Bhagavad Gita

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Krishna and Arjuna at Kurukshetra, 18–19th century painting.

The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit भगवदगीता, Bhagavad Gītā, "Song of God"), also more simply known as Gita, is a sacred Hindu scripture,[1][2]considered among the most important texts in the history of literature and philosophy.[3] The Bhagavad Gita comprises roughly 700 verses, and is a part of the Mahabharata. The teacher of the Bhagavad Gita is Lord Krishna, who is revered by Hindus as a manifestation of God (Parabrahman) himself,[3] and is referred to within as Bhagavan, the Divine One.[4] The content of the Gita is the conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra war. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins, Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic[5] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu theology and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. During the discourse, Lord Krishna reveals His identity as the Supreme Being Himself (Svayam Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of His divine universal form.

The Bhagavad Gita is also called Gītopaniṣad, implying its having the status of an Upanishad, i.e. a Vedantic scripture.[6] Since the Gita is drawn from the Mahabharata, it is classified as a Smṛiti text. However, those branches of Hinduism that give it the status of an Upanishad also consider it a śruti or "revealed" text.[7][8] As it is taken to represent a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is also called "the Upanishad of the Upanishads".[1] Another title is mokṣaśāstra, or "Scripture of Liberation".[9]

• • •

1 Date and text 2 Prelude 3 Background

○ ○

3.1 War as allegory 3.2 Overview of chapters

4 Scripture of Yoga

4.1 Major themes of yoga

4.1.1 Karma Yoga

4.1.2 Bhakti Yoga

4.1.3 Jnana Yoga

○ • • • • • • • •

4.2 Eighteen Yogas

5 Message or the summary of the Gita 6 Influence 7 Commentaries and translations 8 Adaptations 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

edit]Date and text

Bhagavad Gita, a 19th century manuscript.

Further information: Mahabharata The Bhagavad Gita occurs in the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata and comprises 18 chapters from the 25th through 42nd and consists of 700 verses.[10] Its authorship is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, the compiler of the Mahabharata.[11][12] Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40.[13] According to the recension of the Gita commented on by Shankaracharya, the number

[22] [ edit]Prelude Main articles: Mahabharata.[1][21] Swami Vivekananda dismisses concerns about differences of opinion regarding the historical events as unimportant for study of the Gita from the point of acquirement of Dharma.[18][19] Within the text of the Bhagavad Gītā itself. using the range and style of Sanskrit meter (chhandas) with similes and metaphors.[20] Although the original date of composition of the Bhagavad Gita is not clear.[11][15][16] Radhakrishnan. but there is evidence to show that old manuscripts had 745 verses. The Bhagavad Gītā appeared later than the great movement represented by the early Upanishads and earlier than the period of the development of the philosophic systems and their formulation.[14] The verses themselves. The date and authorship of the Gītā are not known with certainty and scholars of an earlier generation opined that it was composed between the 5th and the 2nd century BCE. and Juan Mascaro. Lord Krishna states that the knowledge of Yoga contained in the Gītā was first instructed to mankind at the very beginning of their existence.of verses is 700. John Brockington has now made cogent arguments that it can be placed in the first century CE.[17] Based on claims of differences in the poetic styles some scholars like Jinarajadasa have argued that the Bhagavad Gītā was added to the Mahābhārata at a later date. and Krishna . for example.[11] More recent assessments of Sanskrit literature. Kurukshetra war. however. its teachings are considered timeless and the exact time of revelation of the scripture is considered of little spiritual significance by scholars like Bansi Pandit. asserted that the origin of the Gītā is definitely in the pre-Christian era. have tended to bring the chronological horizon of the texts down in time. are written in a poetic form that is traditionally chanted. In the case of the Gītā.

jealous of his five cousins. Pandu andDhritarashtra. Duryodhana. recorded in the Mahābhārata. Nakula. Duryodhana being the eldest. and many other knightly traits. and lustful. The Pandavas were endowed with righteousness. greedy. self-control. contrived various means to destroy them. The Kaurava brothers were one hundred in number. two families of royal cousins descended from two brothers. When Pandu died at an early age.[23][24] The Pandavas and the Kauravas were brought up together in the same household and had the same teachers. nobility.[25] . were endowed with negative qualities and were cruel. his young children were placed under the care of their uncle Dhritarashtra who usurped the throne. especially Duryodhana. unrighteous. comprising a part of northern India around modern Delhi. Because Dhritarashtra was born blind. The Mahabharata centers on the exploits of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. respectively.A manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra. Pandu inherited the ancestral kingdom. The Pandava brothers were Yudhishthira the eldest. the wise grandsire. the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra. On the other hand.[24] Bhishma. unscrupulous. and the brahmin Drona was their military instructor. Arjuna. the most notable of whom wereBhishma and Dronacharya. and Sahadeva. Bhima. fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas. acted as their chief guardian.

but he would not touch any weapon nor participate in the battle in any manner. Krishna offered to give his vast army to one of them and to become a charioteer and counselor for the other. Duryodhana. and knights of India with their armies assembled on the sacred plain of Kurukshetra. The kings. to resolve the issue failed. refused to restore their legal and moral rights. who had consolidated his power by many alliances. Thereupon Vyasa bestowed supernatural sight on Sanjaya.[26][27] War became inevitable. Nothing would satisfy Duryodhana's inordinate greed. since he possessed the strongest army.[26] The blind king Dhritarashtra wished to follow the progress of the battle. 18th century painting When the time came to crown Yudhisthira.[29] . Arjuna preferred to have Krishna as his charioteer. as prince. princes.[26] While Duryodhana chose Krishna's vast army. Duryodhana. for he felt that the sight of the destruction of those near and dear to him would be too much to bear. [28] The whole realm responded to the call of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. eldest of the Pandavas. but the king refused the boon. exiled the Pandavas into the forest. who was to act as reporter to Dhritarashtra.Arjuna chooses Krishna instead of his vast army. Both Duryodhana and Arjuna requested Krishna to support them in the war. Attempts by elders and Krishna who was a friend of the Pandavas and also a well wisher of the Kauravas. and was revered as the wisest teacher and the greatest yogi. The sage Vyasa offered to endow him with supernatural sight.[24] On their return from banishment the Pandavas demanded the return of their legitimate kingdom. through a fixed game of dice. The Gita opens with the question of the blind king to Sanjaya regarding what happened on the battlefield when the two armies faced each other in battle array.

whereas the soul is permanent. in Kurukshetra The Bhagavad Gita begins before the start of the climactic battle at Kurukshetra. for advice. and revered teachers. In summary the main philosophical subject matter of the Bhagavad Gita is the explanation of five basic concepts or "truths":[30]      Ishvara (The Supreme Controller) Jiva (Living beings/the individualized soul) Prakrti (Nature/Matter) Dharma (Duty in accordance with Divine law) Kaala (Time) Krishna counsels Arjuna on the greater idea of dharma.[31] Any 'death' on the battlefield would involve only the shedding of the body. Arjuna's hesitation stems from a lack of accurate understanding . with the Pandava prince Arjuna becoming filled with doubt on the battlefield. Realizing that his enemies are his own relatives. Krishna. or universal harmony and duty.[ edit]Background Bronze statue representing the discourse of Krishna and Arjuna. beloved friends. He begins with the tenet that the soul (Atman) is eternal and immortal. he turns to his charioteer and guide.

Mahatma Gandhi. Essentially. In the Bhagavad Gita Krishna refers to the war about to take place as 'Dharma Yuddha'. Swami Nikhilananda. acting for the sake of service without consideration for the results thereof. man's higher impulses struggling against evil. for example.of the 'nature of things. ultimately. the Yogi. etc. so that one identifies with the truth of the immortal self. takes Arjuna as an allegory of Atman. the ephemeral world. Krishna grants Arjuna the boon of cosmic vision (albeit temporary) and allows the prince to see his 'Universal Form' (this occurs in the eleventh chapter). happiness and. Rather. .[39] Compare to this the chariot allegory found in the Katha Upanishad.[40] interpreted the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna."[41] Swami Vivekananda also said that the first discourse in the Gita related to war can be taken allegorically. Krishna warns.[42] Vivekananda further remarks. that without action.[38] [edit]War as allegory There are many who regard the story of the Gita as an allegory. Through detachment from the material sense of ego. the 'False Self'. In Chapter 4. one must embrace one's temporal duties whilst remaining mindful of timeless reality. To demonstrate his divine nature.' the privileging of the unreal over the real. In order to clarify his point. Krishna describes the yogic paths of devotional service. Arjuna wishes to abandon the battle. one's life on Earth must be lived in accordance with greater laws and truths. the cosmos would fall out of order and truth would be obscured. to abstain from action.[32] action. Arjuna's chariot as the body. His fear and hesitance become impediments to the proper balancing of the universal dharmic order. called the Vishvarupa ('Universal Form'). Krishna states that he incarnates in each age (yuga) to establish righteousness in the world. the Bhagavad Gita proposes that true enlightenment comes from growing beyond identification with the temporal ego. enlightenment. the absolute soul or Atman. Such a life would naturally lead towards stability.[35] Fundamentally. Krishna expounds the various Yoga processes and understanding of the true nature of the universe.[36] Krishna does not propose that the physical world must be forgotten or neglected. Krishna as an allegory of Brahman.[37] He reveals that he is fundamentally both the ultimate essence of Being in the universe and also its material body. or follower of a particular path of Yoga. meaning a righteous war for the purpose of justice. in his commentary on the Gita. however. is able to transcend his/her illusory mortality and attachment to the material world and enter the realm of the Supreme.[33]meditation[34] and knowledge.

it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil. Aurobindo rejects the interpretation that the Gita. Krishna was a historical figure. and has nothing to do with our outward human life and actions":[44] [edit]Overview of chapters ."this Kurukshetra War is only an allegory. and the Mahabharata by extension. but his significance in the Gita is as a "symbol of the divine dealings with humanity". When we sum up its esoteric significance.[43] while Arjuna typifies a "struggling human soul."[12] In Sri Aurobindo's view. is "an allegory of the inner life."[44]However.

. The Gita consists of eighteen chapters in total: 1. When Arjuna sees his relatives on the opposing army side of the Kurus.Krishna displays his Vishvarupa (Universal Form) to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra. he loses morale and decides not to fight. Arjuna requests Krishna to move his chariot between the two armies.

Krishna describes nature (prakrti). 5. . 11. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the Supreme Being.2. 10. Krishna teaches the path of knowledge (Jnana Yoga). 9. 14. 3. he has a duty to uphold the path of dharma through warfare. Krishna answers that both ways may be beneficent. Krishna reveals that he has lived through many births. Krishna explains the three modes (gunas) of material nature. 13. 7. After asking Krishna for help. always teaching Yoga for the protection of the pious and the destruction of the impious and stresses the importance of accepting a guru. Krishna explains panentheism. Krishna describes the correct posture for meditation and the process of how to achieve Samādhi. adhibhuta and adhidaiva and explains how one can remember him at the time of death and attain his supreme abode. Krishna stresses to Arjuna that performing his duties for the greater good. Arjuna asks why he should engage in fighting if knowledge is more important than action. 8. Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa). 6. as a warrior. containing all other beings and material in existence. adhyatma. Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti Yoga). Krishna defines the terms brahman. Krishna describes how he is the ultimate source of all material and spiritual worlds. Krishna appeals to Arjuna that. "all beings are in me" as a way of remembering him in all circumstances. 4. while the eternal self is immortal. but without attachment to results. the enjoyer (purusha) and consciousness. quoting great sages who have also done so. atman. is the appropriate course of action. 12. Arjuna asks Krishna if it is better to forgo action or to act. a theophany of a being facing every way and emitting the radiance of a thousand suns. karma. Arjuna is instructed that only the body may be killed as he was worried if it would become a sin to kill people (including his gurus and relatives). On Arjuna's request. but that acting in Karma Yoga is superior.

He describes this as the ultimate perfection of life. after which one can go beyond to his supreme abode. He counsels that to attain the supreme destination one must give up lust. Krishna tells of three divisions of faith and the thoughts. [ edit]Scripture of Yoga Part of a series on Hindu scriptures Vedas Rigveda · Yajurveda Samaveda · Atharvaveda . Krishna describes a symbolic tree (representing material existence). its roots in the heavens and its foliage on earth. 18. Krishna explains that this tree should be felled with the "axe of detachment". deeds and even eating habits corresponding to the three gunas.15. 16. Krishna tells of the human traits of the divine and the demonic natures. Krishna asks Arjuna to abandon all forms of dharma and simply surrender unto him. discern between right and wrong action by evidence from scripture and thus act rightly. anger and greed. In conclusion. 17.

Divisions Samhita · Brahmana Aranyaka · Upanishad Vedangas Shiksha · Chandas Vyakarana · Nirukta Kalpa · Jyotisha Upanishads Rig vedic Aitareya Yajur vedic Brihadaranyaka · Isha Taittiriya · Katha Shvetashvatara Sama vedic Chandogya · Kena Atharva vedic Mundaka · Mandukya .

Prashna Puranas Brahma puranas Brahma · Brahmānda Brahmavaivarta Markandeya · Bhavishya Vishnu puranas Vishnu · Bhagavata Naradeya · Garuda · Padma · Agni Shiva puranas Shiva · Linga Skanda · Vayu Epics Ramayana Mahabharata (Bhagavad Gita) Other scriptures .

abstinence from action is regarded as being just as detrimental as extreme indulgence. devotion and knowledge. action. It speaks of the Yoga of equanimity. or the supreme Brahman . Krishna describes the best Yogi as one who constantly meditates upon him[45] . skill in action and the ability to stay attuned to the glory of the Self (Atman) and the Supreme Being (Bhagavan). In the sixth chapter. describes a unified outlook. The term Yoga covers a wide range of meanings. According to the Bhagavad Gita.which is understood to mean thinking of either Krishna personally. The only way to douse the flame of desire is by simultaneously stilling the mind through self-discipline and engaging oneself in a higher form of activity. This goal can be achieved through the Yogas of meditation.Manu Smriti Artha Shastra · Agama Tantra · Pancharatra Sūtra · Stotra Dharmashastra Divya Prabandha Tevaram Ramcharitmanas Yoga Vasistha Scripture classification Śruti · Smriti v•d•e The Gita addresses the discord between the senses and the intuition of cosmic order. a detached outlook. serenity of mind. the root of all suffering and discord is the agitation of the mind caused by selfish desire. but in the context of the Bhagavad Gita. .with different schools of Hindu thought giving varying points of view. According to Krishna. the goal of life is to free the mind and intellect from their complexities and to focus them on the glory of the Self by dedicating one's actions to the divine. However.

Three yogas in particular have been emphasized by commentators:    Bhakti Yoga or Devotion. each of six chapters. It is action done without thought of gain. which is the means to the final goal.[47] [edit]Karma Yoga Main article: Karma Yoga Karma Yoga is essentially Acting.a sort of constant sacrifice of action to the Supreme. Karma Yoga or Selfless Action Jnana Yoga or Self Transcending Knowledge While each path differs. There are three stages to self-realization enunciated from the Bhagavad Gita: 1. which in turn leads to Jnana yoga. According to his method of division the first six chapters deal with Karma Yoga. 3. [edit]Major themes of yoga The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. motives. Bhagavan . Brahman . that the body is temporal. without concern of results . and the last six deal with the goal realize Brahman (the Divine Essence) as being the ultimate truth upon which our material universe rests. Allocated work done without expectations.[46] Swami Gambhirananda characterizes Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga. circa 1490) divided the Gita's eighteen chapters into three sections. Paramatma . with a transcendental form. their fundamental goal is the same . or doing one's duties in life as per his/her dharma.The Supreme Soul sitting in the heart of every living entity.Krishna summarizes the Yogas through eighteen chapters. and that the Supreme Soul (Paramatman) is infinite. which he says is Knowledge (Jnana).God as a personality. or duty. In a more modern interpretation. . Yoga's aim (moksha) is to escape from the cycle of reincarnation through realization of the ultimate reality. The middle six deal with bhakti. Krishna advocates Nishkam Karma (Selfless Action) as the ideal path to realize the Truth. it can be viewed as duty bound deeds done without letting the nature of the result affecting one's actions.The impersonal universal energy 2.

"The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (jnana)."(2. R. having abandoned the fruit of action.62)[51] "From anger arises bewilderment. for evenness of mind is called yoga"(2. O Winner of wealth (Arjuna)."[52] In the introduction to Chapter Seven of the Gita. The following verses illustrate this:[51] "When a man dwells in his mind on the object of sense.48)[49] "With the body.."[50] In order to achieve true liberation. even merely with the senses. and from loss of memory. the Yogis perform action toward self-purification. with the intellect. with an even mind in success and failure. abandoning attachment. the destruction of intelligence and from the destruction of intelligence he perishes"(2. These concepts are vividly described in the following verses: "To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits. As M.. attachment to them is produced. from bewilderment loss of memory. having abandoned attachment.47)[48] "Fixed in yoga. neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction"(2. He who is disciplined in Yoga. From attachment springs desire and from desire comes anger. do thy work. bhakti is summed up as a mode of worship which consists of unceasing and loving remembrance of God. it is important to control all mental desires and tendencies to enjoy sense pleasures. focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation.63)[51] [edit]Bhakti Yoga Main article: Bhakti Yoga According to Catherine Cornille. with the mind.or thinking about its outcomes tends to purify one's mind and gradually makes an individual fit to see the value of reason and the benefits of renouncing the work itself. action (karma) and loving devotion to God (bhakti). attains steady peace. Sampatkumaran explains in his overview of . Associate Professor of Theology at Boston College. let not the fruits of action be thy motive.

Do not fear. and regarding Me as the Supreme. he who full of faith worships Me.Ramanuja's commentary on the Gita.. and you shall certainly reach Me.. because they have attained the highest perfection."[55]  ". renouncing all actions in Me. I am soon the deliverer from the ocean of death and transmigration. Thus you shall dwell in Me hereafter. Keep your mind on Me alone."[57]  "Fix your mind on Me. just surrender completely to My will (with firm faith and loving contemplation). offer service to Me. Through a steady advancement in realization of the distinction between Real and the Unreal. the ."[53] As Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita:  "And of all yogins. transcending these qualities [binary opposites. I shall liberate you from all sins. worship Me. Arjuna. with his inner self abiding in Me. your intellect on Me. I promise you because you are My very dear friend. what is eternal and what is not. "The point is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release."[59] [edit]Jnana Yoga Main article: Jnana Yoga Jnana Yoga is a process of learning to discriminate between what is real and what is not. those who.. meditation and worship are essential. I hold to be the most attuned (to me in Yoga). like good and evil."[58]  "Setting aside all meritorious deeds (Dharma). the great souls do not incur rebirth in this miserable transitory world. be devoted to Me. pain and pleasure] is ready for liberation in Brahman. Devotion. For those whose thoughts have entered into Me.."[56]  "And he who serves Me with the yoga of unswerving devotion."[54]  "After attaining Me. him. bow down to Me.

is more appropriate.[62] Since there are eighteen chapters. each as a type of yoga. Arjuna is not an intellectual.Eternal and the Temporal. These chapter titles do not appear in the Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata. the Sanskrit text includes a traditional chapter title naming each chapter as a particular form of yoga. Krishna explains that the self (atman) of all these warriors is indestructible. However. because never was there a time when they were not. The first chapter in the Gita is designated as system of yoga. Krishna’s counsel begins with a succinct exposition of Jnana Yoga. This is essentially a path of knowledge and discrimination in regards to the difference between the immortal soul (atman) and the body. attain to the supreme goal. water cannot wet it. The function of the yoga is to train the body and the mind. and can also understand the process of liberation from bondage in material nature. "When a sensible man ceases to see different identities due to different material bodies and he sees how beings are expanded everywhere. Krishna argues that there is no reason to lament for those who are about to be killed in battle. there are therefore eighteen yogas mentioned.. It is this Self that passes from body to another body like a person taking worn out clothing and putting on new ones. a man of action. nor will there be a time when they will cease to be.. one develops into a Jnani."[60] "Those who see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower of the body.[63] . for whom the path of action..Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection. and wind cannot dry it. Karma Yoga. as explained in this quotation from Swami Chidbhavananda: All the eighteen chapters in the Gita are designated. It is called Arjuna Vishada Yogam ."[61] [edit]Eighteen Yogas In Sanskrit editions of the Gita. In the second chapter. Krishna’s counsel is intended to alleviate the anxiety that Arjuna feels seeing a battle between two great armies about to commence. he attains to the Brahman conception. Fire cannot burn it. He is a warrior.

These are the negative characteristics which prevent man from attaining moksha (liberation from the birth and death cycle). moha (delusion). but in English translations the word yoga may not appear. by which Krishna "pushed Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another. but the chapter title is translated as "The Hesitation and Despondency of Arjuna".In Sanskrit editions. krodha (anger).[69] [ edit]Message or the summary of the Gita There are 6 arishadvargas. every aspect of life is in fact a way of salvation."[68] AsWinthrop Sargeant explains.[67] Swami Sivananda's commentary says that the eighteen chapters have a progressive order to their teachings. but translates it as "Arjuna's Spiritual Conversion Through Sorrow". these eighteen chapter titles all use the word yoga. the Sanskrit title of Chapter 1 as given in Swami Sivananda's bilingual edition is arjunaviṣādayogaḥ which he translates as "The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna". or evils that the Gita says one should avoid: kama (lust).[64] Swami Tapasyananda's bilingual edition gives the same Sanskrit title. For example.[65] The Englishonly translation by Radhakrishnan gives no Sanskrit. omit these chapter titles entirely. mada or ahankar (pride) and matsarya (jealousy). In the model presented by the Bhagavad Gītā. such as that by Zaehner. . lobh (greed).[66] Other English translations. Several scholars and philosophers have tried to summarise the central teaching of the Bhagavad Gita.

William Q. even against relatives. for in this one Shloka lies imbedded the whole Message of the Gita.[74] "'Gita. taGi'.[75] . took the position that the text is not concerned with actual warfare so much as with the "battle that goes on within each individual heart". Gita. to the pacifist Hindu concept of non-violence. Judge and Annie Besant.55 is "the essence of bhakti" and the "substance of the whole teaching of the Gita":[72] Scholar Steven Rosen summarizes the Gita in four basic. but then find yourself saying 'ta-Gi. for example. provided the aggression is in the "active and selfless defence of dharma".[70] Some commentators have attempted to resolve the apparent conflict between the proscription of violence and ahimsa by allegorical readings. Such allegorical or metaphorical readings are derived from the Theosophical interpretations of Subba Row. concise verses:[73] Ramakrishna said that the essential message of the Gita can be obtained by repeating the word several times. ta-Gi. "If one reads this one Shloka — कलैबयं मा सम गमः पाथर नैतततवययुपपदते । कुद ं हृदयदौबरलयं तयकतवोितष परंतप॥ — one gets all the merits of reading the entire Gita. Gita'. you begin.[71] Scholar Radhakrishnan writes that the verse 11. offering the alternative of just war.The Gita centers on the revelation of Vaishna monotheism." According to Swami Vivekananda. Stephen Mitchell has attempted to refute such allegorical readings. Tagimeans one who has renounced everything for God. Gandhi.

[77] and "The language of battle is often found in the scriptures. by surrendering oneself to Him body and soul. for it conveys the strenuous. the cause of all our suffering and sorrow". In a heterogeneous text. "The object of the Gita appears to me to be that of showing the most excellent way to attain self-realization" and Gandhi writes that this can be achieved by selfless action. dealing death to the worlds.e.32) The Lord Said: Doom am I. "By desireless action. shall survive. ranged for battle against thee.[78] [ edit]Influence śrī bhagavān uvāca kālo 'smi lokakṣayakṛt pravṛddho. Even without slaying them not one of the warriors. The Gospel of Selfless Action. by renouncing fruits of action. full-ripe.[76] Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within. the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious".. by dedicating all activities to God. the Gita reconciles facets and schools of Hindu philosophy. i.Mahatma Gandhi writes. Although it is not strictly part of the 'canon' of Vedic writings. It had always been a creative text for Hindu priests and Yogis." Gandhi called Gita. engaged in devouring mankind. For the Vedantic schools of Hindu philosophy. including those ofBrahmanical (orthodox Vedic) origin and the parallel ascetic and Yogic traditions. lokān samāhartum iha pravṛttaḥ ṛte 'pi tvā na bhaviṣyanti sarve. ye 'vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu yodhāḥ (11:32 = MBh 6.33. drawn-out campaign we must wage to free ourselves from the tyranny of the ego. almost all Hindu traditions draw upon the Gita as authoritative. it belongs to one of the three foundational . long.

verse 32 from Chapter 11 of the Bhagavad Gita. which claim to preserve teaching stemming either directly from Krishna himself or from other sources.Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Upon witnessing the world's first nuclear test in 1945. "[The Gita] is one of the hardest books to interpret.each differing from the rest in an essential point or the other. learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original. he later claimed to have thought of the quotation "Now I am become Death. "three points of departure"). the founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism has also been inspired by the Gita. American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project.[citation needed] J. the destroyer of worlds".[79][80] A 2006 report suggests that the Gita is replacing the influence of the "The Art of War" (ascendant in the 1980s and '90s) in the Western business community. In the words of Hiriyanna."[82] Different translators and commentators have widely differing views on what multilayered Sanskrit words and passages signify. Especially in Western philology. which accounts for the numerous commentaries on it . citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. The Bhagavad Gita's emphasis on selfless service was a prime source of inspiration for Mahatma Gandhi. Robert Oppenheimer. the other two being the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras. . each claiming to be faithful to the original message. and their presentation in English depending on the sampradaya they are affiliated to.texts Prasthana Trayi (lit.[81] [ edit]Commentaries and translations Traditionally the commentators belong to spiritual traditions or schools (sampradaya) and Guru lineages (parampara). interpretations of particular passages often do not agree with traditional views.

Other classical commentators include Nimbarka (1162 CE). 1276)[91] or as (b. 1199 .[95][96] Tilak wrote his commentary while in jail during the period 1910-1911.[85][89] Ramanujacharya's commentary chiefly seeks to show that the discipline of devotion to God (Bhakti yoga) is the way of salvation.[87] A key commentary for the "modified non-dualist" school of Vedanta[88] was written by Ramanujacharya(Sanskrit: Rāmānujacharya). Shankara (788-820 A. D.. "an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme.d.d.D. in a quotation provided by Winthrop Sargeant."[69] Madhva is also considered to be one of the great commentators reflecting the viewpoint of the Vedanta school.[94] while Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296 CE) translated and commented on the Gita inMarathi. the many souls. whose dates are given either as (b.[97] While noting that the .[92] In the Shaiva tradition. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 CE). In modern times notable commentaries were written by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi.). while he was serving a six-year sentence imposed by the British colonial government in India for sedition.[86] There is not universal agreement that he was the actual author of the commentary on the Bhagavad Gita that is attributed to him.The oldest and most influential medieval commentary was that of the founder of the Vedanta school[83] of extreme 'non-dualism".[85] Madhva's school of dualism asserts that there is. who lived in the eleventh century A. 1317). and matter and its divisions.[90] The commentary by Madhva. in his book Dnyaneshwari. exemplifies thinking of the "dualist" school.[93] the renowned philosopher Abhinavagupta (10-11th century CE) has written a commentary on a slightly variant recension called Gitartha-Samgraha. and that recension has been widely adopted by others. who used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement. [69] also known as Madhvacharya (Sanskrit: Madhvācārya).[85] Shankara's commentary was based on a recension of the Gita containing 700 verses. Vallabha(1479 CE).[84] also known as Shankaracharya (Sanskrit:Śaṅkarācārya). 1238 .

no indelible scar on me.[99] During his stay in Yeravda jail in 1929.and my life has been full of external tragedies and if they have left no visible. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light. I owe it all to the teaching of Bhagavadgītā. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai. who provided an additional introduction and commentary. I find a verse here and a verse there and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming tragedies .[101][102] Mahatma Gandhi expressed his love for the Gita in these words: I find a solace in the Bhagavadgītā that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount.Gita teaches possible paths to liberation. . a Gujaratitranslation by Gita Press.[100] Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. which he referred to as his "spiritual dictionary". I go back to theBhagavagītā. [98] No book was more central to Gandhi's life and thought than the Bhagavadgita. his commentary places most emphasis on Karma yoga.[103] Three translations: Bhagavad Gita As It Is. and another English one published by Barnes & Noble. It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in 1946.

solidly grounded philologically by the French and Germans.[106] The first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita was done by Charles Wilkins in 1785. The work became the principal text for the modern Hare Krishnamovement. He drew from his knowledge of the Gita to expound on these Yogas. and having generated in our time a broadly based cross-cultural awareness of the importance of the Bhagavad Gita both as an expression of a specifically Indian spirituality and as one of the great religious "classics" of all time. Karma and Raja Yoga. wrote Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is. (p. Swami Sivananda advises the aspiring Yogi to read verses from the Bhagavad Gita every day. A. the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Jnana.Other notable modern commentators include Sri Aurobindo.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Paramahamsa Yogananda. extended into various disciplinary areas by Americans. writer of the famous Autobiography of a Yogi. the follower of Sri Ramakrishna.[107][108] In 1981. viewed the Bhagavad Gita as one of the world's most divine scriptures. stating that "A complete listing of Gita translations and a related secondary bibliography would be nearly endless" (p. 514[109]). was known for his commentaries on the four Yogas . who took a syncretistic approach to the text. provided with its indigenous roots by a rich heritage of modern Indian comment and reflection.. and Swami Vivekananda.Bhakti. Larson listed more than 40 English translations of the Gita. there is a massive translational tradition in English.[104][105] Swami Vivekananda. pioneered by the British. a commentary on the Gita from the perspective of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. He stated that Overall. 518[109]) . the modern sage Maharishi Mahesh Yogi published his own commentary of the Gita and proclaimed his technique ofTranscendental Meditation to be the practical procedure for experiencing the field of absolute Being described by Lord Krishna.. In 1965. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

The Gita has also been translated into other European languages. the librettist Peter Sellars uses text from the Bhagavad Gita (including J.[112] In Doctor Atomic. appearing in a book through whichFriedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany. destroyer of worldsquote from the Gita). The entire libretto of the opera consists of sayings from the Gita sung in the original sanskrit. the philosophical dilemma faced by Arjuna is dramatized in operatic form with a blend of Indian and Western music styles.[110] [ edit]Adaptations Philip Glass retold the story of Gandhi's early development as an activist in South Africa through the text of the Gita in the opera Satyagraha. In 1808 passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German.[111] In Douglas Cuomo's Arjuna's dilemma. [ edit]See also Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Bhagavad Gita     Uddhava Gita Ashtavakra Gita The Ganesha Gita Vyadha Gita . Robert Oppenheimer's mistranslated quote I am become death. an opera by John Adams.

3 (Sep. 7. Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita 11. [ Avadhuta Gita edit]Notes 1. HarperCollins. Explore Hinduism. ^ Introduction to the Bhagavad Gita 6. Swami. "Introductory Essay". Retrieved 2008-01-14. xxiv 10. ^ The phrase marking the end of each chapter identifies the book as Gītopanishad. 435459. ^ Tapasyananda. quoted in the introduction toBhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Journal of the American Academy of Religion. p. Swami. The Complete works of Swami Vivekananda. 52. 1. (1983). ^ "Bhagavan". (2002). The book is identified as "the essence of the Upanishads" in the Gītā-māhātmya 6. Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. 1984). "FOREWORD". ^ Swarupananda.C. pp. p. "Scripture" in India: Towards a Typology of the Word in Hindu Life. A. ^ a b c Pandit. Vol. Bansi. "Introduction". JSTOR 1464202 8. 5. 29 3. 4 . The Bhagavad Gita. Swami (1909). ^ a b Vivekananda. ^ Thomas B. Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. The Bhagavad Gita. 14–15 12. ^ Nikhilananda.. p. No. Robert Ernest (1959). 1 4. The world's living religions. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Swami (1944). "Lectures and Discourses ~ Thoughts on the Gita". pp. Advaita Ashrama. ^ a b c Radhakrishnan. Coburn. 9. ^ a b Nikhilananda. p. S. 27 2. ^ Hume. p. The Bhagavad Gita. "Introduction".

^ Juan Mascaro. 20. C. 7. ^ Mascaro. no firm date can be assigned to the Gītā. India. xlviii. xvii. 14-15. Swami. "As with most major religious texts in India. Simon Brodbeck (2003). "…an analysis of the epic shows at once by differences of style and by linguistic and other peculiarities. Penguin Classics.13. "One thing should be especially remembered here. Simon Brodbeck. ^ Bhagavad Gita Chapter 4. Text 1: vivasvan manave praha. that it was written later than the 'classical' Upanishads with the possible exception of the Maitrī which was post-Buddhistic. ^ The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) electronic edition. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. p. The Sanskrit Epics (Leiden. "Translator's introduction to 1962 edition". The Bhagavad Gita. ^ For a brief review of the literature supporting this view see: Radhakrihnan. xlviii 16. ^ Zaehner. "Scholars differ as to the date of the Bhagavad Gita. ^ Gambhiranda (1997). manur ikshvakave 'bravit 21. 15. One would probably not be going far wrong if one dated it at some time between the fifth and the second centuries B. that it was composed at different times and by different hands" 19. Adyar." 17. 14. It seems certain. The Bhagavad Gita. "The Bhagavad Gita". that . Pune. p. Electronic text (C) Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Advaita Ashrama. ^ C. "Thoughts on the Gita". but as the roots of this great poem are in Eternity the date of its revelation in time is of little spiritual importance. 1998) 18. Oxford University Press. The Bhagavad-Gita. ^ Vivekananda. Robert Charles (1973). pp. ^ John Brockington. India. Madras. Juan. p. however. 1999. Retrieved 2008-09-24. p. Jinarajadasa (1915)." 22. Theosophical Publishing House.

e. Swami (1944). p.. Swami (1944). 11 28. Himalayan Institute Press. Retrieved 2008-01-14. p. Perennial Psychology of the Bhagavad Gita. Himalayan Institute Press. Even as no doubt can be entertained that I. ^ Rama. C. ^ Nikhilananda. ^ Ramanuja's translation BG 2. I and you. ^ a b c Rama. 12 29.there is no connection between these historical researches and our real aim. 10 25. p. because we have to get at the truth. we shall always exist. the Supreme Self and Lord of all. Introduction. . it will not in the least be any loss to us. Swami (1944). ^ A. Perennial Psychology of the Bhagavad Gita. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. pp. you may ask. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON).12 ". xiii 24. i. Swami (1985).you have always existed. am eternal. Then what is the use of so much historical research. xvi 27. Introduction. ^ a b c Nikhilananda." 23.. Introduction". Introduction. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Swami (1985). ^ Nikhilananda. which is the knowledge that leads to the acquirement of Dharma. p. xiv-xv 26. ^ Rama. Even if the historicity of the whole thing is proved to be absolutely false today. Swami (1985). It is not that 'all of us'. Himalayan Institute Press. p. ^ Nikhilananda. Swami (1944). vii 30. It has its use. Perennial Psychology of the Bhagavad Gita. beyond the present time. p. "The subject of the Bhagavad-gita entails the comprehension of five basic truths" 31. it will not do for us to remain bound by wrong ideas born of ignorance. Introduction. shall cease to be 'in the future'..

35. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is." 32. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. ^ A. ^ A. ^ A. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. C. will certainly attain to the Supreme" 37. ^ A. Retrieved 2008-01-14. verse 8. and Sri Krishna the Supreme Soul dwelling in every heart.10 "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. 34. Chapter 3: Karma Yoga". ^ "Arjuna represents the individual soul. I Myself appear" 39.likewise. C. Chapter 12: Devotional Service". Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Chapter 2:Summary". Chapter 6: Dhyana Yoga". Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.10". C. ^ A. also should be considered eternal. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). ^ A. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The battle. Verse 4. C. with an undeviating mind.8". Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Retrieved 2008-01-14. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). C. The blind king Dhritarashtra is the mind under the spell of ignorance. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 33. Arjuna's chariot is the body. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Retrieved 2008-01-14. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. 36. C. Retrieved 2008-01-14. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. Chapter 11:Universal Form". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). B-Gita 8. and his hundred sons are man's numerous evil tendencies. Retrieved 2008-01-14. C. a . ^ A. you (Arjuna and all others) who are embodied selves. 38. "by the strength of yoga. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Retrieved 2008-01-14."to reestablish the principles of religion. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. engages himself in remembering the Supreme Lord in full devotion.

the one with great faith who always abides in Me. 48. ^ Vivekananda."Nikhilananda. That is My opinion. ISBN 0914955187 45. is between the power of good and the power of evil. p. Essays on the Gita. 416 43. ^ a b Aurobindo. 16. p. The Complete works of Swami Vivekananda. "Introduction". The Bhagavad Gita According to Gandhi Berkeley Hills Books. Sri (1995). 2 40. 119 49. ^ A."And of all yogis. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). "The human disciple". Louis: Gandhi: His Life and Message to the World Mentor. and renders transcendental loving service to Me -. 1516 42. 5. pp.47". p. "Sayings and Utterances". Lotus Press. p.. thinks of Me within himself. The warrior who listens to the advice of the Lord speaking from within will triumph in this battle and attain the Highest Good. pp. Berkeley 2000 41.he is the most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all. p.perennial one. Sri (1995). Retrieved 2008-01-14. The Bhagavad Gita. C. ^ Fischer. ^ Aurobindo. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. 15. xx. 120 . ^ Gandhi. 47. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. p. Lotus Press." 46. p. ISBN 0914955187 44. Verse 6. Mohandas K. Swami (1944). ^ Gambhiranda (1997). 17– 18. ^ Gambhirananda (1998). ^ Radhakrishnan 1993. Swami. ^ Radhakrishnan 1993. Essays on the Gita. "The divine teacher". New York 1954.

61. Catherine. Retrieved 2008-01-14. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. p. Verse 12. ^ Cornille.15". ^ A. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). ^ A. 2006. ed. Verse 18. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.35". Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.50. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. ^ For quotation and summarizing bhakti as "a mode of worship which consists of unceasing and loving remembrance of God" see: Sampatkumaran. Retrieved 2008-01-14.26". ^ A. Retrieved 2008-01-14. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is.65". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). C. Verse 13. Retrieved 2008-01-14.47 55. pp. C. 51. Verse 13. ^ A. Song Divine: Christian Commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita. Retrieved 2008-01-14.6". "Bhagavad-gita As It Is.211. 53. . ^ Radhakrishan(1970). 60. C. 2. xxiii. 58. Verse 8. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. Verse 14. Retrieved 2008-01-14. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON).. C. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. 59. Blackie and son India Ltd.11". ^ A. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). 57. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Verse 18. p. C. 54. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. 125-126 52. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ninth edition. Verse 6. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada." Leuven: Peeters. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ^ A. p. ^ A. 56.31".. Retrieved 2008-01-14.66". Verse 5. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is. ^ a b c Radhakrishnan 1993. C. Retrieved 2008-01-14. C. ^ A.

^ Sivananda. p. ^ Steven J. 22f. ^ For example. p. 72. xvii. 67. what it advocates is the active and selfless defence of dharma. 1999. its teaching could have altered the course of human history. 71. Pune. this third way can only be practised by those who have risen above egoism.23. It can yet alter the course of Indian history. above asuric ambition or greed. 33. 69.23. The Bhagavad Gita. which occurs immediately after the last line of the preceding chapter in the full Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata: | 6. ^ a b c Sargeant. ^ Chidbhavananda. p. ^ Zaehner. India. ^ Sivananda. The Gita certainly does not advocate war. 13 66. 70. p. 289 . S (1974). "Greatest Gospel of Spiritual Works" in New Indian Express (10 December 2000). "XI. 65. passim. If sincerely followed.1 dhṛtarāşţra uvāca | 6. p. 68. 64. Rooted in the ancient Indian genius." Michel Danino. pp.1a dharmakşetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ || Source: Electronic text (C) Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. ^ Radhakrishnan. the first line of the Bhagavad Gita is dhṛtarāşţra uvāca. Electronic edition downloaded from: [1]. ^ Tapasyananda. p. Rosen. 79. ^ "Strength founded on the Truth and the dharmic use of force are thus the Gita's answer to pacifism and non-violence. xix. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780313345531. 3. 63.62. ^ Radhakrishnan. The Lord's Transfiguration". p. Krishna's Song (2007).

The Bahagavad Gita (2007). ^ Gambhirananda (1997). 144.K. ISBN 978-0915132171 p. The Gita According to Gandhi 77. (1933). p.54-55 83. 2006-10-30. ^ Isherwood. Schweig. 4. ISBN 978-1586380199 p. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Steven. Swami. ^ Singh pp. "The Bhagavad-Gita and the life of Lord Krishna". Ramakrishna and his Disciples. ^ Gandhi. "The Gita of Robert Oppenheimer" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. ^ Flood (1996). p. p. p. 86. Hijiya. ^ Eknath Easwaran. ^ For Shankara's commentary falling within the Vedanta school of tradition. Advaita Ashrama 76. 78. ^ Dating for Shankara as 788-820 CE is from: Sargeant. Business Week. 85. Christopher (1964). [2] 80. see: Flood (1996). xviii. 121 74. ^ Rosen. xix. 9 75. M. "Introduction". 79. ^ Vivekananda. no. p. 87. p. ^ a b c Zaehner. 2 (June 2000). 24.73. 240.. . 84. ^ See Robert_Oppenheimer#Trinity for other refs 81. p. 82. ^ "Karma Capitalism". Retrieved 2008-01-12. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Essential Hinduism. 15. 3. 124. "The Story Begins". ^ James A. "Thoughts on the Gita". The End of Sorrow: The Bahagavad Gita for Daily Living (vol 1) (1993). Graham M. ^ Eknath Easwaran.

xix. 89. p. p. 92. ^ Jordens. Robert W. 124.. ^ Stevenson. T. 93. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi as notable commentators see: Gambhiranda (1997). in: Minor. ^ Singh p. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi and their use to inspire the independence movement see: Sargeant. J. in: Minor.. . 49. 99. G. F. ^ Stevenson. 124. "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita". "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga". xix. ^ Dating of 1199-1276 for Madhva is from: Gambhirananda (1997). ^ Sampatkumaran. ^ For B. in: Minor. G. p. p. p. 97. p. 124. 98. T. Robert W. ^ For classification of Madhva's commentary as within the Vedanta school see: Flood (1996). ^ For notability of the commentaries by B.. 94. F. p. 90. p. 88. ^ Gambhirananda (1997). ^ For classification of Ramanujacharya's commentary as within the Vedanta school see: Flood (1996). "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga". 96. "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita". xix.55 95. p. 91. 44. ^ For classification of Abhinavagupta's commentary on the Gita as within the Shaiva tradition see: Flood (1996). p.88. J. in: Minor. 100. p. xx. see: Jordens. xix. 88.^ For composition during stay in Yeravda jail in 1929.. p.

Gandhi. . 106. 11. front matter. p. 470-472 107.^ For Sri Aurobindo as notable commentators. 129 and pp. 1078-1079. Other editions: 1948. Philosophy East and West: A Quarterly of Comparative Philosophy (University of Hawai'i Press) 31(4): 513–540. (Dry Bones Press. Routledge. (1925). 1956. (Navajivan Publishing House: Ahmedabad: First Edition 1946).101. John James (1997). Jim Rankin. xix. pp. p. is cited from Radhakrishnan. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Gandhi. "The Song Celestial: Two centuries of the Bhagavad Gita in English". Mahadev Desai. and Swami Vivekananda as notable commentators see: Sargeant. translator.^ Desai.K. 15. omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary. Young India. p. A Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6.^ What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. Volume 1. Oriental enlightenment.^ For Sri Aurobindo. K. 110. Winternitz. 1998) ISBN 1883938-47-3.^ Winternitz. see: Gambhiranda (1997). ISBN 9780415133753 108.^ a b Gerald James Larson (1981). The Gita According To Gandhi. p. p. The author is listed as M. San Francisco. has been published as: Anasaktiyoga: The Gospel of Selfless Action. or. Chapter Two. xix. 102. 103. 1951. pp. Mahadev. On The Bhagavad Gita. 109.^ A shorter edition. 105.^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. 58– 59. Volume 1. editor.^ Clarke. 104. The Gospel of Selfless Action. Verse 42.^ Quotation from M.

Eknath (1975). Anthony (April 14. Eknath (2007). ISBN 81-7505-194-9  Flood. Eknath (1979).111. ISBN 81-7505-041-1  Keay.^ Tommasini. The Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living Volume 3. The Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living Volume 1. "Warrior Prince From India Wrestles With Destiny". The Bhagavad Gita. The New York Times. John (2000). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 . Berkeley. Berkeley. ISBN 9780915132195  Gambhirananda. Gavin (1996). 2008). Berkeley. India: A History. Retrieved 2009-10-16.^ Tommasini. An Introduction to Hinduism. Grove Press. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama. Bhagavadgītā: With the commentary of Śaṅkarācārya. The Bhagavad Gita. The New York Times. Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam Easwaran. Eknath (1984). Nilgiri Press. "Fanciful Visions on the Mahatma’s Road to Truth and Simplicity". ISBN 0-521-43878-0  Gambhirananda. Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Swami (1997). California: The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation. [ edit]References Chidbhavananda. ISBN 9780915132188  Easwaran. The Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living Volume 2. California: The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation. Swami (1998). Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama. 2008). 112. Retrieved 2009-10-16. California: The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation. Swami (1997). Anthony (November 7. ISBN 9780915132171     Easwaran. ISBN 9781586380199 Easwaran.

Swami (1995). ISBN 0739114247 Sivananda. The Bhagavadgītā. The Divine Life Society. see article). (1986). S. ISBN 81-7052-000-2 Tapasyananda. The Bhagavad Gita. ISBN 0-88706-297-0   Radhakrishnan. Raj (2006). The Gītābhāṣya of Rāmānuja. Delhi: Advaita Ashrama. (1969). M. Swami (1998). Albany. Minor. R. New Delhi: Oriental Books Zaehner. New York: State University of New York. (1985). ISBN 978-1-4384-2841-3    Singh. The Bhagavad Gītā. Śrīmad Bhagavad Gītā. Maurice (1972). Harper Collins. ISBN 81-7505033-0   [ Winternitz. Winthrop (2009. The Bhagavad Gītā: Twenty-fifth Anniversary Edition. R. Oxford University Press. Lexington Books. History of Indian Literature. (1993). Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-19-501666-1 edit]External links Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Bhagavad Gita  Bhagavad Gita at the Open Directory Project Original text . ISBN 817120-449-X  Vivekananda. C. Swami (1990). Robert N. Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavadgita. Bhakti and Philosophy. Thoughts on the Gita. R. Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7223-087-7 Sampatkumaran. Bombay: Ananthacharya Indological Research Institute  Sargeant.

Madhusudana GRETIL etext of MBh 6 (text begins at 06.40 (sacred-texts. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada entitled Bhagavad Gita As It Is with Sanskrit text and English commentary. Visvanatha Chakravarti and Baladeva Vidyabhusana (all in sanskrit)  Essays on Gita by Sri Aurobindo .  Mahabharata 6. C. Ramanuja. Sridhara Swami.23–6.023) Translations and Commentaries     शीमद् भगवद् गीता (Bhagavad Gita) 1890 translation by William Quan Judge 1900 translation by Sir Edwin Arnold The Gita According to Gandhi by Mahadev Desai of Mahatma Gandhi's 1929 Gujurati translation and commentary   1942 translation by Swami Sivananda 1971 translation by A.       1988 translation by Ramananda Prasad 1992 translation and commentary by Swami Chinmayananda 1993 translation by Jagannatha Prakasa (John of AllFaith) 2001 translation by Sanderson Beck 2004 metered translation by Swami Nirmalananda Giri Six commentaries: by Adi Sankara.

English. ISSN 00422983. [show] v•d•e Mahabharata v•d•e [show] Krishna v•d•e [show] Hindu deities and texts . Gita Supersite Original text. with several accompanying translations or commentaries in Sanskrit. The Vedanta Kesari 95 (12). 2008-12-12. or Hindi   Srimad Bhagavad Gita Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation in multiple languages with audio and translation of commentary from the four authorized Vaishnava sampradayas  Multiple English Translations Audio   Recitation of verses in Sanskrit (MP3 format) Bhagavad Gita (As It Is) Complete produced by The International Society for Krishna Consciousness   Bhagavad Gita in 6 Languages Bhagavad Gita in 19 Languages with commentaries Journals  "Bhagavad Gita for everyday living".

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