their children's daily lives.
it is not a language that . and finally he ends with a short narrative explaining the origin of this term. and of little moral import. finally. in this book.48 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS the poor fellowwith an elephant from his stables. White lies are at the other end of the spectrum of deception from lies in a serious crisis. Such is Peter Farb's method in this paragraph in which he attempts to arrive at a working definition of a pidgin language. Me Tarzan. since each person clearly has his own idea of what actually constitutes a white lie. I shall adhere to the narrower usage: a white lie. and of little moral import"). Funk lists some examples of typical whiteelephant objects. Nor is it a kind of baby talk spoken by a plantation owner to his slaves. Charles Earle Funk. They are the most common and the most trivial forms that duplicity can take. The fact that they are so common provides their protective coloring. next he provides us with a dictionary definition ("costly. makes it seem unnecessary or even absurd to condemn them. whether their cumulative consequences are still without harm. The cost of feeding and caring for the huge animal that he might not use nor destroy-a veritable white elephant-gave the term its present meaning. And. and. whether many lies are not defended as "white" which are in fact harmful in their own right. Lying Let us examine in more detail how these two writers actually constructed their definitions. Some consider all well-intentioned lies. for the simple reason that so many mistaken notions have been held for so long. in this sense. The paragraph on "white elephants" uses three kinds of strategies: First. Another way writers occasionally define words is to define by negation-meaning that the author might discuss what a particular word does not mean before arriving at what he or she considers to be an acceptable definition. when compared to more threatening lies. or a merchant to his customers. defines the term "white lie" in a particular way because she intends to use it in that way throughout the rest of her chapter. The purpose of this kind of definition is to clarify what might otherwise be open to individual interpretation. Sissel a Bok. finally. the author of a book called Lying. And their very triviality. A Hog on Ice The next paragraph illustrates another use of the definition method. is a falsehood not meant to injure anyone. you Jane. to be white. but useless possessions"). and if there are. Sissela Bok's paragraph on "white lies" offers a personal or subjective definition ("a falsehood not meant to injure anyone. a master to his servants. Sissela Bok. however momentous. Pidgin is not the corrupted form of a standard language-like the "broken" English spoken by an Italian tourist guide or that classic example of pseudo-pidgin. Considerable dispute exists about what a pidgin language is. I want to ask whether there are such lies.
A good example of a paragraph that combines the definition method with. And it is work-hard work-not to be irresponsibly undertaken or perfunctorily performed. perhaps like politics. parentage is the consequence of a mere biological act. his nation. his society. Parenthood is responsible for the development of a human being-not simply a child. 2Corn is a primary food in most countries that are not too cold and sunless for its cultivation. I do not think it is an overstatement to say that parenthood is the most important occupation in the world. Word Play: What Happens When People Talk In the beginning of this section. That ability. The American Way of Life What follows are six passages for you to work through to test your understanding of the first four methods of paragraph development. .'t requires to be cared for. like every other. but it need not always be so. his community. must be learned. Parentage at best is irresponsibly responsible for the birth of a child. contrast. It is highly desirable that parentage be not undertaken until the art of parenthood has been learned. 3It even competes with the native rice in parts of . and it usually survives only so long as members of diverse speech communities are in contact. Is this a counsel of perfection? As things stand now. Yet parenthood." A pidgin can best be described as a language which has been stripped of certain grammatical features..CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 49 patronizingly makes concessions to the limited intelligence of "natives.. and the world of humanity than the making of a good human being? And the making of a good human being is largely the work of good parents. The biological ability to produce conception and to give birth to a child has nothing whatever to do with the ability to care for that child as . is the only profession for which preparation is considered unnecessary. his family. Ashley Montagu.perhaps it is. it was suggested that definition is frequently used in combination with other methods of development. but a human being. Parenthood is an art. EXERCISES Selection 1 "The crop plants domesticated by the ancient Indian plant breeders of Middle and South America playa vital role in feeding the modern world. for what can be more important to the individual. is the following passage by Ashley Montagu in which he attempts to distinguish between two related terms. There is no occupation for which the individual should be better prepared than this. in this case. Peter Farb. It is a new language that is not the mother tongue of any of its users. Parentage is often irresponsible. parenthood and parentage: It is apparently very necessary to distinguish between parenthood and parentage. Parenthood is responsible.
(b) accommodated to an environment. (b) process. staple : (a) tradition. 1.:__ sentence 1 __ sentence 6 _. most kinds of squash and pumpkins. 2. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. (b) crop. Label the sentences in the paragraph according to whether they represent the main idea (MAIN). peppers. (c) exposition. 5. 6Kidney beans (Mexican) are the poor man's source of protein nearly everywhere except the Far East. (b) that the Indians made major contributions to today's food supply worldwide. tomatoes. a major supporting detail (MA). (d) major com. cocoa. pineapples and many lesser crops. (d) nurtured. (c) that Indian civilization was 'J . What does the author want us to understand from this paragraph? (a) how the Indians developed the techniques that allowed them to domesticate so many different crops. (b) description. 4.50 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS the Far East. 9Nor were the Indians' contributions limited to edible plants. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. 1. domesticated [sentence 1]: (a) tamed. Write the words that express the subject in the first space and those that represent the controlling idea in the second. Jonathan Norton Leonard. modity in steady demand. 5Sweet potatoes of the South American tropical forest are equally important in warm countries. The mode of discourse in the paragraph is (a) narration. (c) introduced. avocados. (c) example. (c) necessity for survival. The method of paragraph development is (a) definition. 7Peanuts (Peruvian) are not only an important industrial crop in many places but they are an essential part of the diet in large parts of Africa. 4White potatoes developed by the highland Indians of Peru have become such a firmly established staple in lands with coolish climates that it is hard to imagine life there without them. lO'Ibbacco was widely cultivated in ancient America when the early explorers arrived. B. (d) comparison and contrast. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. and they quickly introduced Europe to its pleasures. (d) persuasion. Su~ect _ Controlling idea _ 3. Consider again the sentence you labeled above as the main idea. or a minor supporting detail (Ml): sentence 5 . the long list of Indian contributions to the world's food includes lima beans. BInaddition. Ancient America A. _ sentence 2 __ sentence 7 __ sentence 3 __ sentence 4 __ 2.
Many crops grown by the ancient Indians have become staple diets for diverse nations in the world. 4Myown grandfather proved out a quarter section for himself. C. Find a unifying phrase. of course. Selection 2 "The railroads brought new hordes of land-crazy people. The primary staple diet in the Far East is corn. suitable only for grazing. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (c) trampled ferociously. a phrase that repeats the main idea: _______ in sentence J__. which was true. 4. (b) made angry or fierce. 5Marginal lands. 1. John Steinbeck. (c) kinds. 2Coal and copper and gold drew them on. 60ne of the largest land-holding families in California took its richest holdings by a trick: By law a man could take up all the swamp or water-covered land he wanted. (b) communities. and confirmed his title. one for his wife. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. America and Americans A. then reported that he had explored it in a boat. mark these statements as follows:A for accurate inferences. Food crops grown by ancient Indians have benefited mainly Third n World. 3. 81 need not mention his name: his descendants will remember. Peanuts are not an important part of the diet in South America. and legally. countries. and the new Americans moved like locusts across the continent until the western sea put a boundary to their movements. 'Iobacco was not originally grown in ancient Europe. gold-dredged the rivers to skeletons of pebbles and debris. hordes : (a) groups. went in larger pieces. 2. 6. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. (d) that all the food we eat today was first domesticated by the Indians. (<i) throngs. acreage for children he hoped and expected to have. 7The founder of this great holding mounted a scowon wheels and drove his horses over thousands of acres of the best bottom land. and IE for insufficient evidence. I suspect. swarms. classes. one for each of his children. and. per person . 2. but there were ways of getting around this. savaged : (a) attacked violently. White potatoes can grow in any climate. I for inaccurate inferences. 1.(d) left untouched or wild.and a claim had to be proved and improved. 5. or undeveloped. they savaged the land. one hundred and sixty acres.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 51 remarkably advanced. . that is. 3An aroused and fearful government made laws for the distribution of public lands-a quarter section. 6.
5. the government was attempting to (a) stop people from ruining the land. (b) around the perimeters of a piece of property. (c)pretending he was going to use the land for grazing. Bottom land is good farming land.52 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS 3. (c) untrustworthy. The founder of the large holding was really Steinbeck's grandfather. and IE for insufficient evidence. The mode of discourse in sentences 1 and 2 is (a) narration. Steinbeck refers to the new Americans as moving across the country like "locusts. We can also infer that Steinbeck thinks the large landholder's scheme showed that he was actually (a) vicious. (c) angry. 4. 3. Write the phrases from the first two sentences that helped you arrive at your answer for the first question. I for inaccurate inferences. (b) comparison. marginal : Describing lands (a) that barely produce a sufficient amount. In making laws governing the distribution of public lands. (d) persuasion. The method of paragraph development in sentences 6 through 8 is (a) contrast. (d) discourage other hopeful settlers from coming West and settling on public land. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. aroused : (a) unsympathetic. C. 1. (d) that grow basic crops. (d) cheating the government out of thousands of acres of land that he didn't deserve. 6. (c) encourage farmers to raise crops for the new Western populations. 1849." What image does this metaphorical comparison convey about their behavior? _ 4. _ 3. (c) definition. "Proving" a quarter section of land required a year's residence and erecting some kind of structure. (c) exposition. (b) descrip- tion. 1. (b) far-sighted. (c) adjacent to other pieces of property. (d) clever. B. 5. 7. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. 4. (b) engaging in a deception which technically satisfied the laws' requirements. (b) deny the new settlers the right to settle on public lands. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. . (d) civic-minded. (b) stirred up. In sentence 1. This particular group of westward-bound settlers moved West after 2. The large landowner mentioned in sentences 6-8 obtained his land by (a) deliberately breaking the law because he knew he wouldn't get caught. The farmers took better care of the land they settled on than did the mineral prospectors. 2. by regulating its use. (d) illustration.
3. though there is nothing "o-ish" about an "0" or "k-ish" about a "k. makes certain changes. (e) process. incomprehensible. (d) modifies. The main idea of the whole paragraph is best expressed by sentence (a) 1. (d) language. (c) exposition. (c) linguistics students and teachers of reading are the only people aware of the complex process involved in . Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph." 5The "0" is a curved figure. a person assimilates the process so completely that the words in books seem to acquire an existence almost equal to the objects or acts they represent. 3. (b) description. (b)the process is so quickly assimilated that the reader can no longer separate the symbols and the sounds they represent.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 53 Selection 3 1Few people besides linguistics students and teachers of reading are aware of the complex mental manipulations involved in the reading process. inherent : (a) essential. B. (c) literature. (c) establishes. (b) neurology. (c)comparison. a silent pronunciation of"k" that occurs the instant we see the letter. 6Yetit is hard to divorce their familiar figures from their sounds. linguistics : The study of (a) mass media. 2. 8And even when trying to consider "k" as an abstract symbol. 1. (c) intelligent.I. genuine." and see it as an abstract shape. (c) apart from a concrete or specific instance. intrinsic. assimilates : (a) absorbs and incorporates. (b) true. seeming. The Plug-In Drug A. (d) meaningless. Content and Structure Choose the best answer." 7A reader unfamiliar with the Russian alphabet will find it easy to look at the symbol "ll. (c) 3. a Russian reader will find it harder to detach that symbol from its sound. (d) contrast. 4. 4Look at an "0.of a "k" sound somewhere between the throat and the ears. shch. Mark the two methods of paragraph development the author uses: (a) example. 2. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (d) persuasion. meaningful. 2Shortly after learning to read. (d) apparent. The mode of discourse is (a) narration. abstract [3. (b) definition. (b) not easily understood. 1. Marie Winn. and 8]: (a) theoretical. not practical. (d) 8. (b) 2. (b) digests. 7. the "k" is an intersection of three straight lines. 3It requires a fresh look at a printed page to recognize that those symbols that we call letters of the alphabet are completely abstract shapes bearing no inherent "meaning" of their own. 4." for instance. or a "k. we cannot see it without the feeling . What does Winn want us to understand about the reading process? That (a) no one understands exactly how one learns to read.
they number more speakers today than do such languages as Dutch. 2. 1. and probably another three million people around the world use various pidgin languages. Word Play . Marie Winn is a teacher of reading. Swedish. a French word meaning "native" which in turn was derived from Portuguese. (d) a Russian reader is able to see that symbol as an abstract shape." 3The managers of the factories took great care to separate slaves who spoke the same tribal language. the only tongue the slaves had in common was a pidgin that originated in West Africa and developed in the colonies to which they were sent. 8Nowadays "creole" refers to any language that developed from a pidgin by expansion of vocabulary and grammar and became the mother tongue for many speakers in a community. I for inaccurate inferences. 7The slaves' new language became known as creole. whereas an English reader is not. thereby lessening the danger of revolt because the slaves were prevented from communicating with one another. euphemistically called "factories. llClearly. or Greek. 3. 4 And further separation on the basis of language was made by the purchasers in the New World. C. lOSeveral million additional people speak creoles in West Africa. 9The largest center of." Selection 4 "I'he history of the word "creole" itself dates back to the slave trade." for "processing" before being shipped out to "markets. After slaves had been gathered from many parts of Africa. 5.creole languages today is undoubtedly the Caribbean area. and IE for insufficient evidence. (c) a character from the alphabet of a language that is unfamiliar to most English readers better supports her idea that letters have no inherent meaning. and Southeast Asia. with more than six million speakers. South Africa.54 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS learning to read. Winn mentions the Russian alphabet symbol "ll]" because (a) she wants to impress us with her knowledge of Russian. (d) learning to read in English requires the same process as learning to read in Russian. 5As a result. they were imprisoned in West African camps. pidgin and creole are not rare or isolated phenomena. and after a generation or two they began to expand to meet the needs of the slaves' way of life. 2 Peter Farb. There is nothing "n-ish" about the letter "n. 6These pidgins became entrenched. (b) that symbol is similar to the English sh sound. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. The shape of the letter has no connection with the sound it makes.
7. (b) ironically. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. 6. if firmly enough established. (b) account for the variety in slave languages. (d) persuasion. (c)contrast. (d) open to attack. (b) slaves refused to learn English. The author thinks the slaves' treatment was harsh. (b) a definition. In sentence 8. (b) description. (d) profitably. (d) a conclusion. (d) define the word "creole" as it is currently used. C. Mark the two choices that best describe Farb's purpose in this passage: to 2. (b)comparison. (c) firmly fixed. entrenched : (a) widespread. complex. 1. : (a) realistically. Vocabulary FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 55 For each italicized word from the paragraph. I for inaccurate inferences. The reason a pidgin language arose among New World slaves was that (a) slaveowners forced their slaves to abandon their native languages. (e) explain how the slaves were treated in the New World. (d)definition. 5.CHAPTER 2 A. (c) less offensively. (d) afterward. (c) exposition. 5. The dominant method of paragraph development evident in both paragraphs is (a) process. (a) trace the history of the word "creole". A pidgin language is characterized by a simplified grammar and vocabulary. thereby : (a) therefore. (d) a pidgin language carried none of the stigma that the slaves' native languages did. 4. (b) highly developed. 3. 1. and IE for insufficient evidence. 4. The Caribbean has more creole speakers today than the United States does. (c) enumerate all the kinds of pidgin languages in the world. 1. 4. exceedingly popular. The mode of discourse is (a) narration. phenomena (plural of phenomenon) : (a) significant occurrences. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. euphemistically B. Peter Farb speaks a creole language. (c) in this case. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. The word "creole" is originally of Portuguese derivation. A pidgin language. (b) by that means. 2. A creole language cannot be a speaker's mother tongue. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. (c) an example. 3. (c) unexplainable or awe-inspiring events. 8. can become a true creole language. the word nowadays is a transition that establishes (a) a shift or contrast. the language of their oppressors. (e)example. All slaves brought to the New World spoke creole. (c) a pidgin was the only way slaves could surmount the variety of native languages represented in each group. . 2. 3. (d) coincidences. (b) languages.
although the events which occur in fairy tales are often unusual and most improbable. unswerving. they are always presented as ordinary. Bruno Bettelheim. 8. (c) love. 5By contrast. crucial : Extremely (a) difficult. . something that could happen to you or me or the person next door when out on a walk in the woods. 4. there are also inherent differences. conveys : (a) communicates. 2. grandiose : (a) greatness of scope. (c) implied. 1. B. which in myths is nearly always tragic. (b) implies. or in any other setting. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales A. consolation : (a) forgiveness. charity. (d) sorrow. foolish. (c) stubborn. (d) significant. (c) serving as a model. impossible to imagine. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. (d) a sense of miraculous events to come. steadfast : (a) silly. (d)important. 5. 8For this reason.6Even the most remarkable encounters are related in casual. they do not convey the feeling of consolation characteristic of fairy tales at the end. 9For example. (d) unrealistic. (c)fantastic. (d) loyal. The main idea of the two paragraphs is best stated in sentence __ . terror. (c) emphasizes. 3.(b)unusual. (b) a mixture of reverence.56 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS Selection 5 "There are not only essential similarities between myths and fairy tales. (c) comfort.(b) of high moral value. and dread. (b) essential. exemplary : (a) ordinary. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears." on the other hand. it could not have happened to any other person. there is a crucial difference in the way these are communicated. wonder. 2 Although the same exemplary figures and situations are found in both and equally miraculous events occur in both. 1. 7. obstinate. inherent : (a) infinite. quick-witted. the dominant feeling a myth conveys is: this is absolutely unique. (b) clever. (c)dominant. (d) inspires. awe-inspiring. comes quite close to being a true fairy tale. such events are grandiose. (d) serving to make a truth known. (b) monotonous. while always happy in fairy tales. but that it is described as such. 6. Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Match Girl" and "The Steadfast Tin Soldier" are beautiful but extremely sad. 3put simply. (b) revenge. 7 An even more significant difference between these two kinds of story is the ending. some of the best-known stories found in collections of fairy tales don't really belong in this category. awe-inspiring : Arousing or inspiring (a) fright. 10Andersen's "The Snow Queen. and could not possibly happen to an ordinary mortal like you or me. 4The reason is not so much that what takes place is miraculous. everyday ways in fairy tales.
zIf you take a child to Disney's "Dumbo. 4. In sentences 2 and 5. (c) end happily. because the human clowns fail to rescue him. "The Snow Queen. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the selection. and as a result she is beaten and locked in a cage for mad elephants. unlikely characters. (d) kings. (c)placed. an apology. even miraculous. Which two transitional expressions-words or phrases linking ideassignal a contrast? ______________________ in sentence __ . C. Write them in the spaces below. 7. (c)improbable. events. One important characteristic of fairy tales is that they must (a) present extraordinary.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 57 2. 5. (d) a statement admitting or conceding a truth. In sentence 3. mark these statements as follows:A for accurate inferences. In both myths and fairy tales the characters are meant to be viewed as model figures. (d) argued. (c) exposition. the events in myths happen to (a) ordinary mortals like you and me. whereas a fairy tale relates everyday occurrences. (b) stated. ______________________ in sentence __ . The mode of discourse is (a) narration. although signifies that what followsis (a) an example. 8. 3. Selection 6 1It's my impression that almost invariably the media stir up a fuss about the wrong movies." ends happily. (b) a contrasting statement. Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale. 5. and during a routine he's left at the top of a fireman's ladder in a burning house. (d) persuasion. and IE for insufficient evidence. _ ______ Which one predominates? _ 4." this is what the child sees: Dumbds mother-a circus elephant-is so angry at kids who taunt Dumbo and pull his ears that she attacks them. (b) unique and extraordinary figures. (d)present ordinary events happening to ordinary characters." means (a) explained. +Hes made into an elephant clown. 3. crying elephant tears. (b) subtly suggest a moral truth. I for inaccurate inferences. One crucial difference between myths and fairy tales is the way events are related. 3Dumbo is left on his own. and the other elephants humiliate him constantly. and other royal figures. 5His only friend is another outcast-the . (b) description. 2. A myth relates extraordinary events. queens. Bettelheim combines three methods of paragraph development in this passage. Some of Hans Christian Andersen's stories resemble myths more than fairy tales. put in the expression "put simply. Accordingto the passage. (c) a statement admitting an error. 6. 1.
(b) consequences. (c)confirmations. Who's not too shy. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (c) legendary. B. 12Grownupswho are upset by the menu at the banquet must be forgetting how cheerfully kids have traditionally sung such macabre ditties as "The worms crawl in. And one little worm. 6. (d) gruesome. (b) angry. (d) inappropriate and insensitive depictions of reality. moroseness : (a) humiliation. (d)praise the media critics for alerting the movie audience to the harmful effects of Indiana Jones on young children. (c) enhancement. (b) extreme triteness or dullness. (d) characteristics." loThe emotional mechanism of "Dumbo" is to make what happens to the cartoon animals real to kids. 2. Little birdies' dirty feet. (c) wildly foolish. (b) anxiety. and when a child projects himself into this vat of bathos and moroseness it's agony: the situations on the screen have immediate correlations with his own terrors. sensibility : (a) commonsense attitude. And I forgot my spoon. it constantly makes fun of itself. and it's as remote from children's real-life fears as Sabu's escapades in "The Thief of Bagdad. Aw shucks. correlations  and correlatives : (a) parallels. Great green globs of greasy grimy gophers' guts. (b) keen intellectual perception. 11 And the hero carries you through-you know Indy won't die. . (c) gloom. (b) echoing. sensitivity. The worms crawl out. 7. 5. 3. (d) ill fortune.58 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS mouse Timothy. 1. (c) humiliate. sulky. Mutilated monkey's meat. 8. And out your eye" and "Great green globs of greasy grimy gophers' guts. bathos : (a) insincere or grossly sentimental feelings of sorrow or pity. (c) ridiculously abrupt transition from an elevated to a commonplace style. (d) sullen. (d) mimic. (b) humorous. Climbs into your ear. 1. insane. resonance : (a) significance. The author's primary purpose is to (a) defend Indiana Jones and the Tem- ple of Doom from media critics. (b)jeer at. taunt : (a) deceive." Pauline Kael. The worms play pinochle on your snout. 9With its "Road to Morocco" sensibility. (c)criticize Dumbo for its emotional impact on children. (b) poke fun at contemporary children's movies. (d) intensity. resentful. (c) ability to feel. "The Current Cinema" A. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. mad : (a) deranged. macabre : (a) childish. 6Each sequence is brought up to its maximum psychological resonance. "But what correlatives could there be in "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom"? sIt doesn't take advantage of childhood traumas. (d) sense of appropriateness. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. the emotional mechanism in "Indiana Jones" is to make what happens to the human characters unreal. 4.
1.. (d) improbable. A writer whose careful style is a model . (b) act as a conclusion. In sentence 4.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 59 2. (b) definition. (c) being caught in a burning building. (b) Indiana Jones does not take advantage of childhood traumas. (D all of the above. 6. not a hero. 3. (d) contrast. (c)media critics are wrong to criticize Steven Spielberg movies. (b) description. 2. and Ferris Professor of Journalism at Princeton University since 1975. (d) Dumbo scares children because its terrors are too real. The media criticized Indiana Jones for being too frightening. The purpose of sentence 10 is to (a) restate Kael's main judgment about the difference between the two movies. 5. films for children. According to Kael. I for inaccurate inferences. (b) being abandoned by their mother. 3. 5. Dumbo exploits children's fears of (a) being teased or humiliated. (d)being an outcast. 6. 4. c. while Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is perceived by children as pure fantasy. (e) process. potentially psychologically damaging. 4. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. and IE for insufficient evidence. PRACTICE ESSAY Degrees Brix John McPhee John McPhee (1931) is an American nonfiction writer who has been a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine since 1965. The main character of Dumbo is a victim.. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. Kael metaphorically describes Dumbos tears as "elephant tears. " What does this phrase suggest that the author's mode of discourse will be? (a) narration. (e) only a and b. The "bad guys" in the movie Dumbo are humans. (c) exposition. Grownups are upset by the banquet shown in Indiana Jones because they think it is disgusting. Dumbo could upset impressionable or sensitive children. (d) define key terms according to the way the author wants us to understand them. 7. The rating for Dumbo should be changed to PG-13 (parental guidance recommended for children under thirteen). Road to Morocco and The Thief of Baghdad are also frightening. (c) provide a concrete illustration. Children know that the scary scenes in Indiana Jones aren't real. (c) embarrassing. 7. The first sentence opens with the phrase. (c) example. (d) persuasion. The main idea ofthe paragraph is that (a) children should not see Dumbo. (b) enormous. S." suggesting that the tears were (a) insincere.. "It's my impression that . Which two methods of paragraph development are evident? (a) comparison.
60 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS for writers and readers alike. Now. (MacDowell. it is first culled. it has. they are poured into giant bins. in a sense. or enough to keep the plant going for half a day. and these solids are almost wholly sugars. 1981). is Dr. forty bins hold four million oranges. 1975). 3 As the fruit starts to move along a concentrate plant's assembly line. rootstock. geology (Basin and Range. and the rise of concentrate has brought about a basic change in the system by which oranges are sold." and modern citrus men seem to use the term in every other sentence they utter. Because the concentrate plants are making a product of which the preponderant ingredient is sugar. One is called the Brown Seven Hundred. Seven hundred oranges a minute go into it and are split and reamed on the same kind of rosettes that are in the centers .referred to in the beginning of the selection. In what some citrus people remember as "the old fresh-fruit days. For the benefit of those of us who thought frozen orange juice was merely juice concentrated and then frozen. Growers now worry more about the number of pounds of sugar they are producing per acre than the quality of the individual oranges on their trees. McPhee explains the process by which it is made. If the concentrate plants bought oranges by weight alone. so that a plant can have a kind of reservoir to draw upon. 1968). canoeing (The Survival of the Bark Canoe. all of Florida's orange crop is used. for example.) The enormous factories that the frozen people have built as a result of MacDowell'sidea more closely resemble oil refineries than auto plants. The evaporators are tall assemblages of looping pipes. Hamlins on Rough Lemon in light sand-a scion. 1984). Moving up a conveyorbelt. it is sugar that they buy as raw material. 2 Growers used to sell oranges as oranges. the plant manager knows what the juice. An individual orange obviously means nothing in this process. Alaska (Coming into the Country. When oranges arrive. and acid content is of the fruit in each bin. They now sell "pounds-solids. and soil combination that will produce extremely heavy yields of insipid and watery oranges. with the exception of the split and rotten fruit. Louis Gardner MacDowell. and they are something to see. They pay for the number of pounds of solids that come dissolved in the juice in each truckload of oranges. Florida milk tasted like orangeade. He is also the Director of Research for the Florida Citrus Commission. about forty per cent of all oranges grown in Florida were eliminated at packinghouses and dumped in fields. and blends the oranges into the assembly line accordingly. in semitrailers. The following short essay is reprinted from his book Oranges. and the Swiss army (La Place de la Concorde Suisse. sugar. 1977). The rise of concentrate has not only changed the landscape and the language. oranges are scrubbed with detergent before they roll on into juicing machines. At Minute Maid's plant in Auburndale." before the Second World War. quite similar to the catcracking towers that turn crude oil into gasoline. turned the orange inside out. known in Florida as the inventor of concentrate. McPhee has turned his attention to a wide array of subjects. There are several kinds ofjuicing machines. say. always attempting to achieve as uniform a product as possible. Examples include a little-known area of New Jersey called the Pine Barrens (The Pine Barrens. From samples analyzed by technicians who are employed by the State of Florida. growers could plant.
In the Short Time." Orange juice as it comes out of oranges is usually about twelve degrees Brix-that is. at their peak. looping tubes.A great. the sugar-acid ratio of oranges improves. 4 From either machine. gradually boiling the water out. figured according to a special scale for sugar solutions.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 61 of ordinary kitchen reamers. Pineapple Oranges. juice flows in at one end in a continuous stream and comes out the other end eight minutes later. is read in "degrees Brix. which uses the Thermal Accelerated Short Time Evaporator (T. So the juice has to be pasteurized. the juice flowson into a thing called the finisher. where seeds. are better in this respect than Hamlins at theirs. worked out by a nineteenth-century German scientist named Adolf F. The flavor is rich and the aftertaste is clean. In the Short Time. So the concentrators keep big .T. The juice at the start is plain. Stirred into enough water to take it back to twelve degrees Brix. At the fifth stage. and the troughs of concentrate plants. and the juice has fatty constituents that can become rancid.S. At each stage. the orange juice can be as high as seventy degrees Brix. the finishers. the Short Time stands about fifty feet high. rag.). it flows on into holding tanks. When an orange tumbles in. orange juice passes through seven stages. the juice has been removed and the rind has been crushed and shredded beyond recognition. Another machine is the Food Machinery Corporation's FMC In-line Extractor. it tastes like nothing much but sweetened water. In the extractors. Old-style evaporators keep one load ofjuice within them for about an hour. the juice is up to forty-six degrees Brix-already thicker than the ultimate product that goes into the six-ounce can-and it has the consistency of cough syrup.It is thick enough to chew. Orange juice squeezed at home should be consumed fairly soon after it is expressed. in the Minute Maid plant in Auburndale.and its taste actually suggests apricot-flavoredgum. 6 As a season progresses. upper and lower. The finisher has a big stainlesssteel screw that steadily drives the juice through a fine-mesh screen. All in a second. From the finisher. the upper jaw comes crunching down on it while at the same time the orange is penetrated from below by a perforated steel tube.A. a good bit of air gets into the juice. W Brix. It is a deep apricot-orange in color. By the third stage. with a biting aftertaste. It has a shining row of aluminum jaws. and pulp are removed. is the measurement of concentrate. straightforward orange juice but with a notable absence of pulp or juice vesicles. Bacilli and other organisms may have started growing in it. because air reacts with it and before long produces a bitter taste. 5 Specific gravity. As the jaws crush the outside. with shining aluminum teeth. there are sampling valves. The special scale. The rinds that come pelting out the bottom are integral halves. just like the rinds of oranges squeezed in a kitchen.E. airy network of bright-red. After the seventh stage. In some plants. this occurs before it is concentrated. In others. pasteurization is part of the vacuum-evaporating process-for example. for every hundred pounds of water there are twelve pounds of sugar. and Valencias are the best of all. the juice goes through the perforations in the tube and down into the plumbing of the concentrate plant. the juice is up to nineteen degrees Brix and has the viscosity and heat of fairly thick hot chocolate.
men who dived into lakes to search the bottom for precious stones first rubbed their bodies with orangepeel oil in order to repel crocodiles and poisonous snakes. The modern Martini drinker has stouter taste buds than his predecessors of the seventeenth century. In the past decade. let alone in what proportion. Advertisements can be misleading. however. in the belief that it was so strong that it would penetrate the glass and impart a restrained flavor to the wine. Peel oil is flammable. merely a mixing of old and new concentrates. The blending is. the '55s and '59s were outstanding. "We have always had the flavor of fresh oranges to come up against.62 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS drums of out-of-season concentrate in cold-storage rooms and blend them with in-season concentrates in order to achieve even more uniformity." In the fourteenth century in Ceylon. The chief flavoring element in cutback is d-limonene. moreover. and no one can guess which components form its taste. 7 The most important moment comes when the cutback is poured in. taking the super-concentrated juice down to forty-five degrees Brix. It is d-limonene that burns the lips of children sucking oranges. The '60s and '63s were quite poor. "People who make things like tomato juice and pineapple juice have not had this problem. D-limonene is what makes the leaves of all orange and grapefruit trees smell like lemons when crushed in the hand." MacDowell told me. In the same century. still at sixty degrees Brix and still all but tasteless if reconstituted with water. and sixteen kinds of alcohol. when people in Europe used to spray a little peel oil on the outside of their wineglasses. But the '64s . Cutback is mainly fresh orange juice. because three cans of tap water seemed to be enough to thaw the juice fairly quickly but not so much that the cooling effect of the cold concentrate would be lost in the reconstituted juice. peel oil was widely used in Germany in the manufacture of "preservative plaguelozenges. concentrate has its good and bad years. D-limonene is what the Martini drinker rubs on the rim of his glass and then drops into his drink in a twist of lemon. fifteen carbonyls. peel oil. who bit into limes for the purpose. D-limonene reddened the lips of the ladies of the seventeenth-century French court. Among the components that get boiled away in the evaporator are at least eight hydrocarbons. which is the main ingredient of peel oil. Peel oil is the principal flavoring essence that frozen people put into concentrated orange juice in order to attempt to recover the flavor of fresh orange juice. but it contains additional flavor essences. The chemistry of orange juice is so subtle and complicated that most identifications are tentative. Some of these essences are recovered in condensation chambers in the evaporators. The oil cells in the skins of all citrus fruit are ninety per cent d-limonene. The '58s were even worse. It would be all but impossible to achieve that." 8 Because of freezes and other variables.when they show four or five kinds of oranges and imply that each can of the advertiser's concentrate contains an exact blend of all of them. for example. and pulp. The blending phase of the process is at best only an educated stab at long-term uniformity. four esters. which MacDowell and his colleagues worked out as a suitable level. using whatever happens to be on hand in the cold rooms and the fresh-fruit bins. and they are put back into the juice.
(d) twelve pounds of orange solids and juice. cardboard. too bitter. The term "twelve degrees Brix" means that for everyone hundred pounds of water there are (a) twelve different varieties of oranges used. too sweet. (b) have a uniform consistency. They decide. 5. Orange-juice concentrate at twelve degrees Brix tastes like (a) regular reconstituted frozen orange juice. The relative excellence of any given concentrate year is established by taste panels of citrus scientists. (d) mixing the juice from Pineapple Oranges. and Valencias to produce an acceptable product. the best year in the industry. 1. .CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 63 were memorable. (d) sweetened water. (c)an increase in frozen orangejuice consumption in the U. (d) d-limonene in the orange rind. The extracting machines. The one factor that accounts for the basic change in the way oranges have been sold since World War II is (a) improved varieties of oranges. or tallow. A. the term "blending" means (a) mixing old-season and new-seasonconcentrates. whether it seems to have been overheated or to contain too much peel oil. When concentrate plant producers buy oranges." meaning the number of pounds of (a) juice per pound of oranges. 6. concentrate makers add (a) actual fresh orange juice. In an attempt to recover the flavor of fresh orange juice. (c)mixing juice.S. insipid. 4. S. which are used to squeeze out the juice from the oranges. (c) the entire rind. 2. (b) sugar dissolved in the juice. they pay for "poundssolids. rind. (c) apricot-flavored gum. and whether it suggests buttermilk. (d) an increase in the average sugar content of oranges grown today. or overmature. (d) taste sweet.. Comprehension Choose the answer that best completes each statement. 3. (b) the "rag" -the stringy central portion and membranelike walls of the fruit. (c) twelve pounds of sugar. (c) water per pound of oranges. Commercial orange juice must be pasteurized to make it (a) free of bacilli and other organisms. immature. (e) all of the above. (b) twelve separate steps to make the final product. Do not refer to the selection while doing this exercise. castor oil. too sour. (d) the seeds. 7. variously. since unpasteurized concentrate tastes bitter. In the frozen orange-juice industry. Concentrate plants lay down samples in a kind of frozen reference library-one six-ounce can from each half hour of each day's run. Hamlins. (d) concentrate from 1964. who stand in black-walled booths that are lighted by red light bulbs and drink concentrate from brandy snifters. (c) orange-peel oil. (c) have a smooth texture when it is reconstituted by the consumer. (b) mixing the products of four or five kinds ofjuice from oranges with the highest sugar content. (b) cough syrup. whether the taste is stale. (b) a rise in the production of concentrate. and coloring agents to produce juice whose color is actually orange. (b) orange-flavor water. also remove (a) the pulp. or too astringent.
5. 11. I for inaccurate inferences. 8. (b) explain which fruit is used and which is discarded. Look again at paragraph 3. Peel oil was considered to have the ability to ward off the plague in seventeenth-century Germany. The apparatus for making orange-juice concentrate looks similar to that used in refining oil to make gasoline. C. The method of development most evident in the selection as a whole is (a) example. Tomato-juice and pineapple-juice producers do not have to contend with the problem of flavor as do orange-juice producers. Concentrate producers normally use only juice from Valencia oranges because of their high quality. Florida cows ate the oranges that were unsuitable for making juice. 4. . (c) explain the importance of frozen concentrate to Florida's economy. (b) description. (e) definition. 1. (c) contrast. The by-products of making concentrate-seeds. The purpose of this paragraph is to (a) describe two different juicing machines. (c)discuss modern technology used in the frozen-juice business.(d)comparison. Growers sell oranges according to their weight. (Ddefinition. 5. (d) show how quickly the oranges are shredded." The primary mode of discourse used by the author is (a) narration. The oranges with the highest sugar-acid ratio are produced at the beginning of the growing season. (b) explain how today's frozen orange-juice concentrate is made. 12. 7. 9. (c)process. (b) comparison. You may refer to the selection to answer the questions for this and for all the remaining exercises. and IE for insufficient evidence. The amount of sugar in each truckload of oranges is more important than the quality ofjuice the oranges produce. The frozen-juice reference library contains technical manuals and scientific articles helpful in making concentrate. Florida. Structure Choose the best answer. 2. 6. 3. The two methods of paragraph development most evident in paragraph 5 are (a) example. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. 3. 10. and pulp-are sold to make flavoring essences. (c) exposition. 4. The purpose of adding "cutback" is to put the flavor of orange juice back into the concentrate.64 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS R Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the selection. Before World War II.(e)contrast. (b) illustration. McPhee's main purpose is to (a) trace the history of the citrus industry in 2. (d) define the term "degrees Brix. (d) persuasion. 1. (d) process. rag. Pasteurization prevents tuberculosis bacteria from growing in the concentrate.
D. (c) He thinks today's orange juice has been ruined by sophisticated technology. 10. the one McPhee goes into the most detail about is (a) the oranges.CHAPTER 2 FOUR METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 65 6. the chemistry of orange juice is so subtle : (a) difficult to analyze or detect. According to the selection. (c) weaker. 2. (c) sugary.(b) set fashion trends. 6. 11. (b) well-established. (b) final.(d) more peculiar. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. 13. (d) the sugar. (c) constantly varying. (b) He thinks today's orange juice lacks flavor. unarguable. (b) d-limonene. with the inferior oranges rejected. greasy. the taste is too bitter. that can become rancid : (a) excessively sweet. (c)boring. (c) sorted according to quality. (d) separated into groups according to size. (b) thickness. (d) chemical compounds. From the evidence in the selection. (b) oily. (d) cancer-causing. confer. what can you infer about McPhee's opinion of frozen orange juice? (a) He thinks today's orange juice is marvelous. (b) bestow. In terms of the ingredients that go into making frozen concentrate. or too astringent : (a) sweet. (d) taste. suggest. firm. 12. sturdier. (c)disagreeable. (d) limit. (b) hazardous. inhibit. thicker than the ultimate product : (a) fundamental. (b) sour. (b) tiny vessels. 3. (c)hint at. 7. 8. (d) undisputed. stickiness. (d) refined. (d) uncertain. 8. (c)the pulp. (d) harsh. 4. 5. (c)first. 9. the fruit is culled : (a) gathered. impart a restrained flavor : (a) reveal. (b) scrubbed. less well-developed. the orange-juice concentrate business is (a) confusing. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the selection. . insipid and watery oranges [paragraph 2]: (a) unpalatable. (b) stronger. (b) complex. most identifications are tentative : (a) inaccurate. (c)potentially unhealthy elements. (c)texture. disclose. rank. (b) formed into a particular shape. (b) lacking flavor. tricky. (c) shredded. 7. changeable. (c) mathematically complex. (d) profitable. the oranges are split and reamed : (a) removed. 1. the viscosity of fairly thick hot chocolate : (a) sweet flavor. the modern Martini drinker has stouter taste buds : (a) more powerful. 14. (c)come before in time. (d) clever. (d) squeezed to release the juice. the relative excellence of any given concentrate year : (a) considered in comparison to something else. the juice has fatty constituents : (a) component parts. (c) impossible. (d) foul-tasting. (d) His opinion of today's orange juice is not evident. (c)tangy. his predecessors of the seventeenth century : those who (a) drink excessively. (d) can predict the future. (b) not immediately obvious.
The analytical method is evident in scientific research. In classification. for example. A student writer might use analysis to do a close study of a poem in which each line is examined in relation to the overall meaning of the poem. A. his ease in handling the television medium.]If you read a paragraph that begins "There are three types of blind dates. Mozart. according to how thoroughly they had read their books. In the following paragraph from her biography of the composer. A political writer." you can expect the writer to use classification to develop the subject. might analyze a presidential speech by separating the whole (that one speech) into its component parts-the key points. Marcia Davenport applies classification to the society of eighteenth-century Salzburg. A writer on international affairs might use analysis to discuss the economicproblems facing underdeveloped nations. (2) cause and effect. for even though they are actually separate methods. for example.chapter 311 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT In this chapter we will be concerned with three additional methods of paragraph development: (1) analysis and classification. the paragraph by Mortimer Adler on page 22 was developed by classification. These methods are a bit more difficult to recognize than those you learned about in the previous chapter." or one that has as its topic sentence "There are five subspecies of fish called darters. analysis is a means by which a writer examines a single subject by looking at its separate elements or parts in order to see how each element contributes to the whole. In Chapter 1. their underlying purpose is the same. the parenthetical references "(K. when a chemist seeks to determine the chemical analysis of a substance. the writer divides a group of things into classes or types in order to describe the distinguishing characteristics of each. the president's delivery. you may recall that Adler classified book owners into three types. In classifying the social hierarchy. (Incidentally. In contrast to classification. ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION Analysis and classification traditionally are considered together. Both methods involve the author's taking apart a larger subject and examining its separate parts to determine how each contributes to the whole. and (3) analogy. the reaction of the public to the ideas set forth. home of the Mozart family from 1771 to 1777. which always involves a number of things grouped into categories. notice that she indulges in some humorous exaggeration to make her point. 385)" and 66 . and so on.
this example illustrates well how analysis and classification often work together. by which he listed chronologically all the works in Mozart's large body of music. substantial townspeople. and the lowest of all pray. and the "new" group.there was not yet any large-scale articulation of anti-Semitic prejudice.some of it due to a feeling that the recent immigrants from Germany. between "old" and "new" immigrants. to be sure.who has written a detailed account of the experience of the eastern Europeans who emigrated to America. concerned only with the price of salt and the cost of sausage. In the 1860's and 1870's. and the Haffner family for whose private celebrations Wolfgangwrote the lovely "Haffner" symphony (K.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 67 "(K. With these the Mozarts sometimes associated. Historians of immigration have distinguished. the landlord. For that reason. the two former in private. Below this Mozartian social level there was the typical lower class of the eighteenth century. all alike live in sensual indulgence. who were from northern Europe. and the equally beautiful serenade (K. all attached to the court. 385). For the most part. Jews. 250). The two latter classes conduct their love-affairsin public. were too "loud" and "pushy" in their social ascent. analyzes the origins of anti-Semitic prejudice in the United States. American business interests sent special agents to Europe in order to attract immigrants. Howe explains how historians have roughly classified Jewish immigrants into two groups: the "old" immigrants. Just below them there was a group of minor nobles and gentlemen. The archbishop and a few nobles of importance kept very much aloof. and pray. who were from southern and eastern Europe. Only during the last two decades of the century did the multiplication of aliens come to seem a national problem." Marcia Davenport. with rough usefulness. like Lorenz Hagenauer. drink. drink. when cheap labor was needed by the railroads and both western and southern states were eager to absorb white settlers. but their real friends were among an even lower class-good. and eat. 250)" simply refer to numbers from a system devised by the musical historian Kochel. The town and its habits were summed up in an observation that "the country gentlemen hunt and go to church. however. In addition. unlike their refined Sephardic cousins who had been here for a long time. Popular sentiment remained attached to the notion that America was uniquely the land of refuge from tyranny and a country where fixed class lines gradually softened. those next below them go to church and hunt. poor and uneducated. Mozart The next paragraph by Irving Howe. the next lower rank eat. the former mostly from northern and the latter . were already encountering social discrimination in the 1870's. both in D major.) The alignment of social rank was rather rigid. if only because the Jews did not yet figure in the popular imagination as a major force in American life.
the increasing use of terrorism by extremist groups. such as consequently. Let's say that a writer wants to discuss the phenomenon of international terrorism. 2Part of this uncertainty is a reaction against the fear techniques that were employed in moral teaching in former generations. Th examine this situation. the writer might return to the effect part of the relationship and examine the long-range effects on the international community if terrorism is not stopped. or as a consequence." By the eighties and nineties the mass influx consisted largely of "new" immigrants. I Examine carefully the relationship between the sentences in the following paragraph: 1Parents today appear to have much uncertainty about their roles as moral guides. Close in cultural style to Protestant Americans. The other choice is to reverse the pattern. ill-educated and often illiterate peasants whose manner could unnerve native Americans. as a result. or the chiefly British owing to." you can predict that the writer will examine the probable economic consequences (the effects) of our dependence on foreign oil (the cause) even though no question is explicitly stated! Some words that indicate causes are because. If you encounter a paragraph that begins "America's continued dependence on foreign oil poses serious economic problems for the future. 4Thls means that many parents who have firm moral beliefs about lying. murder and destruction fail . stealing. Then the writer can examine the reasons (the causes) to explain why this phenomenon is becoming more prevalent. the "old" immigrants seemed more easily assimilable and thereby less threatening than the "new. and the outcome. Whichever comes first-cause or effect-it is important for you to understand that this method always involves the question why. particularly in the Middle East. for." Irving Howe. words indicating effects include the result. beginning with the reasons and ending with the effects. for the reason that. the consequences. CAUSE AN D EFFECT Youmight think of the cause-and-effect method of paragraph development as a way of finding reasons to explain events.68 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS from southern and eastern Europe. he or she has two choices: Th describe the phenomenon . to cite some examples. 3Since today's parent does not wish to teach his child moral attitudes through threats or exaggerated horror or fearful warnings he seems afraid to show any moral reactions to his child as if he might then create excessive guilt feelings in the child. or issues. Further. to achieve certain demands (the effects). The cause-effect pattern can also be indicated by transitional Oinking) devices. along with their results: Cause and effect refers to a logical relationship between ideas as well as to a method of paragraph development. World of Our Fathers B. either stated or implied. problems. And most immigrant Jews were regarded as among the "new.
. It would be an error to suppose that anti-immigrant feelings were confined to a single social class or political outlook. tormented by incomprehensible economic collapses. If you learn to analyze the relationship between ideas in this way. The one constant was that the outbreak of a depression. The "new" immigrants. states a situation or a problem: parents are uncertain about how to give their children moral guidance. dependence.. superstition? If so enlightened a public figure as Henry George could write in 1883. reactionaries and populists-all joined the outcry against the intruders. However.to whom you were introduced in a previous selection. seemed to many native Americans both symptom and cause of a spreading social malaise. is effect-cause-more effects. Selma Fraiberg. Let us look at one more cause-effect example. The careful reader has to infer that the phrase at the beginning of sentence 2 ("Part of this uncertainty is a reaction . "What in a few years more. explains in this paragraph the reasons that anti-immigrant feelings intensified at the end of the nineteenth century. something that occurred with distressing frequency during the eighties and nineties. 5Parents tolerate the moral lapses or even the absence of moral principles in their children way beyond the period when we can expect a child to have incorporated moral values in his own personality. might come to take on the social bitterness of Europe. Remember to look up any words that are unfamiliar to you. and 5 examine further effects that are the direct result of what was stated in sentence 2. presumably strict. These were hard years in American society: unsettled by the consequences of rapid industrialization and uncontrolled urbanization. Irving Howe. helpless in urban slums. the topic sentence. Sentence 2 states the cause of this uncertainty: parents are reacting against their own. ") is meant to suggest a cause to explain the problem. upbringings. Notice that the main idea (the effect) is stated in the last sentence (the alien "hordes" represented a threat to the Americans' well-being). you will soon become skilled not only at predicting what will follow a topic sentence. 4. There are no signposts or transitions to guide you.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 69 to transmit them to their children in a profound and meaningful way. then. haunted by the fear that the country. The body of the paragraph cites the causes of their prejudice. sentence 1 begins with the effect. Could they be expected to honor the democratic outlook of the Founding Fathers? Would they not disdain the traditions of individualism on which the nation had thrived? Were they not hopelessly marred by ignorance. Brahmins and rednecks.the effect-cause pattern is only implied. meant both a drop in the number of immigrants and a rise in sentiment against them. but also at seeing the direction of the ideas in paragraphs or longer passages. The pattern of this paragraph. bourgeois and proletarians. . as it moved away from the age of the independent farmer. The Magic Years Sentence 1. In other words. (Can you think of any other reasons to account for parents' uncertainty? Do you accept this as a reasonable cause?) And sentences 3.
It is a humming. is perhaps the most difficult for readers to perceive. In the following paragraph. trying to make improvements and to get the bugs out. furthermore. Being a populous near-desert. The human eye is often compared. ANALOGY Analogy. It is also under threat from floods. with keeping a transport system moving at high speed. it depends crucially on imported water. by means of analogy. to a camera. but L.(Analogies also can be misused. World of Our Fathers c. John Simon. (How would you characterize Simon's tone-his emotional attitude toward the ordinary speaker of English . The important point to remember is that an analogy is a sustained metaphor. is more so than the others.in this passage?) . Irving Howe. An analogy is an extended metaphor. or that provides a fresh way to look at a subject. p.70 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS are we to do for a dumping-ground? Will it make our difficulty the less that our human garbage can vote?". A writer might. thereby serving to heighten the impact of the real subject. with mechanics incessantly working at it. explain the workings of the human heart in terms of a more familiar object-a pump. Christopher Rand uses an analogy-describing a city as if it were a machine-to explain the intricate workings of Los Angeles: One way to view Los Angeles is as a machine. Because of its scatteredness. wanting to describe someone's dissatisfaction with his or her job. might imaginatively compare that person's boss to a nagging spouse. And finally it must deal with the waste products. that its operations throw off.A. since the comparison is extended throughout a paragraph or occasionally throughout a longer piece. Christopher Rand. smoking. and other obscenities. Los Angeles: The Ultimate City In the next example. for instance. an imaginative comparison between two unlike things that helps to make clear the real subject at hand. by playing with the analogy of language as a living thing. day in and day out. and earthquakes. 186). it need come as no surprise that mere editorialists and common folk began to look upon the alien "hordes" as a threat to their well-being. fires. that is. the smog. the last method of development. criticizes English speakers' insistence on saying between you and I instead of the correct between you and me. ever-changing contraption.if so humane an intellectual could speak in this way. it is concerned. Another writer. a noted drama critic and writer on language who has an acerbic sense of humor. All modem cities are machines. to which its technological daring makes it especially vulnerable. see False Analogy in the section on logical fallacies in Part 2.
CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 71 Why does language keep changing? Because it is a living thing. of which one of the most preposterous and nefarious examples is the recently proliferating but still weedable between you and 1. the subject is the city of Los Angeles. "Just Between Us. this lovely albeit trite image is. COMBINATION OF METHODS Finally. Not all paragraphs can be as neatly categorized as the ones you have looked at so far. there are likely to be several different methods of development in evidence. At no point will it start sprouting petunia blooms or Ficus leaves. like life's problems for which there are seldom easy answers. uprooted. Alas. Well. Then why in the name of the living plant. or ought to be. like a photograph. 2How soon does a . Rather. between the pages of a dictionary. and books on grammar-such ignorance could have been. Language. you should recognize that. and in the last few centuries-given our schools. sprouts new leaves and flowers. Simon's subject is language-or more specifically. as well as some paragraphs that use a combination of methods. linguistic changes are caused by the ignorance of speakers and writers. though usually perishable. like a live plant. to our initial botanical analogy: let us concede that language is indeed a living plant-a rhododendron.as I have said before and wish now to say with even greater emphasis-largely nonsense. after centuries of between you and me. however. Certainly new words can become needed. but as a dynamic and continually moving object with varied expressions and different associated contexts such as food and warmth. say. changes out of ignorance. Although some writers use an easily recognizable method of paragraph development." Paradigms Lost The difficulty posed by the use of analogies is that it is easy to confuse the terms of the analogy. a rhododendron can be depended on to sprout rhododendron leaves and rhododendron flowers as long as there is life in it. like a dead flower. not as a still object in one plane. like the live nettle or poison ivy it is. switch to between you and I? John Simon. But by and large. It is. people will tell you. should we. D. In the Rand paragraph. not machines. or the living God. synonyms. Within an essay or article. the task of reading is a similarly complex one. for the most part. a linguistic error he finds especially distressing-not gardening. Something that you cannot press forever. To get back. it is a living organism that. and a happy invention or slang can sometimes supply useful. The following paragraph is a good example of writing that employs a mix of the methods you have studied so far: "The most common complicated sight a baby sees after birth is his mother's face. not every one does. dictionaries. possible to stop-or at least considerably delay-unnecessary change.
they frequently showed strong gaze aversion.support. Every sentence in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence. MacFarlane relies on a combination of methods. rather than just one. the passage deals with very difficult subject matter or contains many unfamiliar words. almost over their shoulders. to explore the main idea. In other words. but as . of course. Sentence 7 presents a tentative cause. E.. Note that MacFarlane defines the baby's perception by using contrast ("not as a still object . but also patterns of logical thinking.) Besides having unity. 5At two weeks the babies spent more time looking at their mothers' faces than they did at the strangers' faces. and relate to the main idea or thesis statement.that is." In prose writing. coherence means the logical relationship between each sentence in a paragraph (or between the paragraphs in an essay). 4She observed the babies' general behavior. When you read paragraphs. Sentences 3 through 6 answer the question by describing a process: a hospital experiment conducted to determine whether two-week-oldbabies could distinguish their mothers' faces from those of strangers. when they were alert.unless.72 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS baby come to distinguish his mother's face from others? 3GenevieveCarpenter of the Behavior Development Research Unit at St. At first glance. well-constructed 'paragraphs and essays also have coherence.. UNITY AND COHERENCE IN PARAGRAPHS The methods of development we have studied thus far represent not only kinds of evidence that the writer uses to prove or support the main idea.. and for how long. Sentence 2 poses a question. sentence 1 states the subject-how a baby perceives its mother's face. singleness of purpose. 6In fact. Whether a writer uses one method of development or several. in an essay every paragraph should develop. when they were presented with the other women'sfaces. This question also appears to be the main idea of the paragraph. Sentence 6 also suggests an effect-the babies' reaction (gaze aversion) when they were confronted with strange faces. you probably do not have much difficulty following the direction of the ideas. a reason for their reacting this way. a good writer is careful to help the reader follow the main idea by ensuring that the paragraph has unity . Mary's Hospital in London sat two-week-oldbabies in supportive chairs and. "What a Baby Knows" Though not really a topic sentence governing the information in the rest of the paragraph. presented each with either his mother's face or the face of a woman the baby had never seen before in a framed opening in front of him. one that the author will presumably attempt to answer (using analysis). (In the same way. where they looked. ''). 7This kind of withdrawal suggests that the babies found the stimulus too intense or too novel. Aidan MacFarlane. which literally means "sticking together. it may seem that . looking right away..
but food loses its taste as well. but their changes are less understood and appreciated. food tastes less savory. food tastes less savory. and.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 73 studying the ways in which writers achieve coherence may be more appropriate in a composition course than in a reading course. 6This means that the total number of effective taste buds declines. Sometimes your correct understanding of a passage may depend on a seemingly unimportant little word such as but or yet. seeing the methods by which writers link ideas logically is not only useful. they last no longer than a few days each and then are replaced. they are renewed more slowly than they are used up. 4Distributed over the tongue. read the following paragraph which has been printed twice. but food loses its taste as well. Tb illustrate. they are renewed more slowly than they are used up. 3The complaint about food is easily explained when one considers how the taste buds work. as well as to make it easier for the reader to followthe progression of ideas. 2Peoplewho are in contact with the elderly will tell you that they have two major complaints-food and their children. 9Anyone who has ever had a cold can testify to the fact that while the cold lasts. 5In keeping with the general slowing-down process. lOThere is a similar deterioration in the sense of smell as a result of the process of aging. first as it was originally published. Notice that the italicized words and phrases serve to keep you on track: . not only is the sense of smell reduced. Successful Aging +Taste and smell are also affected by aging. Olga Knopf. 5In keeping with the general slowing-down process. therefore. 7Extensive dentures that cover a large portion of the oral cavity diminish the perception of taste even further. it may be crucial to your accurate understanding of a passage. 3The complaint about food is easily explained when one considers how the taste buds work. there is the close interrelationship between smell and taste. 9Anyone who has ever had a cold can testify to the fact that while the cold lasts. not only is the sense of smell reduced. therefore. but their changes are less understood and appreciated. In addition. However. and second with key words and phrases italicized. there is the close interrelationship between smell and taste. 6This means that the total number of effective taste buds declines. 2People who are in contact with the elderly will tell you that they have two major complaints-food and their children. they last no longer than a few days each and then are replaced. SIn addition. "Iaste and smell are also affected by aging. "Extensive dentures that cover a large portion of the oral cavity diminish the perception of taste even further. and. Repetition of Key Words and Phrases Writers often repeat key words or phrases to achieve both unity and coherence. 4Distributed over the tongue. lOThere is a similar deterioration in the sense of smell as a result of the process of aging.
Here is the actual version. The spawn is laid in long strings which wind themselves in and out of the reeds and soon become invisible. is that he wants to get his arms round something. In the Knopf paragraph above. sprout hind legs. and the sentences sound monotonous and choppy. with his arms tightly clasped round the female's neck. And the transitional phrase in addition was italicized in sentence 8 because it has an important function . crawl out of the water to begin the game anew. this time printed with the transitions restored and italicized. He has swollen to his normal size again. darker. Presently he has swollen to his normal size again. diminished taste. Transitions Clearly. something is wrong here. All he knows. The male is smaller. loss of taste buds. at least if he is a male toad. Obviously. One comes upon shapeless masses of ten or twenty toads rolling over and over in the water. They sort themselves out into couples. and the relationship between taste and smell) are restated frequently enough to render the paragraph quite easy to read. and then he goes through a phase of intense sexiness. then shed their tails. he will cling to it with surprising strength and take a long time to discoverthat it is not a female toad. and if you offer him a stick. here is a paragraph by George Orwell printed without the transitions: After getting into the water the toad concentrates on building up his strength by eating small insects. But just as important to the reader are the signposts or markers called transitions that writers use to indicate either a logical progression or a shift in direction. All he knows. If you offer him a stick. and sits on top. repeating key words and phrases has the dual function of providing coherence and unity. For a few days after getting into the water the toad concentrates on building up his strength by eating small insects. smaller than one's thumbnail but perfect in every particular. or even your finger. one clinging to another without distinction of sex.74 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS The key ideas (aging. You can distinguish males from females. The new generation of toads. or even your . Careful attention to transitional devices does a great deal to improve your reading comprehension. is that he wants to get his arms round something. He goes through a phase of intense sexiness. The water is alive with masses of tiny tadpoles which rapidly grow larger. therefore in the middle of sentence 6 signals that the clause at the end of the sentence is a conclusion drawn from the first part. or like trying to put a bicycletogether when the manufacturer has left out all the screws you need. with the male duly sitting on the female's back. reading this paragraph is like reading a novel with every tenth page missing.to alert the reader that the author is going to present another reason to explain the decline in the ability to taste among old people. To show you how crucial these devices are. It just does not hold together. at least if he is a male toad. making it much less tedious to read. then forelegs.
smaller than one's thumbnail but perfect in every particular. they sort themselves out into couples. 2It is not alone the cold which causes it. torpid. Frequently one comes upon shapeless masses often or twenty toads rolling over and over in the water. with the male duly sitting on the female's back. however. with his arms tightly clasped round the female's neck. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. Alan Devoe. one clinging to another without distinction of sex. multiplicity [sentence 2]: (a) a small number. (c) an uncountable number.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 75 finger." Lives Around Us A. for in captivity. there are a multiplicity of other factors-diminishing food supply. 3Any or all of these may be the signal for entrance into the Long Sleep. food. ground squirrels) begin to grow drowsy when the fall sun is still warm on their furry backs and the food supply is not at all diminished. You can now distinguish males from females. darkness-all of these obscurely play their parts in bringing on the annual subsidence into what one biologist has called "the little death. George Orwell. about the middle of the summer." "Investigation of the causes will need a good many years before they can be understood. After a day or two the spawn is laid in long strings which wind themselves in and out of the reeds and soon become invisible. "The Animals Sleep. (d) an infinite number. EXERCISES Selection 1 "The season of hibernating begins quite early for some of the creatures of outdoors. silence-frequently decisive. increased darkness as the fall days shorten. but many other mammals (for instance. independent of the weather and the food supply. the hibernators often do not sleep at all. to their root-lined underground burrows. inheritance. may be an old race habit. an instinctual behavior pattern like the unaccountable migrations of certain birds. . and the water is alive with masses of tiny tadpoles which rapidly grow larger. depending upon the habits and make-up of the particular creature. he will cling to it with surprising strength and take a long time to discover that it is not a female toad. 4 Among skunks. 5This groundsquirrel kind of hibernating. 6Weather. A few more weeks. because the male is smaller. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. then forelegs. By degrees. where observation is more easy than in the wild. darker and sits on top. (b) a large number. then shed their tails: and finally. 1. the new generation of toads. "Some Thoughts on the Common Toad" You will study transitions in greater detail in Chapter 4. crawl out of the water to begin the game anew. sprout hind legs. it is usually the coming of the cold that sends them.
'Ib what does the pronoun "these" refer. (c) indistinctly heard. 9. (b) dictionary definitions. Which two methods of paragraph development does Devoe use? (a) cause-effect. (e) transitional devices. CD undistinguished or humble descent. signaling a shift in topic. (b) making an appearance. (e) inconspicuous. unnoticed. (d) because. torpid : (a) yawning.76 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS 2. 4. (d) unable to be counted. With respect to the term "hibernation. faint. (d) bizarre. (c) incomprehensible. (d)transitions between ideas. (d) definition. or reputation. (b) different. (b) lazy. (c) steps in a process. B. (b) cause-effect. The mode of discourse in this paragraph is (a) narration. what does the transitional word "for"mean? (a) but. 5. and "silence" which follow it? (a) definition of key terms. Look at sentence 2. (c)returning to normalcy. hidden. (b) for the purpose of. Below are dictionary definitions for the adjectival forms of obscure. unaccountable : (a) mysterious. (d) becoming less active. 3. (c) chilly. darkness. Look again at sentence 3. (e) process. inheritance. (g) imperfectly known or understood. What does this repetition contribute to the paragraph as a whole? (a) paragraph development. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. As it is used in sentence 7. staof tion. Consider again the word "obscurely" as it is used in sentence 6. (c)paragraph unity. subsidence : The process of (a) migrating. CD comparison. (c) unusual. (b) not responsible. "increased darkness as the fall days shorten". (e) therefore. (d) phrases that are antonyms. (d) out of sight. in the phrase "any or all of these"? 7. gloomy. Devoe repeats the key terms "weather. What is the relationship between the phrase "a multiplicity of other factors" and the phrases "diminishing food supply". (c) phrases that are synonyms. (b) dingy. 1. (e) incomprehensible. food. (b) analogy. (d) examples of a general idea. . 4. Answer in your own words: What is the subject of this paragraph? What does Devoe want us to understand about this subject? 3. (c) example. 8. 6." which were mentioned earlier in the paragraph. In sentence 6. Which one best fits the context? (a) partially or altogether deficient in light. 2. (c) for example. (b) description. (b) prooffor the main idea." the phrases "the little death" and "the Long Sleep" represent (a) technical or scientific terms. 10. What is the connection between the reason groundsquirrels hibernate and the migration of certain birds? They are (a) similar. Consider sentence 5. (d) persuasion. (c) exposition. dull. (d) inactive.
9Perhaps (though not provably) it has prevented wars that might have arisen out of international misunderstanding caused by written communication. beginning in early fall and continuing until spring. it has made possible-for better or worse-the modern city.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 77 c. 4. sIt has made the waging of war chillingly more efficient than formerly. it has greatly accelerated the rate of scientific and technological change and growth in industry. The stimulus leading to hibernation may be an instinctive trait. mark these statements as follows:A for accurate inferences. or for us. 1. 3It has saved lives by getting rapid word of illness. 4Byjoining with the elevator to make possible the multistory residence or office bulding. it has played a role in one of the greatest social changes of this century. food supply. lOOrperhaps-again not provably-by magnifying and extending irrational personal conflictsbased on voicecontact. 5. S. llCertainly it has extended the scope of human conflicts. All animals that hibernate followa similar pattern. can trigger hibernation. the breakup of the multigenerational household. the affection of the affectionate and the malice of the malicious. injury. 9. independent of external factors. 2. Anyone of several factors. 5By bringing about a quantum leap in the speed and ease with which information moves from place to place. in the hundred years of its existence? 2 A few effects suggest themselves at once. since it impartially disseminates the useful knowledge of scientists and the babble of bores. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. All mammals hibernate in some way or other. 10. by so doing. 3. it has caused wars. 7It has made living alone possible for persons with normal social impulses. All of the factors mentioned-diminishing Selection 2 1What has the telephone done to us. The term "the Long Sleep" was what Native Americans called hibernation. Zoo animals often do not hibernate. I for inaccurate inferences. or famine from remote places. The mysteries of why and how animals hibernate have now been solved. or a combination of them. 6Beyond doubt it has crippled if not killed the ancient art of letter writing. and IE for insufficient evidence. 7. 6. Telephone: The First Hundred Years . silence-must be present for an animal to begin hibernation. Humans are the only mammals that do not hibernate. depending on the species. John Brooks. One cause of hibernation that remains constant for all species is the onset of cold weather. increased darkness.
"What has the telephone done to us. in the hundred years of its existence?" The italicized words reveal that the author will be concerned chiefly with (a) examples and illustrations. (d) advantages and disadvantages. (d) persuasion. or for us. Brooks writes. (d) analysis. 2. 6. 5. (b) irrational notions. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. (b) an abrupt change. The method of development used in the paragraph is (a) analogy. sentence sentence sentence sentence sentence 3 4 5 6 7 sentence sentence sentence sentence 8 __ 9 __ 10 __ 11 __ 8. U for an unfavorable result. 1. (c) specific as well as general statements. (d) only partly. (b) process. Look again at the answer you wrote for sentence 7 in question 7 above. engaging anecdotes. Look again at sentence 7. a quantum leap [5J: (a) a slowly evolving change. In sentence 1. (c) publishes. 1. (c) criticism. (c) in an unbiased manner. (c) exposition. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. 3. (d) transmits. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. (b) to explain the effects the telephone has had on our society. (d) events. (d) to trace popular attitudes toward the telephone. (b) most significant or important. (c) to examine the reasons the telephone has changed from being a luxury to an indispensable necessity. The author's specific purpose is (a) to convince us of the telephone's usefulness. (c) tendencies. Which of the following is the best definition for the adjective "greatest" as Brooks uses it? (a) most remarkable or wonderful. The mode of discourse in this paragraph is (a) narration. 4. impartially :'(a) unjustly. 2. B. (c) cause-effect. and B for a result that is both favorable and unfavorable. 5. (c) an application of a physical law. malice : (a) kindness. (b) description.78 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS A. (b) illegal act. . (b) in the same way. (b) interesting. Which two sentences best express the main idea? Sentences __ and 4. sudden urges. (e) illustration. (d) most superior in quality. Label each sentence listed below as follows: F for a favorable result. (c) most extensive in time or distance. (d) ill will. 7. (b) gathers. 3. disseminates : (a) spreads. (d) an immeasurable calculation. impulses : (a) whims.
yet very sharply and constantly noticeable. 6. which is very thin and light on the air. 8The odors of sweat in many stages of age and freshness. oak. I for inaccurate inferences. like war. What is Brooks's attitude toward the telephone? It is (a) probably more favorable than unfavorable. 4. woodsmoke. but in part also. 4The odor of pine lumber. and ammonia. 6The odors of cooking. in no way doubled or insulated. 10. The telephone is the most useful invention of the last one hundred years. What is the relationship between sentences 9 and 10? (a) argument and supporting evidence. corn. (b) probably more unfavorable than favorable. most strongly. The multistory residence or officebuilding would have been impossible without the telephone. (c) completely neutral. . smells a little dryer and cleaner. the odor of cooked corn. (d) two definitions of the same term. being young. and more distinctly of its wood. Misunderstandings about critical subjects. 3These are its ingredients. and second.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 79 What judgment can you make about the breakup of the multigenerational household? Is it a positive or a negative effect?What factors influenced your answer? _ 9. the fuel being again mainly pine. balanced between favorable and unfavorable.than an average white tenant house. and by which such a house could be identified blindfold in any part of the world. only eight years old. wide thin cords of it. Selection 3 "The Gudgers' house. are more likely to occur with the telephone than with written communication. mark these statements as follows:A for accurate inferences. 5. (d) not evident from the paragraph. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. among no matter what other odors. No one writes letters any more. and more subtle than it can seem in analysis. this sweat being a distillation of pork. and IE for insufficient evidence. (b) cause-effect. 3. hickory. and it has also a certain odor I have never found in other such houses: aside from these sharp yet slight subtleties. 2It is compacted of many odors and made into one. 7 Among these. in closed and darkened air. and cedar. it has the odor or odors which are classical in every thoroughly poor white southern country house. 1. The telephone was invented before the elevator. pine. heated in the sun. The telephone has been only one influence that caused the breakup of the multigenerational home. 5The odor of woodsmoke. (c) contrast. c. lard. 2. the odors of fried salt pork and of fried and boiled pork lard.
(d) chemical reaction. (d) saturated. not washed. (b) designed to be small in size. and moist.* to which the nearest parallel is the odor of the yellow excrement of a baby. their sum total has great nostalgic power. offensive odor. (b) referring to a longing for what is past. not at all heavy. and many medicines. 110dors of staleness from clothes hung or stored away. (b) purified form. as 1 have mentioned. when it is eaten as much as they eat it. (c) uninhabited. (c) constituent parts. (b) thoroughly cleaned. crumbling. 1. they are hard to get used to 'or even hard to bear. still is strong in the stained wallpaper and in the mattress. (b) odors. 14Some of their components are extremely 'pleasant. essence. what one cannot have. as at the Ricketts'. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. absorbing. yet so searching that all fabrics of bedding and clothes are saturated with them. distillation : (a) combination. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. and sucked into all the wood. and staring death. intangibles. 13 these odors as 1 have said All are so combined into one that they are all and always present in balance. moldering : (a) decaying. 17At the Gudgers'. yet the odor of dark brown medicines. . becoming obscured. or on the teeth. for the ventilation is poor. nostalgic : (a) romantic. (c) arranged within a small space. (c) darkening. someone has died and the room has been fumigated. *[Pronounced fetar] an exceptionally strong. compacted : (a) solidly or firmly built. 18There too. James Agee and Walker Evans. (d) describing the unattainable. very dry and edged: it is somewhere between the odor of very old newsprint and of a Victorian bedroom in which. and so clinging that they stand softly out of the fibers of newly laundered clothes. (c)unusual characteristics. mildewed. lighter. and breath. (d)things that cannot be touched. (d) closely and firmly united. after long illness.and stacked down on top of years of a moldering and old basis of themselves. dry-bodied sickness.' some are 'unpleasant'. components : (a) devices. (c) describing something magic or unexplainable. of bedding and of breathing. (d) disinfected. 4. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men A. 10Theodors of all the dirt that in the course of time can accumulate in a quilt and mattress. subtleties : (a) things so slight as to be difficult to detect. 2. darkened. (d) basic characteristics. (b) contrasts. there is another and special odor. it is of a particular sweet stuffy fetor. they are younger. 3.80 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS 9The odors of sleep. (c) natural by-product. 6. fumigated : (a) sealed off. 15When they are in an old house. 121should further describe the odor of corn: in sweat.they are blowsy and somewhat At moist and dirty. and cleaner-smelling. 16 the Woods'. 7. 5. (b) moldy.
we consumed. 1. 2Divided into the A and B classes. (d) persuasion. (c) examine the economic situation of tenant-farmer families. 2. we little Shillingtonians. The two sentences that unify the paragraph by restating the main idea are __ and __ . Which sentence offers the best clue for the answer to question 3? Sentence __ . The author stayed with the Gudgers for several weeks. the Ricketts. and the Woods are all poor white southern tenant families. forward to the fifth. (c)cause-effect and process. (b) describe the way white tenant farmers live. (c) exposition. and forward again to the sixth. 6. 5. The author grew up in a house very much like the one the Gudgers lived in. Agee combines two methods of development: (a) comparison and contrast. Agee characterizes the various odors at the Gudgers' house as (a) unpleasant. I for inaccurate inferences.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 81 B. (b) example and illustration. 2. 1." in sentence 16. as it is used in sentence 1. Potatoes are a staple food in the Gudgers' diet. 8. The word "blowsy. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. The mode of discourse in this paragraph is (a) narration. The word classical. Selection 4 lLike silkworms munching mulberry leaves. (b) subtle. 7. (b) description. 4. then straight upstairs to the fourth grade. The author found the odors in the Ricketts' house repugnant. and to the rear for the third. (d) nostalgic. means (a) ordinary. 3. (d) analysis and classification. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. mark these statements as follows:A for accurate inferences. the A section of which was taught by the immaculate. 6. The Gudgers' house is newer and cleaner than the average tenant farmer's house. we moved to the front of the building for the first grade. of about thirty each. (d) sharp and distinct. stern. which had six classrooms on each of its two main floors. gray-haired . (c) standard. back to the middle for the second. What meaning do you think Agee intends the word to have inthiscontext? __ C. 4. is usually used to describe someone's appearance. The Gudgers. (d) characterize his first impression upon entering a tenant farmer's house. (c) capable of arousing a feeling of nostalgia. (b) pleasant. Agee's specific purpose is to (a) describe the odors in one tenant farmer's house. 5. and IE for insufficient evidence. the school building. 3.
which held six grades. (d) privileged. and the boys' and girls' sides were demarcated by the broad cement walks that led up to the front and back portals. fluctuated : (a) gradually improved. occasioning a flurry of shrieks. (c) in the same fashion as. anarchic : (a) unimaginable. the playground encircled the building like an asphalt moat. and. Vocabulary For each italicized word from the paragraph. choose the best definition according to the context in which it appears. as their marks fluctuated. 6And another boy. against the grade ahead of us (in which a number of our girls later found boyfriends) and the grade behind (which was to supply some of us boys with girlfriends). business). past the five-sided corner. on the back school steps. (b) by way of. lOMountains of flattened tin cans and salvaged rubber in a corner of the boys' playground and a new hierarchy of prizes and mock-military rankings among the class leaders were easily assimilated into the preexistent order of bells and birthdays and field days and of class photographs late in May. 5The AlB distinction. (d) rose and fell. 1. was a hard one. felt the old onus of being a B with such force that he eventually compensated by becoming a vice-president of the New York Stock Exchange. (d) capable of modification. from the third grade on. . (d) because of. (b) lacking control or order. there was nothing left to do but fly through the windows onto Lancaster Avenue and east up the street toward Reading. were in and out of the A section via a kind of revolving door. "A Soft Spring Night in Shillington" A. now one and now the other and now neither. 3After this grade. adamant : (a) traditional. Dickinson. and thus we were united against the world: against Mohnton on the one side and Kenhorst on the other.whom I got to know in high school. (c) unintelligible. a unique square mile of global surface. like the sheep/goats distinction anticipated in the Bible.82 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS elementary-school principal. seventh through twelfth. 4 As a structure. (b) inflexible. we were divided up. Mr. against Japan and Germany. 980. male and female. (c) undemocratic. 3. it lacked the compactness and logic of the elementary school. 4. the adamant distinction between the Ns and the B's broke down into diversified "courses" (collegeprep. which came to join the treasure of lost time in my mother's shoeboxes. 2. we all came from Shillington.(b) deteriorated. on the other hand. John Updike. (c)balanced out. 7The Ns had the same side of the building as the girls' playground. A and B. to the orange-brick high school. via : (a) on the road to. against Wyomissing and Birdsboro. 8Even to chase a soccer ball into the girls' side was something of a sin. and was especially hard on those on the borderline: a pair of male twins. and long rows of lockers in the halls symbolized anarchic new stretches of possibility and freedom. and forbidden trespass.
Updike begins the paragraph with a metaphor by which he compares his elementary school classmates to "silkworms munching mulberry leaves. (b) shown.. was a hard one" definition __ ".. (c) the students' grades." What does he mean by this metaphor? _ 3. Updike uses the adjective "hard" in sentence 5 in two different ways. fashion.. (b) rigorous. (c) became victorious. portals : (a) buildings. (d) pure whim on the part of the school's administration. B. 8. custom. hierarchy : (a) classification by rank. period in time. Content and Structure Choose the best answer. compensated : (a) substituted. What do you think he means to suggest? 4. Updike uses the verb "fly" to describe the move from elementary to high school. onus : (a) burden. (e) difficult to understand or endure. 1. Consider the following definitions and match the one that seems appropriate to each context. special advantage. Mark any of the following that describe Updike's purpose in this paragraph: (a) to praise the Shillington educational system for its high standards. (d) era. (e) causeeffect. (c) modeled. 10. (c) stern. shaped. (c) clearly separated. (c) comparison. Updike uses (a) definition. callous. (b) incorporated. The basis for separating the lower-school grades into A and B groups was according to (a) parents' requests. (d) retaliated. 7. (b) playing fields. represented. (c) doors. (d) duty. altered. (b) the teachers' and the principal's recommendations. (d) valued more highly. "The AlB distinction .. (d) discriminated against. 6. CD cruel. (b) classification. 5. In explaining the division of students into A and B groups. (c) privilege. (d) analogy. (e) to show how Shillingtonian youngsters viewed themselves in relation to the outside world. oppressive. demarcated : (a) carefully laid out. unjust. (b) tradition. stringent. stigma. assimilated : (a) transformed. 9. 6. (d) to explain the distinction between the AlB classes in elementary school. (b)to explain the organization of the elementary and high schools. (a) resistant to pressure. In sentence 3. (c) style. (c) to describe a typical high-school student's social life during that era. (b) treasure chest. 2. responsibility. and was especially hard on those on the borderline" definition __ . (d) lecture halls.CHAPTER 3 MORE METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT 83 5. (b) made up for. (d) difficult to accomplish. sought revenge. absorbed. entrances.
Mohnton. The AlB distinction was abandoned in high school. (b)joy." 4It seemed possible that road work near Bluff Creek had been interrupted. Elementary-school children in Shillington were expected to help the war effort. Updike was in the A class. 6. Inferences On the basis of the evidence in the paragraph. 5This being-called "amah" in Klamath Mountain Indian language. (b) discipline. (c) a conclusion. mark these statements as follows: A for accurate inferences. "amah" being a word applicable to many uncanny phenomena. Like the playground. Kenhorst. 9. at that point. the classrooms were also segregated according to sex. (c) enthusiasm. long-term psychological effects. and that picked up pieces of heavy equipment and threw them in the creek. The A class had a more rigorous academic program than the B class. Which best describes the purpose of sentence 9? (a) to show the students' growing interest in members of the opposite sex. Updike was a student in elementary school during World War II. S. (b) to show the social divisions that operated in Shillington. 2. 3None of the books or museum exhibits I'd seen had quite prepared me for those ridges. What mood is suggested by the last phrase about the photographs that came "to join the treasure of lost time in my mother's shoeboxes"? (a) sadness. 4. Selection 5 lA big. humanlike footprints in snow or dust. "on the other hand. I for inaccurate inferences.84 PART 1 READING PARAGRAPHS 7. 10. 5. virgin forest defies the intellect because of the deep interconnectedness of life in it. by nocturnal visits from a being that left sixteen-inch. Wyomissing. (d) a contrast. and IE for insufficient evidence. 3. (d) to show the growing menace of a world war on a small American town. "Sasquatch" in the Pacific Northwest Indian language. and I didn't have much sense. (e) indifference. (c) freedom. at least for one student. (b) a definition. 7. the greatest difference between the elementary school and the high school in Shillington was in the amount of (a) homework. Essentially. . Being classified as a student in the B group had. The transitional phrase." in sentence 9 suggests (a) an example. (d) contact between the sexes. and "Bigfoot" in English . of "reality. from the calls of screech owls to spirits of the dead. C. 1. Shillington students banded together and considered themselves unique. 21 sensed this in the twilit Siskiyou ridges on my first trip to the Klamath Mountains. as reports had it. despite their separation by sex. (c)to show that. S.is connected in Indian mythology with a variety of forest mysteries. (d) nostalgia. and Birdsboro are the names of neighboring rival towns.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.