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I. N. HERSTEIN University of Chicago

GINN

WALTHAM,

AND

COMPANY

TORONTO' LONDON

A Xerox Company

MASSACHUSETTS·

w,~

.

_

_.:¢.

y;>, . ,

To MARIANNE

Copyright

© 1964, by Ginn and Company

**AU Right8 Reeerved
**

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG OARD NUMBER:

63-17982

Preface

The idea to write this book, and more important the desire to do so, is a direct outgrowth of a course I gave in the academic year 1959-1960 at Cornell University. The class taking this course consisted, in large part, of the most gifted sophomores in mathematics at Cornell. It was my desire to experiment by presenting to them material a little beyond that which is usually taught in algebra at the junior-senior level. I have aimed this book to be, both in content and degree of sophistication, about halfway between two great classics, A Survey of Modern Algebra by Birkhoff and MacLane and Modern Algebra by Vander Waerden. The last few years have seen marked changes in the instruction given in mathematics at the American universities. This change is most notable at the upper undergraduate and beginning graduate levels. Topics that a few years ago were considered proper subject matter for semiadvanced graduate courses in algebra have filtered down to, and are being taught in, the very first course in abstract algebra. Convinced that this filtration will continue and will become intensified in the next few years, I have put into this book, which is designed to be used as the student's first introduction to algebra, material which hitherto has been considered a little advanced for that stage of the game. There is always a great danger when treating abstract ideas to introduce them too suddenly and without a sufficient base of examples to render them credible or natural. In order to try to mitigate this, I have tried to motivate the concepts beforehand and to illustrate them in concrete situations. One of the most telling proofs of the worth of an abstract concept is what it, and the results about it, tells us in familiar situations. In almost every chapter an attempt is made to bring out the significance of the general results by applying them to particular problems. For instance, in the

v

vi

PREFACE

chapter on rings, the two-square theorem of Fermat is exhibited as a direct consequence of the theory developed for Euclidean rings. The subject matter chosen for discussion has been picked not only because it has become standard to present it at this level or because it is important in the whole general development but also with an eye to this "concreteness." For this reason I chose to,omit the Jordan-Holder theorem, which certainly could have easily been included in the results derived about groups. However, to appreciate this result for its own sake requires a great deal of hindsight and to see it used effectively would require too great a digression. True, one could develop the whole theory of dimension of a vector space as one of its corollaries, but, for the first time around, this seems like a much too fancy and unnatural approach to something so basic and down-to-earth. Likewise, there is no mention of tensor products or related constructions. There is so much time and opportunity to become abstract; why rush it at the beginning? A word about the problems. There are a great number of them. It would be an extraordinary student indeed who could solve them all. Some are present merely to complete proofs in the text material, others to illustrate and to give practice in the results obtained. Many are introduced not so much to be solved as to be tackled. The value of a problem is not so much in coming up with the answer as in the ideas and attempted ideas it forces on the would-be solver. Others are included in anticipation of material to be developed later, the hope and rationale for this being both to lay the groundwork for the subsequent theory and also to make more natural ideas, definitions, and arguments as they are introduced. Several problems appear more than once. Problems, which for some reason or other seem difficult to me, are often starred (sometimes with two stars). However, even here there will be no agreement among mathematicians; many will feel that some unstarred problems should be starred and vice versa. Naturally, I am indebted to many people for suggestions, comments and criticisms. To mention just a few of these: Charles Curtis, Marshall Hall, Nathan Jacobson, Arthur Mattuck, and Maxwell Rosenlicht. I owe a great deal to Daniel Gorenstein and Irving Kaplansky for the numerous conversations we have had about the book, its material and its approach. Above all, I thank George Seligman for the many incisive suggestions and remarks that he has made about the presentation both as to its style and to its content. I am also grateful to Francis McNary of the staff of Ginn and Company for his help and cooperation. Finally, I should like to express my thanks to the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation; this book was in part written with their support while the author was in Rome as a Guggenheim Fellow.

Contents

1.

1. Set Theory . 2. Mappings 3. The Integers . 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

GROUP THEORY PRELIMINARY NOTIONS

2 9 17

Definition of a Group . Some Examples of Groups . Some Preliminary Lemmas Subgroups A Counting Principle . Normal Subgroups and Quotient Groups Homomorphisms . Automorphisms . Cayley's Theorem Permutation Groups Another Counting Principle Sylow's Theorem.

26

27

29

32 38

46 56

60

41

64

69 78

3.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

RING

THEORY

Definition and Examples of Rings Some Special Classes of Rings Homomorphisms . Ideals and Quotient Rings . More Ideals and Quotient Rings The Field of Quotients of an Integral Domain Euclidean Rings. A Particular Euclidean Ring

vii

83

88

92

94 101

98

104

110

viii

CONTENTS

**9. Polynomial Rings 10. Polynomials Over the Rational Field 11. Polynomial Rings Over Commutative Rings . 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
**

VECTOR SPACES AND MODULES

113

120 122

Elementary Basic Concepts Linear Independence and Bases Dual Spaces . Inner Product Space Modules

130 136 144 150 160

5.

1. 2. 3. •. 5.

FIELDS

Extension Fields . The Transcendence of e Roots of Polynomials . Construction with Straight-Edge and Compass More About Roots 6. The Elements of Galois Theory 7. Solvability by Radicals

167 175 179 187 191 195 208

6.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS

The Algebra of Linear Transformations Characteristic Roots . Matrices Canonical Forms: Triangular Form Canonical Forms: Nilpotent Transformations Canonical Forms: A Decomposition of V: Jordan Form Canonical Forms: Rational Canonical Form. Trace and Transpose . Determinants Hermitian, Unitary, and Normal Transformations Real Quadratic Forms

217 225 228 241 248 255 262 271 279 294 308

7.

1. 2. 3. 4.

SELECTED TOPICS

Finite Fields Wedderburn's Theorem on Finite Division Rings . A Theorem of Frobenius . Integral Quaternions and the Four-Square Theorem

INDEX

**314 318 326 329
**

337

Topics in Algebra .

In relation to the current research activity in algebra. in the whole scheme of things. it may very well be described as "quite abstract. An algebraic system can be described as a set of objects together with some operations for combining them. fields. simple new proofs of difficult classical results. This book is intended as an introduction to that part of mathematics that today goes by the name of abstract algebra. of results considered to have been special and apart and has shown us interrelations between areas previously thought to have been unconnected. and vice versa. number theory. as the occasions arise. It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss these and to derive some results about them which we can call upon.CHAPTER 1 Preliminary Notions One of the amazing features of twentieth century mathematics has been its recognition of the power of the abstract approach. vector spaces. The algebra which has evolved as an outgrowth of all this is not only a subject with an independent life and vigor-it is one of the important current research areas in mathematics-but it also serves as the unifying thread which interlaces almost all of mathematics-geometry. and along with this. led us to open up whole new areas of mathematics whose very existence had not even been suspected. we shall concern ourselves with the introduction and development of some of the important algebraic systems-groups. later in the book. from the point of view of someone schooled in the calculus and who is seeing the present material for the first time. rings. In the wake of these developments has come not only a new mathematics but a fresh outlook. Prior to studying sets restricted in any way whatever-for instance. and even applied mathematics. 1 . analysis. The term "abstract" is a highly subjective one. it could be described as "not too abstract". The isolation of a problem into its basic essentials has often revealed for us the proper setting. with operations-it will be necessary to consider sets in general and some notions about them. in fact. we shall need some information about the particular set." Be that as it may. This has given rise to a large body of new results and problems and has. At the other end of the spectrum. the set of integers. topology. what is abstract to one person is very often concrete and down-to-earth to another.

in these. as S :::> A) which may be read as "A is contained inS" (or." In the same vein. that is. Another example of this' If S is the set consisting of the objects (1). and vice versa." The set A will be said to be a subset of the set S if every element in A is an element of S. is to demonstrate that the two opposite containing relations hold for them. the two sets A and B are equal. S contains A). In terms of the symbol for the containing relation. We shall write this as A c S (or. we can consider a set as a primitive notion which one does not define. every element which is in one is in the other. (10). (10) could be described by A = {(i) E::: Sri = 3n 1. written as A U B. A subset A of S will be called a proper subset of S if A c S but A 7'" S (A is not equal to S). For those whose tastes run more to the formal and abstract side. The standard device for proving the equality of two sets. at least when we are speaking about set theory. we can carry out the same procedure for any number of sets. what is meant by the equality of two sets? For us this will always mean that they contain the same elements. This notation is not meant to preclude the possibility that A = S. finite or infinite. (4). The mathematical "or" is quite different. Set Theory. 1 1. something we shall be required to do often. . The null set is the set having no elements. if both A c Band Be A. it is a subset of every set. if S is the set of integers and if A is the subset of positive integers.. In most of our applications we shall be dealing with rather specific things and the nebulous notion of a set. The union of the two sets A and B. There is nothing sacred or particular about this number two. and in fact we shall. sometimes. remark: Given a set S we shall constantly use the notation A = {a E: S[P(a)} to read etA is the set of all elements in S for which the property P holds. purely notational. a t[ S will read "a is not an element of S. then the subset A consisting of (1). + DEFINITION.2. n = 0. that is.2 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CH. A word about the use of "or." For instance. because it illustrates the general construction but is not obscured by the additional notational difficulties. will emerge as something quite recognizable. . if a E: A implies a E::: S. Given two sets we can combine them to form new sets. 3}. We do so for two first. We shall often describe that a set S is the null set by saying it is empty. By the way. One final.. Given a set S we shall use the notation throughout a E: S to read "a is an element of S. (2). then we can describe A as A = {a E::: S [a > O}." In ordinary English when we say that something is one or the other we imply that it is not both. For . (7). is the set {x [x E: A or x E: B}. A few remarks about notation and terminology. written A = B. 1. Instead we shall take the operational and intuitive approach that a set is some given collection of objects. We shall not attempt a formal definition of a set nor shall we try to lay the groundwork for an axiomatic theory of sets.

For any set A. X2. then A n B is the set of all blonde-haired people who smoke. n B. If A is the set of all blondehaired people and if B is the set of all people who smoke. Y2}. whenever B is a subset of A. In analogy with the examples used to illustrate the union of two sets. written as A A and x E::: B}. YI. The intersection of A and B is thus the set of all elements which are both in A and in B. If A is the set lXI. A is the circle on the left. then A U B = lXI. Pictorially we can illustrate the union of the two sets A and B by: Here.e. then A n B = Ixd (we are supposing no Y is an x). . and may be in both. If A is the set IxI. xd. xd. DEFINITION.SEC. A U B = A. let us see what the intersections are in those very examples. For any set A. A n A = Ai in fact. Let us consider a few examples of the union of two sets. B that on the right. X3} (i. then A U B consists of all the people who either have blonde hair or smoke or both. while their intersection is the shaded part. X3) and if B is the set lyI. is the set IX I X ~ The intersection of the two sets A and B. X3. Pictorially we can illustrate the intersection of the two sets A and B by: Here A is the circle on the left. 1 SET THEORY 3 when we say that x is in A or x is in B we mean x is in at least one of A or B. if B is any subset of A then A n B = B. and A U B is the shaded part. A U A = A i in fact. X3} and B the set IYb Y2.. X2. the set whose elements are Xl. X2. If A is the set of all blonde-haired people and if B is the set of all people that smoke. X2. Y2. B that on the right.

it is immediate that A nBc A n (B U C). n n B) U (A n C) c (A n (B U C)) U (A n (B U C)) = A n (B U C). For instance. is the null set. The proof will consist of showing. The sets A". we repeat. C we have A n n (B U C) = (A n B) U (A n C). Therefore N ow for the other direction. A". but.4 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CH. By the union of the sets A"" where exis in T. T can be any (nonempty) set. some of these can be found in the problems at the end of this section. This is the first of a whole host of such results that can be proved. then as an element both of A and of B. if A is the set of positive integers and B the set of negative integers. By the intersection (A n (B U C) c (A B) U (A n n C). x must be in A n B. then they are not disjoint for their intersection consists of the integer 0. The second possibility. then A and B are disjoint. to begin with. PROPOSITION. n n n of the sets A"" where exis in T. The two opposite containing relations combine to give us the equality asserted in the proposition. Very often we use the set of nonnegative integers as an index set. Suppose the former. that is. The index set T can be any set. Thus in either eventuality x E:: (A n B) U (A n C). Secondly. Given an element x E:: A n (B U C). are mutually disjoint if for ex~ {3. n A fJ is the null set. we mean the set I x E:: A".} of sets if for every exE:: T there exists a set A". A n C cAn (B U C). in the family 5". (A A Proof. first of all it must be an element of A. z E:: C. we mean the set Ix t x E:: A". for every x exE:: T}. whence A (B U C) c (A B) U (A C).. Given a set T we say that T serves as an index set for the family 5" = IA". In a similar manner. A. if S is the set of real numbers. and if T is the set of rational aE:T aE:T n t . as an element in B U Cit is either in B or in C. For instance. B. finite or infinite. 1 Two sets are said to be disjoint if their intersection is empty. the relation n B) U (A n C) cAn (B U C) and then the converse relation We first dispose of (A B) U (A C) cAn (B U C). we should like to prove a little proposition interrelating union and intersection. so is not empty.. we shall denote it by A". namely. Before we generalize union and intersection from two sets to an arbitrary number of them. Note however that if C is the set of nonnegative integers and if D is the set of nonpositive integers. We shall denote it by U A". We continue the discussion of sets to extend the notion of union and of intersection to arbitrary collections of sets. Because Be B U C. leads us to x E:: A n C. For any three sets. for at least one exin T}.

In that case. Given the two sets A and B we could construct the sets A X Band B X A from them. for ex E:= T. then A .B is the shaded area.B). we can continue this process with more and more sets.whereE = A X B. and also the set of all ordered triples (a. b E:= B. and c E:= C. Note that for any set B. It is an easy exercise to see that U A". B. = S whereas A". A X A. where we discuss one-to-one correspondences. Given three sets A. b2) if and only if al = a2 and bi = bs. are not mutually ". we can consider the Cartesian product of a set A with itself. then the set A X A is also a finite set. B then the difference set. C we can construct many Cartesian products from them: for instance. if A is the circle on the left. Note that if the set A is a finite set having n elements. This set A X B is defined as the set of all ordered pairs (a.B) is the null set.r::_T n disjoint. also. bl) to be equal to (a2. their Cartesian product A X B. A . since we shall not need so general a product. A". as ex varies over T. we feel that these sets must be closely related. . the setA X D. c) where a E:= A. b. The sets A". yet we feel that they must be closely related. Of course.whereD = B X C. DEFINITION. Finally. yet here. B that on the right. A particular case of interest of the difference of two sets is when one of these is a subset of the other. = (x E:= S! x . I Returning to our little pictures. We still want one more construct of two given sets A and B. the set A satisfies A = (A n B) U (A . we do not bother to define it. but has n2 elements. To see the exact relation between them we shall have to wait until the next section. is the null set. when B is a subset of A. Given any index set T we could define the Cartesian product of the sets A". a) in A X A is called the diagonal of A X A. is the set (x E:= A x tl. let.B the complement of Bin A. As sets these are distinct.::: ex). we call A . These give us three distinct sets. Given the two sets A. the set E X C. (Prove!) Note further that B n (A .r::_T ". 1 SET THEORY 5 numbers. b) where a E:= A and b E:= B and where we declare the pair (aI. B).B.SEC. A few remarks about the Cartesian product. The set of elements (a.

(2). measuring equality up to some property. c in A: (1) arva..J a.J Example 3. The properties (1). (1) Since 0 = a ..a) CR.6 PRELIMINARYOTIONS N A subset R of AX CR. a. a b if a . 1 A is said to define an equivalence relation on A if: (1) (a. . if and only if b. In fact. whence b . then both a . I"'V + r-. for a. b) CRimplies (b. if a . (3) of the definition below. and the third. Let S be any set and define a ..b. b) CR. (3) (a. Instead of speaking about subsets of AX A we can speak about a binary relation (one between two elements of A) on A itself. We leave it as an exercise to prove that this defines an equivalence relation on S.J r-. This defines an equivalence relation on S.. Example a = Example 2. C imply a r-. he binary relation. (2). c. Let S be the set of all triangles in the plane.c are even..J c.e._. a a. that is..(a . b) C Rand (b. (3) of the subset R immediately translate into the properties (1). 1. proving that a c. (3) If a rv band b .J Example 4. b C S. Define for a. c) CR. This clearly defines an equivalence relation on S.. a) C R for all a E:: A.c) is also even. I'o.b is a multiple of n. transitivity._.. DEFINITION. Given a. b C S. define a rv b if a . symmetry.a = . (2) (a. . (2) If a r-« b. the second.c = (a . Two triangles are defined to be equivalent if they are similar (i."on A is said to be an equivalence T relation on A if for all a. Let S be the set of all integers. defining b to be related to a if (a. have corresponding angles equal). Let S be the set of all integers and let n > 1 be a fixed integer. b. (2) a "-' b implies b (3) a rv band b r-.band b .a is even. We illustrate it with a few examples..b) is also even. c) C R imply that (a. an equivalence relation is a generalization of equality.b is even. whence a .. The concept of an equivalence relation is an extremely important one and plays a central role in all of mathematics. b C S.b) (b . then b .b is an even integer. The first of these properties is called reflexivity... We verify that this defines an equivalence rela- tion of S.

and have even established a simple little proposition. A simple check verifies that this defines an equivalence relation on S. Therefore. in this example there are only two distinct equivalence classes.. suppose that cl(a) and cl(b) are not disjoint.. In Example 2 the equivalence class of a consists of all the integers of the form a 2m where m = 0. now. here there are n distinct equivalence classes.. We first note that since for any a E: A. cl(n . f A is a set and if rv is an equivalence relation on A.. Let the equivalence relation on A be denoted by r-«. ±1. given a decomposition oj A as a umon of mutually disjoint. ±1.. ±2. forces a r-« b.. every element in cl(b) is in cl(a). we deduce that a y.SEC. cl(l). For. cl(O) and cl(l).. .. one could say in all fairness that up to this point we have not proved any result of real substance. a must be in cl(a) . namely. nonempty subsets. We are now about to prove the first genuine result in the book. y. we can define an equivalence relation on A for which these subsets are the distinct equivalence classes.) by the transitivity of the relation b. introduced some concepts. that y E. Let S be the set of points in the plane. Conversely.:: cl(a)._. Two points a and b are defined to be equivalent if they are equidistant from the origin. We write it as cl(a). the equivalence class of a consists merely of a itself. The arguf"o. a r-« x and X"""" . In the examples just discussed. b x whence by the symmetry of the relation. thus b"" y. DEFINITION. . that y E: cl(b). we shall encounter a few as we proceed in the book. The distinct equivalence classes of an equivalence relation on A provide us with a decomposition of A as a union of mutually disjoint subsets. from a r-« band b. the equivalence class of a consists of all the points in the plane which lie on the circle which has its center at the origin and passes through a.:: cl(a).) . that is. However. + + THEOREM1. In Example 3.:: clCa) n cl(b). the equivalence class of a consists of all integers of the form a km. Since x E. a rv x. then there is an element x E.) f"o. since x E: cl(b). a rv a. There are many more equivalence relations... However.. x . namely cl(O). The proof of this theorem is not very difficult-actually it is quite easybut nonetheless the result it embodies will be of great use to us. ±2. then I the equivalence class of a E: A is the set [z E: A [a rv X I. 1 SET THEORY 7 Example 5..A. whence the union of the cl(a)'s is all of A. what are the equivalence classes? In Example 1. Suppose. Proof. . Although we have made quite a few definitions. where k = 0.1). We now assert that given two equivalence classes they are either equal or disjoint. In Example 5. which proves that cl(b) c cl(a). .

For any two subsets A. B) U (B . (b) If Be A prove that A U B = A. 6.B) U (B . prove that A has exactly 2n distinct subsets. (b) Prove that (A n B) n 0 = A n (B no). b E: A. a r-« b if a and b are in the same A". The two opposite containing relations imply that cl(a) = cl(b). 3. are mutually disjoint.. If A and B are finite sets prove o(A U B) = o(A) + o(B) .o(A n B). nonempty sets (a is in some index set T). This proves the first half of the theorem. Let S be a set and let S* be the set whose elements are the various subsets of S. How shall we use them to define an equivalence relation? The way is clear. PROBLEMS 1. and conversely. this means that they are subsets of S) : (1) A +B = (A - (2) A· B = A n B. where the A". whence we conclude that cl(a) c cl(b). 4.(A n B). Prove that the symmetric difference of A and B equals (A U B) . In S* we define an addition and multiplication as follows: If A. (a) Prove that A B=B A and A U B = B U A.A). A survey shows that 63% of the American people likes cheese whereas 76% likes apples. If A is a finite set having n elements.) 8.8 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CH. 9.'s. 2.. 7. What can you say about the percentage of the American people that likes both cheese and apples? (The given statistics are not meant to be accurate. (a) If A is a subset of Band B is a subset of 0. Now for the other half! Suppose that A = U A". (c) If B c A prove that for any set 0 both B U 0 c A U 0 and B n 0 cAn O. For a subset 0 of S let C' denote the complement of 0 in S. B of S prove the De Morgan rules: (a) (A n B) = A U B'. We leave it as an exercise to prove that this is an equivalence relation on A and that the distinct equivalence classes are the A". We have thus shown that the distinct cl(a)'s are mutually disjoint and that their union is A. 6.l ment is clearly symmetric. Prove that A U (B n 0) = (A U B) n (A U 0). .A). For a finite set 0 let 0(0) indicate the number of elements in O. prove that A is a subset of O. n n I I (b) (A U B)' = A' n B'. Given two sets A and B their symmetnc difference is defined to be (A . given an element a in A it is in exactly one A". B E: S* (remember. We define for a.

cl(n ... (e) If A + B = A + C then B = C..a..... S. a b if a and b have an ancestor in common. It is hardly a new thing to any of us. We shall define a mapping somewhat more formally and precisely but the purpose of the definition is to allow us to think and speak .-. (c) A·A = A. a .. prove that the relation defined is an equivalence relation and that there are exactly n distinct equivalence classes. (d) A A = null set.. a r-« b if both a > band b > a.. (b) A·(B + C) = A·B + A·C. 2 MAPPINGS 9 Prove the following laws that govern these operations: (a) (A B) + C = A + (B C).. What is wrong with the following proof that properties 2 c and 3 imply property I? Let a'-""" b.. (c) S is the set of all people in the world today.1). a.. c then a . (a) Property 2 of an equivalence relation states that if a r-« b then b . a r-: b if a and b have the same father. property 3 states that if a r-« band b.. (f) S is the set of all straight lines in the plane... Complete the proof of the second half of Theorem 1. In Example 3 of an equivalence relation given in the text.. .. if a lives within b 100 miles of b.) 10.. if a is parallel b to b. into another.. a.. (The system just described is an example of a Boolean algebra. T. Without exaggeration this is probably the single most important and universal notion that runs through all of mathematics. whence... then b "" a.... cl(O).. (d) S is the set of real numbers. a r-« b if a = ±b.. Weare about to introduce the concept of a mapping of one set into another. 11. cl(l). When we were asked to plot the relation y = x2 we were simply being asked to study the particular mapping which takes every real number onto its square. .. by property 3 (using a = c). Loosely speaking. 2. for we have been considering mappings from the very earliest days of our mathematical training...-. a . (b) S is the set of all people in the world today.. For the given set and relation below determine which define equivalence relations. (b) Can you suggest an alternative of property 1 which will insure us that properties 2 and 3 do imply property I? 12.. Mappings. a .. namely. . (a) S is the set of all people in the world today. (e) S is the set of integers. a mapping from one set. 13... + + + r-. is a "rule" (whatever that may mean) that associates with each element in Sa unique element tin T.SEC.

In this plane we single out all those points whose coordinates are of the form (x. This is. the approach we take in the general setting to define a mapping from one set into another. Let ." We illustrate this with the familiar example y = x2 defined on the real numbers S and taking its values also in S. 1 in the above terms. we often denote this by writing u:S ~ Tor S ~ Now for some notation for these things. b) can be viewed as the plane. t) is in M. As a general rule. Instead we do prefer to think of a mapping as a rule which associates with any element sinS some element tinT. In fact. M. There is no over-all consistency in this usage. t) the rule being. when we shall want to emphasize the functional nature of a we may very well write t = u(s).10 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CR. Note that we write the mapping a on the right. more often. Let us motivate a little the definition that we will make. We shall say that t is the imaqe of s under the mapping. a be a mapping from S to T. (s. respectively. This definition serves to make the concept of a mapping precise for us but we shall almost never use it in this form. The point of view we take is to consider the mapping to be defined by its "graph. T. the set of all pairs (a. DEFINI'l'ION. algebraists write mappings on the right. b) corresponding to the point whose coordinates are a and b. we shall represent this fact by t = sa. x2) and call this set of points the graph of y = x2• We even represent this set pictorially as To find the "value" of the function or mapping at the point x = a we look at the point in the graph whose first coordinate is a and read off the second coordinate as the value of the function at x = a. For this set S. If t is the image of sunder a we shall sometimes write this as u: s ~ t. We should think of them as rules or devices or mechanisms that transport us from one set to another. no more or less. of S X T such that for every s E:: S there is a unique t E:: T such that the ordered pair (s. many people would write it as t = u(s). we shall not be absolutely consistent in this ourselves. other mathematicians writing them on the left. If Sand Tare nonempty sets. then a mapping from S to T is a subset. associate (or map) e E:: S with t E:: T if and only if E:: M. the pair (a. S X S.

b)r = a for any (a. n) in 8. Define r:8 X2. X2r = XS. define r:8 X T -+ 8 by (a. Example 7. Thus for instance. Let 8 and T be any sets and let to be an element of T. Let 8 be the set of positive rational numbers and let T = J X J where J is the set of integers. Let 8 be any set. Example 5. the set whose elements are the subsets of 8.2 MAPPINGS 11 EXAMPLESF MAPPINGS. n all the examples the sets are assumed to be O I nonempty. Let 8 be the set of integers and let T be the set consisting of the elements E and O. X2} then 8* has exactly 4 elements. namely. b) E: S X T. In particular. + n. define r:8 every (m. XI. Given 8 we can use it to construct a new set 8*. Define r : 8 -+ T n m = (m. Let 8 be the set consisting of the elements r:8 -+ 8 by Xlr = X2. Let J be the set of integers and 8 T by em. Xl. define . We call 8* the set of subsets of S. This r is called the projection of S X Ton 8. {x} is the subset of 8 whose only element is x. X3' Define Example 8. ••• . if 8 = {Xl. Define r:8 -+ T by r:8 -+ to for every 8 E: 8.Define 7':8 -+ T by declaring nr = E if n is even and nr = 0 if n is odd. b)7' = c Example 6.zf O} j let T be the set of rational numbers. Example 2.where m and n have no common factor. n)7' = m Note that in Example 5 the addition in J itself can be represented in terms of a mapping of J X J into J. Xgr = Xl. Xn . Let J be the set of integers and 8 = {(m. Let 8 and T be any sets. If 8 is any set. Example 3. let {Xl. n) -+ E: J X J I n . n)r = !!!: for n -+ J by (m. a1 = null set. We could similarly define the projection of 8 X T on T. 8 = 8' for any 8 E: 8.' 0' xnl be its subset consisting of the elements of S. Given an arbitrary set 8 we call a mapping of 8 X 8 into 8 a binary operation on 8. Example 1. X2.SEC. Given such a mapping 7':8 X 8 -+ 8 we could use it to define a "product" * in 8 by declaring a * b = c if (a. n) Example 4.:8 -+ 8 by This mapping' is called the identity mapping of 8. = J X J. Given a rational number 8 we can write it as by sr 8 = .

a3 = {xd. is not the image under the 7 used of any element in 8. as an element in 8*. When should we say that two mappings from 8 to T are equal? A natural definition for this is that they should have the same effect on every element of 8. and 9 are all one-to-one. 8. Let 8 be a set with an equivalence relation. he mapping 7 of 8 into T is said to be a one-to-one mapping T if whenever 81 ~ 82 then 81 ~ 827. of 8. 5. 1 = the subset. define 7:8 ~ T by 87 = complement of (8} in 8 = 8 . In Example 3 which was discussed the element (4. 8. In a little more formal manner: DEFINITION. some of its properties are examined in the problems. If we call the subset. We leave the examples to continue the general discussion. in Example 9.from 8 to T and another mapping 7 from T to U. Can we compound these mappings to . 7 of 8 into T are said to be equal Consider the following situation: We have a mapping a. the mapping 7 is one-to-one if for any t E: T the inverse image of t is either empty or is a set consisting of one element. Example 9. Given a mapping 7:8 ~ T we define for t E: T. 7. 87 = (x E: Tlx = 87 for some 8 E: 8} the image of 8 under 7 then 7 is onto if the image of 8 under 7 is all of T. and 10 the mappings used are all onto. 3. T = 8*. In the examples discussed. Define 7:8 ~ T by 87 = cl/s). 7.12 az PRELIMINARYOTIONS N CH. It may happen that for some tin T that its inverse image with respect to 7 is empty. a4 = {X2}. in general. The relation of 8 to 8*. 4. Note that in Examples 1. the image of any element in 8 under each of these mappings should be the same. and let T be the set of equivalence classes in 8 (note that T is a subset of 8*). that is. DEFINITION. he two mappings a. Another special type of mapping arises often and is important: the oneto-one mapping. 6. t is not the image under 7 of any element in 8. the mappings in Examples 1. the inverse image of E is the subset of 8 consisting of the even integers. is a very interesting one. T In terms of inverse images. that is.2) is not the image of any element in 8 under the 7 used. the inuerse image of t with respect to 7 to be the set {8 E: 8 I t = 87}.(8}. Let 8 be a set.The mapping 7 of 8 into T is said to be onto T if given t E: T there exists an element 8 E: 8 such that t = 87. In Example 8.and T if so = 87 for every 8 E: 8. Example 10. 8. DEFINITION.

1) + 1 = m. nr = 0 if n is odd. in two stages into U.. X3T = X2. it is not even an onto mapping of T. What about T cr? Given n) E: T. X2. CT T reads. Thus Xl (CT T) = (Xler)T = X2T = X3. Thus a T:S . too. T the set of integers. I)T = (m .. and r: T ---? U defined by nT = E if n is even. and . Given m E::: 8.SEC.1..1.-7 8 whereas TO cr: T ---? 11. Let CT:8 . whereas Xa = XI(cr T) whence a T 7"" 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TO (1.1. T the set S X S. in reading a given book in mathematics one must make absolutely sure as to what convention is being followed in writing the product of two mappings. We reiterate. We now compute a T as a mapping of S into itself and then T a as one on T into itself. 0 0 0 Example 1. first by applying CT to s and then applying T to the resulting element SCT in T. 2 MAPPINGS 13 produce a mapping from S to U? The most natural and obvious way of doing this is to send a given element s.U defined by means of s(er T) = (SCT)T for every s E::: 8. first perform CT and then follow it up with T. Note that r IT is not the identity map of T into itself. mer = 1. We illustrate the composition of CT and T with a few examples.-7 T by SIT = largest integer less than or equal to 8. Note that in this case r a cannot be defined. f CT:8 ---? T and T: T ---? U then the composition I of CT and T (also called their product) is the mapping CT 0 T:8 . Define CT:S 0 0 . even to speak about the equality of CT T and T CT would make no sense since they do not act on the same space..8 be defined by XICT = X2. em.1). for U8 CT T will always mean: first apply CT and then T. O}. + em. At the same time we can compute T 0 a. 0 0 0 0 0 em - 0 0 0 em. n)(r 0 IT) = ((m. We compute IT r for two real U Example = {E. xa} and let T = 8.. X2(CT T) = (X2CT)T = XaT = X2. Now XI(T CT) = (XlT)cr= (Xlcr) = X2. n)r)cr = (m n)cr = (m n . X2(T CT) = (X2T)cr = xacr = Xl. X2T" = X3. Let 8 be the set of integers. 1). and T:8 . X2CT = Xa. 1) whence m(er T} = (mer)T = (m . Here. X3CT = Xl. + 0 3. n)T = m + n whereby (m. Example 2..S by XIT = Xl. X3CT cr) = (XaT)CT = X2CT = X3· Note that X2 = XICT CT). and suppose er:8 ---? T is defined by mer = (m . 0 Note that the order of events reads from left to right. Let U = 8 and suppose that T:T ---? U(= 8) is defined by n)T = m + n. Mathematicians who write their mappings on the left would read CT T to mean first perform T and then CT. the left-right business is not a uniform one. Let S = IXl. Thus a T is the identity mapping of 8 into itself. in 8. This is the basis of the DEFINITION. Accordingly. because in this case it also makes sense. Let 8 be the set of real numbers. Xa(cr 0 T) = (X3cr)T = XIT = Xl.

Suppose that 0" is a one-to-one mapping of 8 onto T. Conversely.1. Since 7 is one-to-one and Sler and S20" re distinct elements of T..). whence by definition 8 = to"-I. then we claim that 0" is a one-to-one correspondence between 8 and T.1. thus (0" 0 7) 0 P. This proves the lemma. S2 E:: 8 and that SI ~ S2.I.I. Now by the very definition of the composi0 tdon of mapaer(e 07) 0).!» s = (ser) (7 o). Note :firstthat <J 07 makes sense and takes 8 into U. thus 8(er 0"-1) = (80")0"-1 = to"-1 = 8. whence whence 1r(0" 0 7) = (1r0")7 = T. Given any t E:: T. 0 0 .14 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS 1r. is one-to-one if each of a and 7 is one-to-one. respectively.I.).1. 7: T -7 U.I. A similar computation reveals that 0"-1 00" is the identity mapping of T onto itself. = t = 2 + i. Sler ~ S2er.). CH.1 (ASSOCIATIVE LAW). a general associative law holds. -7 o.By the one-to-one nature of a. 0 0 0 0 LEMMA 1. and 0" 0 (7 0 ).1.!) = «ser)7»). leaving the proof of part (1) as an exercise. s«<J 0 7) 0).» are indeed equal. (!k = 3. This is the content of LEMMA 1.2.) = (s(O" 07»)). The mapping er-1 is called the inverse of 0".!whereas(O"0(TO). Let us compute 0" 0 0"-1 which maps 8 into itself. We have shown that 0" 0 0"-1 is the identity mapping of 8 onto itself. Proof. and establishing the lemma.I. y the "one-to-oneness" b of 0" this s is unique.zf: ~ 0 (S20")7 S2(0" 7). = «S<J)7»).!. If <J:8 then (<J 0 7) 0 ). of (0" 7) ). and u: U -7 V. by the "onto-ness" of 0" there exists an element 8 E:: 8 such that t = sO". We define the mapping 0"-1: T -7 8 by S = ia -1 if and only if t = 80". if 0":8 -7 T is such that there exists a 1-': T -7 8 with the property that 0" I-' and I-' 0 0" are the identity mappings on 8 and T. Let 0":8 -7 T and 7: T -7 U.) = s(O" (70 ). 1 numbers s =! and s = (t) (0" 0 7) = (!0")7 = (2)7 (3)7 = Now since (1r)0" For mappings of sets. Thus we can speak about the equality. We prove only part (2).) is meaningful and takes 8 into V. we call 0" a one-to-one correspondence between 8 and T. Suppose that SI. proving = 0 that 0" 07 is indeed one-to-one. the elements s«<J 7) 1-') and s(<J0 (70). Proof. also makes sense and takes 8 into V. Given 8 E:: 8 let t = sa. or lack of equality. We should like to show that if two mappings a and 7 are properly conditioned the very same conditions carryover to 0" 0 7. then (1) a (2) a 07 07 is onto if each of 0" and 7 is onto. Thus. Similarly <J 0 (70 ). = 0" 0 (7 0 ). = E. provided the requisite products make sense. 2. a (S10")7 (S20")7whence SI(O" 7) = (SlO")7. To prove the asserted equality we merely must show that for any s E:: 8.I.

Next observe that a is one-to-one for if SlU = S2U. The mapping u:8 -+ T is a one-to-one correspondence between 8 and T if and only if there exists a mapping u: T -+ 8 such that IT 0 j. X2. If 8 has more than two elements we can find two elements in ACE) such that 0' 0 T r" r » a. Olearly both 0' and r are in A(8). A simple computation shows that Xl(O' r) = Xa but that xICr 0') = X2 r" Xa. Xa be three distinct elements in 8j define the mapping u:8 -+ 8 by XtIT = X2.£). f 8 is a nonempty set then A(8) is the set of all one-to-one I mappings of 8 onto itself.4. We have now proved 0 0 0 LEMMA 1. DEFINITION. = S2(IT j.3.£) = 132.£ = IT 0 Cr 0 j. Aside from its own intrinsic interest A (8) plays a central and universal type of role in considering the mathematical system known as a group (Ohapter 2). T 1. X3(J' = Xl. one-to-one. X2.£ 0 IT are the identity mappings on 8 and T. r. This is 0 0 0 LEMMA 0'. Thus 0' r ¢ r » a. 1·espectively. so we state the theorem without proof. All the constituent parts of the theorem have already been proved in the various lemmas. e) = (tp. using that 0' P. let Xl. X2IT = X3. SIT = 13 for any 13 E:: 8 different from Xl. Define the mapping r:8 -+ 8 by X2r = Xa. = (S2U)P. Suppose that 8 has more than two elements. t = t(p. and sr = 13for any 8 E:: 8 different from X2. determine whether the a is onto. and determine the inverse image of any t E:: T under 0'. in 8.£ and j. (4) there exists an element u-l E:: A(8) such that a 00'-1 = u-l 0 (J' = £.SEC. is the identity on 8 we have 131 = Sl(U p. Xa. THEOREM I. If (J'. Xa. T = set of nonnegative real numbers. In the following.)u (since p. Xar = X2. 0 a is the identity on T) and so t is the image under a of the element tp. 2 0 MAPPINGS 15 First observe that a is onto for. PROBLEMS 1. 0 (3) there exists an elem ent a 0 £ (the identity map) in A (8) such that £ = £ 0 U = IT.n. are elements of A(8). We close the section with a remark about A(8). (a) 8 = set of real numbers. given t E:: T. where O':E -+ T. (2) CO' r) 0 j.) = (SlIT)P. SIT = 2 13 • . then: (1) 0' 0 r is in A (8) . p. For this reason we state the next theorem concerning its nature.

If Sand Tare nonempty sets. prove that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between: (a) (S X T) X U and S X (T XU).= S2. u) where s f:. If L is the identity mapping on S. 4. (c) Prove. prove that A(S) has n! (n factorial) elements. If S is any set. prove that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between S X T and T X S. t.is not. T = set of nonnegative real numbers. is defined by alTA = ao for any a E:: A. 8. If o-:S ~ T and if A is a subset of S. (b) The set of real numbers is infinite. T = set of integers. If the set S has n elements. (b) ITA is one-to-one if IT is. 13. (jA.maps S onto S then 0. it need not be that both a and T are one-toone. it need not be that both 0.. 5.is onto. 10. prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between Sand U. t f:. prove that 0 0 (qOT)A = O-A °TA.0 L = L 0 (j = 0-. 9. of ITto A.E:: A(S). the reetriction. Prove that the converse to both parts of Lemma 1. (a) If there is a one-to-one correspondence between Sand T.. S. *6.T is one-to-one. 12. T = set of integers. then 0. Prove: (a) The set of integers is infinite. so. (b) If 0. T.is a one-to-one mapping of S into itself. so. If ITS ~ T and A is a subset of S such that A IT C A. If the set S has a finite number of elements. If S.= S2. 7. namely: (a) If a T is onto.is one-to-one. u f:. 2.= 2s. U are nonempty sets. Prove: (a) O-A defines a mapping of A into T. . (b) If there is a one-to-one correspondence between Sand T and one between T and U. T. (c) O-A may very well be one-to-one even if 0. 0. (b) Either set in part (a) and the set of ordered triples (s. (d) S = set of integers. 80.16 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CR. prove that it is impossible to find a mapping of S onto S*. that both part (a) and part (b) are false if S does not have a finite number of elements. 11. by example.2 are false.and T are onto. 1 (b) S = set of nonnegative real numbers. prove that for any 0. Prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of integers and the set of rational numbers. prove: (a) If 0. (c) S = set of integers. A set S is said to be infinite if there is a one-to-one correspondence between S and a proper subset of S. (b) If 0. U. 3.. prove that there exists one between T and S.

we can divide a by b to get a nonnegative remainder r which is smaller in size than b. the familiar symbols: a > b.. b) for the greatest common divisor of a and b. 3 THE INTEGERS 17 (c) If a set 8 has a subset A which is infinite. If 8 and T are finite sets having m and n elements. prove that there is one-to-one correspondence between 8 and 8 X 8. We shall use the notation (a. b) = (-a.SEC.. (60. If b 1 a. The Integers. To avoid repeating that something is an integer. -b) = (-a. (a. then 8 must be infinite. For instance. we make the assumption that all symbols. Note that if a 11 then a = ±1. we call b a divisor of a. We close this chapter with a brief discussion of the set of integers. This fact is known as the Euclidean algorithm and we assume faIniliarity with it. if we had Cl and C2 satisfying both conditions of the definition above. with b .) *14. If 8 is infinite and can be brought into one-to-one correspondence with the set of integers. we can find m and r such that a = mb + r where S r < 1 b I. that is. We leave the verification of these remarks as exercises. b.. (2) any divisor of a and b is a divisor of c. written as lower-case Latin letters will be integers. This will have to be proved. 1 a I . -24) = 12.6 0 divides a if a = mb for some m. However. assuming instead that we already have the set of integers and that we know many of the elementary facts about them. Another comment: The mere fact that we have defined what is to be meant by the greatest common divisor does not guarantee that it exists. for. respectively. then it is a divisor of mg + nh for arbitrary integers m and n. Since we insist that the greatest common divisor be positive. then a = ±b. a ::. Note that if b is a divisor of g and of h. prove that if m < n then 8 < T. etc. we can say that if it exists then it is unique. We say that b . and that any b . a set finite in the usual sense is not infinite. will occur with their usual meaning. (Note: By the result of Problem 8. Given a and b. that when both a I band b I a.6 0. Prove that if 8 < T and T < U then 8 < U. in this section. 16. We denote that b divides a by b I a. In this number we include the principle of mathematical induction (which will be used freely throughout the book) and the fact that a nonempty set of positive integers always contains a smallest element. and that b does not divide a by b t a. We shall make no attempt to construct them axiomatically. As to notation. b) = (e. (1) c is a divisor of a and of b. 3.. ° The positive integer c is said to be the greatest common divisor of a and b if: DEFINITION. -b). *15.24) = (60.6 0 divides O. . Given two sets 8 and T we declare 8 < T (8 is smaller than T) if there is a mapping of Tonto 8 but no mapping of 8 onto T.

5. Because x = 'Ina + nb is in .tmo)a + (n .m: always has in it some positive integers. For technical reasons. the negative introduces no essential differences. r = 0.m:. But a === la Ob E: .m:. then (a. therefore. -2. b).m:. ±p. Writing this out explicitly. we have proved that clx for any z E:. the insistence on positivity would then force Cl = C2. As we shall soon see. Since. . there are nonzero integers in . The integers a and b are relatively prime if (a.m:. . being in . b). x = tc r where 0 S r < c.. Since one of a or b is not 0. not both 0. we actually prove a little more. 5. that of prime number. If a and b are integers.m:. As an immediate consequence of Lemma 1. 7. namely that (a. DEFINITION.5. ma nb = t(moa nob) r.If a and bare j'elatively prime. we have the COROLLARY. + We introduce another familiar notion. whence r = (m .m:. the prime numbers are the building blocks of the integers. -5. we exclude 1 from the set of prime numbers. Given any element x = 'Ina nb in . we can find integers 'lno and no such that (a. In doing so. in factoring. whence c] a and cl b. Our first business at hand then is to dispose of the existence of (a. are prime numbers. Let . 3. moreover. 1 then cli C2 and C2 lel.m: and b = Oa Ib E: . By this we shall mean an integer which has no nontrivial factorization. The integer p ±1. But first we need the important observation. b) must have a particular form. .m:. + Proof. -x = (-m)a (-n)b is also in . equally. in the next lemma. we can find integers m and n such that ma nb = 1. The sequence 2. b) exists. then d I (moa nob). LEMMA 1. But then there is a smallest positive integer. for us prime numbers will always be positive..18 PRELIMINARYNOTIONS CR. in . c has the form c = moa + nob. are all prime numbers.. Since 0 S rand r < c. We have shown that c satisfies the requisite properties to be (a. by the choice of c. + + + + + + + + + + DEFINITION. then by the Euclidean algorithm. 11.m: be the set of all integers of the form ma nb where m and n range freely over the set of integers. b) and so we have proved the lemma. Note first that if d I a and d I b. > 1 is a prime number if its only divisors are Another way of putting this is to say that an integer p (larger than 1) is a prime number if and only if given any other integer n then either (p.m:.m:. c. . b) = 1. b) = moa nob. Thus x = ic. We now must show that c I a and c I b. whence d I c. whence we would have Cl = ±C2. We claim that c = ta. -3.tno)b and so must be in . n) = 1 or pin..

we shall use the following version of mathematical induction: If the proposition P(mo) is true and if the truth of Per) for all r such that mo :s. We first prove that every integer a > 1 can be factored as a product of prime powers. then Pen) is true for all n 2:: mo. being a prime number. If k is not a prime number. By the induction hypothesis. then k = uv where 1 < u < k and 1 < v < k. a/ (mac + nbc).5. We shall prove the theorem itself by proving each of these subtheorems separately.2 ••• tu". > 1 can be factored in a unique > . Now a/mac and. each of these can be factored as a product of prime powers.o. then it is a product of prime powers. Any positive integer a as a = P10l. since both u and v are less than k. If a prime number divides the product of certain integers it must divide at least one of these integers. Since mac nbc = c. Proof. which is precisely the assertion of the lemma. consequently. We have shown that the truth of the proposition for . Suppose that any integer r. the second assures us that this decomposition is unique. by the corollary to Lemma 1. r < k implies the truth of P(k). 3 THE INTEGERS 19 LEMMA 1.. A short word about this. Certainly mo = 2. The theorem as stated actually consists of two distinct subtheorems. The precise statement of this is the "unique factorization theorem. then a/c. > O.lp201.6. Thus k = uv is also such a product. Since a and b are relatively prime. An immediate question presents itself: How shall we go about proving the theorem? A natural method of attack is to use mathematical induction. we conclude that a/ c. If a is relatively prime to b but a /be. has a representation as a product of prime powers. the first asserts the possibility of factoring the given integer as a product of prime powers. our approach is via mathematical induction. 2 S r < k can be factored as a product of prime powers.SEC." THEOREM I. Thus mac nbc = c. This variant of induction can be shown to be a consequence of the basic property of the integers which asserts that any nonempty set of positive integers has a minimal element (see Problem 10). We leave the proof of the corollary to the reader. where PI > P2 where each a. > Pt are prime numbers way and Proof. We have asserted that the prime numbers serve as the building blocks for the set of integers.. by assumption. we can find integers m and n such that ma nb = 1. a/nbc. If k itself is a prime number. Following immediately from the lemma and the definition of prime number is the important + + + COROLLARY.

= 0. (3) pz = q2. .s where PI > PZ > . PT. If b > 1 then since b < a we can apply our induction hypothesis to (Prove!) But then b b to get: (1) the number of distinct prime power factors (in b) on both sides are equal. (2) az = f32.r= q/h . Now for the uniqueness. = a. qi·. since qll a we get ql = Pi for somej. a Together with the information we already have obtained. pz = qz. that is. .• ..r= q/. this is precisely what we were trying to prove.. ar = = qr.:::2 is a product of prime powers. Consequently. If b = 1 then P az = . = f3.. PTOI.2.lql2 . > q. In short. Here. qis. (2) Pl = ql.lPZ0l. we have shown that PI = q1. f3T' For a = 2 this is clearly true. namely. are prime numbers. PTOI. since a = PIOl. Suppose that a = PIOl.. However. and in the form used above. q/. that is.. = 0 and f3z = .1 = s . 1 all integers r.. hence PI I ql~l .::: ?no = 2.•• PT"r = PI(3lql2 . •.I •. In consequence. .•• q8~8 and since «i > 0. hence r = s.• Pr"r = ql2 . Pr (3) al = f31.... 2 :::.lp2"2 .1. az = f32.u < a. every integer n . Thus ql . by the corollary to Lemma 1.20 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CH.... . Therefore a = PIOl. we shall use mathematical induction. whence PI ... r = s = 1.•. it follows easily that PI = qi for some i. ql > q2 > . PI = ql and al = f31. We claim that this forces al = f31' = --. Our object is to prove: (1) r = s. Thus we see that the assumption of the uniqueness of factorization for the integers less than a implied the uniqueness of factorization for a. aT = f3r.. that is. too. by the basic induction principle. r .. PI I a.6. .r < k. the proposition is true for all integers n ... 2 :::. Proceeding by induction we suppose it to be true for all integers u. and we are done. and where each ai > 0 and each f3i > O.'. Now.::: Pi = ql.. q/.r = PZ"2 .. the induction is completed and the assertion of unique factorization is established. Pr = qr. implies its truth for k.:::qi = Pl' Similarly. since PI is a prime number..

Since n[O. whence ac == bd mod n." n is called the modulus of the relation.IJ.1]. that 73 LEMMA The relation is referred to as "congruence modulo n. But then a + c == b + d mod n. congruence modulo n. Thus there are at most n distinct congruence classes. that is. notice that if ab == ac mod n and if a is relatively prime to n.» n[ (a - b). 3 THE INTEGERS 21 We change direction a little to study the important notion of congruence modulo a given integer. which is obviously impossible. .d)b} = ac . namely.. by Lemma 1. we call it the congruence class (mod n) of a. Let n .(b + d)}. As we shall see later." Note. n[ (a .b). We now prove part (3). of a be denoted by [a]. Proof.a) whence a == a mod n for every a.b) and n[ (c . and we read a == b mod n as "a is congruent to b modulo := 4 mod 23. etc. these are distinct. then b == c mod n.b) + (b ..bd. [n .b) and n[ (b . if a == b mod n then n[ (a .c)}. However. a = kn + r where r < n.c) whence n] {(a . then the fact that n[a(b . In addition n[ {(a . implies that n[ (b . we indeed have that n[ (a . . Given any integer a.i is a positive integer less than n. say.7 (1) The relation. But then. Further. We define a == b mod n if n.b). (3) If a == b mod nand c == d mod n then a + c == b + d mod nand ac == bd mod n.SEC. DEFINITION. (4) If ab == ac mod n and a is relatively prime to n. and so n[ {(a + c) .c) and so b == e mod n. for if [i] = fjJ with..d) whence n[ {(a .i) where j . if a == b mod nand b == cmod n. for example. [1]. .b)c + (c .21 == -9 mod 10. of course.d)}. there are exactly the n distinct congruence classes [0]. Finally. thus b == a mod n. under this relation. defines an equivalence relation on the set of integers.c). This. We have now proved assertions (1) and (2) of the lemma.c).. a E: [rJ and so raj = [r]. implies that a == c mod n.a) = -(a . (2) This equivalence relation has n distinct equivalence classes. Let the equivalence class.b) + (c . by the Euclidean algorithm. We first verify that the relation "congruence modulo n" is an equivalence relation. n[ (a . . o ~ i < j < n. [n . then n [ (j . Consequently. Suppose that a == b mod nand c == d mod n. therefore. This congruence relation enjoys the following basic properties: 1.[1]. the relation that we now introduce is a special case of a much more general one that can be defined in a much broader context.6. °~ . then n[ (a . and so n[ (b . Finally. [OJ. ° be a fixed integer.

b] = --. = minimum of (Xi and {3ifor each i. (2) Whenever a I x and b I x then d I x. if [i] = [i'l and [j] = [j']. Let J n be the set of the congruence classes mod n. [i] and [jl in J let us define: n. (7) [l][iJ = [i]. . b] is defined as that positive integer d such that: (1) aid and bid. If b is a divisor of g and of h. the least common multiple of a and b. (2) [a. 2.l ••• Pk OI. b) = 1 prove that Cab)Ix. [n . .7 opens certain interesting possibilities for us. show it is a divisor of mg nh.3 == 4. + [k]) = + [i] = [iJ. that is.. the result of part (4) may be false. then there is an element [bJ in Jp such that [a][bJ = [IJ. We assert that the lemma assures us that this "addition" and "multiplication" are well-defined..3 mod 6. [1]. then til + [j] = [i j] = [i' fl = [i'] [j'] and that [i][j] = [i'l[j']. (c. b] = PI'Yl ••• Pk 'Yk where 'Yi = maximum of (Xi and {3.22 PRELIMINARY NOTIONS CR. If alb and bla. b] exists and that [a. [k] in J n + + + (1) til + [jl = [jl (2) [~l[j] = [j][i] + [il} (3) ([i] (6) [0] (4) ([i][j])[k] (5) [iJ([j] + [jD + [kJ = [i] + ([j] + [k]) 1 = [iJ([j][k]) [i][j] . It is called the set of integers mod n. b) = P161 ••• Pk6k where 8. (Verify!) These operations in J n have the following interesting properties (whose proofs we leave as exercises): For any til. Lemma 1. prove: (1) (a.. show that a = ±b. One more remark: If n = P is a prime number and if raj ~ [OJ is in Jp.k and b = PI{jl ••• Pk{jk where the Pi are distinct prime numbers and where each (Xi ~ 0. commutative laws.foreach i. PROBLEMS 1.. before we proceed much further we will have become well acquainted with it. law.I]}. for instance. [j]. that is. written as [a. 1 If a is not relatively prime to n. (a) (b) [i] + [j] = [i +j]. [~l[j]= [ij]. The set J n plays an important role in algebra and number theory. 6. 3. + . {3i~ 0. If a and b are integers. . . b) 4. + [iJ[kJ distributive fassoClative laws. ab Prove that [a. yet 2 ~ 4 mod 6.. Given two elements. 2. In = {[OJ. If al x and b I x and (a. If a = PIOI.

n) = 1. To check that n is a prime number. (We consider.1206). given a and b. such that p ::.n) = Lor n]c. here. If p is a prime number. (b) (6540. 10. Prove the corollary to Lemma 1. < r2 Since the integers rk are decreasing and are all nonnegative. r2 < rj 0 ::. b). Use the method in Problem 6 to calculate: (a) (1128. n) = 1. Prove that n is a prime number if and only if in J n (aUb] = (0] implies that [a] = [0] or [b) = [0]. prove: (a) If the proposition P is such that (1) P(mo) is true (2) the truth of PCm .6. successively we have: b rl = qlrl + r2. prove that for any integer a. ra = q2r2 + ra. 13. Prove the properties 1-7 for the addition and multiplication in J n.1) implies the truth of P(m) then PCn) is true for all n 2:: mo· (b) If the proposition P is such that (1) P(mo) is true (2) P(m) is true whenever P(a) is true forallasuchthatmo S a < m then pen) is true for all n 2:: mo. prove that one can find [b] E: In such that [a](b] = (1] inJn• *14. Assuming that any nonempty set of positive integers has a minimal element. . b. on applying the Euclidean algorithm. 9. 8. prove that it is sufficient to show that it is not divisible by any prime number p. Show that n > 1 is a prime number if and only if for any a either Ibl·) vn. 15. If (a. 16. aP == a mod p. Prove that the addition and multiplication used in J n are welldefined. 11.33). Ca. 17. there is a first integer n such that rn+l = O. Prove that r« = (a. Given a. 3 THE INTEGERS 23 6. prove that there exists an x such that x == a mod m and x == b mod n. If Cm. ro = 7.SEC. 12. 0 ::.

and MACLANE.24 PRELIMINARYNOTIONS CH... A Brief Survey of Modern Algebm. 1953. 1 Supplementary Reading For sets and cardinal numbers: BIRKHOFF. New York. The Macmillan Company. G. S. .

This. let us take a quick look ahead. In later chapters we shall have a look at some of the others such as rings. in all of mathematics-already enter here in a pure and revealing form. They must come from the experience of looking at many examples. have achieved positions of paramount importance. because someone finally noted that these special cases were indeed special instances of 25 . At this point. which are explicitly spelled out in what we call the axioms or postulates defining the system. to obtain a third element of the set-and. vector spaces. always hoping that when these results are applied to a particular. fields. quotient construction. perhaps in several ways. list a few axioms. in the history and development of mathematics. before we become weighted down with details. cogent reasons for this choice. Yet despite this simplicity of description the fundamental algebraic concepts such as homomorphism. in addition. is done by some. there are natural. they should be rich in meaningful results. special case. but most mathematicians would dismiss these attempts as poor mathematics. admittedly. being one-operational systems. groups. The systems chosen for study are chosen because particular cases of these structures have appeared time and time again. we assume that these algebraic operations are subject to certain rules. In abstract algebra we have certain basic systems which. Aside from the fact that it has become traditional to consider groups at the outset.CHAPTER 2 Group Theory In this chapter we shall embark on the study of the algebraic object known as a group which serves as one of the fundamental building blocks for the subject which is today called abstract algebra. In this abstract setting we then attempt to prove theorems about these very general structures. which play such an important role in all algebraic structures-in fact. and then proceed to study the system so described. One does not just sit down. We should like to stress that these algebraic systems and the axioms which define them must have a certain naturality about them. These are usually sets on whose elements we can operate algebraically-by this we mean that we can combine two elements of the set. and the like. lend themselves to the simplest formal description. To begin with. and linear algebras. concrete realization of the abstract system there will flow out facts and insights into the example at hand which would have been obscured from us by the mass of inessential information available to us in the particular.

and on further investigation it turned out that the following facts were true for the elements of A(S) subject to this product: 0 (1) Whenever 0'. T E: A(S). then it follows that O' T is also in A(S). so far encountered. which we know today as groups. 1. c (1) a. T E: A(S) we introduced a product. written as also in A(S).This is usually described by saying that every element in A(S) has an inverse in A(S). (3) There is a very special element ~ E:: A (S) which satisfies ~ 0' = 0 ~ = O' for all E:: A(S). was studied toward the end of the eighteenth. (2) For any three elements O'.26 GROUP THEORY CH. To cite an example. have been those based on a broad and tall pillar of special cases. fJ. For any two elements 0'. Amongst mathematicians neither the beauty nor the significance of the first example which we have chosen to discuss-groups-is disputed. b. 2 a general phenomenon. E: G implies that a·(b·c) = (a·b)·c (associative law). as closed under multiplication). we abstract and make the DEFINITION.) = CO' '1) fJ. such that: (2) a. 0 0 0 0 0 (J' (J' (J' (J'-l. . yet it was not until relatively late in the nineteenth century that the notion of an abstract group was introduced. b E:: G implies that a. (4) For every E: A(S) there is an element. With this example as a model. This is described by saying that A(S) is closed under the product (or. This relation is called the associative law. The only algebraic structures. and at the beginning of the nineteenth. such that O' O'-l = O'-l O' = ~. At this juncture it is advisable to recall a situation discussed in the first chapter. '1. Definition of a Group.b E:: G (closed). denoted by O' '1. sometimes. E:: A(S). A nonempty set of elements G is said to form a group if in G there is defined a binary operation.. that whenever S has three or more elements we can find two elements a. Such an element is called an identity element for A (S). century. and with a great deal of hindsight. 0' (TO fJ. namely. fJ E: A (S) such that a 0 fJ ~ (30 a. called the product and denoted by . introduces a richness into A(S) which would have not been present except for it. because one notices analogies between two highly disparate mathematical objects and so is led to a search for the root of these analogies. For an arbitrary nonempty set S we defined A (S) to be the set of all one-to-one mappings of the set S onto itself. that have stood the test of time and have survived to become of importance. case after case after case of the special object. This possibility which runs counter to our usual experience and intuition in mathematics so far. 0 0 One other fact about A(S) stands out.

EXAMPLE 1. 2 SOME EXAMPLES OF GROUPS 27 (3) There exists an element e E::: 0 such that a-e = e·a = a for all a E::: 0 (the existence of an identity element in 0). (Prove!) This highly important example will be denoted whenever it appears in this book by Sn and will be called the symmetric group of degree n. recall that we can find elements cr. ±1. 1" E::: A (S) such that IJ' T rf T IJ'. in some sense. In that case we say that 0 is a finite group. Thus we already have presented to us an infinite source of interesting.SEC. of course. This number is. . A group 0 is said to be abelian (or commutative) if for every a. This prompts us to single out a highly special. b E::: 0 the usual sum of integers.b = a + b. To see that finite groups which are not trivial do exist just note that if the set S contains n elements. Let 0 consist of the real numbers 1. under the product which we defined in Chapter 1. b E::: 0. Another natural characteristic of a group 0 is the number of elements it contains. a universal family of groups.. Xa} onto itself. G is a group of order 6. most interesting when it is finite. Considering the source of this definition it is not surprising that for every nonempty set S the set A(S) is a group. We digress a little before returning to S3. In the next section we shall more or less dissect S3 which is a non-abelian group of order 6. If S has three or more elements. (4) For every a E::: 0 there exists an element a-I E::: 0 such that a·a-I = a-l'a = e (the existence of inverses in 0). class of groups as in the next definition. Then the reader can quickly verify that 0 is an infinite abelian group in which plays the role of e and -a that of a-I. G is then an abelian group of order 2. ° . Let G = S3. but very important. EXAMPLE 2. having seen a family of examples of such groups we know that non-abelian groups do indeed exist.. naturally enough. A group which is not abelian is called. -1 under the multiplication of real numbers. EXAMPLE 3. Let 0 consist of the integers 0. We call this the order of 0 and denote it by 0 (0). a-b = b-e. then the group A(S) has n! elements. the group of all 1-1 mapping of the set {Xl. where we mean by a' b for a. Some Examples of Groups. non-abelian. concrete groups. 2. X2. ±2. 0 0 DEFINITION. We shall see later (in a theorem due to Cayley) that these A(S)'s constitute. a. that is.

: X2 X3 ~ ~ X2 X3 Xl Checking. X2.. it follows that 1/. a-a = (a-l)3. The reader may verify that the usual rules of exponents prevail.2. namely. but in any group G let us define for any a E::: G. for any two integers (positive.3 X3 X2 = 6.-1 = 1/. Xa. (1) (2) (It is worthwhile noting that.1/. Since 1/. 1/.1/. or zero) m. ak = a·ale-I. in this notation.~ I/.</> for they do not take Xl into the same image. Consider the mapping ¢ defined on the set Xl. not just in Sa. n. etc. al = a. and a-2 = (a-l)2. aU = 6. and that Xl ~ X2 ~ Xa ~ Xl Xl X3 X2 whereas Xl ~ I/.) With this notation at our disposal let us examine S3 more closely.2 and we have that . Since 1/.-1 = 1/. Let us now compute the action of I/. negative. a2 = a-a..</>: X2 X3 ~ ~ It is clear that </>. X2. if G is the group of Example 1. as = a·a2. an means the integer na.-l. we readily see that ¢2 </>. ••• . X3 by Xl ~ ¢: X2 X3 ~ ~ X2 Xl X3 and the mapping Xl ~ 1/.28 GROUP THEORY CH.¢ on Xl.: = e.3 = e.2 For a neater notation.

e -f = f. then e = f. Before we proceed with the proof itself it might be advisable to see what it is that we are going to prove. b E::: G. x. admittedly. EXAMPLE Let n be any integer. b)-1 = b-1·a-1• G. namely. Of more interestis the form of (rjJ·f)·(f·rjJ) = rjJ. It is the last time we shall be so boringly conscientious. of radius 1. (f·rjJ» = rjJ·(f2. in particular. In part (a) we want to show that if two elements e and f in G enjoy the property that for every a E::: G. (The reader should not be frightened by the long.1 where we insist that aD = an = e. One might ask. If G is a group. then. = a·y = e. rjJ. 3 SOMEPRELIMINARYEMMAS 29 L In other words. We construct a group of order n as fol4. solitary fact has been proved about groups. ai·a/ = ai+i if i + j ~ nand ai·aj = ai+i-n if i + j > n. In part (b) our aim is to show that if x·a = a·x = e and y. 1. The reader may verify that this is a group. since b -f = b for every b E: G. ..2. (a.. f'rjJ. Thus this list enumerates all the elements of G. in the plane.f = e· f = f. (I/. We have now been exposed to the theory of groups for several pages and as yet not a single. and let Pn be a rotation through an angle of 2·1l-jn. i = 0. = l/.rjJ) = rjJ·(f-l.¢) = rjJ. wearisome chain of equalities here.. Learning the alphabet was probably not the most interesting part of our childhood education. Cd) for all a.. Some Preliminary Lemmas. which only has six elements. Pn n-lj. Some of these will appear in the exercises. 1/. We begin with LEMMA 2. n . Since e-a = a for every a E:: G. 3.rjJ) = (f·f-l). It is called a cyclic group of order n. Although the first few results we demonstrate are.(J. It is high time to remedy this situation. Then Pn E::: A (8) and Pn in A (8) generates a group of order n. yare in G. I/. where all of a. a = a-e = e-a = a-] = f'a. the reader can compute to his heart's content others of the 25 products which do not involve e. yet.-l. A geometric realization of the group in Example 4 may be achieved as follows: Let 8 be the circle.l/.1. on the other hand. rjJ we see that f· (rjJ·f) = 1/.-l. they are rather dull) they will be extremely useful. (b) every a E::: G has a unique inverse in (c) for every a E::: G. (rjJ .SEC. (l/.2. f = f -1. (a-1) -1 = a. .rjJ = e·rjJ = rjJ. then x = y.. fascinating vistas were opened before us. 1/.. Consider the elements e. First let us consider part (a)... for instance. Pn2. f) = rjJ2.1/. rjJ. [e.rjJ.)? Using rjJ. rjJ. these are all distinct and are in G (since G is closed). lows: G will consist of all symbols ai. But. (rjJ. Pn. once this hurdle was cleared.) Using the same techniques as we have used. . not very exciting (in fact. then (a) the identity element of G is unique. Proof. what is the entry in the list for 1/. . ..

The few details needed for the proof of this lemma are left to the reader. a·x = a·y.b = ab. then. a' b == a-b. Given a. x = if/. (b) G = set of all positive integers. then the equations a'x = b and y'a = b have unique solutions for x and y in G.5) = 5. b in the group G. Let us make this our starting point.a. by the very definition of the inverse (a. Part (d) is the most trivial of these. We have. (a) G = set of all integers. obviously. a.b)· (b-I. for (c. say. a·x = e and a·y = e. a-I) = a. This is illustrated in Ss with a = cp.30 GROUP THEORY CH. y = if/-l. y in G. point out which of the group axioms fail to hold. proved that a·x = a·y in a group G forces x = y. This says that we can cancel. . Piecing these two bits of information together we obtainf = eJ = e. and so e = f. from the same side. Part (c) follows from this by noting that a-1'(a-I)-1 = e = a-l·a. b)-l = b-1·a-1. There is an element bE: G such that b·a = e (as far as we know yet there may be several such b's). A note of caution. Suppose that for a in G. Rather than proving part (b) we shall prove something stronger which immediately will imply part (b) as a consequence. and so. the usual product of integers. Thus b·(a·x) = b·(a·y).x = z. a·u = a+u: implies u = w and u·a = w·a implies u = w hold in G. for we cannot conclude that a'x = y·a implies x = y for we have no way of knowing whether a. assume that a·x = a·y for a. This is the analog in general groups of the familiar result . in the group of real numbers under addition. In particular.(. Similarly we can prove that x-a = y·a implies that x = y. the two cancellation laws. In the following determine whether the systems described are groups. in fact. z.2.«b· b-1)'a-l) = a' (e·a-1) = a·a-1 = e. that is. using the associative law this leads to x = e'x = (b·a)·x = b·(a·x) = b·(a·y) = (b·a)·y = e·y = y. in equations in groups. PROBLEMS 1. Certain results obtained in the proof just given are important enough to single out and we do so now in LEMMA 2. however. 2 we must have that e-j = e. canceling off the a-Ion the left leaves us with (a-I)-l = a. In case not.

SEC.

3

(c) G

SOME PRELIMIN.A.RY

LEMMAS

31

= ao, all ... , a6 where

=

;:::7 (for instance, a5' a4 = a5+4-7 = a2 since 5 + 4 = 9 > 7). (d) G = set of all rational numbers with odd denominators, a-b == a b, the usual addition of rational numbers. 2. Prove that if G is an abelian group, then for all a, b E: G and all integers n, (a·b)n = an·bn. 3. If G is a group such that (a·b)2 = a2·b2 for all a, b C. G, show that G must be abelian. *4. If G is a group in which (a·b)i = ai·bi for three consecutive integers i for all a, b E: G, show that G is abelian. 5. Show that the conclusion of Problem 4 does not follow if we assume the relation (a·b)i = ai·bi for just two consecutive integers. S. In S3 give an example of two elements x, y such that (X·y)2 ;;t: X2.y2. 7. In S3 show that there are four elements satisfying X2 = e and three elements satisfying y3 = e. 8. If G is a finite group, show that there exists a positive integer N such that aN = e for all a E: G. 9. (a) If the group G has three elements, show it must be abelian. (b) Do part (a) if G has four elements. (c) Do part (a) if G has five elements. 10. Show that if every element of the group G is its own inverse, then G is abelian. 11. If G is a group of even order, prove it has an element a ;;t: e satisfying if i

ai·aj ai'aj

= ai+j-7

ai+j if i + j

+j

<7

+

a2

= e. 12. Let G be a nonempty

satisfies:

set closed under an associative product, which

in addition

(a) There exists an e E: G such that a·e = a for all a E: G. (b) Given a E: G, there exists an element y(a) E: G such that a·y(a) = e. Prove that G must be a group under this product.

13. Prove, by an example, that the conclusion of Problem 12 is false if we assume instead: (a') There exists an e E: G such that a- e = a for all a E: G. (b') Given a E: G, there exists yea) E: G such that y(a)·a = e. 14. Suppose a finite set G is closed under an associative product and that

both cancellation laws hold in G. Prove that G must be a group. 15. (a) Using the result of Problem 14, prove that the nonzero integers modulo p, p a prime number, form a group under multiplication modp. (b) Do part (a) for the nonzero integers relatively prime to n under multiplication mod n.

32

GROUP THEORY

CH.2

16. In Problem 14 show by an example that if one just assumed one of the cancellation laws, then the conclusion need not follow. 17. Prove that in Problem 14 infinite examples exist, satisfying the conditions, which are not groups. 18. For any n > 2 construct a non-abelian group of order 2n. (Hint: imitate the relations in 83.) 19. If 8 is a set closed under an associative operation, prove that no matter how you bracket ala2 ... an, retaining the order of the elements, you get the same element in 8 (e.g. (al' a2) . (a3' a4) = al' (a2' (as' a4)); use induction on n). 4. Subgroups. Before turning to the study of groups we should like to change our notation slightly. It is cumbersome to keep using the . for the group operation; henceforth we shall drop it and instead of writing a· b for a, b E: G we shall simply denote this product as abo In general we shall not be interested in arbitrary subsets of a group G for they do not reflect the fact that G has an algebraic structure imposed on it. Whatever subsets we do consider will be those endowed with algebraic properties derived from those of G. The most natural such subsets are introduced in the

DEFINITION. A subset H of a group G is said to be a subgroup of G if, under the product in G, H itself forms a group.

The following remark is clear: if H is a subgroup of G and K is a subgroup of H, then K is a subgroup of G. It would be useful to have some criterion for deciding whether a given subset of a group is a subgroup. This is the purpose of the next two lemmas.

LEMMA

2.3. A nonempty subset H of the group G is a subgroup of G if and

only if

(1) a, b

(2) a

E: H implies that ab E: H; E: H implse« that a-I E: H.

Proof. If H is a subgroup of G, then it is obvious that (1) and (2) must hold. Suppose conversely that H is a subset of G for which (1) and (2) hold. In order to establish that H is a subgroup all that is needed is to verify that e E: H and that the associative law holds for elements of H. Since the associative law does hold for G, it holds all the more so for H which is a subset of G. If a E: H, by (2) a-I E: H and so by (1) e = aa-1 E: H. This completes the proof. In the special case of a finite group the situation becomes even nicer for there we can dispense with (2).

SEC.

4

SUBGROUPS

33

LEMMA 2.4. If H is a nonempty finite subset of a group G and H is closed under multiplication, then H is a subgroup of G. Proof. In light of Lemma 2.3 we need but show that whenever a E::: H, then a-I E::: H. Suppose that a E::: H; thus a2 = aa E::: H, as = a2a E::: H, ... , am E::: H, since H is closed. Thus the infinite collection of elements a, a2, •.• , am, must all fit into H, which is a finite subset of G. Thus there must be repetitions in this collection of elements; that is, for some integers r, s with r > s > 0, aT = as. By the cancellation in G, ar-8 = e (whence e is in H); since 7' - s - 1 ;:::0, ar-.-I E:: H and a-I = ar- 1 since aa I =a = e. Thus a-I E:: H, completing the proof of the lemma. The lemma tells us that to check whether a subset of a finite group is a subgroup we just see whether or not it is closed under multiplication, We should, perhaps, now see some groups and some of their subgroups. G is always a subgroup of itself; likewise the set consisting of e is a subgroup of G. Neither is particularly interesting in the role of a subgroup, so we describe them as trivial subgroups. The subgroups between these two extremes we call nontrivial subgroups and it is in these we shall exhibit the most interest.

8T8 -TS -

EXAMPLE Let G be the group of integers under addition, H the subset 1. consisting of all the multiples of 5. The student should check that H is a subgroup. In this example there is nothing extraordinary about 5; we could similarly define the subgroup H n as the subset of G consisting of all the multiples of n. H n is then a subgroup for every n. What can one say about u; n Hm? It might be wise to try it for He n Hg• EXAMPLE Let S be any set, A(S) the set of 1-1 mappings of S onto 2. itself, made into a group under the composition of mappings. If Xo E:: S, let H(xo) = {cp E:: A(S)lxocp = xo}. H(xo) is a subgroup of ACS). If for Xl ~ Xo E::: S we similarly define H(XI) , what is H(xo) n H(XI)? EXAMPLE Let G be any group, a E::: G. Let (a) = {a' Ii = 0, ±1, 3. ±2, ... }. (a) is a subgroup of G (verify!); it is called the cyclic subgroup generated by a. This provides us with a ready means of producing subgroups of G. If for some choice of a, G = (a), then G is said to be a cyclic group. Such groups are very special but they play a very important role in the theory of groups, especially in that part which deals with abelian groups. Of course, cyclic groups are abelian, but the converse is false. EXAMPLE Let G be a group, W a subset of G. Let (W) be the set of all 4.

34

GROUPTHEORY

CH.2

elements of G representable as a product of elements of W raised to positive, zero, or negative integer exponents. (W) is the subgroup of G generated by Wand is the smallest subgroup of G containing W. In fact, W is the intersection of all the subgroups of G which contain W (this intersection is not vacuous since G is a subgroup of G which contains W). DEFINITION.Let G be a group, H a subgroup of G; for a, b E:: G we say == b mod H if ab-1 E:: H. LEMMA 2.5. The relation a == b mod H is an equivalence relation.

Proof. If we look back in Chapter 1, we see that to prove Lemma 2.5 we must verify the following three conditions: For all a, b, c E:: G

a is congruent to b mod H, written as a

(1) a == a mod H; (2) a == b mod H implies b == a mod H; (3) a == b mod H, b == c mod H implies a == c mod H. Let's go through each of these in turn. (1) To show that a == a mod H we must prove, using the very definition of congruence mod H, that aa-1 E:: H. Since H is a subgroup of G, e E:: H, and since aa-1 = e, aa-1 E:: H, which is what we were required to demonstrate. (2) Suppose that a == b mod H, that is, suppose ab-1 E:: H; we want to get from this b == a mod H, or, equivalently, ba-1 E:: H. Since ab-1 E:: H, which is a subgroup of G, (ab-1)-1 E:: H; but, by Lemma 2.1, (ab-1)-1 = (b-1)-la-1 = ba-r, and so ba-1 E:: Hand b == a mod H. (3) Finally we require that a == b mod Hand b == c mod H forces a == c mod H. The first congruence translates into ab-1 E:: H, the second into bc-1 E:: H; using that H is a subgroup of G, (ab-1)(bc-1) E:: H. However, ac-1 = aec-1 = a(b-1b)c-1 = (ab-1)(bc-1), hence ac-1 E:: H from which it follows that a == c mod H. This establishes that congruence mod H is a bona fide equivalence relation as defined in Chapter 1, and all results about equivalence relations have become available to us to be used in examining this particular relation. A word about the notation we used. If G were the group of integers under addition, and H = Hi; were the subgroup consisting of all multiples of n, then in G, the relation a == b mod H, that is, ab-l E:: H, under the additive notation, reads as a - b is a multiple of n. This is the usual number theoretic congruence mod n. In other words, the relation we defined using an arbitrary group and subgroup is the natural generalization of a familiar relation in a familiar group. DEFINITION.If H is a subgroup of G, a E:: G, then Ha H a is called a right coset of H in G.

=

{ha[h

E:: HI.

SEC.

4 2.6. For all a E::: , G Ha = {x E::: Gla == x modH}.

SUBGROUPS

35

LEMMA

Prooj, Let [aJ = {x E::: la == x mod H}. We first show that Ha c raj. G For if hE::: H, then a(ha)-l = a(a-1h-1) = tc:', so is in H since H is a subgroup of G. By the definition of congruence mod H this implies that ha E::: aJ for every h E::: H, and so Ha C raj. [ Suppose, now, that x E::: aj. Thus ax-1 E::: H, so (ax-1)-1 = xa-I is r also in H. That is, xa-I = h for some h E::: . Multiplying both sides by a H from the right we come up with x = ha, and so x E::: a. Thus [aJ C Ha. H Having proved the two inclusions [aJ C Ha and Ha C [a], we can conclude that [a] = Ha, which is the assertion of the lemma. In the terminology of Chapter 1, raj, and thus Ha, is the equivalence class of a in G. By Theorem l.a these equivalence classes yield a decomposition of G into disjoint subsets. Thus any two right cosets of H in G either are identical or have no element in common. We now claim that between any two right cosets Ha and Hb of H in G there exists a 1-1 correspondence, namely, with any element ha E::: a, H where h E::: H, associate the element hb E::: b. Clearly this mapping is onto H Hb. We aver that it is a one-to-one correspondence, for if hib = h2b, with hI, h2 E::: H, then by the cancellation law in G, hI = h2 and so hia = h2a. This proves

LEMMA

of H in G.

2.7. There is a 1-1 correspondence between any two right coeete

Lemma 2.7 is of most interest when H is a finite group, for then it merely states that any two right cosets of H have the same number of elements. How many elements does a right coset of H have? Well, note that H = He is itself a right coset of H, so any right coset of H in G has o(H) elements. Suppose now that G is a finite group, and let k be the number of distinct right cosets of H in G. By Lemmas 2.6 and 2.7 any two distinct right cosets of H in G have no element in common, and each has o(H) elements. Since any a E::: is in the unique right coset H a, the right cosets fill out G. G Thus if k represents the number of distinct right cosets of H in G we must have that koCH) = o(G). We have proved the famous theorem due to Lagrange, namely,

THEOREM

2.A.

If G is a finite group and H is a subgroup of G, then o(H)

**is a divisor of o(G). If H is a subgroup of G, the index of H in G is the number of distinct right cosets of H in G.
**

DEFINITION.

We shall denote it by iG(H). In case G is a finite group, iG(H)

0(G)

=

o(H)'

36

GROUP THEORY

CH.2

as became clear in the proof of Lagrange's theorem. It is quite possible for an infinite group G to have a subgroup H ~ G which is of finite index in G. It might be difficult, at this point, for the student to see the extreme importance of this result. As we penetrate the subject more deeply he will become more and more aware of its basic character. Because the theorem is of such a stature it merits a little closer scrutiny, a little more analysis, and so we give, below, a slightly different way of looking at its proof. In truth, the procedure outlined below is no different from the one already given. The introduction of the congruence mod H smooths out the listing of elements used below, and obviates the need for checking that the new elements introduced at each stage did not appear before. So suppose again that G is a finite group and that H is a subgroup of G. Let hl, h2' ... , b; be a complete list of the elements of H, r = o(H). If H = G, there is nothing to prove. Suppose, then, that H ~ G; thus there is an a E: G, a t[_ H. List all the elements so far in two rows as hl,h2'

hI a, h2a,

.h; , li.a,

We claim that all the entries in the second line are different from each other and are different from the entries in the first line. If any two in the second line were equal, then hia = hja with i ~i, but by the cancellation law this would lead to hi = hj, a contradiction. If an entry in the second line were equal to one in the first line, then h,a = hJ' resulting in a = hi-1hj E: H since H is a subgroup of G; this violates a tl. H. Thus we have, so far, listed 20(H) elements; if these elements account for all the elements of G, we are done. If not, there is abE: G which did not occur in these two lines. Consider the new list

hl,h2' .h; , hra

hI a, h2a,

hIb, h2b, ... , hrb. As before (we are now waving our hands) we could show that no two entries in the third line are equal to each other, and that no entry in the third line occurs in the first or second line. Thus we have listed 30(H) elements. Continuing in this way, every new element introduced, in fact, produces oCH) new elements. Since G is a finite group, we must eventually exhaust all the elements of G. But if we ended up using k lines to list all the elements of the group, we would have written down kot.H) distinct elements, and so koCH) = o(G). It is essential to point out that the converse to Lagrange's theorem is false-a group G need not have a subgroup of order m if m is a divisor of o(G). For instance, a group of order 12 exists which has no subgroup of

<p(n). The Euler <p-function. then ai = aJ for some integers 0 :::. DEFINITION. If n is a positive integer and a is relatively prime . A particular case of Corollary 2 is of great interest in number theory. for instance. This group has order <p(n). of G generated by a. the place to look is in 84. to n. With Lagrange's theorem already in hand. this subgroup has at most oCa) elements. 5. The reader might try to find an example of this phenomenon. 3. for n > 1 <p(n) = number of positive integers less than n and relatively prime to n. 4 SUBGROUPS 37 order 6. (a) consists of e. i < J < o(a). If it should actually have fewer than this number of elements. Therefore. By Corollary 1. Thus the cyclic subgroup generated by a has oCa) elements. since ao(a) = e. ». ao(Gl amoral = (ao(a»m = em = e. a2." COROLLARY 1. Recall our other notation. the order (or period) of a is the If no such integer exists we say that a is of infinite order . If we apply Corollary 2 to this group we obtain COROLLARY 3 (EULER). Before we present these we make one definition. the symmetric group of degree 4 which has a subgroup of order 12 which will fulfill our requirement. then ao(G) = e. o(a) 10(G). for two integers u. We use the notation o(a) for the order of a. Proof. whence. Lagrange's theorem has some very important corollaries.5 (b) at the end of Section 3 the reader was asked to prove that the numbers less than nand relatively prime to n formed a group under multiplication mod n. If G is a finite group and a c: G. then a<p(n) == 1 mod n.i < o(a) which would contradict the very meaning of o(a). o(a) I o(G). How many elements are there in (a)? We assert that this number is the order of a. (a). c: G. rp(8) = 4 since only 1. a. ulv reads: "u is a divisor of o. 7 are the numbers less than 8 which are relatively prime to 8. COROLLARY 2. is defined for all integers n by: <pCI) = 1. The element a itself furnishes us with this subgroup by considering the cyclic subgroup. If G is a finite group and a c: G. = Proof.SEC. then o(a) 10(G). •• '. Then aJ-' = e. In Problem 1. If G is a group and a least positive integer m such that am = e. yet 0 < J . it seems most natural to prove the corollary by exhibiting a subgroup of G whose order is o(a). by Lagrange's theorem. Clearly. Thus. thus oCG) = mo(a).

by Lagrange's theorem HK could not be a subgroup of 83. Proof. H. H ~ (e) since a . cf4. The first of these implies H = (e). ¢ifi. and let H = (a). K are two subgroups of G. that is. 5. ¢ifi. if H is a subgroup of a E::: . for o(H) must divide 0(0) = p leaving only two possibilities. A Counting Principle. k E: K}. If n should be a prime number p.p = ifi-l} ~ HK.8.38 GROUP THEORY CH. if hE:::Hand k E::: . ¢. o and LEMMA 2. then p. o(H) = 1 or o(H) = p. then by Corollary 3. we could verify this directly but it does not hurt to keep recalling Lagrange's theorem. What can we say about HK? Just using the definition of HK we can see that HK consists of the elements e. not only for its results but also because the spirit of the proofs occurring here are genuinely group-theoretic. ¢. that HK = KH. hj E: H (it need not be that kl = k or hj = hI). (Of course. a is not relatively prime to p. Proof. If H. Since ¢2 = (¢ifi)2 = e. b C. Note that KH = {e. ¢ifi}. Thus COROLLARY a! == a mod 4 (FERMA'l'). Let us generalize this notion. First we claim that G has no nontrivial subgroups H. hence 0 == aP == a mod p here also. whereas the second implies that H = G. as we see in the next lemma. let H HK = {x E: Glx = hk. the order of 83. As we have defined earlier. Section 4 is of great importance in all that comes later. o is COROLLARY 5. It would be wise for him to assimilate the material and approach thoroughly. now. ¢2ifi = ifi. To prove that HK is a subgroup we must verify that it is closed . K = [e. Thus H = G. then Ha consists of all elements in G of the form ha where G h E::: . Since HK consists of four elements and 4 is not a divisor of 6. first. on the other hand. This says that G is cyclic and that every element in G is a power of a. If P is a prime number and a is any intege1'. The student can expect to encounter other arguments having a similar flavor. K then hk = klhl for some kl E: K. Let's pause and look at an example. so that a == 0 mod p. If G is a finite group whose order is a prime number p. whence aP == a mod p. rather than a few theorems later when it will be too late.1. ¢}. This is precisely why HK fails to be a subgroup. then ¢(p) = p . since p is a prime number. we must have that p I a. in 83 let H = [e.) We might try to find out why HK is not a subgroup. aP-1 == 1 mod p. If. namely. Suppose. HK is a subgroup of G if and only if HK = KH.>6 e E: H. then a cyclic group. 2 In order to apply Corollary 2 one should replace a by its remainder on division by n. Suppose now that a ~ e E: G. If a is an integer relatively prime to p. H is a subgroup of 0. both H and K are subgroups.

but since kh' E: KH = HK. k E:: K there should be some collapsing. then K are finite subgroups of G of orders o(H) and o(HK) = o(H)o(K) o(H n K) . Thus HK = KH. Proof. h-Ile-I E:: HK and so leh = (h-Ile-I)-l E: HK. Equivalently. Hence xy = h(h2lc2)k' = (hh2)(lc2k') E:: HK. whence h = hI. We have proved that no collapsing can occur. K are subgroups of the abelian group G. K are subgroups of a group G. so X-I E: HK. hl-1 must also be in H. Thus as a consequence we have the COROLLARY. then HK is a If H. le E: K. kh' = h2k2 with h2 E:: H.e hI E:: H. o(HK) is indeed o(H)o(K). how could this fail to happen? The answer clearly must be that if we list all the elements hk. we prove THEOREM 2. 5 A COUNTING PRINCIPLE 39 and every element in HK has its inverse in HK. If Hand o(K).B. is quite revealing. If H. Yet it is a perfect meaningful question to ask: how many distinct elements are there in the subset HK? If we denote this number by o(HK). On the other hand. and HK is closed. hk = hlle1• But then hI-Ih = lelk-I. respectively. Also X-I = (hlc)-I = k-1h-1 E:: KH = HK. hI E:: H n K cHand h1-lle E:: K since hI -1 E:: H n K c K and k E:: K. Thus hlc is duplicated in the product at . then (1) where hhl E: H. Thus KH c HK. so suppose x = hk E:: HK and y = h'k' E:: HK. Let's show the closure first. now since hi E:: H. Since h1-Ih = k1k-r. With this experience behind us we are ready to attack the general case. Here we should seek to show that o(HK) = o(H)o(K). then for any h E:: H. As above we must ask: how often does a given element hk appear as a product in the list of HK? We assert it must appear o(H n K) times! To see this we first remark that if hI E:: H n K. One should ask oneself. An interesting special case is the situation when G is an abelian group for in that case trivially HK = KH. Although there is no need to pay special attention to the particular case in which H n K = (e). some element in the list must appear at least twice. hI -Ih E:: H n K = (e). if HK is a subgroup of G. we have seen that the subset HK need not be a subgroup of G. subgroup of G. looking at this case.SEC. here. so hI -lh = e. Now if z is any element of HK. X-I = hk E:: HK and so x = (X-I)-l = (hk)-I = k-Ih-I E:: KH. since h E: H. which is devoid of some of the complexity of the general situation. a contradiction. for some h :. so HK c KH. h E:: H. k1le-1 E:: K. thus hI-Ih E: H. and so. Similarly. that is. k2 E: K. Then xy = hkh'k'. Thus HK is a subgroup of G.

o(G). > VOCG).(ji) o(G) = --n K) o(H n K) of G and o(H) thus o(H n K) > 1. in G. if hk = h'k'. between the set of left cosets of H in G and the set of right cosets of H in G. K are two subgroups of G of finite index in G. Suppose G is a finite group of order pq where p and q are prime numbers with p > q. From this we shall be able to determine completely the structure of G. For suppose H. Determine the index of Hn in G and write out all the cosets of E. n Hm? *6. We have proved the COROLLARY. o(K) > vo(G). combined with the above. o(H n K). H n K ~ (e). prove that H n K is of finite index in G. o(G) - > o(HK) = o(H)o(K) o(H n K) H > Vo(G) o(H v. Can you find an upper bound for the index of H n K in G? . o(H)o(K) divided by the number of times a given element appears. If Hand K are subgroups of G. By the corollary. H« the subgroup consisting of all multiples of a fixed integer n in G. Show that there is a 1-1 correspondence nK a subgroup of G. Similarly K C H. that is. Since HK C G. We claim that G can have at most one subgroup of order p. and so H c H K c K. proving that there is at most one subgroup of order p. then h-W = k(k. Thus the number of distinct elements in HK is the total number in the listing of HK. Suppose H. h E: H. and being a subgroup of H. k' = u-1k. Hand K are subgroups then H n K ~ (e). will tell us there is exactly one subgroup of order pinG. Consequently hk appears in the list of HK exactly o(H n K) times. Later on we shall see that there is at least one subgroup of order p.40 GROUP THEORY CH. However. If nK ~ (e). Let G be the group of integers under addition. In Problem 4 what is H. We apply this corollary to a very special group. which. and so h' = hu. we must conclude that H K = H. 4. This proves the theorem. whence H = K. If G has no nontrivial subgroups prove it must have prime order. then so is H 2. Therefore. However. 3. o(HK) ::. and u E:: H n K. which having prime order has no nontrivial subgroups.2 least o(H n K) times. For a subgroup H of G define a left coset of H in G as the set of all elements of the form ah. K are subgroups of the finite group G and o(H) > vo(G) I o(K) > Vo(G). If G is a group and H. n n PROBLEMS 1. K are subgroups of order p. 5. namely. thus all duplications were accounted for in (1).)-l = u.

17. In G = S3 let us consider the subgroup N = le. In Problem 7 let H = 17'abE::. If G is a group. Let G = (7'abla. (b) If a E. Prove: (a) N is a subgroup of G. 11.] 16.:: GI zx = xz all x E. How many generators does a cyclic group of order n have? [b C G is a generator if (b) = G. the center of G. Let G be the group S3 and let H be the subgroup [e. N(a) is usually called the normalizer or centralizer of a in G. List all the right cosets of H in G. (b) Give an example of a group G and a subgroup H such that not every left coset of H in G is a right coset of H in G. the notions of left coset need not coincide. If an abelian group has subgroups of orders n and Tn. Prove that any subgroup of a cyclic group is itself a cyclic group. 7'ab:X ~ ax + b. then ana-1 «:». Prove that Z is a subgroup of G. 9. We list them: Right Cosets H Left Cosets H = {e. 1/12}. Prove that G must be a cyclic group. If a E. Thus.:: G define N(a) = Ix E. 6 NORMAL SUBGROUPS AND QUOTIENT GROUPS 41 7. cp}. cp} H1/I = 11/1..1/I2cp = cp1/l} H1/I is not and right the index in G. cp} = [e. cp1/l} Hi{} = 11/12.:: G. *18. 10. Since the index of H in G is 3. Nonnal Subgroups and Quotient Groups. 15. then show it has a subgroup whose order is the least common multiple of n and Tn.SEC. 13.:: N. Z is defined by Z = (z E. respectively. Since of N in G is 2 there are two left cosets and two right cosets of N . 6. cp1/l2} 1/IH = {1/I. map the reals into the reals by the rule. there are three right cosets of H in G and three left cosets of H in G. 12.P. Find the formula for 7'ab7'cd. Show that H is a subgroup of G. b real numbers. (a) In Problem 8 show that every left coset of H in G is a right coset of H in G. Let G be a finite abelian group in which the number of solutions in G of the equation xn = e is at most n for every positive integer n.b E. Show that N(a) is a subgroup of G. If in the group G.e OJ.:: G find o(b). aba-1 = b2 for a.1/Icp = cp1/l2} 1/I2H = 11/I2. Prove that G is a group under the composition of mappings. 8.:: G}. If a E. We A quick inspection yields the interesting fact that the right coset a left coset. am = e prove that o(a) 1 m.. Let the mapping 7'ab for a.:: Glxa = ax}. at least for this subgroup. Gla is rational}. 14. n E.:: G). In the group of Problem 7 let N = 17'lb E.:: G. a5 = e.

42

GROUP THEORY

CH.2

list these: Right Cosets Left Co sets

N = [e, 1/;, 1/;2} N<I>= {<I>, 1/;2<1>} 1/1<1>,

N={e,1/;,1/;2} <l>N = {<I>, <l>v}} <1>1/;, = {<I>, 1/;2<1>, 1/;<I>}

A quick inspection here reveals that every left coset of N in G is a right coset in G and conversely. Thus we see that for some subgroups the notion of left coset coincides with that of right coset, whereas for some subgroups these concepts differ. It is a tribute to the genius of Galois that he recognized that those subgroups for which the left and right cosets coincide are distinguished ones. Very often in mathematics the crucial problem is to recognize and to discover what are the relevant concepts; once this is accomplished the job may be more than half done. We shall define this special class of subgroups in a slightly different way, which we shall then show to be equivalent to the remarks in the above paragraph.

DEFINITION.

A subgroup N of G is said to be a normal

subgro~lp of G if

for every g

E::: G and n E::: N, gng-1 E::: N.

Equivalently, if by gNg-1 we mean the set of all gng-l, n E::: N, then N is a normal subgroup of G if and only if gN g-l c N for every g E: G.

LEMMA

2.9. N is a normal

subgroup

of G if and only if gNg-1

=

N for

every g E::: G. eN, so N is normal in G. Suppose that N is normal in G. Thus if g E: G, gN g-l c Nand g-lN g = g-lN(g-l)-l eN. Now, since g-lNg eN, N = g(g-lNg)g-l C gNg-1 C N, whence N = gN g-l. In order to avoid a point of confusion here let us stress that Lemma 2.9 does not say that for every n E: N and every g E: G, gng-1 = n. No! This can be false. Take, for instance, the group G to be S3 and N to be the subgroup [e, f, f2}. If we compute <l>N<I>-l e obtain [e, <l>f<l>-l, l>f2<1>-I}= w < [e, 1/;2, f}, yet <1>1/;<1>-1 All we require is that the set of elements gNg-1 ~ f. be the same as the set of elements N. We now can return to the question of the equality of left cosets and right cosets.

LEMMA 2.10. The subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup if every left coset of N in G is a right coset of N in G.

Proof.

If gNg-1

= N for every g E: G, certainly gNg-1

of G if and only

SEC.

6

NORMAL SUBGROUPS AND QUOTIENT

GROUPS

43

Proof. If N is a normal subgroup of G, then for every g E:: G, gNg-1 = N, whence (gNg-l)g = Ng; equivalently gN = Ng, and so the left coset gN is the right coset N g. Suppose, conversely, that every left coset of N in G is a right coset of N in G. Thus, for g E:: G, gN, being a left coset, must be a right coset. What right coset can it be? Since g = ge E:: gN, whatever right coset gN turns out to be, it must contain the element g; however, g is in the right coset Ng, and two distinct right cosets have no element in common. (Remember the proof of Lagrange's theorem?) So this right coset is unique. Thus gN = Ng follows. In other words, gNg-1 = Ngg-l = N, and so N is a normal subgroup of We have already defined what is meant by HK whenever H, K are subgroups of G. We can easily extend this definition to arbitrary subsets, and we do so by defining, for two subsets, A and B, of G, AB = {x E:: G I x = ab, a E:: A, b E:: B}. As a special case what can we say when A = B = H, a subgroup of G? H H = {hlh21 hb h2 E:: HIe H since H is closed under multiplication. But HH ::J He = H since e E:: H. Thus HH = H. Suppose that N is a normal subgroup of G, and that a, b E:: G. Oonsider (N a) (Nb); since N is normal in G, aN = N a, and so NaNb

=

G.

N(aN)b

=

N(Na)b

=

NNab

=

Nab.

What a world of possibilities this little formula opens! But before we get carried away, for emphasis and future reference we record this as

LEMMA 2.11. A subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup of G if and only if the product of two right cosete of N in G is again a right coset of N in G.

Proof. If N is normal in G we have just proved the result. The proof of the other half is one of the problems at the end of this section. Suppose that N is a normal subgroup of G. The formula NaNb = Nab, for a, b E:: G is highly suggestive; the product of right cosets is a right coset. Oan we use this product to make the collection of right cosets into a group? Indeed we can I This type of construction, often occurring in mathematics and usually called forming a quotient structure, is of the utmost importance. Let GIN denote the collection of right cosets of N in G (that is, the elements of GIN are certain subsets of G) and we use the product of subsets of G to yield for us a product in GIN. For this product we claim:

(1) X, Y E:: G/N implies XY E:: G/N; for X = Na, Y = Nb for some a, b E:: G, and XY = NaNb = Nab E:: G/N. (2) X, Y, Z E:: GIN, then X = Na, Y = Nb, Z = Nc with a, b, c C G,

44

GROUP THEORY

CH. 2

and so (XY)Z = (NaNb)Nc = N(ab)Nc = N(ab)c = Na(bc) (since G is associative) = Na(Nbc) = Na(NbNc) = X(YZ). Thus the product in GIN satisfies the associative law. (3) Consider the element N = Ne E::: GIN. If X E::: GIN, X = Na, a E: G, so XN = NaNe = Nae = Na = X, and similarly NX = X. Consequently, Ne is an identity element for GIN. (4) Suppose X = Na E: GIN (where a E::: G); thus Na-1 E::: GIN, and NaNa-1 = Ntui:" = Ne. Similarly Na-1Na = Ne. Hence Na-1 is the inverse of Na in GIN. But a system which satisfies 1, 2, 3, 4 is exactly what we called a group. That is,

THEOREM 2.0. If G is a group, N a normal subgroup of G, then GIN is also a group. It is called the quotient group or factor group of G by N.

If, in addition, G is a finite group what is the order of GIN? Since GIN has as its elements the right cosets of N in G, and since there are precisely o(G) iG(N) = -such cosets we can say o(N)

LEMMA

2.12. If G is a finite group and N is a normal subgroup of G, then

o(N) We close this section with an example. Let G be the group of integers under addition and let N be the set of all multiples of 3. Since the operation in G is addition we shall write the cosets of N in G as N + a rather than as N a. Consider the three cosets N, N + 1, N + 2. We claim that these are all the cosets of N in G. For, given a E: G, a = 3b + c where b E::: G and c = 0, 1, or 2 (c is the remainder of a on division by 3). Thus N + a = N + 3b + c = (N + 3b) + c = N + c since 3b E::: N. Thus every coset is, as we stated, one of N, N + 1, or N + 2, and GIN = IN, N + 1, N + 2}. How do we add elements in GIN? Our formula NaNb = Nab translates into: (N + 1) + (N + 2) = N + 3 = N since 3 E::: N; (N + 2) + (N + 2) = N + 4 = N + 1 and so on. Without being specific one feels that GIN is closely related to the integers mod 3 under addition. Clearly what we did for 3 we could emulate for any integer n, in which case the factor group should suggest a relation to the integers mod n under addition. This type of relation will be clarified in the next section. PROBLEMS *1. If H is a subgroup of G such that the product of two right cosets of H in G is again a right coset of H in G, prove that H is normal in G.

o(GIN)

=_.

o(G)

SEC.

6

NORMAL SUBGROUPS AND QUOTIENT

GROUPS

45

2. If G is a group and H is a subgroup of index 2 in G, prove that H is a normal subgroup of G. 3. If N is a normal subgroup of G and H is any subgroup of G, prove that NH is a subgroup of G. 4. Show that the intersection of two normal subgroups of G is a normal subgroup of G. 5. If H is a subgroup of G and N is a normal subgroup of G, show that H n N is a normal subgroup of H. 6. Show that every subgroup of an abelian group is normal. *7. Is the converse of Problem 6 true? If yes, prove it, if no, give an example of a non-abelian group all of whose subgroups are normal. 8. Let G be a group, H a subgroup of G. Let, for g E::: G, gHg-1 = (ghg-11 h E::: H}. Prove that gHg-1 is a subgroup of G. 9. Suppose H is the only subgroup of order o(H) in the finite group G. Prove that H is a normal subgroup of G. 10. If H is a subgroup of G, let N(H) = {g E::: GlgHg-1 = H}. Prove: (1) N(H) is a subgroup of G. (2) H is normal in N(H). (3) If H is a normal subgroup of the subgroup K in G, then K c N(H) (that is, N(H) is the largest subgroup of G in which H is normal). (4) H is normal in G if and only if N(H) = G. 11. If Nand M are normal subgroups of G, prove that NM is also a normal subgroup of G. *12. Suppose that Nand M are two normal subgroups of G and that N n M = (e). Show that for any n E::: N, 1n E::: M, nm = mn. 13. If a cyclic subgroup T of G is normal in G, then show that every subgroup of T is normal in G. *14. Prove, by an example, that we can find three groups E c F c G, where E is normal in F, F is normal in G, but E is not normal in G. 15. If N is normal in G and a E::: G is of order o(a), prove that the order, m, of Na in GIN is a divisor of o(a). 16. If N is a normal subgroup in the finite group such that iG(N) and o(N) are relatively prime, show that any element x E::: G satisfying xo(N) = e must be in N. 17. 'Let G be defined as all formal symbols XiyJ, i = 0, 1, j = 0, 1, 2, ... , n - 1 where we assume

xiyj

=

=

Xi' yJ' if

and only if i = i', j = j'

xy

y-1x.

(a) Find the form of the product (Xiyj) (xkye) as x"'yfJ. (b) Using this, prove that G is a non-abelian group of order 2n.

46

GROUP THEORY

CH.2

(c) If n is odd, prove that the center of G is (e), while if n is even the center of G is larger than (e). This group is known as a dihedral group. A geometric realization of this is obtained as follows: let y be a rotation of the Euclidean plane about the origin through an angle of 2'rr/n, and x the reflection about the vertical axis. G is the group of motions of the plane generated by y and x. The ideas and results in this section are closely interwoven with those of the preceding one. If there is one central idea which is common to all aspects of modern algebra it is the notion of homomorphism, By this one means a mapping from one algebraic system to a like algebraic system which preserves structure. We make this precise, for groups, in the next definition.

7. Homomorphisms.

homomorphism

DEFINITION. mapping cp from a group G into a group G is said to be a A if for all a, b E: G, cp(ab) = cp(a)cp(b).

Notice that on the left side of this relation, namely, in the term cp(ab), the product ab is computed in G using the product of elements of G whereas on the right side of this relation, namely, in the term cp (a) ¢(b) , the product is that of elements in G.

Example

wise cp(x)

=

O. ¢(x) = e all x E: G. This is trivially a homomorphism. Likex for every x E: G is a homomorphism.

Example 1. Let G be the group of all real numbers under addition (Le., ab for a, b E: G is really the real number a + b) and let G be the group of nonzero real numbers with the product being ordinary multiplication of real numbers. Define ¢:G -+ G by ¢(a) = 2a• In order to verify that this mapping is a homomorphism we must check to see whether ¢(ab) = ¢(a)¢(b), remembering that by the product on the left side we mean the operation in G (namely, addition), that is, we must check if 2aH = 2a2b, which indeed is true. Since 2a is always positive the image of cp is not all of G, so <f>is a homomorphism of G into G, but not onto G. Example 2. Let G the mapping f:G -+ f(if;2) =

= {e, <f>,if;, if;2, cpif;,cpif;2} and G = {e, cpl. Define = cp'. Thus fee) = e, f(¢) = cp, f(if;) = e, e, f(<f>if;) = cp, f(cpif;2) = cpo The reader should verify that f so

=

S3

(J

by f(¢iy)

defined is a homomorphism.

Example 3. Let G be the group of integers under addition and let G = G. For the integer x E: G define <f>by cp(x) = 2x. That cp is a homomorphism then follows from cp(x + y) = 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y = <f>(x) cp(y).

+

SEC.

7

HOMOMORPHISMS

47

Exc::..mpZe 4· Let G be the group of nonzero real numbers under multiplication, G = {I, - II, where 1.1 = 1, ( - 1)( - 1) = 1, 1(- 1) = (- 1)1 = -1. Define </>:G -t (j by </>(x) = 1 if x is positive, </>(x) = -1 if x is negative. The fact that </> is a homomorphism is equivalent to the statements: positive times positive is positive, positive times negative is negative, negative times negative is positive. Example 5. Let G be the group of integers under addition, let On be the group of integers under addition modulo n. Define </> by </>(x) = remainder of x on division by n. One can easily verify this is a homomorphism. The result of the following lemma yields, for us, an infinite class of examples of homomorphisms. When we prove Theorem 2.d it will turn out that in some sense this provides us with the most general example of a homomorphism.

LEMMA

mapping morphism

2.13. Suppose G is a group, N a normal subgroup of G; define the </>from G to GIN by </>(x) = Nxfor all x E:: G. Then </> is a homoof G onto GIN.

Proof. In actuality, there is nothing to prove for we already have proved this fact several times. But for the sake of emphasis we repeat it. That </> is onto is trivial for every element X E:: GIN is of the form X = Ny, y E:: G, so X = </>(y). To verify the multiplicative property required in order that </> be a homomorphism one just notes that if x, y E:: G, </>(xy) = Nxy = NxNy = </>(x)</>(y). In Lemma 2.13 and in the examples preceding it, a fact which comes through is that a homomorphism need not be 1-1; but there is a certain uniformity in this process of deviating from one-to-oneness. This will become apparent in a few lines. DEFINITION. f </> is a homomorphism of G into 0, the kernel of I defined by Kq, = {x E:: Gi </>(x) = e, e = identity element of O}.

</>,

Kq" is

Before investigating any properties of Kq, it is advisable to establish that as a set Kq, is not empty. This is furnished us by the first part of

LEMMA

2.14. If

</>

is a homomorphism

of G into G, then:

(1) </>(e) = e, the unit element of 0; (2) </>(x-1) = </>(x) 1 for all x E:: G. -

Proof. To prove (1) we merely calculate </>(x)e = </>(x) = </>(xe) = </>(x)</>(e), so by the cancellation property in (j we have that </>(e) = e.

48

GROUP THEORY

CH.2

To establish (2) one notes that e = ¢(e) = ¢(xx-1) = ¢(x)¢(x-1), so by the very definition of rp(X)-l in Owe obtain the result that ¢(x-1) = rp(X)-l. The argument used in the proof of Lemma 2.14 should remind any reader who has been exposed to a development of logarithms, of that used in proving the familiar results that log 1 = 0 and log (l/x) = -log X; this is no coincidence for the mapping rf>:x~ log X is a homomorphism of the group of positive real numbers under multiplication into the group of real numbers under addition. Lemma 2.14 shows that e is in the kernel of any homomorphism, so any such kernel is not empty. But we can say even more.

LEMMA 2.15. If ¢ is a homomorphism is a normal subgroup of G.

of G into

0 with kernel K, then K

Proof. First we must check whether K is a subgroup of G. To see this one must show that K is closed under multiplication and has inverses in it for every element belonging to K. If x, y E:: K, then ¢(x) = e, ¢(y) = e, where e is the identity element of 0, and so ¢(xy) = rf>(x)¢(y) = ee = e, whence xy E:: K. Also, if x E:: K, ¢(x) = e, so, by Lemma 2.14, ¢(x-1) = ¢(X)-l = e-1 = e; thus X-I E:: K. K is, accordingly, a subgroup of G. To prove the normality of K one must establish that for any g E:: G, k E: K, gkg-1 E:: K; in other words, one must prove that ¢(gkg-I) = e whenever rf>(k) = e. But rf>(gkg-I) = rp(g)rf>(k)rp(g-I) = ¢(g)e¢(g)-I = ¢(g)¢(g)-l = e. This completes the proof of Lemma 2.15. Let ¢ now be a homomorphism of the group G onto the group 0, and suppose that K is the kernel of ¢. If g E:: 0, we sayan element x E:: G is an inverse image of g under ¢ if ¢(x) = iJ. What are all the inverse images of g? For g = e we have the answer, namely (by its very definition) K. What about elements g ~ e? Well, suppose X E:: G is one inverse image of g; can we write down others? Clearly yes, for if k E:: K, and if y = kx, then rf>(y)= rp(kx) = ¢(k)¢(x) = eiJ = g. Thus all the elements Kx are in the inverse image of iJ whenever x is. Can there be others? Let us suppose that ¢(z) = iJ = ¢(x). fgnoring the middle term we are left with rf>(z)= ¢(x), and so ¢(z)¢(x)= e. But ¢(X)-l = ¢(x-1), whence e = ¢(z)¢(X)-l = 1) 1), ¢(z)¢(x= ¢(zxin consequence of which zx-1 E: K; thus z E:: Kx. In other words, we have shown that Kx accounts for exactly all the inverse images of iJ whenever x is a single such inverse image. We record this as

LEMMA 2.16. If ¢ is a homomorphism of G onto 'G with kernel K, then the set of all inverse images of g E:: 0 under rp in G is given by Kx where x is any particular inverse image of g in G.

A special case immediately presents itself, namely, the situation when

SEC.

7

HOMOMORPHISMS

49

K = (e). But here, by Lemma 2.16, any ij E: G has exactly one inverse image. That is, tP is a one-to-one mapping. The converse is trivially true, namely, if ¢ is a one-to-one homomorphism of G into (not even onto) G, its kernel must consist exactly of e.

DEFINITION. A homomorphism phism if tP is one-to-one.

¢

from G into G is said to be an isomor-

DEFINITION. Two groups G, G* are said to be isomorphic if there is an isomorphism of G onto G*. In this case we write G ~ G*.

**We leave to the reader to verify the following three facts:
**

(1) G ~ G.

(2) G ~ G* implies G* ~ G. (3) G ~ G*, G* ~ G** implies G ~ G**. When two groups are isomorphic, then, in some sense, they are equal. They differ in that their elements are labeled differently. The isomorphism gives us the key to the labeling, and with it, knowing a given computation in one group, we can carry out the analogous computation in the other. The isomorphism is like a dictionary which enables one to translate a sentence in one language into a sentence, of the same meaning, in another language. (Unfortunately no such perfect dictionary exists, for in languages words do not have single meanings, and nuances do not come through in a literal translation.) But merely to say that a given sentence in one language can be expressed in another is of little consequence; one needs the dictionary to carry out the translation. Similarly it might be of little consequence to know that two groups are isomorphic, the object of interest might very well be the isomorphism itself. So, whenever we prove two groups to be isomorphic, we shall endeavor to exhibit the precise mapping which yields this isomorphism. Returning to Lemma 2.16 for a moment, we see in it a means of characterizing in terms of the kernel when a homomorphism is actually an isomorphism.

COROLLARY.

phism of G into

A homomorphism ¢ of G into G with kernel Kq, is an isomorG if and only if Kq, = (e).

This corollary provides us with a standard technique for proving two groups to be isomorphic. First we find a homomorphism of one onto the other, and then prove the kernel of this homomorphism consists only of the identity element. This method will be illustrated for us in the proof of the very important

50

GROUP THEORY THEOREM 2.D.

CH. 2

Let fjJbe a homomorphism of G onto

G with

kernel K. Then

GjK..,;

(f.

Proof. Consider the diagram

where (J(g) = Kg. We should like to complete this to

It seems clear that, in order to construct the mapping if; from G/K to (f, we should use G as an intermediary, and also that this construction should be relatively uncomplicated. What is more natural than to complete the diagram using

g

Kg/

1

fjJ(g) if;

///

//

/7f

With this preamble we formally define the mapping if; from G/K to (f by: if X E:: G/K, X = Kg, then if;(X) = ¢(g). A problem immediately arises: is this mapping well-defined? If X E:: G/K, it can be written as Kg in several ways (for instance, Kg = Kkg, k E:: K); but if X = Kg = Kg', g, g' E:: G, then on one hand if;(X) = fjJ(g), and on the other, if;(X) = fjJ(g'). For the mapping if; to make sense it had better be true that ¢(g) = fjJ(g'). So, suppose Kg = Kg'; then g = kg' where k E:: K, hence ¢(g) = ¢(kg') = fjJ(k)¢(g') = e¢(g') = fjJ(g') since k E:: K, the kernel of ¢. We next determine that if; is onto. For, if x E:: G, x = ¢(g), g E:: G (since r/> is onto) so x ==:. r/>(g) = if;(Kg). If X, Y E:: GjK, X = Kg, Y = Kf, g, f E:: G, then XY = KgKf = Kgf, so that if;(XY) = if;(Kgf) = ¢(gf) = r/>(g)fjJ(j) since ¢ is a homomorphism of G onto (f. But if;(X) = if;(Kg) = ¢(g), if;(Y) = if;(Kf) = cb(f), so we see that if;(XY) = if;(X)if;(Y), and if; is a homomorphism of G/K onto G. To prove that if; is an isomorphism of G/K onto G all that remains is to demonstrate that the kernel of if; is the unit element of G/K. Since the unit

SEC.

7

HOMOMORPHISMS

51

element of GIK is K = Ke, we must show that if "",(Kg) = e, then Kg = Ke = K. This is now easy, for e = -.f;(Kg) = ¢(g), so that ¢(g) = e, whence g is in the kernel of ¢, namely K. But then Kg = K since K is a subgroup of G. All the pieces have been put together. We have exhibited a one-to-one homomorphism of GIK onto G. Thus GIK ~ G, and Theorem 2.d is established. Theorem 2.d is important for it tells us precisely what groups can be expected to arise as homomorphic images of a given group. These must be expressible in the form GIK where K is normal in G. But, by Lemma 2.13, for any normal subgroup N of G, GIN is a homomorphic image of G. Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence between homomorphic images of G and normal subgroups of G. If one were to seek all homomorphic images of G one could do it by never leaving G as follows: find all normal subgroups N of G and construct all groups GIN. The set of groups so constructed yields all homomorphic images of G (up to isomorphisms). A group is said to be simple if it has no nontrivial homomorphic images, that is, if it has no nontrivial normal subgroups. A famous, long-standing conjecture is that a non-abelian simple group of finite order has an even number of elements. It still awaits proof. t We have stated that the concept of a homomorphism is a very important one. To strengthen this statement we shall now show how the methods and results of this section can be used to prove nontrivial facts about groups. When we construct the group GIN, where N is normal in G, if we should happen to know the structure of GIN we would know that of G "up to N." True, we blot out a certain amount of information about G, but often enough is left so that from facts about GIN we can ascertain certain ones about G. When we photograph a certain scene we transfer a three-dimensional object to a two-dimensional representation of it. Yet, looking at the picture we can derive a great deal of information about the scene photographed. In the two applications of the ideas developed so far, which are given below, the proofs given are not the best possible. In fact, a little later in this chapter these results will be proved in a more general situation in an easier manner. We use the presentation here because it does illustrate effectively many group-theoretic concepts.

ApPLICATION 1 (CAUCHY'S THEOREM FOR ABELIAN GROUPS). Suppose G is a finite abelian group and p I 0 (G) where p is a prime number. Then there is an

element a

,= e E:::: G such that al' = e.

Proof. We proceed by induction over o(G). In other words, we assume that the theorem is true for all abelian groups having fewer elements than G. From this we wish to prove that the result holds for G. To start the

t This important result has just been proved by the two young American mathematicians Walter Feit and John Thompson.

52

GROUP THEORY

CR.

2

induction we note that the theorem is vacuously true for groups having a single element. If G has no subgroups H ~ (e), G, by the result of a problem earlier in the chapter G must be cyclic of prime order. This prime must be p and G certainly has p - 1 elements a ~ e satisfying aP = ao(G) = e. So suppose G has a subgroup N ~ (e), G. If pi o(N), by our induction hypothesis, since o(N) < o(G) and N is abelian, there is (an element b E: N, b ~ e, satisfying bP = e; since b E: NeG we would have exhibited an element of the type required. So we may assume that p t o(N). Since Gis abelian, N is a normal subgroup of G, so GIN is a group. Moreover,

Nb ~ N. Thus bP E: N, b ({_N. Using one of the corollaries to Lagrange's theorem, (bP)o(N) = e. That is, bo(N)p = e. Let c = bo(N). Certainly cP = e. In order to show that c is an element that satisfies the conclusion of the theorem we must finally show that c ~ e. However, if c = e, bo(N) = e, and so (Nb)o(N) = N. Combining this with (Nb)P = N, p t o(N), p a prime number, we find that Nb = N, and so b E: N, a contradiction. Thus c ~ e, cP = e, and we have completed the induction. This proves the result.

APPLICATION 2 (SYLOW'S THEOREM FOR ABELIAN GROUPS). If G ~ an abelian group of order oCG), and if p is a prime number, such that pa I o(G), pa+1 t o(G), then G has a subgroup of order pa.

o(G) j o(G) .. oCG/N) = --, and since p t o(N), p -< o(G). Also, since G IS o(N) o(N) abelian, GIN is abelian. Thus by our induction hypothesis there is an element X E: GIN satisfying XP = e1, the unit element of GIN, X ~ e1' By the very form of the elements of GIN, X = Nb, b E: G, so that XP = (Nb)P = NbP. Since e1 = Ne, XP = e1, X ~ e1 translates into NbP = N,

Proof. If a = 0 the subgroup (e) satisfies the conclusion of the result. So suppose a ~ O. Then pi o(G). By Application 1, there is an element a ~ e E: G satisfying aP = e. Let S = {x E: G I xpn = e some integer n}. Since a E: S, a ~ e, it follows that S ~ (e). We now assert that S is a subgroup of G. Since G is finite we must only verify that S is closed. If z, n m ,,+m n+m ,,+m y E: S, xP = e, yP = e, so that (xy)P = xP yP = e (we have used that G is abelian), proving that xy E: S. We next claim that o(S) = pf1 with {3an integer 0 < (3 :::; a. For, if some prime qlo(S), q ~ p, by the result of Application 1 there is an element c E: S, c ~ e satisfying cq = e. However, cP" = e for some n since c E: S. Since p", q are relatively prime, we can find integers X, JJ. such that Xq + JJ.P" = 1, so that c = c1 = c>..q+f.lP" = (cq/'(cpn)f.I = e, contradicting c ~ e. By Lagrange's theorem o(S) 10(G), so that {3:::; a. Suppose that (3 < a;

considertheabeliangroupG/S. Since{3

< a and

o(G/S)

= o(G) ,plo(G/S),

o(S)

H. our assertion has been established. in other words.SEC.::. conversely. whence ¢(ghg-I) = ¢(g)¢(h)¢(g)-l C fl. when just considered on elements of H. What can we say in addition in case Il is normal in G? Let g C G. ¢(x) CHand so ¢(x-1) = ¢(X)-l C H from which it follows that X-I C H. H.d we have that fl ~ H/K. leaving us with o(ST) = p". Therefore. . x satisfies the exact'.::. Since G is abelian ST = TS. [e. S is the required subgroup of order pIX. that L is a subgroup of G and K C L. and suppose that H is a subgroup of G. We strengthen the application slightly. If we look at G = S3. Let H = {x E. Suppose now that x. ¢~2}. We assert that H is a subgroup of G and that H ~ K. (Sx)pn = S for some integer n > O. with kernel exactly K. Furthermore. We have proved the COROLLARY. by Theorem 2. By Theorem 2. pet+1 t o(G). hence ¢(x) E:. [e. ¢}. thus p'YI o(G) violating the fact that a is the largest power of p which divides o(G). GI¢(x) C Il}. namely. GI¢(y) C L}? n. One other point should be noted. Consequently Sx = S contradicting Sx ~ S. that (3 = a. Can we explicitly describe the subgroup T = (y E:. H. h E:. ghg-1 E. Il. (x C G) in GIS satisfying Sx ~ S. 7 HOMOMORPHISMS 53 there is an element Sx.b o(ST) = o(S)o(T) o(S n T) pIXplX o(S n T) and since S ~ T. and S is the unique subgroup of order pIX. namely. requirements needed to put it in S. o(ST) I o(G).::. so that K c H follows. G I x = ¢(l). Thus no such subgroup T exists. xy CHand H is closed under the product in G. All in all. and so xpn C S· consequently n 0(8) n • e = (xP ) = (xP)P I' = xP n+1' . Therefore. so that the corollary asserting the uniqueness does not carryover to nonabelian groups. from which it follows that H is normal in G. Suppose T is another subgroup of G of order »". ¢y. so that ST is a subgroup of G.}. then ¢(h) E:. Thus (3 < a is impossible and we are left with the only alternative. The reader should verify that L is a subgroup of G. y C H. which is non-abelian.. since K C H. We leave the application and return to the general development. that the homomorphism ¢ from G onto G. since fl is normal in G. [e. ¢(y) C Il from which we deduce that ¢(xy) = ¢(x)¢(y) E. if xC H. ¢(x) = e is in H. l E:: L}. If G is abelian of order o(G) and pet I o(G).3. Otherwise stated. Let L = {x E. namely. for if x C K. But Sylow's theorem holds for all finite groups. Since ST is a subgroup of G. But S = (Sx)pn = Sxpn. o(S n T) < pet. o(G) = 2. induces a homomorphism of H onto fl.::. Suppose ¢ is a homomorphism of G onto G with kernel K. T ~ S. 'Y > a. That H :) K is trivial. Suppose. x C S. there is a unique subgroup of G of order v". we see that G has 3 distinct subgroups of order 2.

So far we have shown that y.(t) = identity element of VIN = N. so by the very definition of L. Let cf> a homomorpbdm be of G onto G with kernel K. cf>(n) E::: N. so the typical element Ng in VIN can be represented as Ncf>(g) = y. is a homomorphism of G onto VIN with kernel N. there is a homomorphism e of V onto VIH defined by e(g) = Ng. y.17.(ab) = N</>(a)cf>(b)= Ncf>(a)Ncf>(b) = y. THEOREM 2. since cf> is a homomorphism. thus cf>(t)E:::: L.E. We wish to prove one more general theorem about the relation of two groups which are homomorphic. The kernel of y.? Firstly. Then GIN ~ VIH. VIN ~ (GIK)/(NIK). then H is normal in G. in this correspondence. Is there any element t E::: T which is not in L? So.(t) = Ncf>(t). Moreover. We define the mapping y. TeN. The last statement in the theorem is immediate from the observation (following as a consequence of Theorem 2. for if g E::: V. the identity element of VIN. T. M O1"eover.(n) = N cf>(n) = N. this association sets up a one-to-one mapping [rom. which. Comparing these two evaluations of y. cf>(ab) = cf>(a)cf>(b).(g) = N cf>(g)for all g E::: G. is onto. suppose t E::: T. Thus cf>(tl-1) = cf>(t)cf>(l)-l = e. On the other hand. which is the first part of the theorem. If a. GIN ~ (GIK)/(NIK). y.:G -r+ VIN by y. if H is normal in G. which forces cf>(t) E::: N. is a homomorphism of G onto VIN. a normal subgroup of G corresponds to a normal subgroup of G. . But then y.(ab) = Ncf>(ab) by the definition of the mapping y. What is the kernel. However.. That is. whence a:' E::: K c L. has been proved to be equal to N. bE::: G. As we already know. of y. since cf>is onto. Thus we have set up a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all subgroups of G and the set of all subgroups of G which contain K. g = cf>(g)for some g E::: G. cf>(t) = cf>(l)for some l E:::: L. We summarize these few paragraphs in LEMMA 2.d GIN ~ VIN. combined with LeT yields that L = T. N = [z E::: Glcf>(x) E::: HI. proving that NeT. and let be H be a normal subgroup of G. y.(a)y. thus t is in Ll = L. By Theorem 2. if n E::: N. so that y. we arrive at N = N cf>(t). if t E::: T.d) that V ~ GIK.2 Clearly LeT.(g). the set of all subg1"oups of V onto the set of all subgroups of G whwh conionsi K.54 GROUP THEORY CH. Equivalently. N ~ NIK.(t). F01" H a suborowp of V let H be defined by H = Ix E::: Glcf>(x) E::: HI. Let cf> a homomorphiem of G onto G with kernel K. Thus y. Then H is a subg1"oup of G and H ::> K. Proof. To begin with. Equivalently we have proved that TeL. but this places tin N by definition of N. but y.(b).

G = G. yn-Il is normal in G. j = 0. . G as in (c). G = G. . ¢(x) = x5 all x E: G. Let G be the dihedral group defined as the set of all formal symbols x'yJ. 6. . xy = y-Ix.provethatNM/M "'" N/N n M. ¢(x) = 13x for x E: G. ¢(x) = 2:1>. and in those cases in which they are homomorphisms. y" = e. . 1. y E: G}.MarenormalsubgroupsofG. where W = {I. In this case 0 is usually written as G and is called the commutator subgroup of G. G = G. (d) G.) (b) If gug-1 E: U for all g E: G. n . then H is normal inG. 10. Let V be the set of real numbers. (c) If G/N is abelian. In the following. (Hint: Consider the mapping cf>:G ---7 G defined by cf>(y) = y". (b) That GIN"". verify if the mappings defined are homomorphisms. y. g a fixed element in G. Prove that the center of a group is always a normal subgroup. Prove: (a) The subgroup N = {e. determine the kernel. b real. (U is called the subgroup generated by U. (e) G is any abelian group.1 where x2 = e. and for a. Prove that every g E: G can be written as g = z" with x E: G. (b) G. Let G = {Tab [a. 7 PROBLEMS HOMOMORPHISMS 55 1. (a) Prove that G' is normal in G. -I} is the group under the multiplication of the real numbers.. Define cf>: G ---7 G by cf>(x) = gxg-1• Prove that cf> an isomorphism of G onto G. y2. is 3. W. ¢(x) = x2 all x E: G. S. IfN. (a) Given any group G and a subset U. 2. and prove this mapping is an isomorphism of G onto G. b real.:o£ let Tab: V -t V defined by Tab(X) = ax + b.) 4. Prove that a group of order 9 is abelian. Let U = {xyx-Iy-I[X. a. 7...:o£ O] and let N = {TIb E: G}. i = 0. (b) Prove that G/G' is abelian.. Prove there is such a subgroup U in G. (a) G is the group of nonzero real numbers under multiplication.SEC. prove that N ::::> G'. ¢(x) = x + 1 all x E: G. 1. f ° . a. prove that tJ is a normal subgroup of G. (d) Prove that if H is a subgroup of G and H :::> G'. u E: U. let i: be the smallest subgroup of G which contains U. 6. G as in (a). Let G be a finite abelian group of order o(G) and suppose the integer n is relatively prime to o(G). (c) G is the group of real numbers under addition. Let G be any group. 9. Prove that J{ is a normal subgroup of G and that G/N "'" group of nonzero real numbers under multiplication.

then «xT-1)(yT-1»T = «xT-1)T)«yT-1)T) = (xI)(yI) = xv. that if T E:: a(G). If G is a non-abelian group of order 6.56 GROUP THEORY CH. for elements of a(G) we can use the product of A(G). In the preceding section the concept of an isomorphism of one group into another was defined and examined. If x. We want it to be in the smaller set a(G). 1 does not appear an image under ¢ of any element of G. is in a(G). = «xT1)T2)«yT1)T2) That is. thus (xT-1)(yT-1) = (xy)T-r. Of greatest interest to us will be the isomorphisms of a group onto itself. that is. We proceed to verify this. 12. Yet ¢ is not onto. thus if T:S ---t S. Let a(G) denote the set of all automorphisms of G. so. Let I be the mapping of G which sends every element onto itself. By an automorphism of a group G we shall mean an isomorphism of G onto itself. for instance. The special case in which the isomorphism maps a given group into itself should obviously be of some importance. for the image of any integer under ¢ is an even integer. a fortiori. then 2x = 2y whence x = y. TIT2 E:: a(G). If G is abelian and if N is any subgroup of G. and so. If TI. whenever we talk about mappings of a set into itself we shall write the mappings on the right side.(G). There is only one other fact that needs verifying in order that a(G) be a subgroup of A(G). namely. Also if the image of x and y under ¢ are equal. (xy) Tl = (XTl) (yT1). prove that G "" S3. y E:: G. being a subset of A(G). composition of mappings. For all x. itself. Trivially I is an automorphism of G. for groups G do exist which have isomorphisms mapping G into. y E:: G. T2 are in a(G) we already know that TIT2 E:: A(G). namely. then T-1 E:: (1. 8. in a(G). DEFINITION. An obvious fact that we should try to establish is that a(G) is a subgroup of A(G). As we mentioned in Chapter 1. We use the word "into" advisedly. a(G) should be a group. and not onto. x E:: S. placing T-1 in (1. The easiest such example is the following: Let G be the group of integers under addition and define ¢:G ---t G by ¢:x ---t 2x for every x E:: G. therefore (xy)T1T2 = «xy)T1)T2 = «xT1)(yT1»T2 = (x TrT2) (yT1T2). xl = x for all x E:: G. ¢ is a homomorphism. then xT is the image of x under T. Automorphisms. in its own rights. and so. 2 11. Summarizing these remarks we have proved . (xy)T2 = (xT2)(yT2).(G). Also I. ¢ is thus an isomorphism. so a(G) is not empty. prove that GIN is abelian. the set of 1-1 mappings of G onto itself. the unit element of A(G). This product then satisfies the associative law in A(G). Since ¢:x + y ---t 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y.

s Of course. If G is a group. Tg is called the inner automorphism corresponding to g. Then xTg = g-l(X)g = g-l(gyg-l)g = y. Also xoT = Xo-1 . equivalently. So. If the group G is abelian and there is some element Xo E: G satisfying Xo . as yet.) Thus K c Z. Now consider. so that T a . TgO = I. What we should like is a richer sample of automorphisms than the ones we have (namely.c b.c I. LEMMA is also a group. . for any abelian G. XTgh = (gh)-lX(gh) = h-1g-1xgh = (g-lxg)Th = (xTg)Th = xTgTh. xTgo = go-lxgo. (xy)Tg = g-l(xy)g = g-1(xgg-1y)g = (g-lxg)(g-lyg) = (xTg) (yTg). If G is a group having only two elements. then g-lxg = g-lyg. if z E: Z. That is. then xTz = z-lxz = Z-l(zx) (since zx = xz) = x. Z.C I. the set of automorphism. we have no way of knowing that <t(G). Then 1/. bE: G such that ab . we can write down an explicit automorphism. was defined to be precisely all elements in G which commute with every element of G. (See Problem 13. for g.1/. Looking at the start and finish of this chain of equalities we find that T gil. and we should like to have some automorphisms of non-abelian groups. First. Section 5. suppose x E: G. However. 2. so T . Thus for a non-abelian group G there always exist nontrivial automorphisms. but then bTa = a-1ba . for if we consider the mapping 1/. 8 AUTOMORPHISMS 57 of G.c Xo-1. in general.18. If G is non-abelian. the mapping T defined by xT = X-I for all x E: G. then 1/.SEC.. y E: G. Let g(G) = lTgE:<t(G)lgE:G). or. Tg is onto. h E: G. For groups G with more than two elements <t(G) always has more than one element. It is suggestive. This little remark is both interesting and suggestive. We claim that Tg is an automorphism of G.(g) = Tg for every g E: G. But this says that for any x E: G. The computation of Tgh. and so x = go-lxgo for all x E: G. for if xTg = yTg. Let G be a group. so Tg is onto. However. Consequently Tg is a homomorphism of G onto itself. (Verify!) fl(G) is usually called the group of inner cuiomorpbiems of G. the reader should convince himself that <t(G) consists only of I. then <t(G).(g)1/.(h). however. there is a pair a. For any group G. for given y E: G. for x. so by the cancellation laws in G.(go) = I. and suppose go E: K. What is the kernel of 1/. But the center of G. We further assert that Tg is one-to-one. T is onto. might be of some interest. has elements other than I. the class of abelian groups is a little limited. (xy)T = (xy)-l = y-1x-1 = x-1y-l = (xT) (yT). Thus gox = gogo-lxgo = xgo. = T g Til. x = y.c ba. go must commute with all elements of G.(gh) = Tgh = TgTh = 1/. Strangely enough the task of finding automorphisms for such groups is easier than for abelian groups. xTgO = x.?Suppose we call it K.:G ~ <t(G) defined by 1/. for g E: G define Tg:G ~ G by xTg = g-lxg for all x E: G. let x = gyg-l.c Xo. by definition. whence T" = I and so z E: K. is a homomorphism of G into <t(G) whose image is d(G). I). It is of interest because it immediately yields that d(G) is a subgroup of <t(G).

that is.2. x-1aix = cf>(a)i = a3. 1. which implies. aT must have the same order as a (Lemma 2. Thus we need consider only possible images of a under T. l == j mod 7.58 GROUP TREORY CR. j = 0. in this way. g = g' and x-lgix = gTi for all i. 1. If cf>(a)m= e for some o < m < n.. Having proved both K C Z and Z C K we have that Z = K. then cf>(am)= cf>(a)m= e.. By Theorem 2. T}/G ~ group generated by T = cyclic group of order r. and since every element in G is a power of a. and suppose that is a E:: G has order n (that is. that am = e. We close the section by determining a(G) for all cyclic groups. we claim.. We multiply these symbols using the rules: x3 = a7 = e. For if dlt. For instance. This way we obtain a larger group {G. we consider a particular example. If a E:: G is Automorphisms of groups can be used as a means of constructing new groups from the original group. where we assume a7 = e. Summarizing. y. The mapping ¢: ai ~ a2i. since T is an automorphism.d fl(G) ~ G/Z. G consists of all ai. as can be trivially checked. and Z is the center oj G. Suppose that cf> an automorphism of a group G.6 and where we declare that xiai = xkal if and only if i == k mod 3. where d(G) is the group of inner automorphisms oj G. cf>3 I. Then cf>(a)n = cf>(an) = cf>(e)= e. x-lax = a3. T}. Let G be a group and ¢ an automorphism of order o(a) > 0. However. forces t to be relatively prime to r.. If aT is known. Since aT E: G. that is. then o(¢(a» = o(a). a contradiction.20. g E:: G subject to xig = Xi'g' if and only if i == i' mod r. ±2.thus aT has order . G is normal in {G. G = (a). . hence cf>(a)n = e. Let G be a cyclic group of order 7. Thus LEMMA 2.2. pick a symbol x and consider all elements xig. if G is a group. ar = e. 2 Therefore. an = e but for no lower positive power). and this condition. xaxa2 = x(ax)a2 = x(xa3)a2 = x2a5• The reader can verify that one obtains. Before explaining this abstractly. is a homomorphism of G into CX(G) with image fl(G) and kernel Z. Suppose T is an automorphism of G. since aiT = (aT)i. aT = at for some integer 0 < t < r. aiT is determined. Z c K. Let x be a symbol which we = formally subject to the following conditions: x3 = e. T} and {G. is an automorphism of G of order 3.20). since cf>is one-to-one. Generally. i = 0. of G. . Example 1. In order to emphasize this general result we record it as LEMMA 2. . then (aTr/d = at(r/d) = ar(t/d) = (ar)t/~ = e. and consider all formal symbols xiai where i = 0. . ±1. T an automorphism of order r of G which is not an inner automorphism. so gT is determined for all g E:: G = (a). fl(G) ~ G/Z.19. dlr. a non-abelian group of order 21.. Let G be a finite cyclic group of order r.

(a) A subgroup C of G is said to be a characteristic subgroup of G if (C)T c C for all automorphisms T of G. Let G be a group. . 4. G group of positive reals under multiplication. onto a(G). T an automorphism of G. T':» ~ x-1. but there is one which furthermore is an isomorphism. 2. the . and each of these gives rise to an automorphism. ±I. Determine a(G). That is. Hence ti . ±2. 6. T:x ~ x2• G cyclic group of order 12. N a normal subgroup of G. We claim not only is there such a 1-1 correspondence. For G = S3 prove that G """d(G). aT = at. As in Example 1. Let G be a group of order 4. 7. TiTj:a -e+ ai ~ (ai)j = aii. Thus here. a2 = b2 = e. b. what values of t are possible? Since T is an automorphism of G.SEC. Let (H) T = {hT I h E: H}. Let G be a group. ab}. where we assume that ai = e if and only if i = 0. so that ati-1 = e. Clearly. 3. H a subgroup of G. i = PROBLEMS 1.. 8 A UTOMORPHISMS 59 a divisor of rid. 6. ti = 1. Prove (H) T is a subgroup of G. Conversely. t = -1 giving rise to the automorphism T: g ~ g-l for every g in the cyclic group G. . . T an automorphism of G. Thus a(G) is in 1-1 correspondence with the group Ur of integers less than r and relatively prime to r under multiplication modulo r. a(G) """ cyclic group of order 2. The mapping i ~ Ti exhibits the isomorphism of U. Prove that (N)T is a normal subgroup of G. Let us label the elements of a(G) as Ti where Ti:a ~ ai. G is an infinite cyclic group. so that a = gT for some g E: G. T:» ~ x3• (d) G is the group Sa. G consists of all ai. thus TiTj = Tij. since t and i are integers. Here then. mapping S:at ~ a" is an automorphism of G. ab = 00. 0. t = 1 yielding the identity automorphism I. < i < rand relatively prime to r. Prove a characteristic subgroup of G must be a normal subgroup of G. Since aT = at. we must have that a = ati. this must force t = ±I. Thus a = aiT = (aT)i for some integer i. for any < 8 < r and relatively prime to r . Are groups? (a) (b) (c) the following mappings automorphisms of their respective G group of integers under addition.1 = 0. The question now becomes.. G = (e. Suppose that T is an automorphism of G. combined with the fact that a/I' has order r . For any group G prove that d(G) is a normal subgroup of a(G) (the group a(G)/f1(G) is called the group of outer automorphisms of G). it maps G onto itself. which. a. leads us to d = 1. (b) Prove that the converse of (a) is false. T:» ~ -x. that is. ° ° Cl(G) ""< Ur· Example 2.

Let G be a finite group. in this section. prove that M is a normal subgroup of G. consider Tgh» For any x E::: = G. 9. Cayley's Theorem. Very often it was in the form of a set of transformations of some particular mathematical object. Let G be a group. (See Problem 5. Our concern.60 GROUP THEORY CH. Ugh = x(gh) = (xg)h = S . T an automorphism of G with the property that xT = x if and only if x = e. Section 7.) The English mathematician Cayley first noted that every group could be realized as a subgroup of A(S) for some S. Prove that G must be abelian. hE::: G. prove that nlcpCan . Proof. Every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of A(S) for some appropriate S. re is one-to-one. We have proved that for every g E:::G. and the other half form a subgroup H of order n. y E::: and XTg = YTg. so that "e maps S onto itself. If y E:::G. In Problem 12. In fact. N a normal subgroup of G.F (CAYLEY). Prove that xT = X-I for all x E:::G and that G is abelian. Let cp(n) be the Euler cp-function. Prove that every finite group having more than two elements has a nontrivial automorphism. *16. If (I. T an automorphism of G with the property that xT = x for z E:::G if and only if x = e. M a characteristic subgroup of N. can you find an example of a finite group which is non-abelian and which has an automorphism which maps exactly threequarters of the elements of G onto their inverses? *14.2 8. Prove that every g E:::G can be represented as g = x-l(xT) for some x E:::G. 13. by the cancellation property of groups. that is. Prove that H is of odd order and is an abelian subgroup of G. put S = G. For any group G. as subgroups of Sn. r« E:::A(S). then S xg = yg. THEOREM 2. for if x.) 9. If g E:::G define "« :S( = G) ---T S( = G) by XTg = xg for every x E:::G. will be with a presentation of Cayley's theorem and some related results. *15. For the set S we will use the elements of G. Suppose further that T2 = I. If G is a group. (Sn = A(S) when S is a finite set with n elements. *12. 11. that is. Moreover. Let G be a finite group. Let G be a group of order 2n.1). 10. Let G be a finite group and suppose the automorphism T sends more than three-quarters of the elements of G onto their inverses. which. When groups first arose in mathematics they usually came from some specific source and in some very concrete form. implies that z = y. If a > 1 is an integer. prove that the commutator subgroup G' is a characteristic subgroup of G. Suppose that half of the elements of G are of order 2. most finite groups appeared as groups of permutations. then y = (yg-l)g = (yg-l)Tg.

so that for every X E: 8. in particular. Note that we used the associative law in a very essential way here. and. Hb = Heb = He = H. is a homomorphism. so.8 be defined by (Hx)tg = Hxg. We claim that from this characterization of K.f we can easily prove: J (1) tg C A(8) for every g C G. 8 need not be a group itself. A(8) has o(G)1 elements. Thus K = lb C GJHxb = Hx all xC G}. then. we arrive at the identity H ago = H a for every a C G. then N must be contained in K. Finally. one for which A(8) is smaller? This we now attempt to accomplish. for if G is a finite group of order o(G). is huge in comparison to G. namely. n E::: K by our characterization of K. But eTgO = ego = go. by this we mean that if N is a normal subgroup of G which is contained in H. We ask: can we find a more economical 8. Let G be a group.16 if. we can make our group G act on 8 in the following natural way: for g C G let tg:8 -. whence K = (e). Hab = Ha for every a C G. Our group G of order o(G) is somewhat lost in the group A(8) which. it would be a group only if H were a normal subgroup of G.?If go C K. proving the theorem. H a subgroup of G. Thus by the corollary to Lemma 2. That is. and using the definition of tgo' namely. Since every element of 8 is a right coset of H in G. then if. if N is a normal subgroup of G which is contained in H. in particular. XtgO = X. with its o(G) 1 elements. What is the kernel K of if. as in our proof. then ana-1 E::: N c H. a E: G. Therefore. if 1/. If go E::: K. retracing our argument we could show that be K. eTgO = e. Thus comparing these two expressions for eTgo we conclude that go = e. if n E::: N. However. (2) tgh = tgth. in fact. Let 8 be the set whose elements are the right cosets of H in G. for e C G. as a group of mappings.(go) = Tgo is the identity map on 8. On the other hand. Emulating the proof of Theorem 2. From XTgh = XTgTh we deduce that Tgh = TgTh.SEC. That K is a normal subgroup of G follows from the fact that it is the kernel of a homomorphism of G. Can one always say that 8 is an isomorphism? Suppose that K is the kernel of 8.A(8) is defined by if. is an isomorphism of G into A(8). HalgO = Hago. 9 CAYLEY'S THEOREM 61 (XTg)Th = XTgTh. the relation Tgh = TgTh tells us that if. Therefore.(g) = Tg. thus Han = Hafor all a C G. We wish to show this is the case.: G -. so that for x C G. Thus the mapping 8:G -. if b E::: G is such that Hxb = Hx for every x E::: G. we must have that HatgO = Ha for every a E::: G. K must be the largest normal subgroup of G which is contained in H. for if b C K.A(8) defined by 8(g) = tg is a homomorphism of G into A (8). We first explain the use of the word largest. then O(go) = tgO is the identity map on 8. so that Hana-1 = H. The theorem enables us to exhibit any abstract group as a more concrete object. However. using 8 = G. 8 = lHg g E: G}. it has its shortcomings. Now we assert that K c H. . whence bE::: H.

Let S be the set of all right cosets of H in G. then there is a homomorphism 0 of G into A(S) and the kernel of 0 is the largest normal subgroup of G which is contained in H.g cannot be an isomorphism. implying that N = H. that this must be true). For we shall use this observation both as a means of proving certain finite groups have nontrivial normal subgroups. that is. as above. The mapping. of Theorem 2. Then i(H) = 4. of G. If G is a group. Suppose that G has a subgroup H of order 9 (we shall see later that this is always the case). We summarize this as 2. O(G) would have o(G) elements and yet would be a subgroup of A(S) which has i(H)! < o(G) elements.G. . 2 We have proved THEOREM 2. whence O(G) cannot be isomorphic to G. But then.21. This is interesting mostly for finite groups. We examine these remarks a little more closely. Suppose that G has a subgroup H whose index i(H) (that is. which is a prime. that is. If o(G) does not divide i(H)! then by invoking Lagrange's theorem we know that A(S) can have no subgroup of order o(G). its only subgroup other than (e) is itself. the number of right cosets of H in G) satisfies i(H)! < o(G). and also as a means of representing certain finite groups as permutation groups on small sets. we can conclude that H contains a nontrivial normal subgroup of G. LEMMA that Applications (1) Let G be a group of order 36. In particular.f. Then i(H) = 9. If G is a finite group. However. Therefore the kernel of (J must be larger than (e). G cannot be simple. However the argument used above has implications even when i(H) ! is not less than o(G).f). H itself is a normal subgroup of G. Since H is of order 11. The case H = (e) just yields Cayley's theorem (Theorem 2. H must contain a nontrivial normal subgroup of G. 0. hence no subgroup isomorphic to G. this kernel being the largest normal subgroup of G which is contained in H. 4! = 24 < 36 = o(G) so that in H there must be a normal subgroup N ~ (e). then (J must be an isomorphism of G into A(S). other than (e). 0 cannot be an isomorphism. and H ~ G is a subgroup of G such o(G) I i(H)! then H must contain a nontrivial normal subgroup of G. If H should happen to have no normal subgroup of G. In this case we would have cut down the size of the S used in proving Theorem 2.62 GROUP THEORY CH. and since 99 I 9! there is a nontrivial normal subgroup N r= (e) of Gin H. later. That is. A(S) does contain O(G). for if it were. and S is the set of all right cosets of H in G. H a subgroup of G. in it. of order 3 or 9. (2) Let G be a group of order 99 and suppose that H is a subgroup of G of order 11 (we shall also see. of order a divisor of 9.

£.21 prove that a group of order p2. r« as in the proof of Theorem 2. e: PROBLEMS 1. Let G be a group. and consider NCb) = {x E:: Glxb = bx}. contrary to assumption. In other words. 9 CAYLEY'S THEOREM 63 (3) Let G be a non-abelian group of order 6. 9.) *7. and i(H) = 3. 2. Since H has only itself and (e) as subgroups. prove that any group G of order 2p must have a subgroup of order p. (a) If H is a subgroup of G show that for every g E:: G. a} were normal in G. where S is the set of right cosets of H in G. Thus H could not have been normal in G. H has no nontrivial normal subgroups of G in it. there is an a ~ e E:: G satisfying a2 = e. NCb) is a subgroup of G. equivalently. b H. N(b) ~ H since b E:: N(b).SEC. since gag-1 E:: Hand gag-1 ~ e. and that this subgroup is normal in G. Let Ag be defined as in Problem 1. This proof is somewhat long-winded but it illustrates some of the ideas already developed. and N(b) ~ H. If o(G) is pq where p and q are distinct prime numbers and if G has . Since it might be of some interest we go through a detailed proof of this. we would have that gag-1 = a. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup T of order 6 in ACS). or. o(H) 1o(N(b)) 16. T = S. prove that B = Th for some h E:: G. for the moment. b f[ H. Prove that Ag is one-to-one and onto. Using the result of Problem 6. 2 < n ~ 6 which divides 6 is 6. We would have proved that any non-abelian group of order 6 is isomorphic to Sa. must have a normal subgroup of order p. and that Agh = AhAg. h E:: G. prove that any group of order p2 is abelian. Let bE:: G. The only even number n. *6.) a. defined for g E:: G by XAg = gx for all x E:: G. By Problem 11. Th satisfy AgTh = ThAg. making G into an abelian group. gHg-1 is a subgroup of G. then for every g E:: G. 8. All that remains is to show that H is not normal in G. By an earlier problem. that we know that H is not normal in G. Section 3. Suppose. (Hint: if m is an integer. consider the mappings of G into itself. G "'" A(S) = S3. 4. Ag. Show that in a group G of order p2 any normal subgroup of order p must lie in the center of G. Thus every element of G commutes with every other element of G. Using Lemma 2. where p is a prime number. Since o(A(S)) = i(H)! = 3! = 6. (b) Prove that W = intersection of all gHg-1 is a normal subgroup of G. Prove that for any g. If H = {e. 6. whence b commutes with all elements of G. If B is a 1-1 mapping of G onto itself such that Ail = BAg for all g E:: G. (Hint: for x E:: G consider X(AgTh) and X(ThAg). a} is of order 2. that ga = ag for every g E:: G. the mappings Ag. Thus the subgroup H = {e. If p is a prime number. So o(N (b)) = 6. m" == m mod p. Since H is a subgroup of N(b).

for some n. One short cut might be to write ¢ out as where Xik is the image of Xi under ¢. then G is cyclic.1. and. q I p . say. (c) Given two primes p. a finite group G can be represented as a subgroup of Sn. *10. using this symbolic representation of 0 and if. for there seems to be no purpose served by the symbol x. While this notation is a little handier there still is waste in it. p > q are primes. xn. Permutation Groups. 0 takes 1 into iI. 10. q. 241 3 Given two permutations 0. Returning ¢ might be represented by to our example just above. what would the representation of Oif. If ¢ E:: A(S) = Sn.1. We have seen that every group can be represented isomorphically as a subgroup of A(S) for some set S.. Suppose that S is a finite set having n elements x!. This clearly shows that the groups Sn themselves merit closer examination. takes 1 into k. if.. takes il into k. X4 --+ Xa. then ¢ is a 1-1 mapping of S onto itself. X2.2 a normal subgroup of order p and a normal subgroup of order q.64 GROUP THEORY CH. Xa --+ Xl. (b) If q t p . ••• . while if. there exists a non-abelian group of order pq. prove that G is cyclic. Let o(G) be pq. X2 --+ X4. (d) Any two non-abelian groups of order pq are isomorphic. We could equally well represent the permutation as Our specific example would read as ( 1 2 3 4). where Sn is the symmetric group of degree n. prove: (a) G has a subgroup of order p and a subgroup of order q. in Sn. and we could write ¢ out by showing what it does to every element. then Oif. ¢:Xl --+ X2. Then repeat this . But this is very cumbersome.g. in particular. e. be? To compute it we could start and see what Oif. does to Xl (henceforth written as 1).

4 ~ 4. which This equivalence relation by Theorem l. takes 3 into 2. sfJ2. is C If we write 2 213 3 :} :) :} C = o=G and 23 12 23 32 then fJ1/. the representation for fJif. For instance. 3. if S is a finite set and s E: S. then b = aOi. SOl-I). i = 0. PERMUTATION GROUPS 65 procedure by if fJ is the permutation represented and 1/. sO. SOl-I. If we know all the cycles of 0 we clearly know 0 since we would know the image of any element under fJ. Given two elements a. The orbit of sunder 0 then consists of the elements s. By a cycle of fJ we mean the ordered set (s. c = bfJi = (afJi)Oi = afJ. ••• .takes 1 into 2. In particular.= C 1/. ±l. then b = aOi..=G 23 3124 4)C 2 3 4) 1324 23 213 :} This is the way we shall multiply the symbols of the form . thus the orbit of s under 0 consists of all the elements sfJi.:2 ~ 1. b E: S we define a == eb if and only if b = aOi for some integer i (i can be positive.. We call the equivalence class of an element s E: S the orbit of sunder 0. 10 for 2. (3) If a == eb. by G ~ ~ :) then i1 = 3 and 1/... . 802. b == eC. or 0). That is. the equivalence classes.. n. so k = 2 and fJ1/. . whence b == ea. there is a smallest positive integer l = l(s) depending on s such that SOl = 8. so that a = ie:'. n) '" kn Let S be a set and fJ E: A (S).. Similarly 01/. sfJ.SEC. namely.a induces a decomposition of S into disjoint subsets. 3 ~ 3.. . For: (1) a == ea since a = afJo = ae. (2) If a == eb.+i. . ±2. We claim this defines an equivalence relation on S. ••• . implies that a == eC. negative.

Thus again. ••• . 8.. 8. . 4() = 5. 6. 104 = 80 = 5. 2). 2. respectively. . (1. (9) he will obtain o. 238 164 759 what are the cycles of o? We first find the orbit of 1. that of 4 consists of the elements 4.4). We digress for a moment..22. The cycles of 0 are (1. ~ is the product of its cycles.66 GROUP THEORY CH.Suppose that by the cycle (iI. .. 6. 3. and leaves all other elements of S fixed. lOB = 60 = 4. 1()1 = 2. the orbit of 1 is the set {1. 1()2. The = 2. (4.3. (7). 5.). which sends i1 into i2. if S has 9 elements. 1(6) = (1. .. 4}. 40 = 1.4.8 38 164 :)G :} 8 475 :) Let us return to the ideas of the paragraph preceding the last one. That is. orbits of 7 and 9 can be found to be {7}. But this is no accident for it is now trivial to prove LEMMA 2. lOa = 30 = 8. . 2. 4()2 = 50 = 6. (3). The cycles of () thus are (7).. This tells us the orbit of 2 is the same set. The orbit of 3 consists just of 3. and ask. 3. ir-1 into ir and ir into iI. 5. i2. 6 (remember 1 stands for xl! 2 for X2.6) means the permutation G (1 2 234 5678 17 8 6425 :} 234567 23 16 We multiply cycles by multiplying the permutations they represent. Let ()= (1 2 3 4 5 6) 213564 where S consists of the elements 1. ir) we mean the permutation if. Starting with 1. then the orbit of 1 consists of 1 = l()o. given the permutation o= 102 107 (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9). . 403 = 60 = 4. . then the symbol (1. at least in this case. 1()2 = 2() = 1. so the orbit of 1 is the set of elements 1 and 2. etc. 2.. Thus. 5. 10. leaving our particular (). (9). 6.2 Before proceeding we illustrate these ideas with an example. Every permutation is the product of its cycles. 1()5 = 50 = 6.4). i2 into ia . The reader should now verify that if he takes the product (as defined in the last paragraph) of (1. That is. 3)(5 64 1 8) 567 8 =G =G 234 314 5678 75 2 3 4 5 6 7. 9. 2. 1. 10 = = 20 = 3. 2. for instance. {9}. 8. 6).. 3..2. if S consists of the elements 1. 5. namely.

p(xl) For instance. m) = (1. The definition given just insists that 0 have one representation as a product of an even number of transpositions. If the remarks above are still not transparent at this point. Consider the polynomial in n-variables p(XI. DEFINITION. SOl-I).. Then its cycles are of the form (s. take their product. Now. (X4 - X2) (Xl - X2) which can easily be verified to be -P(XlI . Consider the m-cycle (1. Lemma 2.. 2). m). a2) (aI. This decomposition is not unique.. by this we mean that an m-cycle can be written as a product of 2-cycles in more than one way. am). We shall refer to 2-cycles as transpositions. we have proved LEMMA 2. 2.. II (XO(i) - XO(J»' . sO. 0 X2) (Xl XS) (Xl - = (134) (25) takes X4) (Xl - . x". the image of s' E:: 8 under 0. as) . Every permutation is a product of 2-cycles. Frankly. 2. . (1. We first want to show that this cannot happen. . More generally the m-cycle (al. . 1) (3. X5) = (Xl - X5) (X2 - XS) X (X2 - X4) (X2 - X5) (XS . . is the same as the image of s' under the product. . . In doing so the lemma itself will become obvious. find its cycles. Let 0 be the permutation. 3) = (3. the reader should take a given permutation.) = It is clear that O:P(Xb . which is s'o. 2) (1. . hence e = y".. since every permutation is a product of disjoint cycles and every cycle is a product of 2-cycles.. By the multiplication of cycles. m). y" have the same effect on every element of 8. 3) = (1. For instance. we are not happy with the proof we give of this fact for it introduces a polynomial which seems extraneous to the matter at hand. a2.<. (al.' xn) by O:P(Xh . .X5) (X4 . . as defined above. y". • <j If 0 i<i II (Xi E:: 8n let 0 act on the polynomial P(Xb .X5) X4) (X5 Xl) Xl) into (X3 X5) (X3 X4) (X3 Xl) (X3 - X2) (X5 "" X (X5 - X2) (X4 X5). 2) (1. 2. of all the distinct cycles of O. in 85. SO 0.. .• . A simple computation shows that (1. am) = (aI. and since the cycles of 0 are disjoint. permutation 0 E:: 8n is said to be an even permutation if A it can be represented as a product of an even number of transpositions. Perhaps it has other representations as a product of an odd number of transpositions. 3) (1. and verify the lemma.22 is usually stated in the form: every permutation can be uniquely expressed as a product of disjoint cycles.'" Xj) ~ Xn).X4) (X3 . . . . 10 PERMUTATION GROUPS 67 Proof. which is what we sought to prove.SEC.'" Xn) = II(Xi .Xj) . xn) ~ ±p(Xl.23.

2 If. 2 345 1 679 8 1 2 3 4 5 26). We summarize our remarks in LEMMA 2. .. Find the orbits and cycles of the following permutations: (a) (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9). (3) The product of two odd permutations is an even permutation. in any representation it is a product of an even number of transpositions. e:p(Xl' . Perhaps the best way of seeing this is as follows: let W be the group of real numbers 1and -1 under multiplication. An is called the alternating group of degree n. and 3. The kernel of f is precisely An. so that any representation of II as a product of transposition must be such that it leaves P(Xb . This is not a coincidence since this latter rule is used in establishing 1.. Defineif:Sn -7 Wbyf(s) =1 ifsisanevenpermutation. being the kernel of a homomorphism An is a normal subgroup of Sn. (b) ( 6 5 4 3 1 . Let An be the subset of S« consisting of all even permutations. The following facts are now clear: (1) The product of two even permutations is an even permutation. that is. By Theorem 2. xn) fixed. Since the product of two even permutations is even. . PROBLEMS 1. .68 GROUP THEORY CH. since Sn) o (Sn) 2 = o(W) = 0 ( - An = --.xn) -7 -p(Xl. En has as a normal subgroup of index 2 the aUemating group. By the rules 1. eisatransposition. so.. An. coneietau. 3 above if is a homomorphism onto W. 2. An must be a subgroup of Sn. ""xn).24. II must leave P(Xb .. At the end of the next section we shall return to En again.. o(An) we see that o(An) = !n 1. The rule for combining even and odd permutations is like that of combining even and odd numbers under addition. in particular. This establishes that the definition given for an even permutation is a significant one.. of all even permuiaiume. We call a permutation odd if it is not an even permutation. (2) The product of an even permutation and an odd one is odd (likewise for the product of an odd and even permutation).d. 2. xn) fixed. (Verify!) Thus if a permutation II can be represented as a product of an even number of transpositions in one representation. We claim it is normal in Sn. Sn/ An ~ W. f(s) = -1 if s is an odd permutation.

2)a = (3. n . y = (5. .7.2. Prove that A5 has no normal subgroups N ~ (e). . Determine which of the following are even permutations: (a) (1.1.5)(1.8. *14.4)(1. these generate Sn. 8). 11. strangely enough.1). Determine for what m an m-cycle is an even permutation.3)(5.3). 2. it is one of the most difficult. 2) and (1.5)(1. (c) (1. rather. This can sometimes be done by a brute force case-by-case exhaustion but such a routine is invariably dull and violates a mathematician's sense of aesthetics.2.3)(4. A5• 15. (c) Prove that there is no permutation a such that a-I (1. 5. In this great variety one of the most basic tools is counting. prove that any subgroup of A5 has order at most 12.2).5). . . find a permutation a such that a-Ixa = y. (b) (1.5)(1. by counting we do not mean the creation of tables of logarithms or addition tables.. Express as the product of disjoint cycles: (a) (1.2).. Prove that if a normal subgroup of An contains even a single 3-cycle it must be all of An. . deft.. 8. we mean the process of precisely accounting for all possibilities in highly complex situations. 6.4.2)(1.2. containing (1.3)(1. n .9).4)(2. 9.SEC.2.. n)-l = (n.3)(4. Another Counting Principle.2)(1.2) b = (1. 11 ANOTHER COUNTING PRINCIPLE 69 2. 7.3.3)(1.5).2. (2) a = (5. mk? (c) How do you find the order of a given permutation? 7.7. Compute a-Iba where (1) a = (1. . m2. 4.6) (1.) *12.3.2. Yet. Prove that the smallest subgroup of S. Find the cycle structure of all the powers of (1.9)(1.. One prefers the light. Write the permutations in Problem 1 as the product of disjoint cycles.2. . 10. n) is Sn.2.7.3)(1.5). Mathematics is rich in technique and arguments. (a) What is the order of an n-cycle? (b) What is the order of the product of the disjoint cycles of lengths ml.4). (b) (1.2)(3. 3). 11. (a) Given the permutation x = (1.6. (b) Prove that there is no a such that a-l(l. Prove that for n ?:: 3 the subgroup generated by the 3-cycles is An. Assuming the result of Problem 14. delicate touch to the hammer blow. 3)a = (1. *13.5. 2. . 3. But the most serious objection to case-by-case division is that it works far too rarely. Of course. Prove that (1. (In other words. ..8).5). 2. Thus in various phases of mathematics we find neat counting devices which tell us exactly how many elements. 9) b = (1.2.

(1) Since a = e-1ae. y C G. measures the size of the equivalence classes under this relation. we must prove that (1) a r-v a. DEFINITION... a = (X-1)-lb(x-l) and since y = X-I C G and a = y-lby. This kind of an approach will be illustrated in this section.c implies that a /"o. of course.-. in order to establish this.J For a E: G let C(a) = Ix E: Gla.70 GROUP THEORY CH. Suppose that C(a) has Ca elements. hence. b. and shall refer to this relation as conjugacy. one introduces an equivalence relation on a finite set..J r-v C for all a. A great favorite with mathematicians is the process of counting up a given situation in two different ways. c E: G. Generally speaking. Our attention now narrows to the case in which G is a finite group. then b = x-lax for some x E: G.-. Before doing so. z]. We shall write.. We prove each of these in turn. with c = e serving as the c in the definition of conjugacy. it consists of the set of all distinct elements of the form y-1ay as y ranges over G. since xy E: G._. b "" a follows. Substituting for b in the expression for c we obtain c = y-l(x-1ax)y = (xy)-la(xy).25.. Conjugacy is an equivalence relation on G. b . From this simple description there will flow a stream of beautiful and powerful results about finite groups. and then equates the number of elements in the set to the sum of the orders of these equivalence classes.band b "-' c where a. As usual. prove it is an equivalence relation. a a.. (3) a b.. note that o(G) = ~ca where the sum runs over a set of a C G using one a from each conjugate class. then b is said to be a conjugate of a in G if there exists an element c C G such that b = c-lac. (2) If a "" b. Proof. We shall introduce a relation. (3) Suppose that a r.. and then find a neat algebraic description for the size of each equivalence class. b E: G. satisfy certain conditions. (2) a r-« b implies that b r-v a. If a. We seek an alternative description of Ca. a r-« c is a consequence. C(a). /"o. b LEMMA 2. b. Then b = x-lax.2 in some fairly broad context. merely a restatement of the fact that our equivalence relation-con- . c = y-1by for some x. the comparison of the two counts is then used as a means of drawing conclusions. This remark is. the equivalence class of a in G under OUrrelation... for this. a . is usually called the conjugate class of a in G. c in G.

the numbe?' of elements conjugate to a in G is the index of the normalizer of a in G.If a (: G. and so na = an. C(a). (xy)a = x(ya) = x(ay) = (xa)y = (ax)y = a(xy). Our method of proof will be to show that two elements in the same right coset of N(a) in G yield the same conjugate of a whereas two elements in different right cosets of N(a) in G give rise to different conjugates of a. Ca measures the number of distinct x-Iax's. To begin with. Of paramount interest now is an evaluation of Ca. In order to carry this out we recall a concept introduced in Problem 12. Section 5. THEOREM 2. But then N(a) has been demonstrated to be a subgroup of G. so that X-I is also in N(a). Therefore. in consequence of which xy (: N(a). then Ca = o(~~~)) . Were this not the case. is the set N(a) = Ix (: Glxa = ax}. y (: G are in the same right coset of N(a) in G. whence x and y result in the same conjugate of a.H. Proof. the conjugate class of a in G. consists exactly of all the elements x-lax as x ranges over G. Thus y = nx where n (: N(a). v-lay = x-ln-Ianx = x-ln-Inax = x-lax. If. whether it be finite or infinite. since u:' = (nx)-I = x-In-I. and so we put no restrictions on the order of G. In this result the order of G. is of no relevance. from x-lax = v-lay we would deduce that yx-1a = a1lx-1 i this in turn would imply that . Therefore. in other words.SEC. Proof. LEMMA 2. y ~ N(a). the normalizer of a in G. then N(a). Weare now in a position to enunciate our counting principle. Thus xa = ax and ya = ay. N(a) is a subgroup of G. Suppose that x. From ax = za it follows that x-Ia = x-l(ax)x-1 = x-l(xa)x-l = ax-I. In this way we shall have a one-to-one correspondence between conjugates of a and right cosets of N(a). If G is a finite group.26. Since this concept is important-far too important to leave to the off-chance that the student solved the particular problem-we go over what may very well be familiar ground to many of the readers. DEFINITION. Suppose that x. on the other hand. x and yare in different right cosets of N(a) in G we claim that x-lax ~ v-lay. N(a) consists of precisely those elements in G which commute with a. 11 ANOTHER COUNTING PRINCIPLE 71 jugacy-induces a decomposition of G into disjoint equivalence classes-the conjugate classes.

3). 3). There is no point in looking at abelian groups because there two elements are conjugate if and only if they are equal (that is.iugate class. = G.2)(2. We need no artificial constructs to illustrate its use for the results below which reveal the strength of the theorem are themselves theorems of stature and importance. xa = ax for all x E:: G. 2. 3).3. If a E::: Z. 3). (1. However. = {e} 3).3). C(l. 2). Its elements are e. the group S3. using the theorem the corollary becomes The equation in this corollary is usually referred to as the class equation of G.2)(1. Note the SUBLEMMA.2)-1(1. 2.2) = {(1. Before going on to the applications of these results let us examine these concepts in some specific group.3)} (Verify!) = {e. (1. The student should verify that N«l. (1. = ~ca.2. 2. Ca = 1 for every a). 3. Proof. 2). If G is finite.2)(1. . o(G) = 2: o(N(a» o (G) where this sum ?'uns ove?'one element a in each con. We enumerate the conjugate classes: C(e) C(1. contradicting the fact that they are in different cosets. 2).2)} = {(I.2 yx-1 E::: N(a). (2. (1. (1. (1. so that a E::: Z. Let us recall that the center Z(G) of a group G is the set of all a E:: G such that ax = xa for all x E::: G.72 GROUPTHEORY CH.3). 3). = {(I.3) = 2» (1. {e. 3. so that C(1. 3) 2)(1. 2. (2. 3.H. E::: Z if and only if N(a) a only if o(N(a» = o(G). (1. o(N(a» = o(G) is equivalent to N(a) = G. a E::: Z if and Proof.2). whence N(a) = G. xa = ax for all x E::: G. 3. The proof is now complete. (1. (1.3)-1(1. ApPLICATIONS THEOREM OF 2. 2.2) = -i = 3.2. If. C(l.2)} and N«l. 3). Since o(G) immediate.3)-1(1. (2. So we turn to our familiar friend. Theorem 2. 3» = != 2.(1. (1. 2)} (after another verification). 2)}. N(a) = G. If G is finite.h lends itself to immediate and powerful application. COROLLARY. this declares x and y to be in the same right coset of N(a) in G. conversely.3)-1(1.2.

thus z is a positive integer divisible by the prime p. we already know that Z(G) :r= (e) is a subgroup of G so that o(Z(G)) = p or p2. of the right side. letting z = o(Z(G)). Therefore. z > I! But then there must be an element. At any rate. being a divisor of o(G) = pn must be of the form o(N(a)) = pna. hence a divisor of this sum. Proof. since N(a) is a subgroup of G. Z(G) c N(a). Our aim is to show that Z(G) = G. <n for each so that p is a divisor of each term of this sum. z :r= 0. Suppose that o(Z(G)) = p. since there are exactly z elements such that nib = n. o(N(a)). The reader may remember that this theorem was already proved for abelian groups as an application of the results developed in the . in Z(G)! This is the contention of the theorem. Proof. p I (pn - na. then Z(G) = G and we are done.h to prove an important theorem 2 due to Cauchy. Therefore. We now use Theorem 2. since nib term in the "2. Since e E::: Z(G). The only way out is for o(N(a)) = p2.1. o(G) If = p2 where p is a prime number. a contradiction. besides e. Thus N(a) is a subgroup of G.(pnjpna). COROLLARY. 11 ANOTHER COUNTING PRINCIPLE 73 ApPLICATION 1 THEOREM If o(G) 2. ApPLICATION. implying that a E::: Z(G). a t{_ Z(G). We can now simply prove. If o(Z(G)) = p2.SEC. let a E::: G. a result given in an earlier problem. then G is abelian. We get pn = o(G) = "2. a E::: N(a). Thus o(Z(G)) = p is not an actual possibility. then Z(G) :r= (e). as a corollary for this. so that o(N(a)) > p yet by Lagrange's theorem o(N(a)) [o(G) = p2. we find that Now look at this! p is a divisor of the left-hand side. a E::: Z(G) if and only if nib = n. Rephrasing.<np L p:) a = z. Write out the class equation for this G. If a E::: G. the theorem states that a group of prime-power order must always have a nontrivial center. = pn where p is a prime number. however.

Vol. and thus there would be such an element in G. page 119. p t o(N(a» we have that p and so pi since we also have that o(G) I o (N(a» . We seek an element a r' e IE:: G satisfying aP = e. In fact. Thus we may assume that p is not a divisor of the order of any proper subgroup of G. namely. one-paragraph proof of Cauchy's theorem found by McKay and published in the American Mathematical Monthly. so that Z(G) cannot be a proper subgroup of G. we shall make use of this special case in the proof below.] Yet. Let us write down the class equation: '"" o(G) o(G) = o(Z(G» + k-t N(a)r'G o(N(a» Since plo(G). But then G is abelian. a much stronger result. we shall prove.h. To prove its existence we proceed by induction on o (G) . that is. then G has an element of order p.J (CAUCHY). despite all these counter-arguments we present it here as a striking illustration of Theorem 2. To continue our candor. due to Sylow. If for any subgroup W of G. But. p t o(N(a».: N(aJr'G o (N(a) o(G). to be frank. THEOREM 2. L. pi o(G). But. using the barest essentials of group theory in a few lines. We are forced to accept the only possibility left us. if a ([_Z(G). we assume the theorem to be true for all groups T such that oCT) < o(G). we could prove it. We need not worry about starting the induction for the result is vacuously true for groups of order 1. which has Cauchy'S theorem as an immediate corollary.~~») = o(Z(G». then by our induction hypothesis there would exist an element of order p in W. in the very next section.74 GROUP THEORY CH. after all. 66 (1959). . If P is a prime number and p I o(G). 2 section on homomorphisms. we conclude that N~G pi (O(G) - o(. In particular. ZeG) is thus a subgroup of G whose order is divisible by p. ). now we invoke the result already established for abelian groups to complete the induction. W r' G were it to happen that pi o(W). in a manner which completely avoids Theorem 2. were Cauchy's theorem itself our ultimate and only goal. we have assumed that p is not a divisor of the order of any proper subgroup of G. [The reader should look up the charming.h. Proof. that ZeG) = G. This proves the theorem. since N(a) r' G.

.505.. then 811. nr.6)(7) (1 325 647 98 (8. . 2. a2..SEC. n2 ::. . will have exactly pen) conjugate classes. 3)..4.. then.. x". nT. 4) (1. namely. n-. X2.. . + nr• Let pen) denote the number of partitions of n.. (311. X. from by replacing in 5 by 5. Let us determine pen) for small values of n: p(1) = 1 since 1 = 1 is the only partition of 1 = 2 and 2 =1 p(2) = 2 since 2 p(3) p(4) +1 = 3 since 3 = 3. . the symmetric groups 8".. 4 by 7. Once this is proved. n2 ::. a2. 6. 7. 3 = 1 + 2. 4 --7 7. nl ::. ::... = 1 Some others are p(5) = 7. constitute a partition of n if n = nl + n2 + . nl ::. 6 --7 6.9) has cycle decomposition {I. For if 0' = (aI. . p(6) = 11. .. ::. 2 --7 3. to compute fj-1l]'fj replace every symbol in by its image under (J. 3)(4.121. 3 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 5 since 4 = 4. ... ::. n2. . 2. ••• . nl ::. fj-Il]'fj is obtained. Every time we break a given permutation in 8" into a product of disjoint cycles we obtain a partition of nj for if the cycles appearing have lengths nl. 7 by 4. 4 = 2 + 2. . so that I]' I]' I]' (J I]' I]' 0-11]'0 = (5. . 3 --7 1. 2).) and 1" = (al...'). . note that 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 3 = 9.. 4 = 1 + 1 + 2. anI) (bb b2. then n = nl + n2 + . X2..• (Xl. nr} if it can be written as the product of disjoint cycles of lengths nb n2. In other words. 2. . (32. an)«(31. To reach our goal we exhibit a very simple rule for computing the conjugate of a given permutation. We now aim to prove that two permutations in 8" are conjugate if and only if they have the same cycle decomposition. 1. + n We shall say a permutation E:: 8" has the cycle decomposition (nl' n2.. . to determine (J-Il]'fj where (J = (1. 3 by 1.4 4 = + 3. Given the integer n we say the sequence of positive integers nl.. nT..2) ••.. . 11 ANOTHER COUNTING PRINCIPLE 75 We conclude this section with a consideration of the conjugacy relation in a specific class of groups.. . p(6l) = 1. nr· Thus in 89 T• I]' I]' = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) = (1)(2.5. 1 + 1 + 1 + 1. respectively... 7 --7 4. n2. 3}. There is a large mathematical literature on pen). and 2 by 3. (Xl. ..7)(3. n2 ::. . For example. then 1" = (J-lq(J where one . .. . bn) . n. 6 by 6. . since fj:5 --7 5.....3)(4.? Suppose that () sends i --7 S andj --7 tj then fj-Il]'() sends s --7 t. 7) and = (5. How do we find 0-11]'0 where fj E:: 8. . With this algorithm for computing conjugates it becomes clear that two permutations having the same cycle decomposition are conjugate.6. Suppose that E:: 8" and that sends i --7 j.

what elements commute with it? Certainly any permutation leaving both 1 and 2 fixed does. .2)!' But we exhibited 2(n .. 5) (6. Now any n-cycle is conjugate to (1.. 3.. the order of the normalizer of (1. 6) (2. n(n . 2) commutes with itself. Thus the conjugate class of (1. We illustrate this with a very special and simple case.2)! permutations leaving 1 ~nd 2 fixed. 2. 3. . by our rule. 2 could use as fJ the permutation a2 a2 ant anl b1 {3l c al bn2 {3n2 Xl Xl xnr). 2) is a = (1.2)!' That is. We claim this element commutes only with its powers. 2) is 2(n . Xnr Thus. . since o(Sn)/u = number of conjugates of (1. thus the general element a commuting with (1. .I)! =n. the number of partitions of n. n) E:: Sn. Since we have such an explicit description of the conjugate classes in Sn we can find all the elements commuting with a given permutation. 4. . by our counting principle.76 GROUP THEORY CR. .1) o(Sn) r n! r 2 Thus r = 2(n . 2. T is a permutation leaving both 1 and 2 fixed. . As another application consider the permutation (1. replace every element in a given cycle by its image under the conjugating permutation. 2) has in it n(n .2)! elements which commute with (1. then.27.. Given the permutation (1. Thus if u denotes the order of the normalizer of (1.. 4. and this gives rise to n elements. 2) and the (n . for instance..2)! elements in the group generated by (1.I)!. 8) and (7. 2). . n) and there are (n . 8) can be exhibited as conjugates by using the conjugating permutation ( 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) . 2. 2. (1.I)! distinct n-cycles in Sn. n) in Sn = (n . . 7.. 75136248 That two conjugates have the same cycle decomposition is now trivial for. 2)iT where i = 0 or 1. This way we get 2(n .2)! such. n) in Sn. The number of conjugate classes in Sn is pen). to compute a conjugate. Are there others? There are n(n . Certainly it does commute with all its powers.1)/2 elements. 2). u= n! (n . We restate the result proved in the previous discussion as LEMMA 2. There are (n . Also (1. 2) is r. If the order of the normalizer of (1. 2) (3. 2) in Sn..1)/2 transpositions and these are precisely all the conjugates of (1. 5) (1.

12. prove that G must be abelian. r fixed. 1. :::> N. n) having given us n such elements. prove that N n Z. (b) Find the form of all elements commuting with (1. (a) Find the number of conjugates of (1.. .. 6. . r) is of the form a = (1. 4) in Sn. 2. show that there exists an x E: G. (c) Prove that any element a in S. show that every conjugate of a in G is also in N. r n. . 13. .. . 2. 2. 14. 2. + °~ .. 2. . 9. 7' is a permutation leaving all of 1.. 2. x ([ H such that x-1Hx = H. r. 2)(3. r) has in Sn. 11 ANOTHER COUNTING PRINCIPLE 77 So the order of the normalizer of (1. prove that G has a normal subgroup N ~ (e). show that in Sp there are (p . p a prime number.. (c) Using this and the result for Problem 5(b). If o(G) = pn. G. . 6. .= (e) where Z is the center of G.. and if GjZ is cyclic. the alternating group of degree 5. prove that there are ~ ( n! ) distinct r cycles. (a) Find two elements in As. . i = 0. 2. If G is a group. Using Theorem 2.. 10. Prove that any subgroup of order pn-l in a group G of order pn. Prove that a group of order 28 has a normal subgroup of order 7. 3. r)i7' where i = 0. p a prime number. . (a) If N is a normal subgroup of G and a E: N..I)! 1 elements x satisfying xP = e.. n) in Sn is n. which are conjugate in S5 but not in A5• (b) Find all the conjugate classes in A5 and the number of elements in each conjugate class. and H ~ G is a subgroup of G. p a prime number. PROBLEMS 1. is normal in G. 8.. If o(G) = »". (a) In S. 2) (3. Prove that any group of order 15 is cyclic. If o(G) = pn. *11. prove that if o(G) = pn..2. The powers of (1. find the number of conjugates that the r-cycle (1. . 4) in S«. prove that in A5 there is no normal subgroup N other than (e) and A5• 7. If p is a prime number. and if N . If in a finite group G an element a has exactly two conjugates. p a prime number. . 4. r (for some r) such that G = No :::> Nl :::> N2 :::> .r ! (b) Using this. p a prime number. (b) Prove that o(N) = ~ca for some choices of a in N.i as a tool. 1. there is no room left for others and we have proved our contention. n ~ 4. .SEC. which commutes with (1.. = (e) where Ni is a normal subgroup of Ni-1 and where Ni_dNi is abelian. Z its center. then G has a subgroup of order pC< for all a ~ n.. prove that there exist subgroups Ni.= (e) is a normal subgroup of G. .

then G is abelian._ pa + 1) + The question is: what power of p divides (::m)? Looking at this number. 12. subgroup of a finite group is a divisor of the order of that group.. one can see that except for the term m in the numerator. (pOI. Sylow's Theorem. written out as we have written it out. pOI.m: be the set of all subsets of G which have pOI. There are very few theorems which assert the existence of subgroups of prescribed order in arbitrary finite groups. Thus pT I( pam) pOI.pOI.i) is the same as that dividing pOI. and widely used.K (SYLow). THEOREM 2. 1) (pO: _ i) .1) pOl.m .m: (M 1 is a sub- Proof of the Theorem. is false. so all powers of p cancel out except the power which divides m. the power of p dividing (p"m . pam) has ( pOI.78 GROUP THEORY CH. and if pr I m but pr+l t m.. Thus mr . elements. (pOl.m) . (pOl. then G has a o of order p".m where p is a prime number.I (G).i. pages 401--402. Given M b M 2 E: .m _ p")! p"m(pOl. VoL 10 (1959). Lagrange's theorem tells us that the order of a. We present here a very elegant and elementary proof of Sylow's theorem. The converse. the proof in the form we give it is due to Wielandt and appeared in the journal Archiv der Matematik.i) . Prove that if a group G of order 28 has a normal subgroup of order 4. wbgroup Before entering the proof of the theorem proper we digress slightly to a brief number-theoretic and combinatorial discussion..m . If P is a prime number and pO!. The number of ways of picking a subset of k elements from a set of n elements can easily be shown to be (~) = k!(n n~ k)! If n = pOl.. ' pr+l t (pOl. however.. Let . is a classic theorem due to the Norwegian mathematician Sylow. consider pam) ( pOI. elements. The most basic.m) ! = (p")! (pOl.2 15.(pa _ 1) (p"m .

Let {M 1. 1:::. We claim that there is at least one equivalence class of elements in :m:: such that the number of elements in this class is not a multiple of pr+l. . if mI E::MI. . a combination of the problems 21-24 yields their proofs. pm+l t o(G). it must follow that paloCH).:::p". and so oCH) . We shall be vitally concerned with o(H). . We claim that no(H) = o(G). for if pT+1 is a divisor of the size of each equivalence class. The usual Sylow theorem then has two other parts to it: one of these asserts that any two p-Sylow subgroups of are conjugate in a and the other states that the number of p-Sylow subgroups of G is of the form 1 kp. It is immediate to verify that this defines an equivalence relation on :m::.SEC.:::oCH). We shall not go into a proof of these here. . n.{} = M] for some j.:::pO:we have that oCH) = p". Thus pO!. By our very definition of equivalence in mI. . M n l be such an equivalence class in mI where pr+l t n. M. then MIa = Mll M1b = Ml whence MIab = (M1a)b = M1b = MI. we leave the proof to the reader. This proves the theorem. However.. S4. then for all hE:: H mIh E::MI' Thus MI has at least o(H) distinct elements.l~. We let H = {{}E: GI MI{} = Md. b E::H. If pm j o(a).n. namely H. find a 2-Sylow subgroup and a 3-Sylow subgroup. 12 SYLOW'S THEOREM 79 set of G having pO! elements. A subgroup of G of order p". for each i = 1. namely the COROLLARY. However. 2. Combined with oCH) .this pa cannot be the case. M 1 was a subset of G containing pO!elements. where pmj o(G). Clearly H is a subgroup of a. it actually has done more-it has constructed the required subgroup before our very eyes! What is usually known as Sylow's theorem is a special case of Theorem 2. and likewise so is M 2) define M I M 2 if there exists an element {}E::G such that M 1 = M2{}. Now no(H) = o(G) = pam. is called a p-Sylow subgroup oj G.•. of elements m :m::. if {}E: G.. but suggest to him the argument used in the counting principle in Section 11. But then we have exhibited a subgroup of G having exactly p" elements. j :::. for if a. In the supplementary problems. Prove that a group of order 108 must have a normal subgroup of order 9 or 27. a + PROBLEMS 1. pm+l t o(G). then G has a subgroup of order pm.. In the symmetric group of degree 4. then pr+l would be a divisor of the number r"'-' . since pr+I t nand pa+rlP'''m = no(H). Smce :m:: has (pam) pa elements and pT+I t (pam) .

.. then (p . a .. .. 9. Show that the equation x2ax = a-I is solvable for x in a group G if and only if a is the cube of some element in G. = alb DEFINITION. an is an element whose square is the identity..zf (e). 3) is not the cube of any element in Sn. Prove: (a) The quadratic residues mod p form a subgroup Q of the group of nonzero integers mod p under multiplication. 8.+ 1/(p > 3. prove that ala2 . 7. 4. prove that ala2 . prove that G is solvable. y. an.. (c) If q E:: Q. Prove that (1. of order 2. n fl.. . 1. Suppose G is a group such that cf>(x) = xn defines an automorphism of G.80 GROUP THEORY CH. If G is a group and N is a normal subgroup of G such that both N and GIN are solvable. then nq is a nonresidue. 11. 5. prove . If p + + t +. (b) O(Q) =p - 2 1. then nln2 is a residue. (a) If G is a finite abelian group with elements aI. = (e) such that Ni is normal in Ni-l and Ni-dNi is abelian. Q (n is called a nonresidue). such that M . (b) If the G in part (a) has no element of order 2 or more than one element of order 2.. 2 SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS There is no relation between the order in which the problems appear and the order of appearance of the sections. b are integers.1) that p21 a. an-1 is in the center of G. Prove that xax = b is solvable for x in G if and only if ab is the square of some element in G. :::)N. Find all the automorphisms of 83. in this chapter. an = y. (d) If nlJ n2 are nonresidues. (e) If a is a quadratic residue of p then a(p-l)/2 == 1 mod p. which might be relevant to their solution. A group G is said to be solvable if there exist subgroups G = No :::)Nl :::)N2 :::) .... If p is a prime number. prove that pia. an = e. 2. Prove that the homomorphic image of a solvable group is solvable. If p is an odd prime number. Prove that for all a E:: G. (c) If G has one element. the symmetric group of degree 3. If p is an odd prime and if 1 t where a. 3. . then ala2 . (d) (Wilson's theorem). Prove that a subgroup of a solvable group is solvable. 10.1)! == -l(p). 12.zf 0 is said to be a quadratic residue of p if there exists an integer x such that x2 == a mod p. a2. 2.. 6.. No hint is given regarding the difficulty of any problem.. Prove that a solvable group always has an abelian normal subgroup M.

where n I 0 (G). prove that the conjugate class of Sp has 1 + kp distinct subgroups. prove that there is an element c in G whose order is the least common multiple of m and n. If G is a group. 18. Prove: (a) This defines an equivalence relation on the set of subgroups of G. B subgroups of G define A to be conjugate to B relative to H if B = x-lAx for some x E: H. 20. (a) If Sp is a p-Sylow subgroup and B a subgroup of order pic in G. If G is an abelian group and if a. prove that if B is not contained in some conjugate of Sp the number of conjugates in G of Sp is a multiple of p. but do not assume the group to be abelian. p a prime number. Prove that in the integers mod p. (a) If G is a finite group and if Sp is a p-Sylow subgroup of G prove that the number of conjugates of Sp in G is not a multiple of p. of order pk.) . 21. (a) If G is a finite group and if Sp is a p-Sylow subgroup of G of order pm. 12 SYLOW'S THEOREM: 81 13. is a multiple of n. (c) Prove that N(N(Sp» = N(Sp)' 22. there are at most n solutions of xn == 1 mod p for every integer n. (b) If Sp is a p-Sylow subgroup of G and if a.SEC. For A. (b) If N(A) = {x E:: Glx-1Ax = A} then there is a one-to-one correspondence between the right-co sets of N(A) in G and the distinct conjugates of A. Prove: (a) The relation of being conjugate is an equivalence relation on the set of subgroups of G. define A to be conjugate to B if B = x-lAx for some z E: G. prove that if both A and N are solvable then so is AN. (Hint: Use part (b) of Problem 20 and Problem 21. 19. Same as Problem 17. 17. (This is the second part of Sylow's theorem. then a E:: Sp. Give an example of a non-abelian group in which (xy)3 = X3y3 for all x and y. n. In the finite abelian group G prove that the number of solutions of xn = e. 16. bin G have orders m. 16. (b) Using part (a) and Problem 22. (c) Prove that any two p-Sylow subgroups of G (for the same prime p) are conjugate. (b) The number of subgroups of G conjugate to A relative to H equals the index of N(A) n H in H.) 23. 14. respectively. If A and B are subgroups of G. Let G be a finite group and H a subgroup of G. prove that Sp is the only subgroup of G of order pm lying in N(Sp). (b) Breaking up the conjugate class of Sp further by using conjugacy relative to Sp. is in N(Sp) . prove that B must be contained in some conjugate of Sp. A a subgroup of G and if N is a normal subgroup of G.

1911. Mathematical Monthly.1. . SEGAL. is of the form np = 1 + kp.. Using Problems 22 and 2:3." Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. . prove its 7-Sylow subgroup is a normal subgroup. The Macmillan Company.. page 119. New York.) 25. (This is the third part of Sylow's theorem. prove that a group of order less than 60 either is of prime order or has a nontrivial normal subgroup. 1959. 30. Theory of Groups. (a) Using Problem 24 prove that if o(G) = 36 then G has either 1 or 4 3-Sylow subgroups. In the latter case. page 565. HALL. the number of p-Sylow subgroups in G.MARSHALL.1) prove that a group of order pq is cyclic. Second Edition. 27. 26.. prove that np. Prove that a group of order 48 must have a normal subgroup of order 8 or 16." American H. If o(G) = 42. New York. 31.82 GROUP THEORY CH. Inc. Show that a group cannot be written as the set-theoretic union of two proper subgroups. (c) Prove that any two non-abelian groups of order pq are isomorphic. Supplementary Reading BURNSIDE. (a) If p > q are distinct primes. Cambridge. CamW bridge University Press. 46 (1940). Making a case-by-case discussion. 1955. JAMES "Another proof of Cauchy's group theorem. England. prove it has a normal subgroup of finite-index.2 24. prove that a group of order pq is solvable. If G is a group and if a E: G has finite order and only a finite number of conjugates in G prove that these conjugates generate a finite normal subgroup of G. If a group G has a proper subgroup of finite-index.. Dover Publications. Theory of Groups of Finite Order. E. 32. 28. "The automorphisms of the symmetric group. Topics for Class Discussion McKAy. Vol. 66 (1959). 29. prove that the 2-Sylow subgroup of G must be normal in G. (b) If o(G) = 56 prove that G has 1 or 8 7-Sylow subgroups. (b) If q t (p . Vol. using the results developed in the chapter.

(b c) = a-b a-c and (b c)·a = b-a c-a (the two distributive laws). a. later on in the book. (2) a b=b a. etc. We shall see that they are patterned after. the algebraic aspects of the ordinary integers. It is our purpose now to introduce and to study a second such. normal subgroups. (3) (a b) c=a (b c).CHAPTER 3 Ring Theory 1. these operations are usually called addition and multiplication. of a set onto itself. the set of integers.(b . namely groups. Definition and Examples of Rings. At this stage of the development we have learned something about one of these. As we indicated in Chapter 2 there are certain algebraic systems which serve as the building blocks for the structures comprising the subject which is today called modern algebra. To cite merely one instance. DEFINITION. despite the differences. using the tools developed here. intertwine them with meaningful theorems. or permutations. c in R: > (1) a b is in R. denoted by + and respectively such that for all a. a-b is in R. and end up proving results which are both interesting and important about mathematical objects with which we have had long acquaintance. and are generalizations of. rings stem from another. c) = (a· b) . the analysis of rings will follow the pattern already laid out for groups. a. factor groups. and more familiar source. There exists an element -a in R such that a + (-a) = O. we shall prove that it is impossible to trisect an angle of 60° using only a straight-edge and compass. We shall require the appropriate analogs of homomorphism. namely rings. (4) There is an element 0 in R such that a (5) (6) (7) (8) + 0 = a (for every a in R). With the experience gained in our study of groups we shall be able to make the requisite definitions. + + + ++ ++ + + + + 83 . In contrast. c. b. Yet. A nonempty set R is said to be an associative ring if in R there are defined two operations. In the next paragraph it will become clear that a ring is quite different from a group in that it is a two-operational system. The abstract concept of a group has its origins in the set of mappings.

If the multiplication of R is such that a· b = b. + is the usual addition and . Whenever we speak of ring it will be understood we mean associative ring. I. . the elements of R are the seven symbols 0. 4 + 5 = 2 since 4 + 5 = 9. which. "6 where: (1) 'i + J = if. 4. EXAMPLE 2. or not happen. b in R then we call R a commutative ring.a for every a. for instance. but we shall have no occasion to consider them. Motivated by these examples we shall define various special types of rings which are of importance. Before going on to work out some properties of rings. positive. R is the set of integers mod 7 under the addition and multiplication mod 7.84 RING THEORY CH. (2) i·J = iii where m is the remainder of ij on division by 7 (thus. The student should verify that R is a commutative ring with unit element. from 0 form an abelian group under property is called a field. 2. 3. Axiom (8) serves to interrelate the two operations of R. R is a commutative ring but has no unit element. element. R is a commutative ring with unit element. and 0. numbers under the usual addition and R is a commutative ring with unit note that the elements of R different multiplication. that is. That is. where k is the remainder of i + j on division by 7 (thus. EXAMPLE 3. R is the set of integers. that there is an element 1 in R such that a·1 = 1· a = a for every a in R. " which we call multiplication. if there is such we shall describe R as a ring with unit element. leaves a remainder of 2). EXAMPLE 1. R is the set of rational multiplication of rational numbers. A ring with this latter EXAMPLE 4. we pause to examine some examples. those in which axiom 7 may fail to hold do occur in mathematics and are studied. 5·3 = I since 5·3 = 15 has 1 as a remainder on division by 7). negative. 5. the usual multiplication of integers. But even more than that. R is the set of even integers under the usual operations of addition and multiplication. Axioms (6) and (7) insist that R be closed under an associative operation. N onassociative rings. It may very well happen.3 Axioms (1) through (5) merely state that R is an abelian group under the operation + which we call addition. when divided by 7.

simple rules. 1 DEFINITION ANDEXAMPLES F RINGS 85 O However.. end of Section 2).j=l L: 2 ~ijeij = i. If we denote the elements in R by 0. (3) where 'Yif = L: v=l 2 ~iv!3vj = ~i1!31j + ~i2!32j. 2. multiply '1:t~ijeij by out term by term. Since it only has a finite number of elements it is called a finite field. I.f=l L: 2 (~ij + !3ij)eij.. .j=l L: 2 !3ijeij if and only if for all i. first seen. since: 1·1=1=6·6 2·4 = I = 4·2 3·5 = I = 5·3 the nonzero elements of R form an abelian group under multiplication. EXAMPLE R will be the set of all symbols 6. ° Every example given so far has been a commutative ring. e.e and 3 =..1· ejl = eil in this term by term .j=l L: 2 ~ijeij + L: i. . R is thus a field. when it is founded on relatively '1:t!3ijeij formally. This cannot happen in a field (see Problem 10. tion mod 6. one sees that 2·3 = 0. 5.SEC. Thus it is possible in a ring R that a. This multiplication. looks rather complicated. namely. } (2) = 1. multiplying using the relations eij' ekl = collecting. EXAMPLE R is the set of integers mod 6 under addition and multiplica5. i. ~22e22 ~l1el1 + ~12e12 + ~21e21 + = L: i. ~ii = !3ij. yet 2 =. and collecting terms.e k. We now present a noncommutative ring. However. much more can be shown.e 0.i=-l 2 ~ije'J where all the ~ij are rational numbers and where we decree: (1) .b = 0 with neither a = 0 nor b = O. 2. and 0 for} =. namely.j=l 2 !3ijeij = .. thus the ring R in Example 5 is certainly not a field.

We assert that C is an abelian group under this operation with (0. (3) = (')I. Now that C is endowed with an addition. +8 . (3). In C we introduce an addition by defining for x = (a. ao + (3')1).3e21 'e12 =0 + 3e12 3e22 + e22 + 0 2e22' = 3e12 - + e22 = 3e12 - Note that e11 . if X = (a. O)·X = X so that (1. and its relatives.86 RING THEORY a CH. Let C be the set of all symbols (a.e21 ·e22 -. The student should verify that R is indeed a ring. and (-a. fJ)· ( a a 2 +8 2' a 2 -fJ) 2 = (1.(30. 0) then. y = (')I. 0) in C X·y = (a. 0) is a unit element for C. We achieve this by defining: for X = (a. 0) = (a + 1'. a2 + (32 ~ 0 thus is in C. 0) serving as the identity element for addition. since a. 0) (2) x +y = (a. of Ca. (3 are real numbers. Again we notice that X· Y E:: C. It is called the ring of 2 X 2 rational matrices.0). (3)'(')1. Also. Also it is possible for u· v = 0 with u ~ 0 and v ~ O. under addition. (3) ~ (0. EXAMPLE 7. (3 are real and not both 0. .3 To illustrate the multiplication. Y (3) = (1'. Thus the multiplication in R is not commutative. Note that X· Y = Y ·X. e12 = e12 whereas e12' ell = 0. in order to make of C a ring we still need a multiplication. (3 + 0). 0) = (a1' . Note that x + y is again in C. will occupy a good deal of our time later on in the book. Also X· (1. 0) if and only if a = ')I and (3 = o.(3) as the inverse. (3). if then a-b = (en -e21 = ell -- e21 + e22 and b = e22 + 3e12 + ed· 0 -- (e22 + 3ed + e22·e22 + 3e22·e12 = ell ·e22 + 3e11 ·e12 -3e22 -. Finally we see that (a. 0) = (1. It. (3) + (')I. We define: (1) (a. (3). (3) where a.

SEC. however. jk = i. 1. today its primary interest is that of an important example. 1 DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF RINGS 87 All in all we have shown that C is a field. It comes from multiplying out two such symbols formally and collecting terms using the relations: i2 = P = k2 = ijk = -1. Admittedly this formula for the product seems rather formidable. jk = -kj = i. This ring was first described by the Irish mathematician Hamilton. . and aa are real numbers. ±j. as you go around clockwise you read off the product. e. Initially it was extensively used in the study of mechanics.g. ki = i.a2f31)k.alf3a)j + + + + aak)· (f3o f31i (aof3l + alf30 (aof33 0l3f30 + + + f32j + (3ak) = + a2f33 . The latter part of these relations. 3. alJ a2. ±k form a non-abelian group of order 8 under this product. We declare two such symbols. ki = -ik = [. X + Y = (010 + ali + a2j + aak) + (!30 + !31i + !32i + f3ak) = (010 + !3o) + (al + f3l)i + (a2 + f32)j + (aa + f3a)k and (2) X· Y = (ao (aof3o . called the multiplication table of the quaternion units. (3) as a + !3i the reader may verify that C is merely a disguised form of the familiar complex numbers. while going around counterclockwise you read off the negatives.for its elements. ij = -ji = k.a3!33) 0l3!3l .aa(32)i + + alf32 .. EXAMPLE 8. Notice that the elements ±1. although it still plays key roles in geometry and number theory. This last example is often called the ring of real quaternions. 2. can be remembered by the little diagram. In order to make Q into a ring we must define a + and a. it looks much more complicated than it actually is. ij = k. To this end we define: (1) for any X = 010 + ali + a2i + ask.0l1!31 (aof32 a2!3o + + + ali 0l2j 0l2f32 . If we write (a. ao + ali + azi + 0l3k and !30 + (31i + !32i + f33k to be equal if and only if at = f3t for t = 0. ±i. Let Q be the set of all symbols ao + ali + azi + a3k where all the numbers ao. Y = f30 + !3li + f32j + f3ak in Q.

b ~ 0. A simple computation now shows that X· Y = 1. The investigation of the nature of division rings. Thus the nonzero elements of Q form a non-abelian group under multiplication.b = 0 with neither a nor b being zero. Q affords us a division ring which is not a field. A commutative ring is an integral domain if it has no zero- divisors.k ~ Q. A ring in which the nonzero elements form a group is called a division ring or skewfield.{3 {3 i. but we would be going too far afield to present one here. {3 = a02 a1 a2 2 (X. and the inverse of an element a under multiplication will be denoted by a-I.a ~ 0 follows. 3 The reader may prove that Q is a noncommutative ring in which Oi Od Ok and 1 = 1 Oi o.. naturally enough. a2. All these run counter to our experience heretofore. A ring is said to be a division ring if its nonzero elements form a group under multiplication.b ~ b· a. Of course. Now if X = ao ali a2d ask is not 0.- d . a3 are 0.band merely write this product as abo DEFINITION. DEFINITION. If R is a commutative ring then a ~ 0 E:= R is said to be a zero-divisor if there exists a b ~ R. aI. Natural examples exist where a.i Ok serve as the zero and unit elements respectively. 2. Thus o =0 +++ +++ ++ a2 {3 as {3 + + + + y ao al =. The unit element under multiplication will be written as 1. is an example of an integral domain.. a commutative division ring is a field. For instance we have seen the possibility of a. For simplicity of notation we shall henceforth drop the dot in a. Some Special Classes of Rings.88 RING THEORY CH. since they are real. . Many other examples of noneommutative division rings exist. The examples just discussed in Section 1 point out clearly that although rings are a direct generalization of the integers certain arithmetic facts to which we have become accustomed in the ring of integers need not hold in general rings. and the attempts to classify them form an important part of algebra. Finally we make the definition of the ultra-important object known as a field. The ring of integers. such that ab = O. then 2 2 not all of ao. DEFINITION.

Oa = (0 + O)a = Oa + Oa. So on with it: (-a)(-b) = -Cae-b»~ = (-a)b = -Cab). then a + (-l)a = 1a (-l)a = (1 (-l»a = Oa = 0. 1. then (4) (-l)a = -a.. (2) In order to show that a( -b) = . If. complex numbers. Similarly. (1) aO = Oa = O. In particular. then for all a. whence (-l)a = -a. (2) a( -b) = (-a)b (3) (-a)(-b)=ab. keeping in mind always that there are differences-it may happen that ab . But ab + a(-b) = a(b + (-b» = aO = 0 by use of the distributive law and the result of part (1) of this lemma. and since R is a group under addition.b) = ab is really a special case of part (2).which establishes part (5).SEC. Similarly (3) That (. To this end we prove the next lemma which asserts that certain things we should like to be true in rings are indeed true. if a = -1. (1) If a E: R.1. LEMMA 3. then aO = a(O + 0) = aO + aO (using the right distributive law). 2 SOME SPECIAL CLASSES OF RINGS 89 DEFINITION. Oa = 0 follows. this equation implies that aO = O. (5) (-1) (-1) = 1. + + . we exhibited the noncommutative division ring of real quaternions and the following fields: the rational numbers. We wish to be able to compute in rings in much the same manner in which we compute with real numbers. In our examples in Section 1.zf ba. we single it out since its analog in the case of real numbers has been so stressed in our early education in grade school.a) ( . (-1)(-1) = -(-1) = 1. using the left distributive law. A field is a commutative division ring. or that one cannot divide.(ab) we must demonstrate that ab + a(-b) = O. b E: R = -Cab). Chapter 5 will concern itself with fields and their properties. R has a unit element. If R is a ring. and the integers mod 7. (4) Suppose that R has a unit element 1. and so here too. (by part (2» (by part (2» -(-Cab» = ab since -( -x) = xis a consequence of the fact that in any group (U-1)-1 = u. Proof. in addition.

then some place receives at least two objects. We claim that they are all distinct! For supposethatxia=xjafori~}jthen (Xi . So let us proceed to results of greater interest. stated otherwise. does it? Yet it will surprise us! Mathematical ideas can often be very difficult and obscure. In particular. X2. this forces Xi . Let D be a finite integral domain. provides a mighty weapon when wielded properly. As we may recall. Let Xl. Xn be all the elements of D. a = xioa for some XioE: D. Before we do so we enunciate a principle which.. Xna are n distinct elements lying in D which has exactly n elements. on the other hand. By the pigeon-hole principle these must account for all the elements of D. ••• .xj)a=O. Consider the elements Xla. We immediately make use of this idea in proving LEMMA 3. We formalize it and even give it a name.• . An equivalent formulation. For convenience. every element y E: D can be written as Xia for some Xi. is not very exciting. . X2a. though completely trivial. and one which we shall often use is: If n objects are distributed over n places in such a way that no place receives more than one object then each place receives exactly one object. (2) for every element a ~ 0 E: D produce an element b E: D such that ab = 1. an integral domain is a commutative ring such that ab = 0 if and only if at least one of a or b is itself O. is a commutative ring with unit element in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse in the ring. X2a. from now on. a = xioa = . and so Xi = Xii contradicting i ~ i. If n ob}ects are distributed over m places.Xj = 0. feel free to compute with negatives and 0 as we always have in the past. In order to prove that D is a field we must (1) produce an element 1 E: D such that a1 = a for every a E: D. but no such argument can be made against this very simple-minded principle given above. This principle says no more or less than the following: if a postman distributes 101 letters to 100 mailboxes then some mailbox must receive at least two letters. while it is very useful and important. Since D is commutative.Thus Xla. and suppose that a ¢ 0 E: D. A finite integral domain is a field. a + (-b) will be written as a-b. since a E: D.90 RING THEORY CH. xnaj they are all in D. ••. Proof. 3 With this lemma out of the way we shall. The result of Lemma 3. .2. Since D is an integral domain and a ~ 0.1 is our permit to do so. It does not sound very promising as a tool. A field. THE PIGEON-HoLE and if n >m PRINCIPLE. The lemma just proved.

If every x E: R satisfies x2 = x prove that R must be commutative. there exists abE: D such that 1 = ba.:of a E: D and m is an integer can only hold if m = O.SEC. rna = O. Find the form of the binomial theorem in a general ring. that is. since it only has a finite number of elements. in other words. bE: R then (a + b)2 = a2 + ab + ba + b2. By the lemma it is enough to prove that Jp is an integral domain.:of 0. Show that the commutative ring D is an integral domain if and only if for a. as we have seen. (Hint: expand (a + b)(l + 1) in two ways. 2. merely considering it as an abelian group under its addition we have. d E: R evaluate (a + b)(c + d). If a. Proof. b. If R is a ring. b. P is a prime number then J 1'. If R is a system satisfying all the conditions for a ring with unit element with the possible exception of a + b = b + a.:of 0 in D. (A ring in which X2 = x for all elements is called a Boolean ring. The characteristic of D is then defined to be the smallest positive integer p such that pa = 0 for some a . prove that the axiom a + b = b + a must hold in R and that R is thus a ring. . hence in J1' one of these is O.) 5. Now 1 E: D so by our previous argument. Thus Xio is a unit element for D and we write it as 1. 7. being a prime must divide a or b. thering of integers mod p. if y E: D. COROLLARY. c. D is said to be of finite characteristic if for some a .:of 0 in D and some integer m . it too is realizable as a multiple of a. y = Xia for some Xi E: D. m are integers then (na)(mb) = (nm) (ab). b E: Rand n. An integral domain D is said to be of characteristic 0 if the relation ma = 0 where 0 . 2 axiO' SOMESPECIAL CLASSES F RINGS 91 O We propose to show that Xio acts as a unit element for every element of D. 3. PROBLEMS R is a ring in all the problems. Prove that if a. But then either a == 0 mod p or b == 0 mod p. where n is a positive integer. Prove that if a. 4. in Chapter 2. For. Prove: (a) If D is of characteristic p then px = 0 for all x E: D. where by X2 we mean xx. find an expression for (a + b)1l. 6. and so p. b E: 11' and ab == 0 then p must divide the ordinary integer ab. (b) The characteristic of an integral domain is either 0 or a prime number. defined what is meant by na where a E: R and n is an integer. is a If field. c E: D with a . and so yXio = (Xia)xio = Xi(axio) = Xia = y.:of 0 the relation ab = ac implies that b = c. 1. If a.) 8. The lemma is now completely proved.

then ¢(1) = I' is indeed true. Homomorphisms. Using the pigeon-hole principle prove that if m and n are relatively prime integers and a and b are any integers. Since a ring has two operations.) 12. become repeating. for groups a homomorphism was defined as a mapping such that ¢(ab) = ¢(a)¢(b). ¢ is a homomorphism of R into R' then ¢(O) = (2) ¢( -a) = -¢(a) for every a E:: R. 10. To recall. As in the case of groups let us again stress here that the + and . R'.3. In particular. a + m. A useful observation to make is that a homomorphism of one ring. . all the properties about homomorphisms of groups proved in Chapter 2 carryover. A mapping ¢ from the ring R into the ring R' is said to be a homomorphism if (1) ¢(a (2) ¢(ab) + b) = = ¢(a)¢(b) ¢(a) + ¢(b) for all a. after some point. Therefore. at least a homomorphism of R into R' when we consider them as abelian groups under their respective additions. a 2m. Prove that any field is an integral domain. b E:: R. R.l)m on division by n.. what could be a more natural extension of this type of formula than the DEFINITION. (Hint: consider the remainders of a. This suggests that the appropriate analog for rings could also lead to important ideas. Prove that Lemma 3.. . or if R' is arbitrary but ¢ is onto. Using the pigeon-hole principle prove that the decimal expansion of a rational number must.3 9. In studying groups we have seen that the concept of a homomorphism turned out to be a fruitful one.92 RING THEORY CH. (1) If O. into another. 11. A word of caution: if both Rand R' have the respective unit elements 1 and l' for their multiplications it need not follow that ¢(1) = 1'. merely restating Lemma 2. a (n . if R' is an integral domain. However. there exists an integer x such that x == a mod m and x == b mod n. . as far as addition is concerned. is. if we totally ignore the multiplications in both these rings.14 for the case of the additive group of a ring yields for us LEMMA 3.2 is false if we drop the assumption that the integral domain is finite. + + 3. occurring on the left-hand sides of the relations in (1) and (2) are those of R whereas the + and· occurring on the right-hand sides are those of R'.

For this reason the emphasis is given to the operation of addition in the ring.4. ¢ is a homomorphism of J(0) onto J(-\/2) and its kernel I(¢). is the set of all elements a €: R such that ¢(a) = 0. Let J be the ring of integers. as an additive group. given a homomorphism we associated with this homomorphism a certain subset of the group which we called the kernel of the homomorphism. Let Rand R' be two arbitrary rings and define ¢(a) = 0 for all a € R. the choice is clear. suppose that a€: J(r/».If ¢ is a homomorphism of R into R' then the kernel of ¢. r E::: R. LEMMA 3. (Verify!) Define ¢:J(0) ~ J(0) by ¢(m + nyl2) = m .1. To see (2). addition and multiplication. Before proceeding we examine these concepts for certain examples. The ring multiplication was left much more unrestricted.nyl2. 3 HOMOMORPHISMS 93 In the case of groups. and so. in a sense. Define ¢:J ~ In by ¢(a) = remainder of a on division by n. the ring has two operations. as an additive group. Trivially ¢ is a homomorphism and J(¢) = R. ¢ is called the G-homomorphism. Example 2. R' = R and define ¢(x) = x for every x E::: R. Clearly ¢ is a homomorphism and J(¢) consists only of O. Let J(0) be all real numbers of the form m + n0 where m. Similarly ¢(ra) = O. However. into R'. and we make the DEFINITION. the ring of integers modulo n. I(¢). Built into the definition of an arbitrary ring is the condition that the ring forms an abelian group under addition. What should the appropriate definition of the kernel of a homomorphism be for rings? After all. the zero-element of R'. J (0) forms a ring under the usual addition and multiplication of real numbers. Since ¢ is. much less under our control than is the addition. a homomorphism of R. consists only of O. Example 3. Proof. Let R be a ring. Thus by the defining property of J(¢) both ar and ra are in J(¢). (2) If a €: J(¢) and r €: R then both ar and ra are in I(¢). (1) follows directly from our results in group theory. (Verify!) Example 4. Then ¢(a) = 0 so that ¢(ar) = ¢(a)¢(r) = O¢(r) = 0 by Lemma 3.SEC. Example 1. n are integers. and it might be natural to ask which of these should be singled out as the basis for the definition. J n. in particular. The . If ¢ is a homomorphism of R into R' with kernel I(¢) then: (1) I(¢) is a subgroup of R under addition.

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