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Copyright © 1969 by McGrawHill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 37985
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Preface
This book is designed to be used for a onesemester course in differential geometry for senior undergraduates or first year graduate students. It presents the fundamental concepts of the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in threedimensional Euclidean space and applies these concepts to many examples and solved problems. The basic theory of vectors and vector calculus of a single variable is given in Chapters 1 and 2. The concept of a curve is presented in Chapter 3, and Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the theory of curves in E3, including selected topics in the theory of contact, a very natural approach to the classical theory of curves. Considerable care is given to the definition of a surface so as to provide the reader with a firm foundation for the treatment of global problems and for further study in modern differential geometry. In order to accomplish this, background material in analysis and' point set topology in Euclidean spaces is presented in Chapters 6 and 7. The surface is then defined in Chapter 8 and Chapters 9 and 10 are devoted to the theory of the nonintrinsic geometry of a surface, including an introduction to tensor methods and selected topics in the global geometry of surfaces. The final chapter presents the basic theory of the intrinsic geometry of surfaces in E3. Numerous illustrations are presented throughout the book to help the reader visually, and many graded supplementary problems are included at the end of each chapter to help the reader test his understanding of the subject matter. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the help of Martin Silverstein and JihShen Chiu who made many useful suggestions and criticisms. I am also grateful to Daniel Schaum and Nicola Monti for their splendid editorial cooperation and to Henry Hayden for typographical arrangement and art work for the figures. Finally I wish to express my appreciation to my wife Sarah for carefully typing the manuscript.
MARTIN M. LIPSCHUTZ
Bridgeport, Conn. March 1969
Taylor's formula. Directional derivatives. Differentiation. ' Chapter 5 THE THEORY OF CURVES . Continuity. 43 Regular representations. Orthogonal vectors. Continuous 102 Open sets. Definition of a simple Tangent plane and normal line. Coordinate patches. Moving trihedron. Theory of contact. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Continuity and limits. Scalar product of vectors. Intrinsic equations. Vector product of vectors. Linear dependence and independence. Evolutes. Regular curves of class Cm. Spherical indicatrices. Differentiable functions. Curvature. Principal normal unit vector. Regular curves. Topological properties of simple surfaces. Chapter 7 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF· A VECTOR VARIABLE 121 Linear functions. 21 Lines and planes. Binormal. Principal normal line and osculating plane. Neighborhoods. Properties of limits. Torsion. Orthogonal projections. parametric representations. Bases and components. Chapter 3 CONCEPT OF A CURVE . 150 . 1 Chapter 2 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE . Limits. . Involutes. SPACES Compact sets. Oriented bases.CONTENTS Chapter 1 Page VECTORS Addition of vectors. Arc length as a parameter. 80 Frenet equations. Orthonormal bases. Vector functions. Differentiation formulas. CONCEPT OF A SURF ACE Regular surface. The fundamental existence and uniqueness theorem. mappings. Canonical representation of a curve. Composite functions. Inverse function theorem. Closed sets. Limit points. 61 Unit tangent vector. Functions of class c=. Implicit representations of curves. Tangent line and normal plane. Homeomorphisms. Definition of arc length. Bounded functions. Triple products and vector identities. Chapter 4 CURVATURE AND TORSION .. Chapter 6 ELEMENTARY TOPOLOGY IN EUCLIDEAN Connected sets. Taylor's formula. Analytic functions. Osculating curves and surfaces. Functions of class Cm.
Geodesic coordinates.. Second fundamental form.... Chapter 11 INTRINSIC GEOMETRY 227 Mappings of surfaces. Normal curvature.. Surfaces with constant Gaussian curvature. Gaussian and mean curvature....•.. 171 First fundamental form.. GaussBonnet theorem. Tensor algebra... Tensors... Isometric mappings.. Principal curvatures and directions. Arc length and surface area. The fundamental theorem of surfaces. 201 GaussWeingarten equations. Rodrigues' formula.CONTENTS ~ (~ '.. THEORY OF SURFACESTENSOR ANALYSIS. Applications of tensors to the equations of surface theory.. Arcs of minimum length. Geodesic polar coordinates. Asymptotic lines.. Intrinsic geometry. FIRST AND SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FORMS . Some theorems on surfaces in the large. Appendixl EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR CURVES 263 Appendixll EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR SURFACES 264 INDEX 267 r .. Elementary manifolds...... Geodesic curvature..... Conjugate families of curves.. The compatibility equations and the theorem of Gauss. Lines of curvature.
In general.0). VECTORS By Euclidean space E3 we mean the set of ordered triplets a = (al.1.aS) with al. The zero vector is the vector 0 = (0. The study of global properties. as shown in Fig. 11 Example 1. Onesidedness is an example of a global property of a figure. approach P. Observe that a small part of the surface surrounding an arbitrary point P is a regular twosided surface. The negative of a vector a is the vector a defined by a = (al. locally the Moebius strip is twosided.a2. b. x. . or P. Properties of curves and surfaces which depend only upon points close to a particular point of the figure are called local properties. in particular as they relate to local properties.. We begin with a review of vectors in E3. r near P. Fig. i. We first investigate local properties of curves and surfaces and then apply the results to problems of differential geometry in the large. R.e. The for it depends only on the points on a point P on a curve r in a plane and let CQR be the circle through Now consider the limiting position of the circles Cmi asQ.. = 1 . the limiting radius of curvature of r at P. a3).a2. a2.... The length or magnitude of a vector a = (al.~. for it depends on the nature of the entire surface. 12 is an example of a onesided surface. 12 The Moebius strip shown in Fig. Let Q and R be two points near P. y. A vector is a point in E3 and in general will be denoted by a. = a. Those properties which involve the entire geometric figure are called global properties. Example 1. c.Chapter 1 Vectors INTRODUCTION Differential geometry is the study of geometric figures using the methods of calculus. The radius of C is the radius of curvature is an example of a local property of the curve.a3 real. is called differential geometry in the large.0. . In particular the introductory theory investigates curves and surfaces embedded in three dimensional Euclidean space E3. Q. andR position will be a circle C tangent to r at P. The study of local properties is called differential geometry in the small. Q and R... 11.a3) is the real number lal vai + ai + Clearly [a] ~ 0 and lal 0 if and only if a = O.2. Fig.
Given two points P and Q in E3 (that is. = = = = Fig. 13 Example 1. then = a +x = a + (b + (a» = a + (a) + b = 0 + b = b = b has a solution =b 8.b prove that vector addition satisfies a +b = b +a [A2] (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) [As] o + a = a for all a = a + (b). as) a vector. and PP = 0 for all P. Example 1. . Let a Then a+b = PQ. = (1. two vectors P and Q) we introduce the special notation PQ for their difference Q . The product ka is called multiplication of a vector by a scalar. b = QR = PQ+QR and e = RS. a2. Using [All through [A. or y = b8 For if (a) +a +y = (a) +b or 0 + y = b . d = = SP as shown in Fig.5.bs. a = (1.P and we picture PQ as an arrow drawn from P to Q as shown in Fig. In Problem 1. as) a+b and b = (bl.a.2 ADDITION OF VECTORS Given two vectors a defined by VECTORS [CHAP. 1 = (aI.P'. [a] =. if a = (aI. IPQI IQPI. By the distance from P to Q we mean the length IPQI.3. as + bs) The difference of two vectors a and b is the vector a . bs. Evidently PQ QP.5. as).4.a = (1.2.4 we prove that multiplication of vectors by scalars satisfies [Bl] kl(k2a) = (klk2)a = klk2a (Distributive Laws) (kl + k2)a = kla + k2a k(a+b) = ka+kb [Bs] 1a = a Finally.1).1. b .] we see that for any a and b..3. a2 + bs.1). In the study of vectors we usually refer to the real numbers as scalare.1 we [AI] (Commutative Law) (Associative Law) [~] a Let + (a) = a 0 for all a and b Example 1..2. Then a +b = (1.1.0). QP+RQ = RP = PR = RP+SR =PS=d 14. then . a2. we define the product ka to be the vector Clearly Oa = kO = 0 for all k and a. bs) in E3. their sum a + b is the vector = (al·1. a2.P Q' . a + (b . It is also the only solution. 13. 14 MULTIPLICATION OF A VECTOR BY A SCALAR If k is a real number and a = (aI. x = b a.a) Thus the vector equation a +y b..1). PQ P'Q' if and only if Q .0) = (0. In Problem 1. ~R Q b a+b+c a+b+c+d = PR+RS = SP P d S = PS+SP = SP+PS = 0 Fig.
6. A vector is thus uniquely determined by its direction and length. l/Vll.2b C a = = = Ul  2u2' b = U2 (Ul . = (1.Ua + 2ug. If a has the same direction as b and also the same length as b. k.8. a . 0). Suppose a is parallel to b. and a equals b.7. = Example 1. v . a = kb.2uz + 2U2.2. Example 1. u.2U2). 9).kb O.3) The vectors ui. In general Uashall denote the unit vector in the direction of a nonzero vector a. are said to be linearly dependent if there exist scalars lcs. and let M be the midpoint of side AB. 3/Vll).. for we can always write 10 + OUl+ . and (Ul + U2+ ua) C = Ul + Uz+ Ug. 0).. the vectors a and b have the same direction.1). 1. == Note that a set of vectors which includes the zero vector is dependent.. U2.3b = Let Ul' U2'ua be given vectors and let a . Example 1. 15. 1.are linearly independent if (1. the vectors ui. The unit vector in the direction of a is the vector Ua a/lal (1/y'il. v. kz. 2. let a OA and b OB. 2v. Then 2a = (2. . Then kla + k2b 0 where. b (2.Uz .e. = a/lal (1.0.6. Thus k = 1. 3). b = (0. then from equation (1. = = = = = . ent. u. us.. If a = kb.2. v. Thus a and bare dependent.1) (1)a b = (0. = = = = = = = Example 1. 0) and (1.3. since 2a +b  e = O. u.i. kl 1= O. Then a 0. 1) are linearly dependent. Uz. The vectors band e have opposite directions since b (2/3)c..Ul . 1). e = (2. not all zero such that (1.= a = = + AM = a + iAB = a + l(b .9. In the triangle OAB shown in Fig.b ¥= 0 and k ~ 0.. i. Then = U2 . suppose a and b are dependent. . But then a (kJkl)b. . then a is parallel to b. Example 1. + OUn o.. b 0 or a has the same or opposite direction to b..11. Then the vector OM can be expressed in terms of a and b as follows: OM =.5ua A vector a is said to have the same direction as a nonzero vector b if for some k ~ 0. The vectors a = (1.10. If a 0. Clearly this is obtained by multiplying a by l/lal. Let a = (1. and a . b 0 or a = kb. Thus two vectors are dependent if and only if they are parallel. u.6) and C (3. That is. say.CHAP. V(kal)2 + (kaz)Z + (kaa)Z = Ikal = Ikllal (1. [a] = Ikllbl = klbl = [b]. Conversely. 3).a) = a + lb = fa + tb . a kb for some real k. = = = We call a vector U of unit length a unit vector. 1). 0) = a. ui. i. Namely. 15 LINEAR DEPENDENCE AND INDEPENDENCE We now define the very important concepts of linear dependence and linear independence. 1] VECTORS 3 Ikal Thus for all k and a. k« O.e. Since a lb. .2(U2 + 2ua) Ul .3) implies all kl = k« = .e. then a has the opposite direction to b.2) Let a (1.la ~ O~B Fig.. Example 1.4ua . are said to be linearly independent if they are not linearly depend.
0). + 3ka)UI + ki (ki + kz)uz + 2k2 (2kz + k3)U3 = 0 are independent..12. + k~un BASES AND COMPONENTS The three vectors el (1. + k~U2 + . b. For kiel + k2e2 + kee« = (kl. = ». Also any vector a (aI. In Problem 1. k2.. c are independent. ••• with respect to some Let UI' U2' Us be a basis and let a 2UI . k. and if then k. . Observe that the com As suggested in the above example. k3• ficients 2 0 det 1 1 ( o 2 Since the determinant of the coef the only solution is kl = k2 = k3 = O. b.2. = = We will show that 0 + k2b + k3C = (2kl 0. i = 1. U. . Yi. aa.. es == (0. us.1. then it is expressed so uniquely.. Let UI. However. U2.2u3' and c = 3UI + Us. note that the components of a vector depend upon the basis chosen and in general the components will change if there is a change in basis. Hence the vectors a. 0. u.4 VECTORS [CHAP. a2.3..1 this representation is unique. we have in general Theorem 1. property of linearly independent If a vector is expressed as a linear function of independent vectors. k3) and so if kiel + k2e2 + k3e3 = 0. 1 In Problem 1. c appear as the columns in the above determinant.. That is. a3) can be written a alel + aZe2 + aaea as a linear combination of el. Xi. . k.1.1 that the components of a vector with respect to a given basis are unique. for short.0) and es (0.. The scalars aI. b.3.10 we prove the following important vectors: Theorem 1. are called the components of a with respect to the basis UI. e are linearly independent and hence also form a basis. b. a.0. . 0. An exception is the vector 0 whose components are always 0. In general we shall denote the components of vectors a. For. Let UI. if ur. = = = = In general we call a set of vectors B a basis for ES if (i) every vector in E3 can be written as a linear combination of the vectors in B. b. az. y. prescribed basis by ai.1) are independent.U2' b Uz. + k3 = This is a system of three homogeneous linear equations in kv kz. then ki = k« = k3 = 0. Any three linearly independent vectors form a basis in E3.• Example 1. us... x. e2 and ea. It follows from Theorem 1. U = klUt k2 = kt + k2u2 + . and by Theorem 1.UI = k~. every basis in E3 consists of three linearly independent vectors. ponents of a. Uz. Us be a basis and let VI V2 Va aUUI al2UI + aZ1UZ + a3lU3 + aZ2U2 + a32U3 = al3UI + a23UZ + a33U3 . it follows that 2kl + 3k3 = + kz = 0.11 we prove Theorem 1. Ui. Uz. U3 be a basis in space and let a = alUl + a2U2 + aaU3.2. Conversely... + knUn = . (ii) B is a linearly independent set of vectors. suppose kia Since the 11. are independent..0. a.
is called the vector projection of a onto b and is denoted by Pb (a). from the definition. and hence from [C4](ii). b). that is. = . aa) and b number a b = albl + CL2b2 asbs + 0 = (bl.4) In Problem 1. The vector Pb (a)ub. The scalar projection of a onto b. is the scalar Pb (a) == (a b)/lbl. if a b = 0 for all a.Ui. It follows that 0 . In the triangle ABC shown in Fig. then 0 Example 1. 16.0) Example 1. let a BC. ba) is the real In particular. b2.15. a2. ~ all det ( a21 a31 a12 aS2 is a basis if and only if a22 a23 aS3 alS) o SCALAR PRODUCT OF VECTORS The dot or scalar product of two vectors a = (al. where Ub is the unit vector in the direction of b. in short.=1 £ti.1.3.1. If we consider = Icl2 = = labl2 = = = = AC. a' 0 = 0 for all a. 16 (ab)o(ab) =a'a  2aob + b'b we have the law of cosines Let b be a nonzero vector. denoted by (J 4(a. B Fig. b c BA a .2. b). and b Also. = lallbl cos s (1. = 0. b = O. V2. (i) a a ~ 0 for all a 0 (ii) a' a = 0 if and only if a bob =0 Clearly. and 6 = 4ACB 4(a. j = 1.14 we prove that scalar multiplication satisfies [Cl] [Cs] [Cs] [C4] a b = b.5) Example 1. = (2.a = lal2 (1. Let a = (2.b.  = (U1.U2) (2U1+ U2) 0 = 2u1° U1  2U1 U2 + U1 u2 U2° U2 = 21u112 U1° u2  IU212 In Problem 1.1). 1] a VECTORS 5 Then Vl. denoted by Pb (a).16 we prove the CauchySchwarz 0 inequality la b] ~ lallbl with equality holding if and only if a and b are linearly dependent.a 0 (Symmetric Law) 0 (ka) b 0 0 = k(a b) (k 0 a (b + c) = = scalar) (Distributive Law) a' b + a c Scalar multiplication is positive definite.13. for a =b we have the formula a. Then asb = 3 and a sa = 5 = lal2• Then Let U1 and U2 be given vectors and let a a' b = Ul  U2 and b 0 0 = 2u1 + U2.CHAP.14. V3 or. V. The angle between two nonzero vectors a and b. is the unique solution of = satisfying 0~ a·b (J ~ 71'.
Pb(a) =Pb(a). = = = = = ./2. b b Fig.b) = 0 ORTHONORMAL BASES Let ei. 18. or k. 17 ORTHOGONAL VECTORS Two vectors a and b are said to be orthogonal.3) (1. = (a'b)b) a . 1 (1.3. .kb. then from equation (1. if a' b = O. Therefore they form a basis called an orthonormal basis.b)(b'b) ~~ = (a· b)  (a.7) The quantity 8ij is called the Kronecker symbol and will be used repeatedly. In fact. Example 1. written a _l b.L b. . if j = i if j oF i (i. ~~ •b = a' b  (a. where k (a> b)/lbI2. is an orthonormal basis if and el' ei = ez' es = ea' ea = 1 (Unit vectors) el' e2 = e2' es = el' es = 0 or. i= 1.O. 0 la ~ Pb (a) 1a .from equation {1. b).6 VECTORS [CHAP.5) that a and b are orthogonal if and only if either a = 0. that is. Hence c #. It follows that Pb (a) and Pb (a) are independent of the length of b but depend only on its direction as indicated in Fig. orthogonal to b. For suppose c 0.5). = We observe that only if e.j = 1.. b = 0 or (J = 4(a.. 18 = {I.2. It follows from equation (1. 0. If a oF 0. Let a and b be linearly independent and let c a . for if klel + k2e2 + kaea 0. the vectorPb(a) is also independent of the sense of b.where (J = 4(a. which is impossible since a and b are independent. e21es be three mutually orthogonal unit vectors as shown in Fig. Then c is a nonzero vector. 17.6). then 0 = ei' 0 = ei' (klel + k2e2 + kaea) = e. then . in short.16. Finally. ei'ej = 8ii (Mutually orthogonal) Fig.Pb (a).6) Clearly Pb (0) = 0 and Pb (0) = o..kiei = k. These vectors are independent. c •b Thus c .2. Pb (a) = lal cos (J and Pb (a) = [a] cos (JUb. b) = r. = 0 for each i. For Pb(a) = a·(b) lbl2 (b) a·b Ibl2 b = Pb(a) The scalar Pb (a) changes sign with a change in the sense of b.
4ea + ( v'12+22 (0) \a\ Ua = V5 (d) (e) (1/y'5)el + (2/V5)ea a·b 2 cos4(a. + a b + aaba Z2 =~ a . . and c = 2e2 +ea.23 we prove Theorem 1. 19. the same class have the same orientation and ordered bases in different classes have opposite orientation.gs) has the same orientation as (ei. otherwise the basis is said to be a lefthanded system. e2. a)be ordered bases and let Vi = V the same orientation as (ui.27 we show that this defines u an equivalence relation on the set of all ordered bases in Ea.17.ea) and (gI. i=I 3 Then (vi. or ga will point in the direction opposite to es. a2 i = 1. ) = lallbl = 3V5 b 1:1 = Let a nonzero vector a = aiel + aze2 + aaea and let (h = 4(a.i) > O.bi a~ 1=1 [a] = va:a = v'a~ + a.Ua) is a righthanded basis if the vectors assume the same directions in space as the thumb.3).e. U2. the direction cosines of a are the components of the unit vector in the direction of a. g2. In order to distinguish graphically one orientation of an ordered basis. Let el. we have = cos (h Note that Ua = a. (i = 1. Then (i) (ii) a' b basis and let a = aiel + a2e2 + aaea and = ab.cos Oa are called the direction cosines of a. U2..3. In Problem 1.3 aa a lal = 1.Va)has .2. es be an orthonormal b = b1el + b2e2 + baea. in which case the bases are said to have opposite orientation.2ea. Then ga will either coincide with es in which case we say that (gl.). g2. = ~ ± (iii) ai = a' e. This relation partitions the bases into exactly two equivalence classes.ga) be ordered orthonormal bases and imagine that the triad (gl. ORIENTED BASES Let (er. ~ a.2.ga) is rotated to make gl and g2 coincide with ei and es respectively. not only for orthonormal bases but for arbitrary bases. b = 2el + e2.V2.2ea) = 4el + 2e2. The scalars cos (h.CHAP./Ial.iUi. Then Let = el + 2ea. cosflz. 1] VECTORS 7 In Problem 1. e2.=1 a. we proceed as follows: Let (UI'U2.g2. Ordered bases in. index finger and middle finger of the right hand.113) and (VI. Since a' e. s) if det (a. = [a] cos OJ ai. as shown in Fig. Example 1. i = 1. (a) a' b = (1)(2)+ (0)(1)+ (2)(2) = 2 a (b) (a' c)b = [(1)(0) (0)(2)+ (2)(1)] 2e1+ e2. we say (ui.2.4. v2. es.es).[ er + lal es + lales al (cos Ol)el + (cos (J2)e2 + (cos (Ja)ea Fig. 19 That is. + a. To formulate this concept of orientation in a precise manner.
where 1a 8 = 4(a. lefthanded bases. then (a. U3) VECTORS [CHAP. 7(. e2.31 we prove Theorem 1. The triplets (uj. e3) be a righthanded orthonormal basis and let a = aIel + aze2 + a3eS and b = b1el + b2ez + bse3. 8 0.b] =Iallbl if and only if a and b are linearly dependent). is the vector a xb = (a2b3 . = lallbl sin 8.6. b) (Ii) a. aX b = 0 if and only if a and b are linearly dependent. (i) [a x b] b. The cross or vector product of a and b. Unless stated otherwise. 1~10(b)and (d) they are Uz (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig.e3' Then In Problem 1. [a. In Fig.IlO Note. 110(a) and (c) are righthanded bases. (a x b) and (a x b) 1b Ifax b =/= 0. or 8 we have from (i)·. Let a = el  e2' b = ez + 2ea. = = = = Theorem 1. a x b) is a righthanded linearly independent triplet. .5. VECTOR PRODUCT OF VECTORS Let (ei. 1 in Fig. b. Also in Problem 1.18.8 Example 1. above and the strict form of the Schwarz inequality (that is. c = aXb 2el . [b] 0. denoted by a x b. Since lallbl sin 8 = 0 if and only if [a] 0.32 we prove that the vector product is in fact independent of the righthanded orthonormal basis chosen. we observe that it can be obtained as the expansion of the determinant axb ei det(a2 aa Example 1. our bases shall be righthanded orthonormal bases.asb2)el + (a3bl .19. U2.alb3)e2 + (a1b2  a2bl)e3 As an aid in computing the above.
Let {J=4(c. it has the opposite direction (Theorem 1.5(i» and is parallel to a X b (Theorem 1. whereas (gl X gl) X g2 = 0 X g2 = o. a X b b Observe that the vector product is in general not commutative. Although b x a has the same magnitude as a X b (Theorem 1. c). and Y=4(a.a. 112 In Problem 1. 113 TRIPLE PRODUCTS AND VECTOR IDENTITIES The product a' b x c is called the mixed or trip~e sealar product. Example 1. c = AB = b . Thus b X a = (a X b). 11l(a). 113. cXb Hence But then or = c Xc = c X (b .\ sin a Ti = sin f1 sin y [c] Fig.11(b).20. Theorem 1.5(ii)a).e. For an orthonormal basis (gl' g2' ga) shown in Fig.lll (b) = 0 g2Xgl' g2 X g2 gl X g2 = ga gl X ga = g2 g2 X ga = = = ga 0 ia X gl ga X g2 ga X ga = g2 gl 0 gl = = Fig. For. = BC. This product is also conveniently given in terms of a determinant.21.29 we prove that the vector product satisfies [El] [E2] aXb aX = (b X a) (b + c) [Eal [E4] (ka) X b aXa = = 0 = (Anticommutative Law) b aX +aXc (Distributive Law) (k k(a x'b) = scalar) Note that the vector product is not only not commutative but also not associative. Now. a= 4. if aX b oF 0.CHAP.a X b = bXa = (b .a) X b = cXb Ic X b] = = = cx a [e X a] = bXa Ib X a] A = Icllbl sin a Icl [a] sin {J = Ibllal sin y which gives the law of sines j. in general a X (b X c) oF (a X b) X c. for this can only mean a' (b X c). i. gl X (gl X g2) = gl X ga = g2. b. as shown in Fig.20. 1~12.(b.a) cXb = c Xb .c X a = cXa b X b . it follows from Theorem 1. a Consider the triangle ABC shown in Fig. Example 1.a).b).5(ii) states that a x b is orthogonal to a and to b and such that (a. b = AC.5(ii)b). 1. that is. Note that parentheses are not required. I} VECTORS 9 If a and b are not linearly dependent. For as shown in Example 1. the scalar product of the vector a and the vector b x c. as shown in Fig. a X b) is a righthanded triplet.5 that gl X gl bXa (a) Fig. let . o or Similarly.
A basic A number of useful identities relate vector and scalar products of vectors.3 and equation (1.a2 + 0. (a2 + b2) + C2' (aa + ba) + Cal = [al + (bl + Cl)' a2 + (b2 + C2)' aa + (ba + ca)] = a + (b + c) [Aa]: a + 0 = (al + 0. it follows that a' b Xc = a X b· c.(a' d)(b' c) (a X b) x (c X d) = [abd]c .7.b2Cl) det (:: aa ~: bs ~:) Ca It follows from properties of the determinant that = (c'bXa) = (a'cXb) (1.9) and Theorem 1.) (1. aa + 0) = (aI.22. prove that [AI] a.c)d] where we used (1. are (a X b) • (c X d) = (a' c)(b' d) .8.1.8. aa) = a [~]: a + (a) = (aIaI' az. a+ (b+c). which proves [F1] above. b2 + a2' ba + aa) = b + a [A2]: (a + b) + c = [tal + bl) + Cl.(a' b)c Others.baC2)  ("' e2 ea bl b2 C2 e.aa) = (0.10 VECTORS [CHAP.8) ba Ca a2(cabl . [abc] =0 if and only if a.8) we have Theorem 1.clba) + aa(blC2 . aa. [Fl] [F2] a X (b X c) = (a' c)b . a2. 1 Then a+ b x c (aIel + a2e2 + aaea) • det al(b2Ca . + b = (al + bi' a2 + b2. It follows that (a X b) • (c X d) = (a· c)(b· d)  (a· d)(b • c) Solved Problems VECTOR ADDITION 1. c are linearly dependent. [A4] a + (a) = O. [Aa]a+O = That is.0) = 0 [AI]: a . which is derived in Problem 1. Let u = c X d. = [~] for vector addition. identity.az. Thus we can drop the dot and cross in the notation of the triple scalar product and use instead the notation [abc] = a+b x c == axb·c As immediate consequence of Theorem 1.0. a3 + ba) = (bl + aI. easily derived from the above.Then a X b· u = a' b X u = a' [b X (c X d)] = a' [(b' d)c . b.(b. is Theorem 1. Prove properties a+b [AI] through [A2](a+b)+c = b+a.[abc]d Example 1.9) a b x c = cva x b = bvc x a = (b'axc) In particular.35.
[B2] (k1 + k2)a = k1a + k2a. b = OR. 1] VECTORS 11 1. That is. that is if (c) . if 0' (b) the vector a is unique.c) in terms of Ut. Find OV.c) = 2a . lag) = (aI' az. VQ and RT in terms of a. k1(kzua» (k1k2)az. a (kal + kbv kaz + kbz. ag) = 1.AB) iBC. that is.4. Prove that the line joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and has onehalf its magnitude. 2a . k(ua + b3» ka+kb.2U2 + 3U3) .4uz + 6ua .3.3(b . ka3 + kb3) [B3]: la (lal' laz. Let M and M' be the midpoints of the sides AB and AC respectively of a triangle ABC shown in Fig. (0.3b + 3c 2(Ul . OV VQ OR+RV VR+RQ RS+ ST OR + OS u = b+c RV+ RQ OS + OP = c +a RT = RO b +e+a + OS + ST o Fig.5.us) + 3(U1 + 2U2) = 2Ul .AM i(AC . = +a = O. k1Ua + kzaa) == k1a + kza k(a + b) (k(UI + b1). a + x O.3U2 + 3ua + 3Ul + 6U2 = 5U1 . This has the solution x 0 . A = = = = = C Fig.U2. thus ( a) == a. 114 let a = OP. (k1k2)u3) = (klk2)a «kl + kZ)al' (k1 + k2)az. In the parallelepiped shown in Fig.a. 115 . [Bl]: kl(kza) = = (k1(kzal). then 0' = 0.Ua. (k1 + k2)U3) (k1uI + kZal' k1uz + kzaz. b.3(b . If a = UI . Then AM lAB. = = MULTIPLICATION 1. It has been shown (Example 1.6. x x +a = ( a). Using this result. AM' lAC and MM' AM' .4. BY A SCALAR Prove properties [B1] through [Bs] for multiplication of a vector by a scalar.3(U2 .U2 +9U3 1. a' + a = 0.2uz + 3Ua. c = OS. k(a + b)= ka + kb. a. find 2a . then a' = a. Thus MM' is parallel to BC and has half the magnitude. «k1k2)Uh k1(k#z).(a) = a for all a.(a) by uniqueness of the solution to the equation. 114 1. prove that: [B1] k1(kza) = (k1k2)a. [B3] 1a = a. k(az + bz).) using the properties [AI] through [i\4] that the vector equation a + x = b has a unique solution x = b + (a) = b . c. show that: (a) the vector 0 is unique.Ua and e = UI + 2U2. But also a + a = 0.) follows from the uniqueness of the solution to the equation (b) follows from the uniqueness of the solution to the equation (c) follows when we consider the equation + a = a. 115.b = us .2.CHAP.
..9. . where kl + k2 = 1... LINEAR DEPENDENCE 1. are dependent. then That is. hence three independent vectors form a basis in E3. the subset {Ul' U2' .k~)un (kl .)u2 + . k« If U1. Un are dependent. = = k.knun 0 where at least the coefficient 1 of Ul is not zero. say..b = BA are parallel. 116. kk not all zero such that klUl + k2U2+ klUl + k2uz + '. Un are dependent. i. + yb + zc = 0 Equivalently... . Hence Ul' .. Let a=OA. k. Suppose. . say.jk1)U2 .b are parallel. if e =k 18 + k2b. Ul k2U2+ . then + '. ••• .. + knUn = O.8. un are dependent. so that C is on the line determined by A and B. Un' *1 "'" 0. . "'" »: k~Ul + k~U2+ . But then = + OUk+l + . b. then the equation xa has only the solution x = y = z = O.b = Be = k1a+k2bb = k1a(1k2)b = k1ak1b = k1(ab) and a .• . then there exists k1. Show that any vector in E3 can be written as a linear combination of three independent vectors. Prove that a set of vectors which contains a linearly dependent subset is linearly dependent. the system .11. which is a contradiction. k1U1+ k2U2+ . + kkUk .1: k1ul then kl = ».. . .. u.. BASES AND COMPONENTS 1. Uk} of the set {U1'U2' Then there exist kb . . 1 b e.. + knun = . u.. if U1' . b=·OB. ' Un. . .. + knun• Then Ul . AND INDEPENDENCE Show that the vectors Ul.. . say. .16 B C If C is on L.b and Be = c ..10. e are linearly independent....k2U2. . . Prove Theorem 1.. ••• . If a.. .(knlk1)un and so = 1. Un} is dependent. U2.k 1. a b c Fig.I... U1 is a linear combination of U2' .. Suppose.. + OUn = 0 1. . = = Conversely. are independent and + k2U2 + . if one of the vectors isa linear combination of the others. b "'"a.•.. Ul is a linear combination of U2" ..12 1. + k~un Suppose some kj k..k. Conversely.k~)Ul + (k2 . + kkUk O... But this implies Ul' . # O.. kn not all zero such that then Ul :(k..k)uj where kj  = 0 k...' + (kn .' and so U1'uz. + (kj . the line L determined only if c = k1a + k2b VECTORS [CHAP. Hence there exists k such that cb where kl + k2 = ~ O~" = = k(ab) or =k+ cb 1. e ..e. then BA a .· as shown in Fig. Uk' Uk+1. Suppose..a and c=OC Show that C lies on by A and B if and where kl + k« = 1.7. u. are dependent if and only.
b . us. U4' .2c in terms of ur. 114'. For otherwise. 1. which implies Ul' U2. U2.(U2. (c) Pa(b).CHAP. 1. are independent. U2.13. (b) P« (b). 0 .!] VECTORS 13 0 0 0 of coefficients has xal xaz xaa + yb1 + zel + ybz + zCz + yba + zea has only the trivial solution x determinant not zero. they form a basis and so U4 = klUl + k2U2 + kaua. Un are dependent. . In the triangle OAB shown in Fig. 1.2c with respect to UI' uz.. Prove properties [CI] through [C4].b . let a = OA and b = OB. Hence Ul' U2. But if Ul. [CIl: [C2]: [Cal: + a2b2c + aaba = blal + b2a2 + baaa = b. page 5..U2 + Ua + 2u2 = 2Ul .Us.Ua.ua) . 117. U2' Us are independent. If IOAI = 2. Find = = 2(Ul . b the components of 2a . would be dependent. .U2 + 2ua.. are dependent.. Ul' U2' ua.a (ka)· b = kalbl + kazb2 + kaaba = k(albl + a2b2 + aaba) = k(a' b) a' (b + c) = al(bl + el) + a2(b2 + (2) + aa(ba + Ca) = albl + a2b2 + aaba + aIel + a2e2 + aaea = a' b + a' C 2 2 2 2 2 2 Clearly a' a = al + a2 + aa "" 0 and a • a = al + a2 + aa = 0 a' b alb! = iff al = a2 = a3 = O. b) (2)(3) cos 300 (a > b)/lal Pa (b) = 3V3 (b) (e) Pa (b) = = = == 3V3/2 (3V3/4)a Fig.Us and e = U2. Un' We can assume that Ul' U2' Us.!17 B Pa(b) ':1 . Consider the vectors u. for the scalar product of vectors. U2. 2a . u. Ua be a basis and let a = ur .ua.2U2 + 4ua .. 1. . lOBI = 3 and 4AOB = 30 find (a) a' b. Show that any four or more vectors in E3 are linearly dependent. that is. SCALAR PRODUCT 1.12.14. . = y = z = 0. det (:~ aa which is the case only if the matrix :~ ba ::) ea # 0 But then for any vector U = (Ul' uZ' ua) in Ea the system xal xa2 xaa has a solution x = kl' y = k2' + yb1 + ZCl + ybz + zez = + yba + zea = Ul Uz ua u Z = ka which means that = k1a + k2b + kac as required.lS. (a) a' b = lallbl cos 4(a.2(U2) 2Ul .U2+ 2ua) .2c = U2 . 5.U2 + 5ua Thus the components of 2a . Let ur. Un' having a dependent subset..b .. U4. U3 are 2.
l.kUl which is impossible since U1 and U2 are independent. Prove the CauchySchwarz inequality. us be a basis and define a = ur. for all ~ a and b. with equality holding if and that .Pb(Ua)] > = a' [ua .(b. Prove the triangle inequality.(b· ua)b/lbI2] a' Ua .Pa (U2» = a' [U2.1S. Uz. Finally.u3)a/lal2 .ua) > = 0 0.16.(k1a+ k2b) e. C a' (U2 .[ua .19. b.b = O. 1 1. The inequality Then from [C4].ua)b/lbI2] (b: ua) .(a' ua)a/lal2 . ±~b) and so we may assume ~ 21allbl ± 2a·b o follows from ~a ~ ~ or ±2a' b ~ 21allbl which gives the desired the fact b that equality inequality [a. because: if c a = Ul # = 0.b] ~ or lallbl. Let Ut. only if a and b are linearly dependent.a] ~ [b]. b. From the triangle [a] = la±b+=bl Also Thus Ibl /lal . a' Also. b #.O. 1.Pa(ua) .Pb(Ua) Show that a.(a> ua)(a' b)/lal2 . Let c be orthogonal to a and b. 1.20. c· a = 0 and c. Show that e is orthogonal to kla + k2b for all kl' k«: Since Thus C is orthogonal to a and b. b = = = a' Ua . Ibl [a ± b] + [a] = Max (Ial lal) ~ [a ± b].Ib/l la±bl = I±bl = [a ± b .(b. = 0.(a.b] ~ [al jb]. b. c are nonzero mutually orthogonal vectors.kUl) which is impossible since U1'U2'u3 are independent.(b> ua)(b' b)/lbl2 orthogonal. c = Ua  Pa(Ua) . which is the required ORTHOGONAL VECTORS 1. =0 (~a b:::: 0.17. = (b ua) . . statement can hold if and only if either = 0 or = 0 which is the case if and only if a and b are linearly 1.(b ua)(a • b)!lbI2 C = C 0. The remaining ~a +~b dependent. [a ± bl2 la±bl ~ [a]+ Ibl· lal2 + Ibl2 ± 2(a' b) = (a ± b) • (a ± b) =  lal2 + Ibl2 + 21allbl ~ (ja] + Ib/)2 and the desired result follows upon taking square roots.Pa (u3)  Pa (U3) = Ua . + k2(c·b) Hence = kl(c'a) = 0 C is orthogonal to kla + k2b. a' b and so a J.kla  k2b = Ua . Show that IialIbil ~ la±bl inequality. o= o= c b = U2 . e are mutually They are also nonzero vectors. is clearly (~a valid ±~b)' if a [a.a' Ua .(a' u2)a/lal2] = Since a' b = a' a' [ua . + Ibl or lalor [b] ~ Ibl Ial [a ±bl ~ [a ± b] result. if b Thus a.a • Ua = 0 and so a. b = U2  Pa (U2).14 VECTORS [CHAP.Pa (U2) = u2 ~ ka = U2 .k1u! k2(U2 .  = U3 . a. c. b.
Show that (a) (b) 8i.CHAP. = 8i.=1 aikui' 8i·u. a· es.:i a·b a >=1 aiei) • a (. (a) a s b (b) (e) (d) (e) = (1)(0)+(2)(1)+(3)(1) = ".2. = ~ i=l Show that k=l ~ au. (c) Ua.2) = 51(2.22..) a.(e. b). = k=l ~ ~ bkjVk where we have changed the name of the index from Vk =~ .) or (b) =~~ i=l 0 [a] =~ ". e2) = a2/1al = 2/. U2. (a) = a1el + azez + aae3 (b) lal=va~+a~+a:. . • = 1.i=1. a.. e2. b) a...=1 = equate components and obtain 8ij Since U1' uz.ea.. a As above. (g) a· ei. J Substituting. = aa/lal = 3/Vl4 .a1+a +a 2 2 (e) a· ei = (~aje. (b) ~ 8.a:. (I) cos 4(a.2e2 + Sea and b = es . we have = 2 2 (.4: If el. Let a = el . b)/lallbl = (5/V14.. . ea) (h) cos 4(a. We write ito k. Letui.b. Find (a) a· b.el= I. Thus ~ 8··b· 8iibi .2ez + Sea) Pa (b) = (a. (b) [a].=1 Hence 2821 + 3822 + 4823 = 2(0) + 3(1) + 4(0) = 3. U.(1)2+(2)2+(3)2 =5 [a] U .. Prove Theorem 1.e. Ua are independent 1.=1 s ~ a ~ aibj(ei· e.ea. el) = ai/ial = I/V14.3. Us be a basis and let a a Vi = ~ g a aijUi a bi. a • ea = 3 cos 4(a. I] VECTORS 15 ORTHONORMAL BASES 1. i=1 and U. a/lal = V14 a = (1/V14)(el .7) a. 1.23.bj8ij i=l .Vi.2ez + Sea) cos 4(a.. then (a) a·b=a1bl+azbz+aaba.24.=1 3=1 b. cos 4(a.[14. (h) direction cosines of a.ez = 2.a ~ 3 .=1 "1 I = {0 if j = i if j # i ' .21. ei = f a... the only contribution comes from 8u. ab 0 (a1el + azez + aaes) • (blel + bzez+ baea) albl(el • el) + a1bz(el • e2) + alba(el • ea) + aZbl(ez· el) + a2bZ(e2· e2) + aZba(e2· ea) + aabl(ea• el) + aabz(es· e2) + agba(es· ea) al bl + azbz + aaba a·b In short. (c) ai=aoei. es is an orthonormal basis and a and b = b1el + b2e2 + baea. (/) (g) = (a. 1 = b .).b)/lal = 5/V14 Pa (b) = Pa (b)ua = (5/14)(el .:i a . ei) = (d) Pa (b).bk. (a) 2821 + 3822 +482a = a 3. Also.. = i=1 8ijU. (e) Pa (b).
dot (~ as . V2. Show that the triplet (VI. V2.. such that Ua VEC'l'ORS [CHAP. The basis VI. vs). 3. We consider a ~ kiv. j = 1. V2. Va) has the same orientation as (u. 2. vs) and (VI.Vi) Ul U2 U3 = + f: aib.(u!' Vj) +~ ltibj8!j =~ aib. It remains that VI' V2' Va are independent and hence form a basis. i. vs) for all (VI. U2. us). That is. W2. Show that there exists a unique basis V2' ur V2' V1. Similarly we have unique solutions for V2 and Va. vs) has the same orientation as (vi. us. V2. 'Uj we obtain 11 kiViJ Thus kl = k2 = ka = ° i~l ki(v. Since det (aij) =F 0. there exists a unique VI :l:lel + :l:2e2 + :l:aea. (c) If (w. Va). .26. show that: (a) (VI.2. :l:s. U2. 3. V2.16 1. where VI = 2Ul . vs is called the dual or reciprocal basis to ui. ORIENTATION 1. then (ui. V2. us).2. U2. vs =1 = = 0 0 = U2 = 0 1 0 Va' Va' ui = U2 = 0 0 V2' Us = Va' Us = 1 or Vi' U.27. Let el' e2' ea be an orthonormal basis and let anel ~lel aalel :i:lel au:l:t + a12e2 + alaea + ~2e2 + a2aea + aS2e2 + aaaea + :l:2e2+ :l:sea and Then VI VI' U1 VI' U2 VI 'Ua = + a12:1:2+ ala:l:s a2Ixi + a22x2 + ~aX3 a3l:l:l + aa2:1:2+ asa:l:g = = = 1 0 0 solution is a system of three equations for :1:1. 1. (b) If (VI.:1:2. ~) ~ 1 V2 U2 + Us and > O.. V2. vs). then (wi. then a' b = (~ltiUi) ( f: b.. U2. W2. Wa) has the same orientation as (VI. U2. Show that orientation is an equivalence relation on the set of all ordered bases in Ea. Hence (VI>v2. V2. V2. Observe that an orthonormal basis is its own dual. U2. 0 1=1 = to show = If we multiply L~ by Uj' j = 1.' has the same orientation as (u.' Let U1.25. Us). va) has the same orientation as (UI. ' Uj) = a ~ k·/j·· i= I • '1 = = 0. Us). The determinant of tho components i. j = 1. V2.3 and so VI' V2> are independent Va and form a basis. Wa) has the same orientation as (U1. vs) has the same orientation (Ub U2' us). Accordingly if a = alUl + a2U2 + aaua and b = blvl + b2v2 + bava. = 81. U2.U2 + 2Us. vs = Ul + 2U2 + Us. us) has the same orientation as (VI. 1 be an arbitrary Vt' U1 Vt'U2 VI' Us basis.
(e) Let Vk > o.(a X b) X c.3.2.~ 3 where Cij =~ k=1 aikbkj. (d) (a X b) X c. (e) (a X b)· e. Observe that a X b = (b X a). =~ i det bijVi.es + es. then det (bij) >"0 and det (aij) > 0.ea. It is also easily aikbkj) = det (au) det (bi.kbkj and so as (b) = ~i aijui and Uj that verified by expanding C~1 det (bij) 3 From Problem 1. hence det (cU) > o.ua) has the same orientation as (V1'V2'va). Since det (8ij) = 1.3. Since (W1'W2'wa) has the same orientation as (VI. k=1 = llij. = det (llij) det (ail) 1 det (aU) det (au) Since (v1' V2'va) has the same orientation as (U1'U2'ua). det (:~ : e3 11 e1 !) = el det (1 1 1 2) .). j = 1. VECTOR PRODUCT 1. 1] VECTORS 17 (a) We write Vj (Vi' V2'Va). Hence. 3 k=1 Substituting. .a X c.22. and thus (U1'U2. we obtain k=1 bkj ~ 3 i=1 aikU. (b) b (c) a X (b X c). Let a = 2e1 . b = ei + 2e2 .a X b . (e) a X (b X c) n = = + 3e2 + 5ea) X (e2 + 2e3) det (:~ ~ :) ea 11 1 3 = (d) (a X b) X c Observe that (e1 5 a X (b X c) ¥:. (V1'V2'va) has the same orientation a ~ a. Also. (a) a Xb x a.V2'Va) and (VI.V2'Va) has the same orientation as (U1'U2'U3).e2 det (2 1 1 1) + e3 det ( 1 2 !) + 3e2 + 5ea (b) bX a det e1 e2 21 ( e3 1 1 1 2) el  3e2  5ea. Let Vj =~ i=1 a llijVi' j = 1. Determine (a) alX b. (e1 (el (a X b)· c= + 3e2 + 5ea) • (e2 + 2e3) = (1)(0) + (3)(1) + (5)(2) = 13 .=1 eijUi .2. (I) a X (b + c) . Thus Wj = .28. C = e2 + 2e3. det (bij) > 0. =~ 3 aikui i=1 and Wj =~ a ~ bkjVk. i.CHAP. Thus (WhW2'W3) has the same orientation as (Uh U2'U3).
aab2)el + (aabl .1 a and (ax b) . (a X b) • a [(azba . a X b) has the same orientation as (el' e2' ea).aab2)2 + (aabl .~3e.bl2 la121b12(1. = = lal2 Ibl2 .. Let sin (J "'" 0 for we have [a X hi = lallbl sin (J.alba)2 + (alb2 . dot(: .a2bl) as = (a2ba .alba)ez + (alb2 . + a~)(bi + b. b.azbl)ea] + (agbl .alUab2 Similarly.) ~ 4e2 + 2eg.1 b b.[a. aXb) (a X b) .(albl + a2bZ + aaba)2 2b2 22 22 22 22 22 al 2 + alba + a2bl + a2ba + aabl + aab2 .18 ifJ .kal ba)e2 + (kal b2 . If (a X b) =/= 0.al(bg + cg)]e2 [al(b2 + cz} a2(bl + cI)]eg agb2)el + (a3bl . c =  c1el + C2e2+ caea.cos20) (J '" 'IT.x(b+..b)(a· b) (ai + a. Show that [a X bl2 = lal21bl2 .29. D~ = b VECTORS [CHAP. (i) Using the preceding [a X bl2 problem.a2bl)2 2b2 2a1b1aaba 2b2 2b2 2a1b1a2b2  a2bl)ea] (a2ba .5: (i) [a X b] = lallbl sin 0. (a X b) . 0 = 4(a.a2bl)ea] • (aIel + a2e2 + aaea) = = = = ala2ba .a1ba)2 + (alb2 . The determinant al det ( a2 of the components (a2ba . then [a X bl2 > 0 and (a.kaabz)el k[(azba + (kaabl .+6o. Prove Theorem 1. .aab2)el + (aabl . + aa(b2 + cZ)]el + [ag(bi + CI) .L b. e2. + b~) ..31. a aIel + a2e2 + aaea and b blel + b2e2 + baea.30. es).. b. a X b) has the same orientation as (e. = = 0 '" lal2 Ibl2 .alCa)e2 + (alc2 . b) (ii) a. = [a2(ba + ca) (a2ba  = blel + b2e2 + bgea.[aLet a biZ..aab2)2 2b2 2b2  + (aabl 2b2  ~a+~2+~I+~a+~2+~1 2a2b2aaba (a· a)(b· b)  (a.+". b. (b) (ka) X b = k(a X b). . Prove that (a) a X (b + c) Let (a) aX b + a X c.  2alblaaba .o Then a X (b + c) .agb2)el = aIel + a2e2 + aaea and b [a X bl2 = (a X b)· (a X b) = = [(a2ba .. Hence (a X b) .a X b .1 a and of (a.agC2)el + (agcI .2alblazb2 The required identity follows by comparing the above.x. b.2a2b2aaba 1. (a X b) • b + U2uabl  a2ulba + uaulb2 is  aaazbl = 0 = O.a X c 1.alba)e2 + (alb2 .+7. and .a2bl)ea] = k(a X b) 1.alba)e2 + (alb2 . blel + bze2 + baea.alba) (alb2 .aab2)el + (aabl .• xb~.ka2bl)ea .lal21bl2 cos20 lal21bl2 sin2 (J (Iallbl sin = (J)2 Since (ii) a.aab2») bl b2 (aabl .albg)e2 + (a1b2 + (a2ca a2bl)eg .azcI)ea aXb+aXc (b) (ka) X b (kazba . a a X (b + c) = aIel + a2e2 + ageg. 1 4.alba)e2 + (alb2 . • [(a2ba .a2bl)2 = [a X bl2 ba If aX b "'" 0.. then (a..
Thus y 1 and e= e'. Since a and b are independent. Prove that the definition of the vector product is independent of the basis.5(ii).3ua. Prove Theorem 1. b (aIel + (a2blc2 a2e2  = blel + + baea. 3Ul + 9u2 12ua Show that [a ± b ± c] =: lal + [b] + Find Q Fig. = C = +es + 2ea. Find ab x c. Let a = ei + 2e2""': es. . a' c' alal2 + p(a· b) 0 and b· c' a(b· a) + ylbl2 O. le'l lei yle'l.(a' b)c + alb2cI)e2 ~b2Ca + (aibaci . bZe2 + aaea.Cabl)e2 + b2cI)ea] a2b2cI aabaCI + aablCa)el aabac2 a1b1c2 + (aab2ca Thus comparing with the above. Find PM in terms of a. Ans. + Then (b1C2  + aaea) X  [(b~a baC2)el+ (baci . b.  c = clel + C2e2 caea.CHAP. 3a . Let c and c' be the vector products of a and b with respect to two different righthanded orthonormal bases. e' a X b axb > e 1. In the tetrahedron OPQR shown in Fig.(a' b)c. c c' O. b.6. Show that a' b X c = a X b· c. PM = tb+ !ca Let a = 2Ul + U2.34.36.37.8: a x (b x c) Let a = aIel + a X (b X c) aZe2 = (a. lei. From Theorem 1.5(ii). c = Ul + 2uz . let a = OP.11S 1. b = Ul .5(i).Ua. Also from Theorem 1.c)b . from Theorem 1. Otherwise.33. e) is a basis and we can write c' aa + pb + yc.2U2+ Ua.alblca  + a2baC2)ea = (aici + a2c2 + aaCa)(blel + aZb2 b2e2 + baea) C2e2 . c') and (a. e) are both righthanded.W e may assume that a and b are independent. Since (a. lal21bl2 .38. 118. 1] VECTORS 19 1. b = OQ. Ans. y > O.la· bl2 =F O.c. == = = == = = = = = = = TRIPLE PRODUCTS 1. From Theorem 1. c = OR and let M be the midpoint of edge RQ. b.35. a •b Xc det ( ~ ~ ~) 1 0 2 = 5 1. b. Hence a p 0 and c' ye. 1.32.2b + c in terms of UI' U2'Ua.(al bl + (a2blc2 + aaba)(clel + a2clb2  + caea) + aablCa aaclba)el C2albl C2aaba)e2 caa1b1 Caa2b2)ea + (b2alCI + b2aaCa + (baalCl + a X (b X c) ba~C2 Supplementary Problems 1. (a. (a' c)b . b = el + ez.
.[[4. 1.. ±(1/V2)(e1 + ea) Find the distance d from the point P to the plane S where a OP el + e2 . 1. e3 = (1/3)(gl + 2g2 . Namely.V2+ 2va. a 8Vl + 4V2.56. Prove that Prove that Prove that [UIU2Ua][VIV2V3] = det Ul VI Ul V2 Ut va) U2° VI U2' V2 U2' V3 .(ac') py)(a b) + Pc') b12. Vj 1. Ans.59. then (VI> w2. 1. (b).2e2 + ea. (e) Pb (a). 1. 1.Ua in terms of vl. V2.42. 1. V3 2Ul + ua. Yes = a=u = =b iff ai = bi> t 2U2+ Ua. (b) [a]. (a) 4.c')b) Ans. c = 2Ul  U2+ Sus Let uj . and b = 2el xe2 + ea r aYlal2 . Show that coincide. ea and b = el + 2e2 . i. the midpoints VECTORS of the lines joining the midpoints of opposite [CHAP. 1. = = = = = 1.2ea and = b = el  = = = e2 + ea. (b) bx a.62. c and d.Va. LSD.Va) has the same orientation as Show that there exist two equivalent classes of oriented bases. b = U2= Ua.2ea. Sllow that VI' V2.V2. (aa . Ans. d IPb x c(a)1 .51. 2/.57. U2.Va) and (WI> wa) do not have the same orientation as (Ul' U2. set of vectors is linearly independent.V2' va. = Let Ul. 1. + I  Ans.ua) and (Vt.54.Ua. 1. 1.39. 1. are linearly independent. b).3ea. 1.ua). g3). b.2e3 to a = = = [abc].44. V2'va) and (WI'W2.52.43. If a el2e2+3e3. 1.3. bi' ci are the components of a. 1. then (a X b) (c X d) 0 Show that if a and b lie in a plane normal to a plane containing Let (u]. (e) (4/3)(el .. x=l Ans.va) be dual bases.64.. u. . ~x~ = = [UIU2Ul' 3 ~x~ Va = [u U u ].45. Determine whether Ans.e2 + ea) Find a vector e so that a. Find (a) a' b. (c) 10. (i) a Prove that three or more vectors in E2 are linearly Prove that if a.U3) be an arbitrary basis and let 0 = o..wa) have the same orientation.[ that (VI'V2.63. is equal to the SUm of the = b 2e1e2e3 and c e2+ea. (b) 5el . dependent. 1. Let (Ul' U2.2g3) = = 1. j 1. c = ±(2el .2e3) form an orthonormal basis and find (el' e2.e2 are along S. (ya . (c) cos 4(a.2v2 + 3va. U2'Ua be a basis. 1. Ua 4vl . 1/114. find (a) a Xb. cosines of the vector a a Find the direction Determine Factor x so that = xel + e2 0 ea = 2el + e2 .46.Pb) 0 Let a = e1 + e2 right triangle. [(a X b)(c X d)(e X f)l = [abd][cef] .60. Let a = el + e2 . e1 = (1/3)(2g1 + g2 + 2ga). c form the sides of a Show that gl = (1/3)(2el .ua)· = l' V2 U1U2Ua c')ij. (d) 4/. (d) Pb (a). U2'Ua be a basis and let VI Ul + u2 .58.41. U2 3vl . i.Va is a basis and find the components of a 2Ul . 1 sides of a quadrilateral Show that the angle bisectors of a triangle Show that the medians of a triangle meet at a point.. ( U3 VI U3 V2 U3 V3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (a X b) 0 (c X d) + (b X c) (a X d) + (c X a) (b X d) 0 O. (Ul' U2.53. (d) a X (b X c). ea) in terms of (gl' g2. 1. show that if (VI' V2.. (c) a s b X e Ans. (c) 4/(3v'2">. Ul 2vl + V2.61.3ea. Show that the sum of the squares of all the sides of a parallelogram squares of its diagonals.e3 is the vector from a point 0 on StoP and b el + ea and c el .[abc][def].48. Prove that a subset of a linearly independent Prove that two linearly independent vectors in E2 form a basis in E2. 1. 12a ~x~ Show that (VI. Show VI =.49. Thus we can say that two ordered bases have the same or opposite orientation.40.e.2e2 + ea). b.6. (a) 5e1 + 7e2 + 3ea.47. (d) 2el·~ 2e2 .20 1. U2. g2 = (1/3)(el + 2e2 + 2ea) and ga (1/3)(2el + e2 . c with respect to a basis. Ans.5va = = 1.e2 + ea) Ans.Va) is dual to (Ul.55. Ans. then (ii) c = a + b iff ci = ai + bi' (iii) b ka iff bi kai.. Find a unit vector orthogonal = el + e2  ea and b = el .2.3.ua. Ans. 3/V14 are orthogonal.ua).7e2 . e2 (1/3)(2g1 + 2g2 + gal. 1. meet at a point. V2 Ul + 2U2. 1.
If n is a nonzero vector normal to the plane x = hu the plane if and only if x .1. Thus the Example 2. = hu.al)nl + (X2 a2)n2 + (Xa . or + kv + a. Zs = k. = hU2 + kV2 + a2. Example 2.1) or (2. We say that the point x generates the line as the parameter k varies over the real line. X2 00 <h < < k: < 00 (2.2.3) (2. The parametric equation of the line through x = ku or Zl a = el + 2e2 parallel to u = el .1) x + al.es) + (el + 2e2) + 1)el + 2e2  kes z2 = 2. equation of the line through a and b is x = k(b . kU2 +~. +a = k(el . Any vector which is linearly dependent on u will be said to be parallel to this line.a) + a. 00 <k < 00 = ku« X3 = kU3 + a3.4) are called the parametric equations of the plane. Two lines will be said to be parallel if their respective vectors u are linearly dependent. or Xl= k(bl  al) + al.6) 21 . A vector will be said to be parallel to the plane if it is linearly dependent uponu and v. 00 <k < 00 (2.2) are called the parametric equations of the line. X2 = k(b2  a2) + a2> Xs = k(bg  as) + as By the plane through a parallel to two independent x in ES which can be represented by x Xl vectors u and v we mean the set of 00. Xl line through a parallel to.a is a nonzero vector parallel to the line. then the point x lies on (2. 00 = hu + kv + a.5) (xa)' n = 0 In terms of the components of x. a and u.as)na o (2. + at. We say that x generates the plane as the parameters hand k vary independently over the real numbers.3) and (2. equating components. By the straight we mean the set of x in E3 which can be represented by or in component form.es is = (k = k + 1. Xs = hu« + kvs + as The equations (2. X2 = = ku+a. If a and b are distinct points on a line.a is orthogonal to n.4) or. this becomes (Xl .u (2.'w ~ Chapter 2 Vector Functions of a Real Variable LINES AND PLANES Let a and u be vectors in E3 with u =F O. then b .2) The equations (2. and it will be said to be normal to the plane if it is orthogonal to both u and v. + ku.
2 [(x . 23 It is also convenient to consider a spherical neighborhood of a less a itself. 81/l0(el + 2e2 + 3e3}' consists of [x . c is [CHAP.3}2)1/2 < 1/10 (Xl.51 < 1/100 or 5 1/100 that 81/100 is the open interval of length 1/50 centered about 5.5) that the equation of the plane through a. care noncollinear points on a plane. a point x is in SE(a) if and only if x is in the interior of the sphere of radius £ about a.3}2 < 1/100 Example 2. SE(a) is the open interval of length 2£with a at its center. and in EI.3.a] = 0 if and only if x = a. 23. < X < 5 + 1/100.al < e. The set SE(a)excluding a is called the edeleted.7) Fig. 22. 21.e. denoted by 8. In E2. then b . or i. As shown in Fig.a and c .a) is a nonzero vector normal to the plane as indicated in Fig.5.1)2 + (x2 . Namely. b.a)(c .a)(b . spherical neighborhood of a and is denoted by S~(a).a)] = 0 Example 2. 22 Fig. Since [x . the €open sphere or €spherical neighborhood of a vector a.4. The parametric x (2. The 1/10 spherical neighborhood of the vector the vectors x = Xlel + X2e2 x3e3 satisfying + a = el + 2e2 + 3ea.2}2 + (X3 . It follows from equation (2. b.a are linearly independent vectors parallel to the plane and (b . a Fig. is the set of x satisfying [x . 21 equation of the plane through a = e2 parallel to u = el and v = el + e3 is = hu + kv + a The plane is also given by [(xa}uv] o NEIGHBORHOODS Local properties of functions are conveniently described in terms of the concept of a spherical neighborhood. Note .a] < e. Example 2.a) X (c . S:(a) consists of the vectors x satisfying 0 < [x .(a).1}2+ (X2 .a] = [(Xl. as shown in Fig.2)2 + (X3 . 81/100(5) on El is the set of numbers X satisfying Ix .VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE If a. SE(a) is the interior of the circle of radius e about a.
Let x = f(t). Example 2. the three scalar equations Xl = fl(t). As in the case of scalar functions of a real variable. Conversely. fa(t) = 2t . f(t) uniquely determines three scalar functions h(t). Xa = fa(t) t will be the will be called a parametric parameter. = 1+ t2. denoted by f(S). c = el'fl(t) ea. e2.a(sin t)ez or Xl a cos t. 25 Example 2. c be fixed vectors in space. fa(t) on a common domain S uniquely define a vector function f(t) = fl(t)el + h(t)e2 + fa (t)ea ft. b.6 suppose that f(t) a = el + 2e2' b = e2  ea. f2(t). The equation x = f(t) or. as shown in Fig. 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 23 VECTOR FUNCTIONS The assignment of a vector f(t) to each real number t of a set of real numbers S defines a vector function f of the single real variable t in S. e2.j CHAP. as shown in Fig.t2.2t(e2 . 24.6. es) are Vector functions will be used to define curves. f2(t). f3(t). X2 = fz(t).ea).7. The equation x = a(cos t)el . f2(t) = 2 2t. = . its components with respect to the basis. the set S is called the domain of definition of f.l.. on S whose components with respect to (er.2b + c 2 a . . is a parametric representation of the circle of radius a about the origin. and the variable Fig. a > 0. three scalar functions ft(t). the point x will trace out a curve.ea) + t2(el . and the set of assigned vectors.2t)e2 + (2t . Let a. componentwise.0 "" t "" 2".2tb = + t2c. then as t varies. is called the image of f.t2)ea Here f is expressed in terms of the three scalar functions its components with respect to (el. fa. X2 = a sin t. the circle is traced in a counterclockwise direction. h. representation of the curve. In Example 2. t f(t) 2 a + 4b + 4c 1 a + 2b+ c Example 2.8. 25 above.ea) = (1 + t2)el + (2 . As t increases through the interval o "" t "" 2". As indicated in the example above. 2 "" t "" 2 A table of some assigned vectors is 0 a 1 a .4b + 4c defines a vector function of t with domain 2 "" t "" 2. 24 Fig. f(t) The equation a . Then = (el + 2e2) .
[tan tlle21 == ItI I. equivalently. where f(t) is bounded at each to in 71'/2 < t < 71'/2 but not on the whole interval. For these t.(L) for t in S~(to). LIMITS A vector function f(t) has a limit L as t approaches to. = Ixl = ltel Iwhere (tan e).(to).. and the infinite intervals such as 00 < t < tYJ.. These consist of the finite open and closed intervals a < t < b and a ~ t ~ b.[tan tl == M M = 71'/2  e I. The curve traced by x tel I. then f(t) is bounded on 1 if and only if there exists a sphere of radius M about the origin such that the point x is in the sphere for t in 1. t)e21 == Itllell I. etc.24 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE [CHAP.tol < £.(L) about the point L. BOUNDED FUNCTIONS A function f(t) is said to be bounded on the interval 1 if there exists a scalar M> 0 such that If(t) I ~ M for t in 1.(L) for t in S~(to). or. 26 that if x = f(t). if for every e > 0. depending on e. or L as t ~ to. 28 that x = f(t) ~ L as t ~ to if and only if for every open sphere S. the converse is not true. 11T/2 1 "'1 = t 1 I 1 1 I Fig. the finite halfopen intervals a ~ t < b and a < t ~ b. one can find a 8 > 0. f(t) + <. as shown by the example above. such that the vectors f(t) are in S.€ < t < 71'/2 .9. However. 27 Example 2.to <. 26 Fig. one can find a deleted S~(to) such that the points x are in S. . tYJ < t < a. Observe that Ixl becomes arbitrarily large for t close to 71'/2. 28 I . then it is bounded at each to in 1. Clearly if f(t) is defined and bounded on an interval 1. Note. \ \ \ 1 J /' / / / Fig. that x is bounded on the interval 71'/2 I. 2 For the most part we shall assume that our functions are defined on intervals. Observe in Fig.(tan t)e2 on 71'/2 < t < 71'/2 is shown in Fig. 27. f(t) is bounded at to if there exists an M> 0 and an e > 0 such that If(t)1 ~ M for It . a ~ t < tYJ.e for any e > O.tan (71'/2  A function f(t) is said to be bounded at t = to if there exists an £ > 0 such that f(t) is bounded for t in S. Thus x is not bounded on 71'/2 < t < 71'/2. however. Observe in Fig. written lim f(t) = L t .
For example. t < 0 <. to II(t)e1 + h(t)e2 + fa(t)ea t .1)+01\ \ \ ..(L). 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 25 Note that the existence of a limit at to is a local property of a function. For f(t) == a is in every S. Then for an arbitrary such that If(t) .11. 29....3. Let f(t) = a = constant..L2)2 + (fa(t) . Example 2. '0 .(t t . Hence for t in S6(tO).La)2)1/2 + 12(t)e2 + la(t)ea)·1 . l + 1)e2) = el . On the other hand. as t > t the limit is tel + e2.(t ..t). If we let g(t) If(t) . f(t) ~ L as t ~ to iff If(t) .. and hence for all S6(tO) for all to. f(t) need not be defined at to. then f(t) is bounded at to.LI < £ if and only if f(t) is in S. Max (£.LI + ILl "'" M = 2. t"" 0 { 1. { 1. there is no limit.(L) which does not intersect both the line X2 = 1 and the line x2 1.1 shown in Fig. _..."'' .. l = lim [(t2 _1)2 t . lim (t2el .(t) = Li.(L)..2 ==..(a) for all t '"2  1. or Xl = fl(t) = t. we recall that a scalar function g(t) ~ 0 as t ~ to if for every e > 0 there exists a 8 > 0 such that Ig(t)1 < £ for t in S'(to). S1I2(0. PROPERTIES t+to OF LIMITS Suppose lim f. there exists 8> 0 = If(t) .CHAP. Thus we have the important = Theorem 2. If(to).2. Thus we have If f(t) has a limit as t ~ to.. lim If(t) .1.(L) there will not exist a 8 > 0 such that for all 0 < ItI < 8 the points x = f(t) are in S.LI) + ILl.LI<£ for t in S~(to). = f2(t) = 1. Then for any to. as shown. 29 Now.2e2.LI lim 1(11 (t)e1 t . then Ig(t)1 = If(t) .2... Example 2.. The function / t . l = Iim l(t2 1)el t .L1)2 + (!2(t) . If(t) I where M Theorem > 0. Example 2.. for any point L has a neighborhood S.(L1e1 + L2e2 + Laea) I . i = 1. to lim [(11(t) . X2 ..... .1)e21 lim If(.. to then L1e1 + L2e2 lim [ldt)e1 + 12(t)e2 + la(t)ea] = and L + Laea then For.. let f(t) = t .12.10. l + (t _1)2]1/2 e = 0 Finally. / (0. since . For example.) For these S. t t === 0 0 < .LI ~ 0 as t ~ to.. t .to lim f(t) = a. Since L is arbitrary.::. suppose f(t) ~ L as t ~ to. its domain could be the open interval a < t < to. / " / I . depending only on the nature of the function in a deleted neighborhood of to. the function does have a limit for any other choice of to./ = t~ t+ 8 Fig. (For example. Moreover..LI.LI t .1) will not include points on X2 = 1. to = L1e1 + L2e2 + Laea. does not have a limit as t > 0.L + L[ "'" jf(t) .
. lim t+to lim t+to b(t) = N.. i = 1.. to lim f(t) + t . Namely.]1/2 = ILl Note....f(2) h = jz(t)e2 Now suppose f(t) ~ L as t ~ to. Example U5. in which case t . That is........ to lim g(t) + M lim (h(t)g(t)) t . Let lim t . we have: lim (f(t) lim g(t) =M = and L t+to lim h(t) = N.to t....(t) + f~(t) + t+to f.. to For. o cost) e2 + (lim t . The function f(t) = 11 (t)el + 12 (t)e2 + Is (t)es has a limit as t ~ to if and only if li(t). then If(t) I~ ILl as t ~ to. 60 [H5] [IL] lim (f(t) x g(t)) t+to If limf(t) t .. to t . then lim (f(t)lh(t)) t+to = t_.. t .. o t) es = e2 Example 2. 60 = f(to).. to lim h(t) lim g(t) t .to + g(t)) = t . If(t)1 may have a limit even though f(t) does not.26 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE The converse of the above is also true..o t [f(t)g(t)b(t)] = (f(t)· g(t) X h(t» .to lim f(t)1 lim h(t) [IL] ttto lim (f(t)· g(t)) t .. Then lim t ..to f(t) lim t+to lim t+to g(t) = M.(t)]1/2 f2(t))2 [( lim f1(t))2 t+to + (lim + (lim t+to fs(t))2]1/2 [L. as If f(t) ~ L as t ~ to. + L~ + L. t+to If N # 0.. 2 Theorem 2.. letting f(t) = /I(t)el + lim If(t)1 = t. Let £(t) = t2el + te2.4... This happens in Example 2... + fs(t)es and L = L1el + L2e2 + L3e3. to NM LIN. then t . that the converse of the above is not true. We state the above result formally Theorem 2.. lim t . el + (lim t .o «sin t)el + (cost)e2 + tes) Then (lim o sin t) t .. to = = L.....2. however.. have limits as t ~ to. to lim f(t) Example 213....11 at to = O.. h . = f(t)· t+to f(t)· lim t+to (g(t) X b(t» t+to lim lim g(t) X t+to lim b(t) = [LMN] . t+to t+to Finally..c+to lim [f. f(to) and 6 . 60 lim h(O) = to..3. to lim f(t)· lim g(t) lim f(t) x lim g(t) t+to t+to = = L· M Lx M. then If(t)1~ ILl as t ~ to.14.. 6 ..3. O lim £(2 + h) . we have [CHAP. then lim f(h(O)) f ( lim h(6)) 6 ... If lim f(t) = L.
= {tel + e2' tel . depending on £. are continuous. equivalently. we note that (2.19...._(to<.. b.17.11 is continuous at all t except t=0 where DIFFERENTIATION The limit if it exists..3.. product. Also it follows from [Hl] through [Hs] that the sum.O + h)  f(to» Then o a + bto + ctg f(to) Example 2. defines the derivative f'(to) of f(t) at t t lim _. The function f(t) the limit does not exist.6t + M 2cto..18.6t .. c = constants.3 that f(t) is continuous if and only if its components Nt). It follows from Theorem 2. to lim (f(t)  f(to» = 0 or.to. Letf(t) = a + bt + ct2. O hm . t ...f(to) 11m __. 0 . the derivative at to is also ilt At .6t)  f(to) lim b. Finally. to lim (a + bt + ct2) = Hence f(t) is continuous for all t.!. For to # 1. Let f(t) a + bt + ct2 with a. with a. lim f(t) t#1 t=1 Then f(t) is continuous for all t. Example 2.10) Example 2.to The function f(t) is said to be continuous on I if it is continuous at all t = to in I. such that f(t) is in S..to lim f(t) = = constants.6t) + c(to + .9) If f'(to) exists._'.t)__f.f(. with derivative = .to (2.(f(to» for all t in Sa(to). Observe that if we substitute given as f'(to) = to. C(. we say f(t) is differentiable = to + ilt in the above.) at to. 0 .. f(to + Jlt) . c = t .. hm M lim (b + 2cto + c .. l For to = 1. or.CHAP.6t) b + 2cto. lim (f(to h .el+t3e2' { 2el+e2.. b..8) is equivalent to t . if we let h = t . f(to + . t ..2. t ... 0 t<0 in Example 2.6t)2] (a + bto + ct~ (2. to t .6t = + ~~ = f'(to) At . f(t) is continuous at to if (2..to = t .8) lim f(t) f(to) t .e2' t:=". t .16..6t)2 = b+ 2cto Thus f(t) is differentiable at to.. and scalar and vector products of continuous functions are continuous and that a continuous function of a continuous function is continuous. Let f(t) t:~. l lim f(t) lim «t + 1)el + t3e2) f(1) Example 2.. 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 27 CONTINUITY A vector function f(t) defined at to is continuous at to if for every £ > 0 there exists a 8> 0. i = 1.'''Then [a + b(to + . f'(to) ~~ At ..
orthogonal. to vectors. as shown in Fig.20. As with scalar functions.(to)el [lim h(t) .u dt "= .to x.to es 1· [ft(t) + f3(t) . in Problem If f(t) is differentiable at to. 210 Many properties of scalar functions carryover 2. U' we use the notation = du = f'(t) .to to f. if u = f(t). .3 + 2t)el then d.to t~~ t .6.e dt2 2 t c. since x • x"= o.5. as we expect..to es [lim ft(t) t . Higher order derivatives are defined similarly. = (f. i= 1. + + then it follows from Theorem 2.(to)e3 Thus we have Theorem 2. If U u' u" u'" Example 2..to + t.ft(to} t . (sin t)e2 + + ete3 etea d dt (dU) dt = :t~...(to)e2 + t.to t .to t .26 we prove Theorem 2.. This will give the second order derivative off(t).28 Now.(to)el + f. ! = = d dt (3t2 + 2)el + d dt (cos t)e2 + d dt (et)e3 = 6tel (cos t)e2 (6t)el  ! (sin t)e2  :t (et)e3 6el  + ete3 x = a(cos t)el + a(sin t)e2 traces the circle of radius a about the origin.3 + 2t)el du dt + (sin t)e2 + ete3' d dt (f. Example 2. denoted by f"(t). 210.f3(tO) ] t . = Fig.to el Mt) .(to)e2 + f. then f(t) is continuous at to.!!:_ dt (dU) dt = d u = f"(t) . then f'(t) is again a vector function on I which may again be differentiable..21. For example..to )]e2 + [lim f3(t) . The derivative x' dx/dt a(sin t)el + a(cos t)e2 is tangent to the circle at x and. in which case f'(to) = f.f2(tO) t .3. dt (sin t)e2 = + + d dt (et)e3 = (3t2 + 2)el + (cos t)e2 .to .f(to) t . A function f(t) = fl(t)el + f2(t)e2 + f3(t)e3 is differentiable at to if and only if each component fi(t). if f(t) f'(to) VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE [CHAP. 2 = fl(t)el + f2(t)e2 + fa(t)e3.fa(to)]es t .3 that lim f(t) .. is differentiable at to.f2(tO t .2.(to)ea If f(t) is differentiable on an interval I.ft(to)]el t .
e. u a(cos t)el . dU) = d u ~dt (dU) + du du CIt dt' dt = U' dt2 + 1 du 12 dt dt d[ u du d2uJ dt dt2 = 1t. we have dt/do d2u = 1/(do/dt). d f. if u is a vector function of constant magnitude. h are differentiable functions of u t on I.v) u X v is differentiable on I and :t = U' + du· dt 'V dv (u x v) = u x dt + dt du xv .7. where the image h(I.(u. Accordingly we say a scalar or vector valued function f belongs to class c» on an interval I if themth order derivative of f exists and is continuous on I.23. . In particular we have If u is a unit vector function. then du dt + dt du •u = 0 or U' du dt = Hence u is orthogonal to duldt.:) = U' u= Finally. then u g(O) f(h(O» is differentiable on I.) is contained in It. > O. then duldt is orthogonal to u.a(cos t)e2)/[t(1 + t2)1/2) = where we used the fact that for scalar functions Example 2. (a/t)(1 + t2)1/2«sin t)el + (cos t)e2) 0 = h(t) such that do/dt oF 0.22. Also we will want to know the largest class of functions for which a result will be valid.~~x:~) = U'[(~~X~t~)(~:~x:~)J u'(~~X~3t~) [u~~~:~J + +0 = U·:t(~~x~7:)+~~. dt Example 2. constant. and. This theorem is an important result which will be used often. dt \U . 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 29 DIFFERENTIATION FORMULAS If u.24. Finally we have the chain rule: [J5] If u f(t) is differentiable on It and t h(O) is differentiable on I.CHAP. v. differentiating.. Theorem 2. and = = = du dO Example Let 2.(~~xd. Then du/dO = dt dt = (a(sm t)el . . or more often. FUNCTIONS OF CLASS c» In general we require that our functions can be differentiated at least once and usually twice. we obtain U' i. if 0 lui = constant. We denote the class of continuous functions by Co and the class of functions which have derivatives of all orders by C"'.a(sin t)e2' du dt dt dO t = du do = du dt dt do 0 = (1 + t2)l/2. then du dt +v is differentiable on I and dt (u d + v) + dt U dv d hu is differentiable on I and dt (hu) = du h dt + dt dv dt dh [J3] d U'v is differentiable on I and dt (u.
Clearly. Let f(t) belong to f(t) c.. Note that since a differentiable function is continuous. Namely. where t(I.. However. f + g.30 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF AREAL VARIABLE [CHAP. f"(t)  00 <t < 6tel  00. If f(t) Hence about (t . In any interval not containing the origin. by applying the formula to the components of a vector function f(t) we have Theorem 2.to) + + . /(t) /(to) Then (Taylor's formula) for every t and to in I./2(t) and fa(t) belong to c» on I. to investigate the behavior of a function in the neighborhood of a point. . Here = 3t2el + (cos t)e2 + (8/3)ts/aea = (sin t)e2 + (40/9)t2/3ea are continuous for.26.to)m 0 . denoted by f(t) = O(g(t». h belong to formulas [J1] through [J5] we have c. fyo) (t .on I if and only if its components fl(t). . Consider the vector function f'(t) f(t) = t3el + (sin t)e2 and + ts/sea. A vector function f(t) = /1(t)el + /2 (t)e2 + /3 (t)e3 belongs to c. to) ~ (t . Taylor's Formula. + f(:(~o) where Example 2.. f'''(t) 6el .(cos t)e2 + (80/27)t1I3ea does not exist at t 0. A scalar Or vector function f(t) is said to be "small oh" of g(t) at to. If f(t) belongs to c» on It and if t(8) belongs to c. 0 as t ~ to f"'(O) = to = 0 we have (sin t)el (cos t)el + (sin t)e2' (cos t)e2 then £(0) =e f'(O) = e2'  f"(O) = el' = e2' £(4)(0) = el' + = el + e2t  (el/2 !)t2 (e2/3 !)t3 + (etl4!)t4 + R4(t) where R4(t)/t4 > 0 as t> O. 2 Since a vector function. to) has the property Rm(t. a function of class c.to)m 1. Hence f(t) is in C2 on 00 < t < 00 but not in ca. = = As a consequence of the differentiation Theorem 2.on I.) is contained in It. then f'(to) f(to) + l(t for every t and to in I. then the composite function g(8) = f(t(8» belongs to class Cm on I.to) + .11. to) ~ (t .. denoted by f(t) == o(g(t». if f(t)/g(t) ~ 0 as t ~ to. g. If f. then hf. + /(:(~o)t ( that as t ~ to to)m + Rm(t.25. • function of class C": TAYLOR'S FORMULA Let /(t) be of class Cm on I. Example 2.. A scalar or vector function f(t) is said to be "big oh" of g(t) at to.on I. all t. f· g and f x g belong to c= on I. It is often convenient to use the Landau symbols 0 and 0. to) Rm(t. if f(t)/g(t) is bounded at to.to)m + Rm(t. if a function belongs to Cm it belongs to C' for all j ~ m. is continuous or has a derivative if and only if all components are continuous or have derivatives. f has continuous derivatives of all orders and hence in such an interval f belongs to class C"'.10. let a scalar fundtion g(t) be different from zero in some deleted neighborhood of to. Theorem 2.on I.8.of a function of class Cm is a . since t1la appears in the denominator. to) where the remainder Rm(t.9. In other words. we have Theorem 2.
2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 31 Example 2. + f<:(:o).to)n When such is the case. But O(t2) is the best estimate.to)" 00 n=O which converges to f(t) for all t in S/)(to).. 1"(0) = 0. Thus every .. If we define 1(0) 0. or. f(t) Now. if in addition. we have + fyo) + . thus O(t). f(t) It follows from Taylor's formula that at to = f(to) + __0 1 f'(t ) (tto) + + f<m)(to) . there exists a neighborhood S/)(to) such that f(t) has a power series expansion f(t) ~ an(t .to)m + Rm(t. = (sin2 t)el + (t2 + ts)e2 + t4ea. is continuous for all t except t O. then f(t) can be expressed in I as a power series .29. f(t) ~o(tn) for integers n> For. Note also that Example 2. a function of class C""need not be analytic . ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS Suppose f(t) is of class C""on I.30. I(t) is not analytic in any interval containing t O. b. f(t) is analytic in I if for every to in I. more generally. 0 3. = t '> 0. product and substitution theorems for power series that the sum. then 2 f(t) = O(t2).CHAP.27. it can be shown that any function represented by a power series can be differentiated in the interior of the interval of convergence and the derivative is represented by the power series formed by differentiating the original power series term by term. However. For. If f(t) = at4 + bt5 + et6. . lim f(t)/ts = tO then t __ O f(t) = o(ts) at t lim (at + bt2 + eta) = = O. so that if i(t) did have a power series expansion in some S/)(O). f(t)/t2 is bounded. etc. i.=0 f f<n)(. are analytic in any interval in which they are continuous and that their inverses are analytic in any interval in which they are differentiable.o) (t n. f(t) is said to be analytic in I.28.since = f(t) O(t2). trigonometric functions and exponential functions. "" to) f(t) = 0. Example 2.. However.(tto)m m. For it can be shown that 1(0) = 0. f(t) a. = = = Finally we note that the elementary functions.e. . The function I(t) = e1/t" . f(to) Then for every m and all t and to in I. product and scalar and vector products of analytic functions are analytic and that an analytic function of an analytic function is again analytic. lim t __ f(t)/t2 O = lim t __ [sin2 t el O t + (1 + t)e2 + t2ea] f(t) Since the limit exists. c = constants. polynomials. thus also Example 2. 1'(0) = 0. Moreover. then I(t) will be continuous and in fact will belong to C"" for all 00 < t < 00. + o[(t_to)m] . However. the series would converge to zero for every tin S6(0). (t .analytic function is of class C"". f<n)(to) = ann! It follows from the sum.. As shown in the example below.. Let f(t) be of class Cm on I. which is impossible since I(t) is not identically zero in any S/)(O). The class of analytic functions on I shall be denoted by CA. rational functions. Note that f(t)/t ~ 0 as If(t)/t"'l ~ 00 as t ~ 0 for '" > 2. If f(t) = O(t2). to) lim m __ Rm(t.
Let a be the vertex of a right circular cone with axis in the direction of a unit vector n. 1.x) = d d '" from 0 the origin implies cos 4(n. ie. 2. Show that + nzX2 + naxs d is the equation of the plane S whose distance from the origin is d and whose unit normal vector directed away from the origin is n. k > O. i:a=k+2 (oo<k<oo). 2 Solved Problems LINES AND PLANES 2. n is directed As indicated in Fig. .a) • (x .a) = r2 2.a) from which the result follows. 1). or = OP. [(x . Ix . squaring. Derive the equation of the sphere of radius r about a.2. or. the distance from the origin to S is IPn(x)1 to S. 2.2) and parallel to the Let x Xa axis. . and half angle () = cos"! k.a.4. 1. Find a unit vector normal to the plane S containing P(O. Q(I. x lies on the cone if and only if 4(x . Let d:==: 0 and let n = nlel + nze2 + n3e3 n1X1 be a unit vector. = In·xl/lnl = [n s x] = Idl = Fig. Find the equation of the line through A(I.1. R(I. and = ±(I/yll )(3el + e2 + es) are unit normals to S. 211. 1.3.a] = r or (x .a)· (x .a) <n] = klx = . 0. n1x1 Then + nzx2 + naxa = n •x = [x] cos 4(n.32 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE [CHAP.a) 0 As shown in Fig. 1).l)e1 or xl=l. 211 Fig. x) '" 0 or 0 "" 4(n.a) • n]2 . n) Icos4(xa.5. a = OA.e).k2(x . Show that the equation of the cone is [(x .a) • (x . Let x be a general point on S. That is.a)· nJ2 n)1 = [eos s] k2(x =e or a] (11'. iff = k or I(x. 0). PQXPR +PQXPR IPQ X PRI ( :~ ~ ~) ea 2 _111 = 3el  e2  es 1 is normal to S. 212. x) "" 11'/2. + (X2 + l)ez + (xa  2)ea = = (x  a) = kea kea x2=I. Then P is on the line if and only if 'AP (xl . 212 2.
2ez 16el . Xz.Yl) + g22(XZ . (c) f(a)· g(b). 213 2. u2. Ya) is given by IPQlz = gl1(Xl .ya) + or. Xa) of P be defined as the components of the vector x = OP XIUl + XZU2 + XaUa with respect to the basis (U1.CHAP.' Uj)(Xi  [f (Xi  Yi)Ui] • [ ~ (Xj where Yj)Uj] = f~ i. = 1. Compute the vectors x = t2el + (1.Ya)Z where the gij satisfy IPQI2 =~~ gij = gji. (e) g(2a ~ b). (d) f(t) x g(t).3ez (16. Yz. g21(XZ . • Uj. Let (U1.Yj) or IPQlz =~~ t .Y3)(XZ . Uij(Xi . i .Yl)(Xa . let 0 be a fixed point in E3.ez)] = 12el + 3ea Ig(2)1 = 15el + 8ezl = V89 f(a)' g(b) = [(1 + a3)el + (2a .y) (0.Y2)2 + gza(X2 i. f(to) . h(t) (2t 1). = 1.Y3) + IPQj2 (a) IQPI2 gal(Xa .2.t)ez for t any integer between 4 and 4 and sketch the curve traced by the terminal points of x.a2) .Ya)(Xl . FUNCTIONS 2.ez gel .Yj) Uij = 0. g(t) (1 + t2)el + t3ez.Y.6. (g) f(h(t».ua). in short. and let the coordinates (Xl.)(Xj .aZ)ez + aeal • [(1 + bZ)el + b3ezl = (1 + a3)(1 + bZ) + b3(2a .y) • (x .ylZ = (x .Yz) + gaa(Xa . j Yi)(Xj . (f) f(to = = + ~t) Find (a) k(2)(f(l) (b) (c) + g(I» = (3)[(2el + e2 + ea) + (2el . Let f(t) (a) h(2)(f(1) + g(l».Yz)(Xa .7.Yl) + gaz(Xa > O.8. 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 33 2. (b) Ig(2)1.Y2)(Xl .3. .OQI2 = Ix . Uz.2.3 (b) det (gij) = = = lOP .Yl)2 + g12(Xl . t 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 16el gel 4el el ez el 4el . = (1 + ta}el + (2t . X2. Show that in an affine coordinate system the square of the distance between P(Xl. us) be an arbitrary basis in Ea.t2)ez + tea.3) x + 5ez + 4ez + 3ez + 2ez Fig. gij(XiYi)(XjYj).f . A coordinate system established in this way is called an affine coordinate system.Yl)(X2 .Y2) + gla(Xl . Xa) and Q(Yl.
then 8E1(a) and 8Ez(b) are disjoint.. See Fig. If x belongs to 8/i(b)..(1 + t~)el . (c) (a) Show that £1and b is in 8g(a). if Ix .[2 Fig... Ix .3)ez + (2t .1) .[2+ V2 = 3 in that is.a] in 8a(a).. = = t)el es + (tZ + 2)ez + (tZ . [x .11. 8/i(b) is contained Find £2 such that 8El(a) and 8E2(b} Since [b .:ltS)el+ (2.b] + [b .:It)2)e2 ..(to + .9.a] "" Ix .b] < 5. suppose y is in 8E (a) and 8E (b).a] < V2/2 and Iy .a] = 3 .b)3e2 (/) f(to + .~)ez .+ (to + .l)eg + 6t)el + (4tZ + St .[2.es.a] = . (tZ = 0 2. = (sinZ 2t cosz 3t + sinz 2t sinz from which the result follows.. For suppose otherwise. 8g(a)..3ez in 8a(a).:lt  2to.e.l)eg 2.:It s e (g) f(h(t» f(2t ..:ltZ)ez+ . Show that the curve generated (2 by x= lies en the plane + sin a through (x .:lt + 3to . But 1 Z = Ibal = Iby+yal "" Iybl + Iyal < ..toes (3t~.b) t3)e2 + (t6 = (1 + (2a .1) (Stg 12tZ = (1 + (2t .:It)S)el+ [2(to + at) . 214 (c) Let £1 = £2"" ilb V2 .t2) [CHAP..(2t .e./a) and 8. then Iy . Show that the curve generated by x = (1 + sin2t lies on the sphere of radius cos 3t)el + (2 + sin a 1 about [x .. + es.[2/2 which is impossible.[2 < 3.1+ 2 sin t)ea + 2ea and normal to N = 2el + es .:lt2 + . Thus 8.3 + 2 sin t)ea) • [2el + ez .. 8/i(b) is contained 5"" 3. 214.:It)es..34 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE (1 tS) (2t .. Since any x in 8/i(b) is in 8g(a).....a] < <'l + . (b) Find a such that disjoint.b + b ..l)a)el + (2(2t . Let are (a) 8>0 a = er  2ez + ea and b = 2el .ea) It follows that x lies on the plane through a and normal to N.a] = = 2t sin 3t)ez +ei + 2ez + (3 + cos 2t)ea  Bea..l)Z)ez + (2t .a] < 3 and x is in 83(a).(2to ..[2 "" 3 .f(to) = [1 + (to + . then = Ix ..b)2)el + (2a ..2t)es t4el + (t + (e) g(2a .. i.b] < V2/2. b is 5 "" 3 Ib . 2 (d) f(t) X g(t) det ( el e2 es + t (1 + t2») tS 0 + t4 .10. i.. .z(b) are disjoint..:lt  .is + t2 .[2/2. I(sin 2t cos 3t)el + (sin 2t sin 3t)ez + (cos 2t)egl 3t + cosz 2t)1/2 = (sinZ 2t + cos22t)1/2 = 1 2.[2/2 + .:It) .a] Let (b) = .a) • N [(2 + sin t)el + + l)ez + (tZ ..
+ 1)2 = «t . o t . Also. x is in 81I1oo(a). = .CHAP~ 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 35 2. = g(to). 2. 2. Then Ix .116 < (1/600)6 = 1/100 that is.. Prove that if f(t). then certainly = ItII < 1/600. l/v'lo < 1/3 2. 1. t .2)2]1/2 = "" [(5/100) + (1/100) + (4/100)]1/2 Thus P is in 8113(1. 2 ts) e2 + (urn t .2) for ail t in 81110(1). to t . o t .. < 1 and < Ix .1) + 4 + 41t11 + 4 [(t + 1)2(t 1)2 "" (1/100) + (4/10) + 4 "" 5 + (t 1)2 + 4(t 1)2)1/2 "" Now...14. to lim [f(t) g(t)h(t)] = [f(to) g(to) h(to)] Hence [f(t) get) h(t)] is continuous at to. o t . 2 1) es = (a) lim (f(t)· g(t».. . Let f(t) = (sin t)e1 + te3 (b) lim (f(t) x g(t».. 2 t3e2 = (lim (3t2 + 1») e1 t . then lim f(t) o = f(O) and f(t) will be continuous t = O. 2t) lie in 8113(1.es + 2es) . 2) for all t in 81110(1). then [f(t) g(t) h(t)] is continuous at to.(t l)ez + (2t ..2)e31 It2111e11 + It111e21 + 12t211e21 It11(lt+11+3) 8 = "" It11It+11 "" if It II + ItII + 21t11 Thus if ItII It11(lt1+21+3) It11(lt11+5) Now suppose ItII < 1. t . o = (b) lim f(t) • lim get) o t ... t. lim f(t) o = lim (sint tel + (cos t)e2) t .te« + 2te3 are in 81/100 (e1.. and g(t) Find o o (a) lim (f(t) • g(t» t .15 that lim f(t) t . lim g(t). 2) is [(t2 1)2 + (t + 1)2 + (2t .e.. 2 + 1)e1 + ea] . the distance between P(t2. then (t It 11 < 1/10 or (t 1)2< (t . Thus if we define f(O) = e1 + e2. 2t) and (1. t.17.1)2 (t1)2 "" 1/100.. + e2 at t . o lim «sin t)e1 + tea) X lim [(t2 + 1)e1 + ete2] t .13.. w LIMITS AND CONTINUITY 2. Define the function t = O. o 0 • (el + e2) 0 t . It follows from t .1) + 2)2 = + 4(t . for these t. and lim h(t) t .e2 + 2e3. Evaluate lim [(3t2 t . i. to = h(to). «t2 + 1)e1 + ete2) lim (f(t) X g(t» t . if t is in 86(1) where Ixal"" It116 < 1/100 1/600.12. 2. Let a = e1 .a] "" "" l(t2 1)e1 x = t2e1 .15. Show that the points p(t2. 1. g(t) and h(t) are continuous at to.. hich is the required result. o lim «sin t)e1 + tea) • lim t ... to = fUo). It is given that Example 2. lim [(3t2 + 1)e1 t . Find a 8 > 0 such that the vectors for all t in 86(1). o 0 X (e1 + e2) 0 t: .... o = = = = lim f(t) X lim get) o t .16.. 1. f(t) sin t = te1 + (cos t)e2 at t =0 = so that f(t) is continuous at e1..t3e2 + es]. (lim 2 t .. If t is in 81110(1).a] "" It 11 (It II + 5) "" It . then 1/600...
00 <k < 00 Fig.Lllgl Land g(t) ~ M as t ~ to. since g(t) __.01 = If(t) X g(t)1 = If(t)llg(t)llsin 4(f. Now choose 8 0< It. Find (a) ~~.18... as t __. (c) ~~~. Finally. Then if if t is in 86(1). there exist M > 0 and 81 > 0 such If(t)1 := M for all 0 < It . and consider If(t)LI If we take It 11 = := l(t21)e1+(tl)ezl ItII It+ll If(t)LI + ItII "" := that It2111ell Itll(ltll + Itllle21 + 2+ 1) ItII := Itll(\tll + 3) < 1. g)1 := If(t)llg(t)1 X = that that min (81. there exists a 81 > 0 such that is bounded at to.l Let f(t) = t2eI + (t + 1)e2 and L = el + 2e2. M to./2K)(K) + ILl(. and so there exist 82> 0 82.. 0 < It . Using the definition of the limit.LI < .(L X M) 1_ := If . 2 2. 2./2K whenever min (81. 8a). Hence If(t) X g(t) . i.tol < 8a and so = + ILlig  MI < (.e. 82). there L to 0 < It . If f(t) ~ Now Ig(t) ..(L).tol < 81 and 0 < It. Find the equation of the line tangent to the curve generated by x = tel + t2e2 + t3ea at t = 1.19... f(t) Ig(t)1 < .tol < 81. Then if 0 < It . 215) is = (y .tol < 82. dx/dt A vector tangent to the curve at the point x is e1 + 2te2 + 3t2ea. as t __. if Thus given an arbitrary € > 0./4). i. 215 .x) = k ~~ or y = k ~~ + x.MI < eI(2ILI) for 0 < It . Let u =a(cos (d) (a) (b) (c) I~~~I· dt du t)el + a(sin t)e2 + bte«. it follows further := It114 <. dt (a(sln t»el = a(cos t)e2 d + dt beg = a(cos t)e1  a(sin t)e2 (d) I~~ I (a2 cos2 t + a2 sin2 t)l/2 2. as t __.tol < 8a. since f(t) __. then for 0 < It .tol I(f X g) ..21.::: and It 11 < . we are led to choose 8 min (1. we have 0 < It . tt a(cos t)e1 + ~ a(sin t)e2 + tt (bt)ea = a(sin t)e1 + a(cos t)e2 + bea I~~I = = (a2 sin2 t + a2 cos2 t + b2)1/2 = a + dt [e] (a2 + b2)1/2 d2u dt2 d (dU) dt dt = = d . let e > 0 be arbitrary. 0 to. f(t) is in 8. Let e > 0 be arbitrary. we have both It 11 . as t __. (b) I~~I.. .22. show that f(t) x g(t) ~ L x M as t ~ to.tol < 81.tol < exists a 8a > 0 such that If(t) .20. Since f(t) is bounded at to. 82.. then the equation of the tangent line (see Fig.tol < 8 we have < M(. O./4. 2. a. show that lim WeI + (t + l)e2) t . Since g(t) __.e. there exists 82 > 0 such 0 to. = It114 <. If y denotes a generic point on the tangent line. Also g(t) and K > 0 such that Ig(t) I := K for 0 < It . Also.tol < II < 82 and 0 < It . show that f(t) x g(t) ~ 0 as t ~ to../M) =e Thus f(t) g(t) __. 1 I~(t)LI := Itll(ltll+3) = < E/4 It 11 < 8.. b ./2ILi) = e DIFFERENTIATION 2./M for 0 < It . which is the required result.36 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE [CHAP. and for these t... If is bounded at to and g(t) ~ 0 as t ~ to.tol < 82.tol < 81.
Find du/d6 as a (a) function du dt dt d9 = «cos t)e1 + 4te2 du/do + es)(l/IJ). + 1)2 + sin2 t]1I2 (6te1 + (cos t)e2) (18t3 + 6t + sin t cos t)/[(3t2 2. we have du/d9 = = = (sin log lJ)e1 + 2(log29)e2 + (log 9)es. d d find (a) dt (u. (b) function of t. Hence (cos log 1J)(1/9)el + 4(log 9)(1/9)e2 + (1/9)es (1/9)«COSlog9)e1 + 4(log9)e2 + es) (b) du d9 du dt dt d9 = «cos t)e1 + 4te2 + ea)(l/IJ) = et«cos t)el + 4te2 + es) Another method: Since 9 = et.sin t \ + det et 'det sin to) 0 (e1 e2 es 6t cos t 0 COSo t) et 6tete2  (sin t)ete1  (3t2 + 1)et~ + (sin2 t)ea + (cos t)ete1  (cos2 t)es (sin t + cos t)ete1  (3t2 + 6t + 1)ete2 + (sin2 t  cos2 t)ea Another method: u and X v = = = ( e1 e2 ea 3t2 + 1 cos 0 et sin t 0 t) = (sin t)etel  (3t2 + 1)ete2  (sin t cos t)ea dt(u d X v) [(sin t)et + (cos t)et]e1 (sin t + cos t)ete1  [(3t2 + l)et + 6tetje2  [ sin2 t + cos2 t]ea (3t2 + '6t + 1)ete2 + (sin2 t  cos2 t)es (c) ! lui = :t (u • U)1/2 = t(u· U)l/2 :t (u• u) = t(u • u)1/22 ( u • ~~) = (u/lul>· ~~ [(3t2 + 1)e1 + (sin t)e2]/[(3t2 + 1)2 + sin2 tp/2. (t> 0).24. Hence y = k(el +2ez+3ea) + (e1+e2+ea). + l)el + (sin t}e2 and v the tangent 00 < k < k 00 < < 00 2. d9/dt = et• ~: = ~~:! = Hence ~~/ :: = et«cos t)e1 + 4te2 + ea) I . y = (k + 1)e1 + (2k + 1)e2 + (3k + 1)es. x or = e1 + e2 + ea and dx/dt = e1 + 2e2 + 3es. Substituting for t. lui· «3t2 + 1)e1 + (sin t)e2) • ((sin dt (u· v) = (b) dt (u X v) t)el + etea) + (6te1 + (cos t)e2) • «cos t)el + eteg) (3t2 + 1) sin t + 6t cos t d = = = = dv u X dt e1 e2 ( ea + du dt X v 3t2 + 1 . If u d (c) dt (a) = d (3t2 = (cos t)e1 + etea.CHAP.v). Let u = (sin t)e1 + 2t2e2 of 6. = (1!9)«COSlog 9)e1 + 4(log 9)e2 + es) u Another method: Substituting for t.23. (b) dt (u x v). (a) du d9 + tee. 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 37 line at t = 1 is 00 At t = 1. and t = log 6.
to • f(t) . 2 .O lim is continuous.f(to) 1 rm (t . v(t). O + at) at  h(t) = ah'(t) 2.w(t) . to t . a = constant. O · h(t 1im a Ii rm dt ....f(to)] . ...u(t» X V(t)] at X lim at .. O at where we used the fact that u(t)...2. O + ilt) at .. f(t) .. Prove Theorem 2. O lim dt . Then d d:~O d:~O Ii li M .26. to lim [f(t) ...38 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE [CHAP. Then v(t) = dt .u(t) ... since it is differentiable... If u and v are differentiable functions of t. O dt ..... then f'(t) (a) (b) f'(t) = ah'(t). show that: (a) If f(t) = a.28.. a = constant. + at) O dt ..v(t) = du dt + dv dt 2. O +r v(t a:~iJ + at) at .. Using the definition of the derivative... show that Let w(t) dt (u X v) d dv du dt (u x v) = u x dt +(It x v.27.. O w(t u(t + at) at .O lim u(t + at) = u(t)... If u and v are differentiable functions of t.. Another method is to find u and v in terms . O + at) . show that dt We write d w(t) d( u+ v) . &t. 0 + at) ..t ) t . = at dt .u(t) X lim v(t) M .. O a 1..v(t) at + lim u(t dt . O f(t + ilt) ilt . hence of a basis and to differentiate componentwise. O = = lim dt .. We consider t ..a 1m ilt lim 0 ah(t) o f'(t) lim f(t dt . then f'(t) = o. 2.6: If f(t) is differentiable at to. (b) If f(t) = ah(t)..25.to 0 t .. .. Then dt (ulv) at dw lim u(t dt .w(t) X v(t + at) + at) at  u(t) X v(t) lim [U(t lim u(t + at) + at) X (v(t at + at) v(t  v(t» + (u(t + at) .to lim (t • to) [f'(to)]O o and so f(t) is continuous at to.. then f(t) is continuous at to.. O w(t + at) at at .. = u(t) at dw X v(t). = = u(t) + v(t).u(t) lim u(t M .f(to) 1im t to t .f(t) dt .f(t) lim ah(t dt ..v(t) + At) + v(t + at) + ilt) at . and v(t) is independent of at..
... Thatis.. 2. b = constant.. = .. Prove the converse of Problem 2. (0) oW)· oW) = oW).. such that f(to + Llt) = f(to) + a Llt + R.31./2 (t2 = O.. prove that f(to + Llt) where (R(to._ At . 0 At>O . kt + b :t sinkt = ak sin k2(a + bk cos kt d2u/dt2 = ak2 cos kt  bk2 sin kt = cos kt + b sin kt) = k2u 2..CHAP. + o(fl) =0 0 i = oW). 0 At 1. Show that u = a cos kt du/dt + b sin kt... lim (O(t2) o + O(t3»/t2 = = t .. 2 =a :it cos . lim O(t2)/t2 o lim t(o(t3)/tJ3) o 0 t . Llt) = f(to + At)  f(to) At .f'(to) At. = 0: = t>O (a) toW) = o(fl). Show that dt (u • u) u· = du _ dt d dt lul2.. 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 39 2. el + 1(71'2+ 4)ez + 7Te2(t1T/2) lim R/(t . 0 lim R/At  a Hence f(t) is differentiable at to and f'(to) = a.. Llt)/Llt) ~ 0 as Llt ~ Define R f(to) o. = + o (b) oW) t .. aAt + R At . [f(to Iim 0 f'(to) f'(to) = 0 which is the required result. if there exists a linear function a Llt of Llt..31...... t . 0 lim a + At .. .71'/2)2 = 2. FUNCTIONS 71"/2) 71"/2)2 f(t) TAYLOR'S THEOREM 2..30.. a.:_ At . [f(to + At)  £(to) f(to) f'(to)  At]/At ] f'(to)  At . + At) At + Then f'(to)Llt + R(to. Show that (sin t)el AND ANALYTIC + W + 1)e2 = el '+ !(71"2+ 4)e2 + 7I"e2(t+ H el + 2e2)(t expansion £('1r/2) + o[(t 71"/2)2] t = 71'/2. t . 0 lim R/At lim O . where lim R/ Llt = 0.. We find the first three terms Namely.34..sin tel + 1)e2 + (t2 + 1 )e2 + 2te2 + 2e2 f'(7T/2) f"(7T/2) +!(el + 2e2)(t .. . If f(t) is differentiable at to..71'/2)2 + R Thus where (sin t)el + t . lim to(t2)/t3 o lim (t/t)(o(t2)/t2) lim O(t2)/t2 o t . Show that at t (a) (b) (c) t .... lui dlul dt d u· dt du + du dt • u du 2u· dt dlul 21u I dt ' or u·dt du II~ dt u 2. is a solution to d2u/dt2 kt = k u.. Iim f(to + At) At  f(to) = 1m ''=. f(t) f'(t) f"(t) of the Taylor of = (sin t)el + (t2t 1)e2 about (sin t)el cos tel .29. then f(t) is differentiable at to and a = f'(to)...32. At . lim O(t2) ·o(t3)/t5 o lim o(t2)/t2 o lim o(t3)/t3 t .33.
+ f(ml)(t ) f(ml)(t ) (m _ 1)0! (t .to)m (ml)~ (tto)ml + + o[(t_to)m] Hence it remains to show that m. (t .to) + . 2. O(Yl(t» x O(Yl(t» Since f1(t)/gl(t) + 0 and f2(t)/g2(t) = O(Yl(t)Y2(t». f(t)/g(t) = O(g(t» at to. show that + f(to) + f'(t ) (t . .19 that +0 or.show that + 0 f(t) as Since Thus f(t) f(t) = o(g(t».to)m] But Hence [f(:~to) (t to)m + o[(t . for a sufficiently small neighborhood of to. is bounded at t  = to. show that x f2(t) = o(Yt(t)Y2(t» at to it follows from Problem 2. If f(t) = o(y(t» at to.35. show that at to O(Yl(t» Consider O(gl(t» + g2(t) O(Y2(t» O(Y2(t» === 1 O(g2(t»/g2(t) + O(g2(t» g2(t) I "" 1O(Ul(t» 1 + I O(g2(t» I g2(t) === 1O(gl(t» I +1 gl(t) O(g2(t» g2(t) I + 0 where we used Igl(t)1 "" Ig2(t)I and thus 1 O~~~~» 1 1 o~~~~» I. If IYl(t)1 ~ IY2(t)1 in some S6(tO). [CHAP. at to.. = O(y(t» t + to.to)m] = O[(t . If fl (t) = O(Yl(t» and f2(t) = O(Y2(t» fl(t) at to. 2 em on I.37.to)ml f(m)(t ) mf"(tto)m + O[(t . 2. + o[(t . Hence O(gl(t» 1 g2(t) + O(g2(t» 0 or 1 < e and so 1 O(gl(t» O(g2(t» U2(t) + 1~ O(gl(t» + O(g2(t» .38..40 2.36.to)m] By Taylor's theorem.2. which gives the required result.to)m]]/(t: to)m is bounded. f(t) = f(to) + f'(t ) r(tto) + . If f(t) is of class f(t) VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE . Since O(gl(t»/gl(t) and + 0. + f(m)(to) . as we say.. and for arbitrary £ > O. f(t)/g(t) 2. Hence by Theorem 2. is bounded at to.. ft(t) X f2(t) gl(t)U2(t)  X ft(t) f2(t) U2(t) Ul(t) Hence f1(t) X f2(t) = O(Ul(t)g2(t».
3x~ . 2. (b) dt (u X v). Ans.v). Inl =F 0. (co <k< co) = = = = 5 and 2.6)ete1 + [4 cos t . show that b is in 84(a) and find 8 Am.2X2 + Xs 2X1 + 3X2 :l:s 1. Xs 13k. is Find the equation of the cone with vertex at A(O. xl k + 1. e X d =F 0. Find du/dfJ and d2u/do~ as functions of t. with axis parallel to the xl axis.57.1. of the line through a and normal to the plane x·· n = d. Let (b) lim (f(t) X g(t».CHAP. = = (b) g(t + at). (a) 2te1 2. .(cos (t2 + 1)(1 + sin2 t»es If a = 2e1 . If f(t). 1)..45.cos t (b) [(l/t) cos t . 2e1 + (l/e)~ . (e1 + ez) Find the first three terms of the Taylor expansion of f(t) + 2e2t . = t'lT = = [(t2 + 1)/(t2 1)]e1 + (tan t)e2 is discontinuous. 0). Ans. 1)..(X2 1)2 . i [(l/t) > 0. x Prove that the equation k(c X d) + a. 00 < k < 00 = = + 3)e2 + (t4 + 4t + l)es If u (2 + t)e2 + (log t)es and v Am. 2.2)1/2 (ete1 + 2(cos t)e2 + 2tes) d2u/do2 (4t .54. (l/t2)es Find the equation of the line tangent to the curve traced by x == (t2 . tO f(t) = (t2  1)e2 + (cos t)es and g(t) Ans. 2.log t sin t]e1 = = + (sin t)e1 . 2. .dt  u:: = u. Xl .47. 1. find (a) du/dt. the equation of the line through co <k< 00. (a) (a2 + 2ab + b2 + 1)e1 + (as + 3a2b + 3b2a + bS)es (b) sin (t + At)e1 . g(t) and h(t) are continuous on I.(t + 2)ete2  (b) d2u/dt2.56.(xs 1)2 0 = = 2..cos (t + At)~ (c) (cos (t2 + 1) sins t)e1 + (sin (t2 + 1) sins t)e2 . (c) f(sin t) X g(t2 + 1).46.e1t2/2 + t2e2 = (cos t)e1 + (t2 + 2t + 1)e2 about t = O. Find the equations of the line which is the intersection of the planes 3X1 . 1.55. 2.t2)e2 for integer t in 4 "'" t "'" and sketch.44.x2 5k 1. (b) e1 = (sin t)e1 + ete2' Find (a) t_O lim (f(t) • g(t». is 2.43.2es >0 such that lim [(t2+ 1)e1 + ete2 + [(t2 t+1 l)/(t + l)]es]. + 1)e1 . 2.x2 2 = = = k + 1.(8t 16) sin t]e2 + (12t 16)es = + = = = 2.52.3X2 + Xs = 1 Find the equation of the plane through A(l. and half angle 6 600• Am. 2. 2. Am. 1.(cost)e2' Find (a) f(a+b).e2 + es Evaluate and b S6(b) is contained in S4(a).48.50. 1). 2.2)e1 + (t at t 1. = e1 + e2 +  es.41. 2. B(O.39.0.2. n 0. 2] VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 41 Supplementary Problems 2. t 1. x (2k . 2X1 .. 0) and normal to the line Xl Xs 3. = a and orthogonal to e and d. X2 = = k + 1. [(2 + t) cos t + sin t]e3 sin t + log t cos t]e2  2. Calculate the vectors x = (tS + 1)e1 + (1 .1)e1 + (k + 4)e2 + (8k + 6)es. show that f(t) X (g(t) Xh(t» If u is continuous on I.dt2 v.dt2 ..49. d d find (a) dt (u. = (t2 A"s. d2v d2u Ans.42.53. 4 Let f(t) (t2+1)e1 + tSes and g(t) (sint)e1 . 0. (a) 1. (b) 2e1 . Prove that x = kn+a. ± n'lT. Determine the values of t for which f(t) Am. du/do 2(t . . (a) (2 + t) sin t .(cos t)e2. Am.40. (t + 1)ete2 + (l/t)es.. 2.tete2 + (log t)e3' t > 0. Find the equation of the plane through A(l. Let u ete1 + 2(sin t)e2 (t2 + l)es and t 02 + 2.51. 2. Show that d( dv dU) dt u. Am. Ans. C(l. t '" 2. 1.
dt de ' = f(t) = h(9) are differentiable .42 2. .62.70. f"(to) = 0. = u.58. and h(9) If u + to as 9 + 90' show that and t f(h(9» + f(to) as 9 + 90.bt3 f( t) • g( t) + L • M as t + to. show that a. Prove the chain rule: du du dt then d9 .61. 2. + CIt + C2 at2 a. u = d2uldt2 lzat4 + lbt3 + iet2 = + bt + e. e = constants. b.71.63. Find all u such that Am.64. If f(t) + f(to) as t + to.69.. 2.59. 2. 2 Using the definition of the derivative (a process). Show that 81/100(2).4/4+ C2)e2 + (cos t + Ca)e3 = = 2. 2. f(n)(to) Let f(t) be analytic at = to and let = 0.(1/(t If u and v are differentiable functions of t. u (t3 + t + CI)el + (1. Show that [at2 + o(t3)] • [bt Show that Show that U(t) + o(t2)] = + o(t4). . If f( t) + Land g( t) + M as t + to. Show that Show that u X du/dt (tan2 t)el =0 if and only if u has constant direction. = constants. VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE [CHAP. 2. b. show that d dt [(t2 + l)el + (lI(t + l»e2 + e3] = 2tel . O(Ul(t»· O(U2(t» 2.68. 2. show that d dt (u • v) + 1)2)e2 dv 2. 2. 2. the vectors x = + I)el + (t + l)e2  te3 lie in 8l/10(5el + 3e2  2ea) for all t in 2.65. functions of t and 0 respectively. Am. = O(U(t».(sin t)e3.. x f(n+I)(to) # 0 Show that f(n+ll(to) represents e(1lt)2 { a vector tangent to the curve = f(t) at f(to).66. If f(t) = for t # 0 for t 0 =0 (t2 ' show that f(")(O) =0 for all n. a. 2. = 0.73. Find all u such that du/dt (3t2 + l)el + t3e2 . O(t2) at t + (2t3 + t4)e2 = t fl(tO) = O.60. = O(UI(t)U2(t». 2.dt + du dt • v.74.
we obtain the representation Xl = Xl in polar coordinates is shown in Fig. Evidently x x(t) is a regular parametric representation if and only if each x. r cos (J. The image 9 = o· Fig. Polar and rectangular coordinates are related by the equations tution for r. = (3. to three scalar equations = xs(t).Chapter 3 Concept of a Curve REGULAR REPRESENTATIONS By a regular of parametric representation we mean a vector function x = x(t). since x. 32 The graph of the equation r 2 cos (J .1). x2 = (sin (J)(2 cos (J . e1 + 2te2 of the function is the parabola shown in Fig. The function x is a regular parametric representation. Fig. Upon substi = = = (cos (J)(2 cos (J x 1). If a basis is chosen in E3. 32. 31 Example 3. # 0 for all t. 31. tet (3.1.2) = (t + 1)el + (t2 + 3)e2' 00 <t < 00 = is continuous and x.1.l)ez 43 .1) t in an interval I with the property that (i) x(t) is of class C1 in I (ii) x'(t) =F 0 for all t in I The variable t is called the parameter Xl = Xl(t). 0 "" (J "" 2lT. the equation x = x(t) Xs is equivalent. = X2 = X2(t). Example 3. X2 r sin (J. tEl the components of x x(t) with respect to the basis.(t) is in class C1 and if for each t in I at least one of the x~(t) =F O. or = (cos (J)(2 cos (J  l)e1 + (sin (J)(2 cos (J .2. of the representation.
2. then dt/dO is continuous and dt/dO # O.. For consider an arbitrary 8 > O. 8 < tl < t2 < 8. = = + a(cos 0)e2 < 0 < 00) is a regular representation of the circle is continuous for all 0 and # 0 Idx/do I = Ia(sin o)el + a(cos 0)e21 = lal Observe that every point on.cos ole2 0 ¥ is continuous and it can be computed that "'. (ii) The inverse function on It.tIT < 8 < 00 + tIT. the interval + 2IT)e2 = a(cos 00)el + a(sin 00)e2 x 00 .N).2N2 = Xl(t2) = 0 = (1/4IT2N2) sin 2ITN = X2(t2) Thus we have a multiple point in 8 < t < 8. Hence either dt/dO > 0 on 1. dt/dO # 0 for all 0 in I. since for any 00' a cos (00 + 2IT)el + a sin (00 However. = O(t) is an allowable change of parameter .3. However. restricted is onetoone.5 . Fig. If x = x(t) is a regular parametric representation on I.1. (00 of radius lal about the origin. 33 has continuous derivatives for all t. then for each tD in I there exists a neighborhood of ~in which x(t) is onetoone. Note that if t = t(O) is an allowable change of parameter on I.7 we prove = Theorem 3.44 This representation is regular. This will enable us to prove (Problem 3.13) Theorem 3. 3 since [4 sin 0 cos 0 = + sin olel + Ix'l = [2 cos2 0 . and t(O) is a smooth decreasing function.4. Example 3.e. i. 33 REGULAR CURVES t A real valued function = t(O) on an interval I. locally this will not be the case. then (i) t = t(O) is a onetoone mapping of I.4 cos 0 for all 8 and hence x' # 0 for all e. if t"" 0 if t> 0 the function = a(cos o)el + a(sin 0)e2 = O' { t2 sin l/t. = = = = = and X2(tl) Xl(t1) = 1I4". Note that this function has multiple points in every neighborhood of t o. Clearly. in which case t(O) is a smooth increasing function. If t = t(O) is an allowable change of parameter on 10. is an allowable (ii) change of parameter if (i) t(O) is of class Cl in I. a # 0. Select an integer N > 0 so that 1/2ITN < 8 and consider tl (1/2ITN) and t2 +(1/2". moreover. In Problem 3.). X' CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. this representation is a multiple point. 00 <t< 00 shown in Fig. however.2 sin20 . or dt/dO < 0 on I. since dx/do a(sin o)el Example 3. The function x a(cos o)el + a(sin 0)e2.. dXl/dt dxzldt == 0 and hence it is not a regular representation. A regular parametric representation x = x(t) on I can have multiple points.. tl # t« in I for which x(tl) X(t2). The function X2 to. say. onto an interval It 0 = t(I. at t 0.
However.1. If we introduce the change of parameter t. If we. = = [cos (t + 1)][2 cos (t + 1)  1]el + [sin (t + 1)][2 cos (t + 1)  1]e2' As t increases through the interval 1 "'" t "'"2" . 34(b)..2. 8 (a) 8 (b) Fig. and the transformed equation traces the same set of points in the same direction as before. Thus a curve should be thought of not simply as a set of points in E3 but as a general method of traversing the set of points specified by a collection of equivalent parametric representations.14 we show that this defines an equivalence relation on the set of regular representations. 0 "'" e.. the quantity 0 t decreases through the interval and the set of points is traced in the opposite direction or sense as shown in Fig. as we say. We define a regular curve to be an equivalence class of regular parametric representations.5. in the rep2" resentation x = (cos 0)(2 cos e 1)el + (sin 0)(2 cos 0 1)ez. is equivalent to a regular parametric representation x = x*(O).1)el  (sin t)(2 cos t .1)e2' increases through 2" "'" t "'" 0... Note that a representation x = x(t) uniquely determines a curve G consisting of all representations related to it by an allowable change of parameter. the quantity 0 t + 1 increases smoothly through 0"'" 0 "'" 2". "'" 1. obtain the equivalent representation = 1 "'" "'" . as shown in Fig. a < b. Thus we may say "the curve G given by x x(t) . is an allowable change of parameter which takes the interval 0 "'"0 1 onto a"'" t "'" b./3 "'" t "'" 2" equation 1)e2.) = It' (ii) x(t(O» x*(O) In Problem 3. 2" "'" t "'" we 0. is an allowable change of parameter which takes 0 "'" 0 (2/. the transformed x = [coso(t)](2 coso(t) 1)el + [sin o(t)] (2 coso(t)  will trace the same set of points but in the direction shown in Fig. This gives the equivalent parametric x representation Example 3.1 t 2" = x = (cos t)(2 cos t . 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE 45 Example 3. The inverse 0 (t . of Example 3. 1 "'" t "'" .) Tan1 t which takes 0 "'" t < 00 onto 0 "'" 0 < 1. 0"'" 0 The inverse is 0 = < 1. 34(a)." • = = = Suppose we introduce the allowable change in parameter 0 t + 1. With our definition this curve is not the same as the one above. if there exists an allowable change of parameter t = t(O) on Ie such that (i) t(I. Any property of the curve must be common to all representations or. "independent of the parameter. for . 34 8 (c) ."'" 0 "'" 1. for 5. (a) The function t (b.CHAP. ".a) is an allowable change of parameter which takes a "'"t "'"b onto o. for 0 e: t "'" . = tan (. a property of x x(t) may not necessarily be a property of the curve. introduce the allowable change in parameter 0 t. Thus the sense in which a curve is traced is a property of the representation and not of the curve./3 < t < 5'ff/3 t. 34(c).6. which we note is not an allowable change in parameter.a)e + a./3 o "'" 0 Here as t "'" 2" = o = o(t) = { t + 2".. t E It.. <1 A regular parametric representation x = x(t).0/2)..1. 0 E I.a)/(b .. = := = {b) The function t onto 0 "'" t < 00.
The equation Xa bt "moves" the points of the curve uniformly in the xa direction.. 37. etc..7. = to at al 10 + aa 43 a2 102 + aa lOa + . can be expressed uniquely as a series a2 42 = 4+ + + '" 1 1 "4 + 42 + 43 ( Uniqueness is obtained by omitting series ending in .. Circular Helix (a. a.. pitch of the helix..alazaa··· The same is true with base four.3S Every to in O". Xl ... 3. We also suppose the squares are indexed so that if we pass through the squares in the order of increasing subscripts. 36 to = . then Xl and X2 return to their original values. i. Ql' Q2' Qa. 1 can be expressed uniquely as an infinite decimal: Fig.. 36.• This mapping is onto Q. we obtain an arc which does not cross itself. When t increases by 217". co or Xl = a cos t. is constructed as follows.. b > 0) Qll Q121 Q21 .!..1 in E2.. and each of the latter subdivided again. the = = Example 3. an containing Po so small that it and its adjacent squares of the same size Fig.. . F'inally. 3 + ~+ .. The curve lies on the right circular cylinder of radius lal: Xl a cos t. That this can be done is left to the reader as an exercise. x2 =a sin t.. Suppose further that each of the Qi is again subdivided into four equal squares QiO. this mapping is continuous. It is interesting to note that the unit interval 0". a. we choose Qutaz .. 44 = . t . . can be mapped continuously onto the unit 1 square Q: 0". 3 example of a space curve is the circular helix x = a(cos t)el + a(sin t)e2 + xa btea. as shown in Fig.L_. Qil' Qi2.8. X2 Q02l Q3If Q30 t Qoo QOI Qa2 Qaa Fig. for it can be shown that every P in Q will be a point common to an allowable sequence of nested intervals. 0".. AI! shown in Fig.46 Example 3. ai ..(po) be an arbitrary neighborhood of Po.3's. X2 = a sin t. = bt. An important CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. We divide Q into four equal squares which together with their boundaries are denoted by Qo. Such a mapping. x2 .t". < t < co ~oo < t < 00 shown in Fig.. b ~ 0. while Xa increases (b > 0) or decreases (b < 0) by 217"lbl... 00 < xa < co.+__g__) 4 42' to To each =~ i a/4i we now assign the unique point Po in Q which is common to the infinite sequence of closed nested squares Qat' Qata2' Qata2aa' ..e. b ~ 0.. 35. that is. giving a "curve" which fills a two dimensional region. 1... each to with integers 0". 37 . called a Peano curve.. Qia. LJ QI3 Qzo r I rQ22 Q23 QIO ~ Qoa '. For let 8.
A regular curve x = x(t). This mapping is not onetoone since points on the boundaries of the squares are common to more than one sequence of nested squares. dt/dO ORTHOGONAL PROJECTIONS Let x = x(t) represent a curve C. 42 + will be mapped . is a simple arc segment of the curve and is shown in Fig. is called a regular arc if I is a closed interval a ~ t ~ b.. tEl. tEl. ~ CHAP. t E 1*. 39. The part of the curve restricted to. In fact it can be shown that no continuous mapping of the line onto the square can be onetoone.. It follows that the family of lines co < k < co (3. a regular oriented curve is a collection of regular parametric representations any two of which are related by an allowable change of parameter having a positive derivative. If > 0. is said to be simpZe if there are no multiple points. +_n__ 1 4ft al a2 _+~+ 2 <t< 4" al + az. say. < k < co is the equation of the line orthogonal to the X1X2 plane and passing through the point x(to).. if tt =F t2 implies X(t1)=F X(t2). An arc segment of a curve x = x(t) on I is an arc x = x*(t). The points x(a) and x(b) are called the end points of the arc. then t increases with increasing 0. Example 3.. as shown in Fig. For a fixed to the equation co < k < co co or Xl = Xl(tO). is. not of the A regular curve x = x(t). 38. representation.2 is a regular are. Fig. Xs = k. since Xl X2 = (cos (1)(2 cos (I (sin (1)(2 cos e  1) 1) =  is a regular representation on the closed interval 0 "" (I "" 2". 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE 47 to are contained in SE(PO)' 4 But then all t in the following open interval containing 4 a.9.into SE(PO)' Hence the mapping is continuous. If dt/dO < 0. let x = x(t) and x = x*(O) be two representations of a regular curve. Observe that here the end points of the curve are equal. where 1* is any closed interval contained in I and x*(t) is the restriction of x(t) to 1*. the interval 0"" (J "" ". X2 = X2(tO). 38 Finally. 39 . and x = x(t) and x = x*(O) trace the curve in the same direction.3) X1X2 generate a cylindrical surface orthogonal to the plane and containing the curve C. The curve in Example 3. then t decreases with increasing 0.. That is. Fig. and x = x(t) and x= x*(O) will trace the curve in opposite directions. A regular oriented curve is a curve along which a specific direction is chosen. that This is clearly a property of the curve.
X2 = 0. Xl If X3 = 0. Xa we can = Xa with Xa itself the parameter. == 0 and Xl can be arbitrary.10. These are obtained as follows. 310.11. X3 ta. 310 IMPLICIT REPRESENTATIONS OF CURVES A curve in space can be determined as the intersection of two surfaces. X2 = X2(Xa). onto the X1x2 plane is the parabola Xl t. X3 t together with the Xl axis. i. Xa t3. :1:3 O. = = xs(t) The orthogonal projection of the space curve Xl == t. OJ is the intersection of the two curves.4) satisfying the above. 8 projection x x(t) The intersection of the cylinder (3. det aFtlaX1 ( aF2iax1 aFtlfJX2) aFJax2 =/= 0 Xs then it follows from the implicit function theorem that for some neighborhood of solve (3. Example 3. X1(t). This gives the Xl axis. Hence the orthogonal projection of = is given by X3 = 0 The orthogonal projections of x = x(t) Xl onto the x2x3and X1X3 planes are respectively X3 Xs and Example 3. X2 0.3) with the X1X2 plane. = t. then X2 = x.e.0. The intersection of the two second degree surfaces X2 = 0 and X3:1:1 0 is the third degree curve Xl ea. x2 t2. X3 = 0.48 CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. = = = x: = or. The curve itself is the intersection of the two cylinders = = = = = = and as shown in Fig. obtaining = = = x. Xa = O. X2. 00 < t < 00.x1 t. The projection onto the x1xa plane is the cubic Xl t. Observe that the point (0. Xa) satisfying two relations of the form F1(X1. X2 t2. as those points (Xl.4) for Xl and X2 as functions of Xa. For :1:3 oF 0 we can solve the given relations for Xl and X2 in terms of x3. X2 = X2(t). :1:2 t2. X2. if we let X3 = t. Fig. X2 X3(t) = 0. This defines at least locally a regular curve. xa = O. X2. X3) Xa) =0 and F2(X1. X2. X3) 0 (3. If at a point (Xl. X2 0. is the orthogonal r of x = x(t) onto the' X1X2 plane. obtaining a representation of the form Xl = Xl(Xa). . Xl = = 0.
. Observe that for all t < 0 the curve lies in the XlX3 plane. Similarly. The representation tel x + e1/f' ea + e1/f' e2 for t <0 = { 0 tel for t = 0 for t > 0 is of class C'" (see Example' 2..I ~ Ix(ti) . and for all t > 0 the curve lies in the X1x2 plane. Fig.e. be given by x x(t). _p p.. the of class c» is not a curve of class Cj for j < m. Hence the length of P is n n s(P) = ~ IXi .XH. since the curve x = x(t) of class c» contains only representations related to x = x(t) by allowable changes of parameter of class c. xn = x(tn) which are joined in sequence to form an approximating polygonal arc P as shown in Fig. 312 . let an arc C. say. 312. < t« = b = of the interval a ~ t ~ b.CHAP. 311 DEFINITION OF ARC LENGTH The length of an arc is defined in terms of the lengths of approximating polygonal arcs... 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE 49 REGULAR CURVES OF CLASS representation We define a regular parametric representation x = x(t) on I to be a regular parametric of class C": (m::" 1) if x(t) is of class c. The vector function w(t) = a(cos t)e1 + a(sin t)~ + btea.13. i. Thus the helix x w(t) can be considered as a regular analytic curve provided we consider only those representations which are related to it by an analytic change in parameter. This determines a sequence of points in E3 Xo = x(to) . Since the length of one side of a polygon is less than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the other sides. c = Example 3.5) i=l i=l Now suppose we introduce a better approximating polygonal arc P' by introducing additional points as shown. Xl = x(t1). curve x= x(t) Example 3. is analytic. an allowable change of parameter t = t(O) on I.on I. Namely. Finally. a ~ t ~ b.isa collection of representations of class Cm any two of which are related by an allowable change of parameter of class C": Although a representation x = x(t) of class c= is also of class Cj for all j ~ m. of class Cj but not of class c. s(P) ~ s(P'). 311. and consider a subdivision a = to < tl < . . page 31). 00 < t < 00. for j < m contains in addition representations related to x = x(t) by allowable changes of parameter which are.Xi1!. and together with all related representations of class C'" defines the curve of class C'" shown in Fig.30. whereas the curve x = x(t) of class C. The length of the line between two adjacent points Xi1 and Xi is IXi .12. shall be called an allowable change of parameter of class Cm if t(O) is of class Cm on I..x(ti1)1 (3. two regular representations of class Cm define the same regular curve of class c» if they are related by an allowable change of parameter of class C». not necessarily regular. Fig. it follows that the length of P is less than or equal to the length of P'. Thus a regular curve of class c.
In this case the set S has a supremum which is defined to be the length of the arc. which gives the same polygonal arc P. then it has a least upper bound or supremum. Note that if M is an upper bound of S.. 1 + til + ti "" 3. + If we drop the first and last terms. In this case the number M is called an upper bound for S.J e21 . where t. 1.14.50 CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP.(O). J e21 + . of It. . t« < tnl < .til) i = tn  to = 1. that is. = = = = Example 3. 313 below is not rectifiable.i 1. which is the length of C.. To every subdivision 00 < 01 < . an upper bound s . we have s(P) for 0 for t =0 <t "" 1 (0"" t ""1) For. 1/". The length of the approximating polygonal arc is n = For consider a subdivision 0 = to < tl < . Thus the set S of the lengths of all approximating polygonal arcs is independent of the parameter and hence so is the supremum of S..2)". is said to be rectifiable if the set S of all possible s(P) is bounded from above..~cos". n. Example 3. = 1. Thus for any P the quantity s(P) is bounded by 3. < On of I. and ~ (ti . there corresponds a unique subdivision to < tl < < t. an arc x = x(t). and conversely.. using the subdivision 0. then 1[1. then any L such that M ~ L is also an upper bound. ..15.. < to.such that if L is any upper bound.. = I (N ~ 1)17el + eN ~ 1)17 [cos (N 1)". depending upon orientation. The curve t to cos (lIt) { shown in Fig.1)". . The arc x tel + t2e2' 0 "" t "" 1. a ~ t ~ b..... then L:=" e. be two representations of C such that t t(O) is onetoone.=1 ~ I (tiel + t~e2) til)el (tilel + tile2) I ~ I (ti  . Specifically.J el + [N ~ 2)". For let x = x(t) on It and x x*(O)on I.. .je21 + I [(N ~ 2)17 (N ~ l)".  (N ~ 1)17 cos (N 1)".. . < t. One of the basic properties of the real numbers is that if S has an upper bound M. s(P) .til)e21 ~ ~ (ti i ti1)(1 + ti + tiI) "" where we used the fact that for 3 ~ (titil) i = 3 0"" til < ti"" 1. t. Note that the length of an arc C is independent of the parameter. 1/2".. A set of S of real numbers is said to be bounded from above if there is a real number M such that x ~ M for all x in S. is rectifiable. 1/(N .. + (t.:J el + [cos 1. or. cos (N . Hence the arc is rectifiable and has a length equal to the supremum of the s(P). 3 Thus we are led to define the length of the arc C as the greatest of lengths of all possible approximating polygonal arcs P.
Je 1 + [~~ cosnr. n=l 2 (n 1 + 1)r.] e21 2 "" N:i [. But the sum n=l n ~ +11 diverges to infinity.+ ~ 1 . Thus the curve is not rectifiable. we could take = s(t) = = dt . w" n +11 cos (n"+ 1)r. then s < 0 and is equal to minus the length of the arc segment between x(to) and x(t). the curve between x(to) and x(t).CHAP.6) s Example 3. is ARC LENGTH AS A PARAMETER Let x = x(t) be a regular curve on I. Now. That is. Note that a representation in terms of arc length is not unique. a"'" t "'" is rectifiable and its length is given by b. _ nr. for it depends upon the chosen initial point to (where s 0) and on orientation. (3.. then s ~ 0 and is equal to the length of the arc segment of.11 n=l ~ + nw 1 \ (n + 1)11' 2 . Also s(t) is of class Cm on I if Thus the arc length 8 can be introduced along the curve as a parameter.!.COS nr.3_ A regular arc x the integral = x(t). and consider the function s (3.!. 0 "'" t "'" 211'. that is..] e21  2 N._N2 . 8{P) can be made arbitrarily large by making N sufficiently large. is an allowable change of parameter on I. Fig. If t < to. 313 In Problem 3.7) has a continuous nonvanishing derivative given by ds dt dtJto d It IdXI dt dt I~~I _ It IdXI J.16.24 we prove Theorem 3.7) If t ~ to.11'n=l n 1 where in going from the first to the second line we have used N2 the inequality iael + be2i "" ibezi. it follows from the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus that (3.. dt Hence s s(t) x(t) is of class = c. n=l n'lT 1  n +11 cos (n + 1)r. 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE 51 8(P) "" N:i 1·[. The length of the arc segment of the helix x = (a cos t)el + (a sin t)ez + bte3.
dx/dt = el + 2te2 + 3(t . From this we prove (Prob. then ds/dt Idx/dtl.4. ·we define a representation x = x(s) on Is to be a representation in terms of arc length or a natural representation if Idx/dsl = 1. onto the xlx3 plane is the cubic xl= t. = O. Show that x tel + (t2 + 1)e2 + (t 1)3es is a regular parametric representation for all t and find the projections onto the XIX2 and XIXS planes. IS2 .Otherwise ds/dt Idx/dtl.~27T ~ (J ~ 27T. then natural representation since = = x = x(t(s» = I~:I I~~I~!I 1~71/1~1= 1~~1/1~71 I representation x of the helix 1 Example 3.7).1. The curve is the intersection of the cylinders. then s Theorem 3.1)2es is continuous and idx/dtl = [1 + 4t2 + 9(t 1)4)1/2 <F 0 for all t.52 CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. therefore.sll is the length of the arc segment of Cbetween X(Sl}and X(S2).X2 t2 + 1. . = = xi+ 1. we obtain the natural representation Unless otherwise stated. The projection = o. • dx •• d2x dx " d2x t x = dt2' e c. = = or x2 0. x3 (Xl . = = ± s* + as is a (iii) If x = x*(t) is any representation of C of the same orientation x= x(s). x2 Xl t. for example. X2 = sin (J. Xs = (tl)S.1)3. The projection onto the XIX2 plane is the parabola X3 x2 X3 = =0. or x3 (Xl 1)3. To obtain a natural we consider If we substitute 8 = ~t I~~ = (a cos t)el + t (a sin t)e2 + bte3 Idt =~ (a2 + b2)1/2t d = (a2 + b2)1/2t t = (a2+ b2)1/2Sinto the above. 3 lems 3. is regular and lies on the sphere of radius 2 about the origin and the cylinder (Xl 1)2 + x~ = 1.20) To be precise.dt'  = = Solved Problems REGULAR REPRESENTATIONS 3. (ii) If x x*(s*) is any other natural representation constant.2. Show that the representation Xl = (1 + cos (J). x ds ' x ds2' x' . differentiation with respect to a natural parameter s will be denoted by dots and differentiation with respect to any other parameter will be denoted by primes. then of C.19 and 3. Xs =2 sin «(J/2). If x = x(s) is a natural representation (i) of a curve C. X2 = x~ + 1 and = = 3.11. = = Note finally that if s s(t) is defined by the integral in (3. Hence x is regular for all t.
Let A denote the center of C and angle that OA makes with el. dxl/do vanish at 0 = 4 sin 0 cos (J dX2/do = 0: = 2 sin20 sec20 + 4 sin 0 cos 0 tan 3. + xi = = (xl 1)2 + x: = x: = + (1 + (1 cos 0)2 cos 0)2 + + sin20 sin20 + + 4 sin2 (0/2) 2(1  cos 0) = 4 = Fig. the curve lies on the sphere of radius 2 and the circular cylinder (Xl . Co is at the origin with radius ro.1)2 + 1. 315 Since Xl = r cos 0 xl and X2 = = r sin 0. Then OA (J the = IOAI(coso)el (ro + IOAI(sin 0)e2 + + r)(cos o)el (ro + r)(sin 0)e2 Fig. since both = 'or as 0 and 'IT/2. 1T/2 < 0 < 'IT/2 above is not regular 0 Observe that Xl + 2 as 0 at 0 0. The epicycloid is a plane curve generated by a point P on the circumference of a circle C as C rolls without sliding on the exterior of a fixed circle Co as shown in Fig.3.CHAP. The equation of the cissoid of Diocles in polar coordinates is r = 2 sin ()tan 8. ¥ 0 Hence the representation Since + x: and cos20 + sin20 1. 314 3. dX3/do = cos (0/2) ' = xi [1 + cos2 (0/2)]1/2 is regular. 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE dxf d» sin 0. 0 2 sino 2 tan 0 r 'IT/2+ 'IT/4 0 'IT/4 'IT/2 00 1 0 1 00 Vi 0 Vi 0 Vi 2 Vi 00 +00 Fig. and P is initially located at (ro. Sketch the curve and find a parametric representation in rectangular coordinates. 0). It is the intersection of these surfaces as shown in Fig. 316 . dX2/do are continuous and = = cos 0. 'IT/2 = we have the parametric 2 + representation sin20 tan 0. Find a parametric representation of the eplcycloid when C has radius r. 71"/2 < ()< rr/2. Note that the representation.4. X2 2 + sin20. 316. 314.
8 = 2tr /3 = 4 cos 8 . Then Xa = 1 Xl . 3. Hence Xl(t1) = XI(t2).O. r0 'IT) Jel T[ sin (ro .cos 0  x = cos lIel + sin lIe2 + (1 .. say x{ (to) #. or 0 dX2/do = or 0 = 2n'IT/3. = o = Xl(tl)XI(t2) which is impossible since x{ (t) # o tl .X2 = 1 .. sin IJ. • •• Observe that the curve has period 27I. 317 It follows that both derivatives vanish if and only if 0 2n'IT/3..rO)]el + [ (ro + r) sin 0 r sin (ro . If in the preceding problem To =. 0 ~ 0 ~ 2'IT is a parametric representation 3. = = 4 cos 0  = 2n11'/3. n 0. r0  'IT)] e2 Hence x = OP = OA+AP = [(ro+r)cosorcos(ro. t <t'<t l 2 on Sa(to). . n = 4 cos 40 0 iff n ::::0. !g(to)! >0 such that Ig(t) . then get) #.g(to)1 ~ t!g(to)! < E = Ig(to)  get) + get)! ~ !g(t)  g(to)1 + !g(t)1 = e + !g(t)! + !g(t)! or !g(t)! "" i!g(to)!' Since g(to) #.0. . Also x{ (t) is continuous at to. Now.54 CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. 0 iff sin 0 . Fig. then for every to in I there exists a neighborhood of to in which x(t) is onetoone. = Take e = i!g(to)!' Since get) is continuous at to.3 and the equation of the epicycloid is Xl T = 1.(to). Since x = x(t) is regular on I and to is in' I. f3 It follows that AP = 40AP + 0 11' or f3 = 0r TO + 0 11' = + ro + r 011' r = IAPI(cos f3)el + IAPI(sin f3)e2 = T [cos(ro . dXI/do sin 40. r 0)] e2 which is the required result. for otherwise there would exist tl #t2 in Sa(to) such that x(t1) x(tz). It follows that there exists a·8 > 0 such that x{ (t) #..sin 48 Determine the singular (nonregular) points and sketch. = 3. X2 = 4 sin 8 . =1 We .• = = 0.1: If x x(t) is a regular representation onI. :t:1. 3 If f3 is the angle that AP makes with el' then.cos 0 .0 for t in Sa(to). Thus the theorem is proved. x(t) is onetoone.sin o)ea.t2 = x{(t'). there exists a 8 for t in SI5(to)' Hence for tin SI5(to).5.6. (2n 4 sin (J + 4 sin 40 + 1)'IT/5. ••.cos 48. Use this to prove Theorem 3. 0~ (J ~ 2'IT. at least one of the derivatives.are led to take Thus Xl = cos 0 and x2 = sin 0. ±1.0 for all t in SI5(to). Determine a parametric representation for the intersection of the cylinder x~ + x~ and the plane Xl + X2 + Xa = 1 that does not involve radicals.7. = cos 0 = cos 40. show there exists a8 > 0 such that g(t) =1= 0 for t in SI5(to). of the intersection. in S. :t:1. 2n11'/5. But applying the mean value theorem. If g(t) is continuous at t = to and g(to) # 0.
3] 3. The linear function t = (8 .a)/(b . X2 The expansion of (4. in fact. Thus. remains to consider the infinite intervals.Tanla}/(rr/2 . a < 9 < b onto 0 < t < 1.:1)2 = 4at(t 1) (t2 + 1)2 ' 1 "'"t "'"1. Hence the compositefunction t = (rr/2 + Tan1 S)/rr takes co < S < 00 onto 0 < t < 1. in some Sa(to).5. (iii) 0 "'"t < 1.10. The half angle identities give cos8 cos+(8/4) .CHAP. 9.a takes a"'" 8 < 00 onto 0 "'" t < 1. = it3(4 . CONCEPT OF A CURVE 55 If x x(t) is a regular representation on I with xHto) =/= 0. and t = (9 + irr)/rr takes the interval rr/2 < 6 < rr/2 onto 0< t < 1. r = = . Introduce the parameter Xl = t 2 sin29.ee = = 3. 7T "'" 8 "'" 7T. As shown in Example 3.6t2 (t2 = + 1)2 t (t2 + 1)2 _  4t(1 .12.11. show that there exists a neighborhood of to in which x x(t) can be represented implicitly in the form X2 Fl(Xl). Since 82/(82 1)19=0 0 and lim 82/(82 1) 1. the linear function t (9. :1)3 :l)3(t) to obtain X2 = X2(t(Xl»' x3 = Xa(t(Xl» or X2 = Fl(Xl)' x3 = F2(Xl)' = = = = = REGULAR CURVES 3~9. 7T/2 = < 9 < 7T/2 of Xl and X2 and obtain the first two nonzero terms of the power series expansion about the singular point t O. dtld« = 20/(82 + 1)2 is continuous and dt/d8 =F 0 on 0 < 8 < 00.. Show that there exists an allowable change of parameter t = t(9) which takes any interval I onto one of the following three intervals: (i) 0 "'" t "'"1.Tan 1a exercises for the reader. Hence every regular curve has a representation defined in one of the above three intervals. The function 9 = Tan= ! s takes the interval co < s < co onto rr/2 < 9 < rr/2. Show that t 82/(82+ 1) is an allowable change of parameter on 0 < 8 < 00 and takes the interval 0 < 8 < 00 onto 0 < t < 1. X2 = ~X13/2 + o(zi). Observe 3. Since x~(to) =F 0.. Hence it is an allowable change of parameter on 0 < 8 < 00.t2)1/2 is i + l6tz + O(t2).s· .Problem 3."'" 9 < rr/2 onto 0"'" t < 1. Hence the compositefuncl 1 tion t = Tan.sin3 (9/4)cos(9/4» (t4 . = !t2 tan (Sinl it) Thus Xl = ltz.!t)2 that in the neighborhoodof t = = it2. = 2 sin B along the cissoid X2 2 sin29 tan 9.a) is an allowablechange of parameter which takes a "'" 9 "'"b onto 0 "'" t ~ 1. We leave the remaining cases as rr/2 . is the desired representation.a _ 4(sin (9/4)cosB (9/4) . It.3.Tan ! a) takes Tan1 a. (See . Xa F2(Xl). The function 9 = Tan 1 S takes the interval a "'"s < co onto Tan1 a "" 8 < rr/2 and t (9 .a) + 1 will take a< 6 "'" b onto 0 "'" t < 1. and a "'" 6 < b onto 0 "'" t < 1.) Xl = 2(. xl = Xl(t) is onetooneand has an inverse t = t(xl)' Substitute into the parametric equations xl = xl(t).t2) (t2 + 1)2 + 1)2 + 1) . Note that all the above functions are analytic.Tan. it takes + = + the interval 0 < 8 < co onto 0 < t < 1.6 cos2 (9/4)sin2(9/4) + sin4 (9/4) = = X2 = a sin 8. there are allowable changes of parameter of any class which give the above results. 3.a)/(b . (ii) 0 < t < 1.S. Introduce t Tanl (8/4) as a parameter along the circle Xl a cos B. page 45.t2)1/2 X2 =0 the curve is shaped like the cusp = its + l2t5 + O(t5). X2= X2(t). = (t2 + 1)2  1 6 (t2 + 1)2 + t2 (t2 + 1)2 4 (t2 t4 = t4  6t2 (t2 +1 + 1)2 ta and sin 9 Thus Xl .
! = . Finally. Find the arc length as a function of 0 along the epicycloid Xl = (ro r) cos ().14.2t]1I2 dt = o I'll" 0 6V2 cosh2t dt 3V2 sinh 2". = = = = = = .r cos r() + (ro + r ). This we leave to the reader as an exercise. if there exists an change of parameter t t(O) such that t(I. then t(lJ) is strictly increasing. Now. if t(Ol) "" t(82) with 01 < 82. Compute the length of the arc x = 3(cosh 2t)el +3(sinh2t)ez 8 + 6te3. For if otherwise. Le. this defines an equivalence relation on the set of regular representations.('11" 16 sinh 2tel 6[sinh22t + 6 cosh 2te2 + 6e31dt = I'll" o + cosh22t + 1]1I2dt 5'11" 6[2 cosh.16. and x = X*(8) is equivalent to x = x**(¢) under 0 = e(¢). = ~. using the mean value theorem. it is onetoone and has an inverse o(t). = = = = = is continuous and dt/d</> 0 on I<p' Hence # parameter on Icf>. It follows that = that a regular parametric representation x = x(t) on It is defined to be to a regular parametric representation x = x*(O) on I. 3 3. which completes the proof. then.'II" I ~~ I dt = . suppose x = x(t) is equivalent to x x*(o) under t t(o). 1 M+O At lim Ao = / 1 dt do which is continuous and different from zero since dt/do is continuous and different from zero.!~. since dt/do > 0 on Ie. t(8(Icf») = t(Ie) = It and x(t(O(¢))) equivalent to x x**(¢}. = t = t(o(¢» is an allowable change = x*(o(¢)) = x**(¢}. 3. then x = x*(o) is equivalent to x x(t) under the inverse function 0 o(t). since o(It) Ie and x*(o(t» x(t(o(t») x(t). it follows that dt/do > 0 or dt/d8 < 0 on Ie. 0~ t ~ st . But then o(t) also has a derivative de.2: If t = t(O) is an allowable change of parameter on I •• then t(O) is onetoone and its inverse 0 = 8(t) is an allowable change of parameter on It = t(IJ Since dt/do is continuous and dt/d8 # 0. Consider the composite function t = t(o(¢». We recall equivalent allowable Show that x x(t) is equivalent to itself under the identity change of parameter t 8.13.cos(ro: r 0) iT'2 do [2 . (ro See Problem 3.56 CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. which completes the proof. smO +r r sin r() ) .1] . Prove Theorem 3. = dt ~t+o Ao lim At = /.) It and x(t(O» = x*(9). Thus x = x(t) of is ARC LENGTH 3. Also. If x x(t) is equivalent to x = x*(o) under the change of parameter t = t(e). Since t(lJ) is strictly increasing. o "" which is impossible.4. 3. since t(o} is increasing and continuous.15.2 cos (roo/r»)1/2 d8 = ro + r) fO sin (roe/2r) do + r)r ro cos (roo/2r) J8 0 0 = 4 (ro +r)r [cos (roo/2r) . 8 = ~6[(:lJ + (:2)2J/2 de J~8 + + 1° (ro (ro r) o 4 (ro r{( sino + sin(ro: r o)Y + 2(ro (coso . it follows that its inverse o(t) is increasing and continuous. Suppose dt/d8 > 0 on Ie. X2 = (ro+r).
subdivision 0 = to We consider an arbitrary length of the polygonal arc.(1 2 2 8 + "'8 + u4 + 2u2)1/2.4(i): If x = x(s) is a natural representation on Is. . 00 <t < 00 I~~I dt ~t I(etcos t .82 = 182.. 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE 57 3. Introduce arc length as a parameter along x 8 ~t it = = (et cos t)el + (et sin t)e2 + ete3.18.19..17. 81 1 dB = 82 ..2 UV82 + 1 1 Since Idx/dsl = 1. = ~: Hence = x(s) = x*(s*) are natural representations of the ::* IdXI I I =. the length of the arc is fS'I: I 81 d8 = IS.sin ti11Ie21] • .82+ 1 .s11 is the length of the arc x = x(s) between the points corresponding to f(Sl) and f(S2)..3 + 1)e2 + e3) 3. Prove Theorem 3. + tu1e2 + tV2 (logu)e3 and + tV2 U1e3) (1 + = :x dd U u Hence I ~: I I II I du dx du de 1 2 8 = (tel . i. then s = ±s* Let 8 But x + constant.e. Show that x = t(s + ys2 + 1 )el + t(s + ys2 + 1 )le2 + tv'2 (log (s + ys2 + 1 ))e3 is a natural representation.21. t = log (8/..(1 + u2)  "'82+1 1 = u2 + 1 ~_:_:= 82 + 8"'82 + 1 + 1 (8 + "'82+1)"'82+1 .= 182 811. Introducing arc length 8 as a parameter.3 r Solving. 0 ~ t ~ 7r/2.811.3 + 1).4(ii): If same curve. 3..+ 1 ". !8* and I:. then IS2.3 (et 1) [e2t(2 cos t sin t + 1) + e2t(2 cos t sin t + 1) + e2t]1/2 dt = . is rectifiable. Show that the arc x = n t2e1 + sin t e2.1. d8 = 81 . d8 =d8* dx = 8(8*). I ds and x = ISl s. 8 is a natural parameter. 8(P) < tl < t2 < . Prove Theorem 3. If 81 "'"82. I !8* I = 3."iII ~ ~ [(tf . 3.3 x = <8< co •...  If 81 > 82. 1.. Idx/dsl Let u = 8 + "'82 + 1.et sin t)el + (et sin t + ot cos t)e2 + ete31dt et dt = . (8/'1[3+ 1)(cos log (8/. < tn = 11'/2 and compute the =~ i=l Ix. I = I~:II I· 1 or !8* = ±1 or 8 = ±8* + constant.Sl I~.3 + 1)el + sin log (8/.CHAP.20. the length of the arc is £.....81. Then x =tuel ~x 8 = 1.tu2e2 Y82+1 ) 8 = u .tfl) le11+ [sin ti ... Then :.
('IT/2)('IT ('IT + 1) ~ (ti .f{(t') = a"" t "" b. there exists a subdivision a to < t1 < .ti1) < 8 can be obtained by introducing additional points. a a ~ t ~ b. Since the f{(t). i = 1. a finer subdivision a = to < t1 < . there exists a subdivision a t~ < t~ < . they are bounded on a"" t "" b.e for all 8(P).2.. Then If(ti) f(ti1)1 "" 6 ~ [Ifdti) i ~ i  !t(ti1)I  + Ifz<ti) + lf~(tJi) l(ti f2(ti1)I  + lfa<ti)  fa(ti1>11  [If 1(6i)!(ti tiI) ti1) + If. Show that the length of a regular arc x 8 = J:b I ~~I~t .ti1 < 8. < t~ b with polygonal approximation P' such that 8(P') > 8 .. Since 8 is the supremum of all possible 8(P). . 8(P) "" 8 .23 proves Theorem 3. Show that a regular arc x Consider an arbitrary s(P) ~ i = f(t). there exists a 112 such that for Iti ti11 < 112 I ~b If'(t)1 dt  i~l If'(oi)l(ti  ti1) I < E/3 .3. we have s(P) ::::: ~ i [(ti  ti1)(ti + til) + [cos Oil (ti . is a rectifiable arc. to subdivision Ix.a) Thus the 8(P} are all bounded by (M1 + M2 + Ma)(b . so that 8 . if the above subdivision does not satisfy (i). But the new polygonal arc P' obtained this way satisfies 8(P) "" 8(P') "" 8 and therefore also Is . there exists 81> 0 such that (i) for all It . is rectifiable. say by Mi' Hence s(P) "" (M1 + M2 + Ma) ~ (ti .23. < ti Since [cos oil"" 1 and (ti + til) 8(P) "" 'IT for "" 0 "" ti1 i < ti "" 'IT/2.e is an upper bound of the s(P) less than the supremum 8...ti1)"" + 1) Since the 8(P) are bounded.11 = =~ i < t1 < t2 < . n (ii) Is  s(P) I< £ where s and ~(P) are lengths of x = f(t) and P respectively..22.= iblf'(t)1 = f(t). show that given an arbitrary 8> 0 and £ > 0. If x = f(t).. . page 51.. . a ~ t ~ b. 3 Using the mean value theorem.3  < 81. a ~ t ~ b.a) and so the arc is rectifiable. Namely.E.3. For otherwise. < t« b with polygonal approximation P such that = = (i) ti . Also.24. is given by the integral dt. which is impossible.ti1)] ti1 < 0. This together with Problem 3. are continuous on the closed interval a"" t "" b. the arc is rectifiable. by definition of the integral... Let E be arbitrary. I< 9(b ~ a)' i = 1.(8~/) I(ti tiI)] where we used the mean value theorem for the Nt). as required.ti1) i "" (M1 + M2 + Ma)(b . i 1.s(P)1 < E.(t) .. = = 3. are continuous on a closed interval they are uniformly continuous on the interval. 3. 3.2. Since the f{(t). < tn =  b.x.t'l we have (ii) If. < tn = b satisfying (ti .58 CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP. Now.
< £/3 + £/3 +~ [!f{(ti) + IfW.t.s(P)! < E/3 Now consider the quantity I = \e  ~b !f'(t)! dt \ "'" [s _ s(P)! + IS(p)  ~b !f'(t)! dt I "'" I ~ i+ !f(ti)  f(til)!  ~b !f'(t)Idt"1 "'" I~ !(fl(ti) i+ I "'" e/3 . 3. 0"'" (J "'" 277 = = xi X~ = 1 Xl that does not involve .(t{')e2 + f.27.. adding and subtracting I "'" E/3 ~ !f'(ti)! (ti . 0. = = 3. Hint. Xl = cos2(J.CHAP. (tJ! + b!. u~ing (i). a. we obtain 1 < 3" Since E e + "3 + £ f or ~ (ti .tif) ~b f'(t) dt \ + \~ + \~ Using (ii) above and the inequality I [!f{(tDel + f. The conchoid of Nicomedes in polar coordinates is r and find a representation in rectangular coordinates.(ti')es! we have !!a! .a) e f~ (ti)! + !f£(tt)  f~(ti)! ](tl. 3] CONCEPT OF A CURVE 59 Now let a = to < tl < (iii) . < ~ = min(~i' ~2).22 that there exists a subdivision tn b and polygonal approximation P such that (ti . f'(ti)(ti .fl(til»el + (f2(ti)  fZ(til»e2 + (fs(ti)  fS(ti'I»e3!  r !f/(t)! dt I It follows from the mean value theorem that + I ~ !f{(tDel i + f~(t~')e2+ f~(ti")e3!(titil)  {b!f'(t)!dtl and. Show that the representation x Problems + (ta = tel + (t2 + 2)e2 + t)e3 c. X2 sin s. Ans. 1. x~ + x.til) < ~ and = [s . Find a representation of the intersection of the cylinders radicals.til) Finally. X2 a tan 9 + c sin 9 = _a_ + c. Ans. O. Xs = cOS(J.til) < e is arbitrary.25.t. I s = fb !f'(t)! dt a Supplementary 3.')3(b . 9 === Sketch is regular for all t and sketch the projections on the xlx3 and Xlx2 planes. Xl a + c cos 9.til).!b!! "'" !a f.. It follows from Problem 3. cos 9 = Xl' 11' "'" 11'.26.
if there t t(fJ) such that dt/dfJ > 0. (rr) ~fJ tel .cOSfJ+rcos. fJ = (4/5)nlT. If C has radius and Co is at the origin with radius ro and P is initially located at (ro. . If in the preceding problem ro equation of the hypocycloid is Xl' Ans.60 3. 3. (iv) 0 < t .31.cos (rofJ/2r)] 3. Show that and are representations x x = = + (sin t)e2 + ete3' e2 00 (log t)e1 + sin (log t) + te3. find arc length as a function of fJ along the hypocycloid . Show that an oriented regular curve has a representation defined on one of the following four intervals: (i) 0 "" t "" 1.£ 1. 318. Referring to Problem 3. as shown in Fig. = = = of an oriented curve C an.r fJ) 3.34. fJ'£ O. = = = = x x*(fJ) on 10 are said to be equivalent exists an allowable change of parameter x*(fJ).28.38.30.29. Xl An8. the = 3 cos IJ + 2 cos 3fJ/2.33. r Ans. 3 The hypocycloid is the plane curve generated by ~ point P on the circumference of a circle C as C rolls without sliding on the interior of a fixed circle Co. 3(e'IT1) = et(cos t)e1 + et(sin t)e2 + ete3' . 3. 3. Prove Theorem 3.4(iii): If x X(8) is a natural representation x x*(t) is any other representation of C.d . <t< 0<t < 00 00 of the same oriented curve.37. (ii) 0 < t < 1.35.32. Show that this is an equivalence regular oriented curve is an equivalence changes of parameter with a positive = 3. 3.36. 318 for all t. X2 = (ro .. = 3 sin e 2 sin 3fJ/2 Fig. = 5 and r = 2. Suppose two regular representations x x(t) on It and if they represent the same oriented curve. (iii) 0 "" t < 1. 3.e. 3. = 8 (ror).£ 2 onto t 00 < An8.39. ±1. Find the singular points and sketch. CONCEPT OF A CURVE [CHAP.£ IT. Show that an arc segment x = x(t) = on 1* of a rectifiable arc x = x(t) on I is rectifiable. X2 n = 0.£ 0 . 3. If x x(t) on a'£ t"" b is a rectifiable arc with length 8 and a < to < b. 0).r) sin fJ  r sin r r) fJ (~ . show that the arc segments x = x(t) on a"" t "" to and x x(t) on to"" t "" b are both rectifiable with lengths 81 and 82 respectively and 8 81 + 82' = = 3.rfJ) x2 (ror) sin e r sin (ro . find a representation of the hypocycloid. Show that fJ = 3t5 + IOta + 15t + 1 is an allowable change of parameter Find an allowable change of parameter which maps the interval Compute the length of the arc x 0 < t. i. Thus a class of regular representations related by allowable derivative. t(Ie) It and x(t(fJ» relation on the set of regular representations.28. . Xl = = (ror)cosfJ+rcos(ro. then ds/dt jdx/dtj.. ro> r = 4r(ro r) ro [1 .
For example. 41. As shown in Fig. Thus is an oriented quantity. by using the chain rule and the relation ds/dt = Idx/dtl. 41. 61 . 41 If x = ± s* is any other natural representation of C. dx/ds* has the same or opposite sense as dx/ds depending on the orientation of x x(s*).4). other geometric quantities along the curve will be defined in terms of a natural representation. these quantities can all be derived in terms of an arbitrary parameter. The vector is also of unit length.s) .. line segments are uniquely determined by their lengths. then from Theorem 3. triangles by sideangleside.1. it is in the direction of increasing 8. This agrees with our geometric intuition. as in the example above. However. 8 x Fig. since •( x s ) = li ___'_'~ xes) 1m xes + M) <1. and fl. The derivative dx/ds = xes) will be used to define the tangent direction to C at the point xes). page 52. called curvature and torsion. for in a natural representation Idx/dsl = Ixl = 1. . The vector X(8)is called the unit tangent vector to the oriented curve x = xes) at xes) and shall be denoted by t = t(s) = X(8). We will see that a regular curve is uniquely determined by two scalar quantities. etc.S IS a secant to C as shown in Fig. It turns out that this problem can be solved in general for sufficiently smooth regular curves.s xes + fl.4. Along the helix x = a(cos t)el + a(sin t)e2 + bte3' a. ~~ = a(sin t)el + a(cos t)e2 + be3 and = dx/dS dt dt I~~I = we have (a2 + b2)1/2 t)el Then t dx ds dx ds dt dt = dx/l dt dx dt I = (a2 + b2)1/2(a(sm. as functions of the natural parameter. UNIT TANGENT VECTOR Let x = xes) be a natural representation of a regular curve C.+0 fl.ds That is. b # 0. circles by their radii.Chapter Curvature INTRODUCTION 4 and Torsion One of the basic problems in geometry is to determine exactly the geometric quantities which distinguish one figure from another. = x Example 4. + constant and dx dx ds d ds* = x(s*) = d8 ds* = +___!E.xes) . As in the case of the unit tangent. Observe that along the helix the unit tangent t makes a constant angle (J = cosi (t· e3) = cos "! b(a2 + b2)1/2 with the X3 axis. + a(cos t)e2 + be3) where we used the fact that ds/dt = Idx/dtl (Theorem 3.
namely.5). 4 is an arbitrary x' X dx dt representation dxds ds dt  of C with t I'dlxl d the tix'i same orientation as == where again we used ds/dt = idx/dti.1)3' = 0 + 2yz + 3Y3 = 6. that the tangent line at the point Xo = x(to) is given by x Xo + kto. The tangent line to the curve x y (yx)' x' == 0 = tel y = x(1) + kx'(1) or + t2ez + t3e3 at t = 1 is = (1 + k)el + (1 + 2k)ez + (1 + 3k)e3' or (Yl . to denote a generic point on a figure related to x = x(t). Thus as we expect. and the normal plane at x as (y x) . It follows from equation (2. we can express the equation of the tangent line at an arbitrary point x on C as . Finally we note that x' is parallel to t. It follows from equation (2.x(1» • x'(L) or Yl o + (yz . so that the tangent line and normal plane are also given by y = x + kx'. See Fig. and we can consider its derivative dt/ds t(s) CURVATURE = x(s) . Then the tangent vector t = t(s) = x(s) is of class C'.1) TANGENT LINE AND NORMAL PLANE The straight line through a point X on a regular curve C parallel to the tangent vectors at x is called the tangent line to C at x. say y. 00 < k < 00 and respectively.1)2 + (Y3 . We now assume that x = x(s) is a regular curve of class ::="2. then CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP. Using this. Example 4. page 21. it is also a tangent vector to the curve and we have the formula t = x'/ix'i (4.3) . page 21" the normal plane at Xo is given by (xxo)' to = 0 It is convenient to introduce a second variable.2) x + kt.62 If X == X(t) == x(s). the derivative x' has the same direction as t. 42 The plane through x orthogonal to the tangent line at x is called the normal plane to C at x. 00 < k < 00 y (4. Fig. 42.1).1) 00 <k < 00 The normal plane at t = 1 is (y . 00 < k < 00 where to = t(to) is a unit tangent at Xo. t == 0 (4.2.
When different from zero. equal to IKI [k] l/a and the radius of curvature is p 1/11<1 = a. that k = t is orthogonal to t and hence parallel to the normal plane. IddXt t)el + = a(cos t)e2 (a2 + be3' ~~/II ~~ I  we have (a2 + b2)1!2 + bea) + b2)1l2(a(sin + a(cos t)e2 . The curvature is constant.CHAP.ds ds ds* 1 de = ds dt • Thus t is independent of orientation. the curvature is relatively large. 4] CURVATURE AND TORSION 63 Whereas the sense of the unit tangent t depends upon the orientation of C. 1 Ik(s)1 (4. reciprocal of the curvature is denoted by p The Fig. Along the circle of radius a. it is in the direction in which the curve is turning. we have a a(cos t)e2' (sin t)el and k = t .9. Note that k is directed towards the origin. In Problem 4. equivalently. as indicated in Fig. Thus at a point of inflection the curvature IKI is zero and the radius of curvature p is infinite. or.s: (+dX) ds* . the radius of curvature of a circle is simply its radius. 43.5) A point on C where the curvature vector k = 0 is called a point of inflection. unit tangent t* = dx/ds*. :/1 ~~1 = dt dt dt d8 1:1 = + (cos t)e2 dx 1 dt dt ds = dtld8 dt dt = dt dt/l = 1 a «cos t)el + (sm t)e2) . we prove that the curvature is equal to the rate of change of the direction of the tangent with respect to arc length. it follows from Theorem 2. b =F 0. Example 4.·page 73.4.3. such as a circle with a small radius. The vector t(s) is called the curvature k = k(s) = t(s). dx dt x = a(cos t)el a (sin t)el t + a(sin + t)e2' a > 0. vector on C at the point x(s) and is denoted by Since t is a unit vector. Then s = ± s* + constant and ds* • dt* = ~ (dX) = ds* ds* . page 29.ds = +~ (dX) ~ = () 2~(dX) + ds . t is independent of orientation. = = = Example 4. the radius of curvature is small. The magnitude of the curvature vector is denoted by Ik(s)1 and is called the curvature of C at x(s). For let x = x(s*) be any other natural representation of C with. Thus along a curve which has a rapidly changing tangent direction with respect to arc length. Hence as we expect. Along the helix x dx dt t = == a(cos t)el a(sin + t)el a(sin t)e2 + bte3' a > 0. 43 1 and is called the radius of curvature ~ at x(s).7. say.
= = If the curvature is identically zero along a curve C.1. if k(s) choose . as shown in Fig.a(sin t)e2)/(a2 b2 «cos t)el t)el + b2)1/2 + (sin t)e2) Observe that k is parallel to the :1:1:1:2 plane and directed toward the origin. = aIel + a2e2 + aae3. we prove Theorem 4. as a = constant =F 0 Fig. integrating again. so that the principal normal unit vector n is undetermined. This vector shall be denoted by n = n(s) and is called the principal normal unit vector to C at the point x(s). r . then IKI = lx' x x"l/lx'13 PRINCIPAL NORMAL UNIT VECTOR Since C is of class "'"2. Note also that along a straight line we have k == 0. Thus we are led to consider not Uk itself but a unit vector parallel to k with its sense chosen arbitrarily but in such a way as to be continuous along C wherever possible. 4 t= . in Problem 4.2. 44 i. varies continuously along C.2. . 44. and a =F 0 t = dx/ldxl dt dt a = T8f Ikl A regular curve of class "'"2 is a straight line if and only if its curvature is identically zero. If x = x(t) is an arbitrary representation of a curve of class e. then i == 0 and. the curvature vector k however.7. C is a straight line through (bl.1 Ikl a/(a2 + b2). page 73. we can simply the unit vector in the direction of k. + b.. Namely. i. ba) parallel to a versely. Uk =t=x .. integrating. n = k(s)/lk(s)I =F 0 for all s.:/I~~ I (a2 a2 : + b2)l/2(a(cos . if Ikl == 0. t Since t = = a. Note that if there are no points of inflection on C. The curvature is constant. Con + b. equal to 1. i.64 and k CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP. = k/lkl is not defined where k = 0. b = constant that is.e.e. and may jump. A formula can be derived which expresses the curvature directly in term of the derivatives of an arbitrary representation. as in the examples below. the unit vector in the direction of k. b2. if C is the straight line x = at then Thus we have Theorem 4. x= we have.
CHAP. 4]
CURVATURE
AND TORSION
65
Having selected n(s), there will be a continuous function K(S) along C such that
k(s)
K(S) n(s)
K
(4.6)
At a point on the curve where n has the same direction as k, we have opposite to k, K = Ikl; at a point of inflection, k = 0 and K = O.
x(s).
= Ikl;
where n is
The quantity K(S) defined by equation (4.6) is also called the curvature of C at the point Note, however, since the sense of n is initially arbitrary, the function K(S) is determined only within a sign; and locally only its absolute value IKI Ikl, the curvature as = defined previously, is an intrinsic property of the curve.
If we multiply (4.6) by n and use n· n
K
= Inl2 = 1,
k(s)· n(s)
we have the formula
(4.7)
Example 4.5. Along the third degree curve x dx _ +t2 dt  el e2'
=
tel
+ It3e2
shown in Fig. 45,
I~~I =
=i
dt
(1
+ 1;4)1/2,
dt)
t
= dx/ dt
I dxl dt
and
k
ds
dt/ldxl
dt
The direction of k is shown in Fig. 45(a).
X2 X2
(a)
The vector k
(b)
The vector uk
=
k/lkl
(c)
The vector n
=
Uk {
for t
<0
e2 uk
Fig. 45
for t 0 for t> 0
=
At t = 0, k = 0 and we have a point of inflection. Here uk has a jump in sense as shown in Fig. 45(b). For, the limit of uk as t approaches 0 through positive t is .
I· t':'rg.+ uk


I· t':'rg.+ Ikl 
k
I· (t t':'rg.+ It I (1  1;4)1122 e1 e2 +
0 through negative t is
t
)
1.
t~
(t2e1  e2) (1 + 1;4)1/2
e2
whereas the limit of uk as t approaches
HoIkl
where we used the fact that
lim k_
. t2e1  e2 ~~ (1 + 1;4)1/2 1 { 1 for t for t
itT
t.
>0 < O·
If we choose
66
CURVATURE
k/1kl
n
AND TORSION
[CHAP. 4
{
e2 k/jk]
for t for t
<
=0
O} =
(1
+ t;4)1/2(t2el
 e2)
for t> 0 For this n we have, from equation (4.7),
n will vary continuously
along the curve as shown in Fig. 45(c).
Example 4.6. We consider the curve of class C'" (see Example 3.13, page 49): tel x
+ el/t2e3
for t for t
<
0 0
=
. tel
{
0
=
+ e1It"e2
for t> 0
As shown in Fig. 46, the curve lies in the XIX3 plane for t < 0 and in the XIX2 plane for t > O. It follows that k lies in the XlX3 plane for t < 0 and in the Xlx2 plane for t > O. Here it is impossible to define n so that it is continuous at t 0, since k jumps from the XlX3 plane to the XIX2 plane.
=
Fig. 46
As shown in the example above, even a curve of class C'" may not have a definite principal normal at a point of inflection. However, if the curve is analytic, a continuous principal normal will always exist. Namely, in Problem 4.15, page 75, we prove
Theorem 4.3.
An analytic curve which is not a straight line will have a definite continuous principal normal unit vector in a neighborhood of a point of inflection.
PRINCIPAL
NORMAL LINE AND OSCULATING PLANE
The straight line passing through a point
x on a curve C parallel to the principal unit
principal normal line to C at x. It follows
that the equation of the principal normal line at x is y = x + kn, 00 < k < 00 (4.8) The plane parallel to the unit tangent and the principal unit normal is called the osculating plane to C at x. It follows from Example 2.3, page 22, that the equation of the osculating plane at x is given by the triple scalar product [(yx)tn]
normal as shown in Fig. 47 is called the
o
(4.9)
Fig. 47
If we use the fact that t and that is parallel to n, then at a point where k # 0, the equation of the osculating plane is also given by
=x
t=x
[(yx)xx]
=
0
(4.10)
We recall that the tangent line at a point on a curve can be defined as the limiting position of a line passing through two neighboring points on the curve as the two points
CHAP. 4]
CURVATURE
AND TORSION
67
approach the given point. In this way a line is obtained that in a sense best fits the curve at a point. Similarly, the osculating plane at a point can be defined as the limiting position of a plane passing through three neighboring points on the curve as the points approach the given point. The tangent line and osculating plane are examples of geometric figures which have a certain order of contact with the curve. The theory of contact between curves and surfaces will be considered in the next chapter and the osculating plane will be considered again from this point of view.
Example 4.7. Consider the helix
x = (cos t)el
+
(sin t)e2
+
tes.
x'
t
and and, since k ~ 0 for all t, k
= (x'/lx'l
sin t)el
+ (cos t)e2 + es,
+
Ix'I=..,j2
(cos t)e2
=
(1IV2)« sin t)el
+ ea)
=t=
n
t'/lx'l
=
is y
(.!)«cos t)el+
(sin t)e2)
=
k/lkl = «cos t)el
+
(sin t)e2)
The equation of the principal normal at t y
= 1T/2
or
=
x(1T/2)
+ kn(1T/2)
=
(1  k)e2 is
+ 1T/2ea,
09
<k <
09
and the equation of the osculating plane at t
= 1T/2
Yl
1/V2
1 1T/2
or
det
Y2 ( Ya 
o
1
0)
=
0
or
11"/2
0
BINORMAL.
MOVING
TRIHEDRON
Let x = x(s) be a regular curve C of class ~ 2 along which n is continuous. Then at each point on C we have two orthogonal and continuous unit vectors: the unit tangent t and the unit principal normal n. Now consider the vector b(s)
t(s) x n(s)
We observe that b is continuous and of unit length, and that (t, n, b) forms a righthanded orthonormal triplet as shown in Fig. 48. The vector b(s) is called the unit binormal vector to C at the point x(s) and the triplet (t(s), n(s), b(s» is called the moving trihedron of C. The straight line through x parallel to b is called the binormal line to C at x. It follows that the equation of the binormal at x is
y
=
x
+ kb,
00
<
k
<
00
(4.11)
The plane through a point x on C parallel to
t and b is called the rectifying plane at x. The
equation of the rectifying plane at x is (yx)· n
o
(4.12)
Fig. 48
68
CURVATURE
AND TORSION
[CHAP. 4
Normal Line
Fig. 49
Thus at each point x on C we have the following three characteristic Tangent line: Principal normal line: Binormal line: Normal plane: Rectifying plane: Osculating plane:
Example 4.8. Referring to the helix in Example 4.4, we have
lines and planes:
y y y
x + kt x+ kn x+kb
(y x) . t (yx)· n (yx)· b
= =
0 0 0
x
=
t
a(cos t)el
+ a(sin +
t)ez
=
(aZ
+ bZ)l/Z(a(sin
(sin t)ez), e1 det e2 ( ea
+ btea, a > 0, t)el + a(cos t)ez +
n=
b ¥: 0
beil) t)el
k
 aZ ~ bZ«cOSt)el
1:1
= «cos sin t cos t
+ (sin
t)ez)
a(aZ
b
tXn
=
+ b2)1I2 a(a2 + b2)1I2
b(a2
+ b2)1I2
cos  sin t
t)
o
=
(a2
+
b2)1I2(b(sin
t)el 
b(cos t)e2
+ aea)
The equation of the binormal line at t
=
to is y
=
x(to)
+ kb(to)
cos to)e2
00 00
or
Or, if we
+ kb(a2 + b2)1/2 sin to)el + (a sin to  kb(a2 + b2)1/2 + (bto + ak(a2 + b2)1/2)ea, <k < introduce the change in parameter 0 = k(a2 + b2)1I2, y = (a' cos to + sb sin to)el + (a sin to  eb cos to)e2 + (bto + ao)ea,
y (a cos to
00
<0 <
00
The equation of the rectifying
plane at t
=
to is
(y  x(to» • n( to) or or Observe that rectifying
(Yl 
=
0
a cos to)(
cos to)
Yl cos to
+ +
(Y2 Y2
a si~ to)( sin to)
o
sin to
=
a
planes are parallel
to the Xa axis.
CHAP. 4]
CURVATURE
AND TORSION
69
TORSION
We now suppose that x = x(s) is a regular curve of class ~3 along which n(s) is of class C', Then we can differentiate b(s) = t(s) X n(s), obtaining b(s)
=
t(s)
x n(s) + t(s)
X
n(s)
=
K(s)[n(s)
X
n(s)]
+
t(s)
X
n(s)
=
t(s)
X
n(s)
(4.13)
where we used equation (4.6) and the fact that a x 8 = 0 for all 8. Since n is a unit vector, n is orthogonal to n and therefore is parallel to the rectifying plane. It follows that it is a linear combination of t and b, say n(s) ~(s) t(s) + 7(S) b(s) Substituting into (4.13), b(s) or
txb
.
t(s)
X
[~(s) t(s) b(s)
.
+
7(S)b(s)] 7(S) n(s)
=
7(S)[t(S) X b(s)] (4.H) orthonormal triplet and hence
where we use the fact that = no
(t, n, b) is a righthanded
The continuous function 7(S) defined by (4.14) is called the second curvature or torsion of C at x(s). Note that if we take the scalar product of (4.14) with n, we obtain the formula
7
=
b(s) n(s)
.
(4.15)
Note that the sign of 7 is independent of the sense of n and the orientation of C, and hence is an intrinsic property of the curve. For suppose first that we change the sense of n, i.e. suppose n* = n, then b* = t X n* = t X (n) = +b and, from equation (4.15),
• b*
0
n*
• (b)
0
(n)
• bon
7
Thus 7 is independent of the sense ofn. Next, suppose we introduce a change in orientation; that is, suppose 8 = 8* + constant. Then t* = to Also, b* and so that again db* ds* t*
X
n
(t n
X
n)
b db ds
7
db* ds ds ds* db*  ds*
0
db (1) ds
7*
db on ds
which is the required result.
Example 4.9. We consider again the helix x
=
b db ds
a(cos t)el
+ a(sin
t)e2
+ btea,
a>
0, b # 0
Referring to Example 4.8, we have
.
b
7
(a2
+ b2)l/2(b(sin
t)el  b(cos t)e2 + aea)
The torsion is constant, equal to
= b
0
n
=
(a2
+ b2)1(b(cos t)el + b(sin t)e2)
0
« cos t)el 
(sin t)e2)
=
b/(a2
+ b2)
Note that if b > 0 (so that 7> 0) the helix is a righthanded curve as shown in Fig. 410(a) below. If b < 0 (so that T < 0) the curve is a lefthanded helix as shown in Fig. 410(b). Since the sign of T is an intrinsic property, we conclude that these two curves cannot be superimposed.
integrating again. In this. T < 0 If the torsion vanishes identically along a curve x = x(s).4. then : (x. if Hence b constant boo Now consider d ds (x' bo) X· bo t· bo = = T = 0. The curve r is called the spherical indicatrix of t. x = x(s) lies in its osculating plane as shown in Fig. in general e will not be a natural parameter along Xl t(8). case it follows that T is continuous and that K. 411.bo) and.e. Thus = Fig. 4 (a) Righthanded helix. A curve of class ~ 3 along which n is of class C1 is a plane curve if and only if its torsion vanishes identically. 412. Unless otherwise stated we shall assume that our curves are regular curves of class ~ 3 and that along the curve n is of class C1. we prove representa Theorem 4. nand b are of class C1. The converse is also true. i. I ~:11 = I ~! I = of r iff Fig. x = x(s) is a plane curve confined to the plane X' bo constant. page 77. [x'x"x'''] lx' X X"12 SPHERICAL INDICATRICES The unit tangent vectors along a curve C generate a curve r on the sphere of radius 1 about the origin as shown in Fig. 410 (b) Lefthanded helix. In Problem 4.. since = = l In fact Xl = t(8) is a natural representation the curvature IKI = 1 along x X(8). 412 . In particular. However. If x x(s) is a natural representation of C. Since t and ho are orthogonal. A convenient formula is also available for torsion in terms of an arbitrary tion. 411 Theorem 4.19. 70 CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP. then Xl = t(s) = x(s) will be a representation of r. T > 0 Fig. S x • bo =0 = constant (4. t.16) That is. At a point on a curve x T = x(t) = at which K # 0.5. then b= Tn = O.
of t and hence its radius of curvature.10. n.2tez x = (1 + t)el  t2e2 + (1 + V)ea + 3t2ea. Hence along the intersection. Find the intersection of the x y XlX2 plane and the tangent lines to the helix te« (cos t)el + (sin t)e2 + point x is or y (t> 0) cos t)e2 The tangent line at an arbitrary = x + kx' Xl = (cos t .. b ¥= + btea t= t)el + a(cos t)e2 + bea) n = «cos t)el + (sin t)e2) 2 + b2)1/2(b(sin t)el .2yz The equation of the normal plane is (y . components with respect to ea. x3 x2 = sin t +k Xa = t +k t 0 The equation of the XlX2 plane is Thus the intersection is the curve = O. so that their spherical is images are The radius of the spherical indicatrix Pt The radii of curvature respectively. Find the equations of the tangent line and normal plane to the curve at t = 1. using x as the position vector.8 and 4.2) or + (2 + 3k)ea or Yl . CHAP. = :Ill cos t .k sin t)el + (sin t + k cos t.9. Referring to the helix in Examples 4.b(cos t)ez + aeg) b = (a a(cos t)el (a2 t)e2 = + a(sin 0 + b2)l/2(a(sin Observe that t. b all have constant circles about the x3 axis. x(l) = 2el . b2 ( 1 . = = n(s) and the Example 4.a2 = + b2 )112 = (a2 + a b2)1/2 Pn of the spherical indicatrix of nand bare b Solved Problems TANGENT LINE AND NORMAL PLANE 4. = cos t + t sin = sin t . x' = el .1. + (t + k)ea or.t cos t. X3 = .2e2 + 3ea· The equation of the tangent line at t y = x(l) = 1 is y = (2 + k)el .2.(1 + 2k)ez + kx'(l) (Yl . X2 +k = 0 or k = t. x'(l) = el .e2 + 2ea.x(l» •x'(l) = 0 or + (Y2 + 1)(2) + (Ya 2)3 = 0 + 3Ya 10 4.k sin t. t. 4] CURVATURE AND TORSION 1 71 X2 Similarly one considers the spherical indicatrix of the unit normal spherical indicatrix Xa b(s) of the unit binormal. we have x a> 0.
Ix'i = (1 + t2 + t4)1/2 At t = 1 we + 2tea) .·. t' = = x'/Ix'i (1+t2+t4)1/2(el+te2+t2ea) (1 + t2 + t4)1/2(e2 4.72 4. x' Ix'i where we have used cos=! = + bt2e2 + t3e3 where 2b2 = 3a. X3 = cos a cos a gives = :1:3 cos 2\(t.28) the curve is a straight line. Find the curvature vector k and curvature at the point IKI n the curve o 2 e2 t = 1.:i} = cos "! ta::t::~} x' and a is = cos "! (1IV2) = . Show that the curvature IK*Iof the projection of a general helix (see Problem 4.. if.. there is a fixed vector in space. A curve is called a general or cylindrical helix or a curve of constant slope. CURVATURE 4. Then the angle + 2bte2 + 3t2e3 = (a2 + 6at2 + 9t4)1/2 = between the tangent a + 3t2 {i::.4./2. t x x' = el = = tel + it + it3e3 + te2 + t2ea. as in the preceding problem.e3) and IKI= Ikl = iV2.(el + te2 + t2e3)(1 + t2 + t4)3/2(t + 2t3) = (1 + t2 + t4)a/2 [(2t3 + t)el + (t4 . then = xl(8*)el + x2(s*)ea + 8*(COSa)ea :1:3 e = 0 since the origin is on the = x = :l:l(8)el + :l:2(s)e3 curve. CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP. e3) = t· e3 = x· e3 = X3 = 8 cos a + C. Then so that the origin is on the curve and ea is parallel to Integrating If a =F ./2. = ael = (a2 + 4b2t2 + 9t4)1/2 2b2 = 3a.1)e2 .6. in which case (see Problem 4.1)e2 .(ta + 2t)eaJ have k = !(el . make a constant angle with the vector a = er + es. c = constant representation of set 8* = 8 + c/(cos a). called the axis of the helix.(t3 + 2t)e3J k = i = t' /Ix'i = (1 + t2 + t4)2[(2t3 + t)el + (t4 . 4 Show that the tangent vectors along the curve x ate. the form as required.5. . We exclude the case a = 0 for which the tangent vectors are all parallel.3. such that the angle a between the tangent vectors and the axis is constant. x If a Then :1:3 8* cos a and we have a natural = = .4) onto a plane normal to its axis is given by IK*I= IKI/sin2 where a ¥= 0 is the angle a between the axis and the tangent vectors of the helix and IKI the curvature of the is helix. Thus In this case the curve is confined to the :1:1:1:2 plane. Show that a general helix has a natural representation of the form We suppose that the helix is positioned the axis of the helix../4 4.
and 14 Hence 1... Differentiating gives ds = t and dx* (u·t)u = t _ (cos eru Id. 4] CURVATURE AND TORSION 73 Let x = xes) be the helix and u. 414 . page 63. x = x(t) is a straight line.1.2(cos a)(t· [1 .9. = Since Ix' X x"l = 0 if x' and x" are dependent.. 4. O = lm fls ds Namely. ds dt _ = XS.x) Ixl = It I = x= t and x= t are orthogonal. we have Hence from Theorem 4..8.= x*(s). Show that the curvature dO 1.7. = dx dt _  dxds_.1 = Ix' X x"I/lx'13. Prove Theorem 4. 414(a). = x(t) of class ~ 2 is a straight line if x(t) and x"(t) are linearly II<I Ix' X x"lIlx'13 = 0 for all t. Show that a curve x dependent for all t. Thus and finally t* = II d~* = I = t_ ]1<*1= It*1 I ~~ III x" = s~~: a)u Fig. x' IKf = lx' x x"I/lx'13.x(s»u Note that in general s will not be a natural parameter for the projection x*. M As . Ix' X x"l = But Ix'131i X x I = Ix'13lxllx I sin . AS > 0. 4. its axis. 413 and It IIsin2 a dt* t/sin a 1"lIsin2 a ds = d:s* I ') 4.: I dX* • dx* ] [ de ds 112 [(t· t) . 413. Ixl = 1. the projection on a plane perpendicular to u and passing through the origin is the curve x* = xes) . dt xs = d (.q_(i. IKIis a measure of rate of change of direction of the tangent with respect to arc length. Let x x(s) be of class ~ 2 and let A(} denote the angle between the unit tangent t(s) at x(s) and t(s + M) at a neighboring point x(s + AS).CHAP.2: Along a curve x = x(t) of class ~2. X • de' dt + s ' dx = dt = xs •" + (e')2 •• x x' X x" (xs') X (xs" + X (s')2) Then (s')3(x X x) Ix'13(i:x x) where we have used s' = dB/dt = Ix'i. as shown in Fig.(u. As indicated in Fig. a vector of unit length.2 cos2 a u) + (cos2 a)(u· u)]1f2 = sin a. + cos2 aJIf2 d~* O<a<". (a) (b) Fig.
414(b). 0= Multiplying by x+kt+kt 0 = k)(t.74 CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP. = (1 + h +k(t· h Since t is orthogonal to t.. = x(s) = e= 2 is a straight line if all tangent lines have a lines y Suppose Yo is a common intersection of the tangent along the curve.10. we can choose n = TkT 1. there exists k k(s) such that Yo = x(s) + kt(s). It(s + as) . that x x(t) is a straight line. say so.t2)2]112 + t2)S 3(1 + t2)2 1 Since k oF 0 for all t.. Thus if we assume that the curve is simple. which is the case locally.t(s) As AfJ+ o(AfJ) As I lim 48_0 lim = 48_0 lim [AfJ As (1 I t(s + As) As +O(AfJ»)J AfJ t(s) I Since 480 lim AfJ 0.U.t2)el + 2te2 + (1+ t2)ea] lX'f tf 2te1 + (1.. Since k(s) oF 0 for e oF so.1 0 for all s. V2 (1 + t2) 1 [(1. But 1.t(s)1 is the base of an isosceles triangle length 1. k(s) oF 0 except perhaps for a .2te2 + (1+ t2)es] . Then for each e = x(s) + k(s)t(s) Note that along a tangent line y = x(s) + kt(s) we have k == 0 if and only if y is on the curve. Differentiating the above. = k=t .1 0 for = s oF so.1 = It I = = I lim 48_0 48_0 t(s + As) .3t2)el + 6te2 + (3 + 3t2)e3 t2)2 + (2t)2 + (1 + t2)2]1/2 = 3V2 (1 + 2t2 + 3V2 (1 + t2) t = .. Hence 1. page 64.:. (l+k)t+kt t. then 0 = kltl2 or 0 = kl"12. = = MOVING TRIHEDRON 4.t(s)1 with sides of = 2 sin (!M) = = AfJ + o(AfJ) Then where we have used the Taylor expansion for the sine function.1 4..single value of e.1.1is continuous.t2)e2 3(1 + t2)3 k [k] = [(2t)2 3(1 + (1 . Hence It(s + As) . and it follows from Theorem 4. then o of class and 1.t2 2t 2t) and b tx n e1 1 det e2 ( es V2 (1 + t2)2 1 + t2 1 . 4 Since t is a unit vector.t2)el [(t2 1)el .. as shown in Fig. 1. 1.t3)el + 3t2e2 + (3t + V)e3 tl)1/2 = (3 . Show that a curve x common intersection.t2 0 2t(1 + t2)e2 + (1+ t2)2es] V2(1 + t2)2 V2(1 + t2) 1 1 [(1 + t2)(1 . Find a continuous unit principal normal and unit binormal along the curve x x' Ix'i 3[(1 (3t .
such a nonvanishing derivative exists..12. at which the Let xA = a(cos tA)el + a(sin tA)e2+ btAe3 denote the points on the helix at which the osculating plane passes through the point Yo = YOlel+ YO~2 Y03ea.3: If x(So) is a point of inflection on an analytic curve x = x(s) which is not a straight line.a cos tA .a sin tA a cos tA) Y02. .a sin tA a cos tA asintA Yoa btA b o o or.CHAP.so)k+l (k+ 1)! + .13. Show that along a curve x = x(t) the vector x" is parallel to the osculating plane and that its components with respect to t and n are Ix'I' and Klx'12respectively.(Y2 .x)x'x"] o.1 Y3 . Since we are given that x' and x" are independent.1 from which (Yl1)6 . (a) If x' and x" are linearly independent at a point x along x = x(t)..so) + k! xCk)(so) (s  SO)k + xCk+1) (so)(s.8). = (b) x' = el + 2te2 + 3t2e3' x" Thus the osculating plane at t = 2e2 + 6te3 = 1 is det ( [(y . Hence for each A. It follows that x" is parallel to the osculating plane and that its components with respect to t and n are Ix'l' S" and Klx'I2= Ks'2 respectively.x)x'x"] o. we obtain x" = ts" + t's' = ts" + ts'2 = ts" + nKs'2 where from equation (4. (b) Use this formula to find the osculating plane to the curve x = tel + t2e2 + t3e3 at t = 1. Since x = x(s) be is not a straight line.1)6 + (Y3 . It is easily verified that x' and x" + are independent for all t. (a) We saw in the above problem that x" is parallel to the osculating plane and we know that x'. then there exists a continuous principal normal unit vector n(s) to the curve in a neighborhood of So. t= = 4. Show that the points on the helix x = a(cos t)el + a(sin t)e2 + bte« OSCUlating planes pass through a fixed point are confined to a plane.15. Let XCkl(SO) the first nonvanishing derivative of x(s) at So of order k > 1. Kn. Infact k> 2. 4] CURVATURE AND TORSION 75 4. = or det ( YOl . it follows that x' X x" is a nonzero vector normal to the osculating plane at x. Therefore the equation of the osculating plane at x is [(y .1 Y2 . Thus the equation of the osculating plane at x is [(y .x(1»x'(1)x"(1)] =0 or Yl .1)2 o or 1 4. being a multiple of t. Differentiating x' = : ~~= ts' with respect to t. Prove Theorem 4. 4. Thus we can write x x = x(so) + x(so}(s.14. since t(so) = (so) = 0 at a point of inflection. expanding. show that the osculating plane at x is [(y .x)x'x"] = O. is parallel to the osculating plane.
: (s .: . X(kl(SO) where w(s) is analytic at So and w(so)::.18..: (s . ::..76 CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP. Finally.: ~(t·b) + T~(t·t) T~ since t..:0 and t· t ::.so) (k . n. we have ·x· ::. find the curvature and torsion along the curve Ix' x x"I a Ix/l _ 1[(3..: { Ikl for e "" So for 8 < So TORSION 4...: x(so) + X(kl(SO)(S .: X.5. Now consider the vector n == w(s)/lw(s)l.sO)kl (kl)! X(k+ll(so)(s . . x· = d (b K 2 t + ~n + TKb.: (k _ 2) oF O.: b x t. ..so)k2 (k2j! _ (s so) + x(k+ll(so)(s . b is a righthanded orthonormal x·xx·x· = = t·xxx· since t· b ::.2t+ [xx·xl .: . b is a righthanded Again using /CDand also b::..2(nX b) triplet.2(b X D)  "T(n X t) +.: en •• x + /Cn ::...2(t) triplet and hence n::.17.::.: "n X (_. of unit length.:i::..: /C dt xt ) + where we use the fact that .sO)k2W(S) ::. + x(k+ 1) (so)(s . Using the formulas of Theorems 4.: ·x· ::.1::.::. 4 Then t ::.: i X ·x· ::.: (s . for.(n X n) + T..sO)k2Iw(s)1 n ::. . ::.:we have "D. (kl)! .2te2 + (1 + t2)eal 3(1 + t2)2 18[(t21)el 2te2 + (1 + t2)eaJ· 6[el [X'X"X"'] 'T  (X' x x") • x"! + eal 3(1 Ix' X x"12 Ix' X x"12 1.3t2)el + 6te2 + (3 + 3t2)eal I (3  3t2)el + 6te2 2 + + 6e2 + 6teall (3 + 3t )eala 2 X [6tel 181 (t2 l)el . the vector n is continuous.n 4.we have i::.t. and k t X(kl(SO)(S .sO)k2Iw(s)1 w(s) ::. 1821 (t2  l)el  2te2 + (1 + t2)eal2 + t2)2 2 Observe that along this curve.sO)k k! + . .: T.(s)n Iw(s)1 which is the 'required Otherwise result. Show that along a curve x xX = x(s). n.: [k] iff k is even «8  sO)k2 "" 0)... Using the result of the above problem. For s in 83(so).: .. • /CD orthonormal ::.SO)kl .I)! + . Ikl . Note that for this n. and k::.: t is a multiple of n.n+ T"b) ::.: "a(D X t) + . k ::. [xxx] = 2 K ".: Tn.:1. Since w(s) there exists a neighborhood 83(so) such that w(s) oF 0 for s in 83(so).2 and 4. 4.. Show that along a curve x Diiferentiatingx ••• = x(s). ::. k2 [X(kl(SO) (k _ 2)! + + J_ is certainly continuous at so. ::. .D + "Tb + .16.
21.x).= = .2Ix'16 [X'X"X"'] lx' X x"12 4. b = 0 or T(YO.= . Thus in 86(so). x'"t" ' 0' x :8 tr+ lx' x (x'i) x"12 x't .20. Thus if Yo is the common intersection.10). (Yo . The equation of the osculating plane at x is (y . that is. (Yo. Thus for each s there is a unique unit vector b*(s) orthogonal to t(s) such that u == t cos a + b* sin a.« == constant whenever .2 t"2[x'x'x"] Since [x'x'x"] + 'i i3(x' X x"') + t2°i"(x" X x') + t5(x" + 'tt4 [x'x'x"] + t3 T[x'x"x'] + t6 [x'x"x"'] i6 [X/X"X'/I] = 0. Thus there exists k k(s) such that for e in 8~(so).4) that we have excluded the case a 0 which would correspond to a straight line parallel to u. 4] CURVATURE AND TORSION 77 4. n = 0 . Ix'16 Ix'i' of the above problem and " Ix'Xx"l Ix'13 = . Thus n == n* and b b* can be chosen respectively as the principal unit normal and unit binormal along the curve. page 70. Show that a curve is a plane curve if all osculating planes have a common point of . the point Yois also the intersection of the tangent lines. Yo. (t cos a + b* sin a) == 0 and. + (d )' d8X' t '" x Hence + x" x"2 t r + x'" t3 r + x"'t3) X x"')] (x'i> ' (x't + x"(2) X (x'T + 3x"t (x'i) • [3 t'2 t (x' X x") .19. = = . From = = = = o == u = i cos a + b sin a = == lencos a  Tn sin a we conclude that TI" cot. t cos a + b sin a == u == constant.x).. dx ds dx dt dt ds = x't. which is impossible since T 7'= 0 in 86(so). u cos a. Conversely. that is (see Problem 4.. there exists a point So and hence a neighborhood 8~(so) where T 7'= O.x is orthogonal to n.x) <b 0..5: At a point on a curve x = x(t) given by [x'x"x"'] T where K 0/= 0. Thus u is of unit length and t. there follows i. integrating.2). we have . Prove Theorem 4. or 1 Using the results [X'X/IX//] [xxx·] = [x/x'/xrl'] 1 dt since t ds dB/dt (Theorem 4. x x(s) is a helix.. Evidently b*(s) and also n*(s) == b*(s) X t(s) are continuously differentiable. Recall (Problem 4. = 0 = x= = = = = = 4. Show that a curve is a general helix if and only if .7'= 0 and that T == 0 whenever O.x) • b 0 for all s.x is parallel to t. But then in 86(so) the curve is a straight line.CHAP. (Yo . Hence T = 0 for all e and the curve is a plane curve. that is. since i. Differentiating and using the fact that t and b are orthogonal.T sin a == 0 and hence i cos a + b sin a == 0 or.fK is constant where T = 0 whenever K = O. K 0/= 0 and Suppose x == x(s) is a general helix 'with axis u of unit length and that t. the torsion is x .intersection. Yo. we have (Yo x) 'n 0. suppose that T/" == cot a whenever " 7'= 0 and T 0 whenever O.b* O. hence Yo. But also. Then from Theorem 4. since b = Tn..t == 0. Then " cos a .4... Now suppose the curve is not a plane curve. u == cos a constant.x kt or y() x + kt. Differentiating t.x) b O. u == cos a we obtain t. we have T .
xXx(4) (!TK2) (!T{(2)t T{(2t = (!K3)b + (!{(3)b Then. But a dX1 Ts = t(s) = K(S)n(s) 4. of the spherical indicatrix IK11 xr = t(s) of the tangent is From Theorem 4.22.2. Show that the tangent to the spherical indicatrix of the tangent to a curve C is parallel to the principal normal to C at corresponding points. Differentiating.. (Kb + Tt) K2 X3 4.17.) K and hence x Referring = x(s) = is a general helix if and only if to Problem 4. Show that the curvature K. or (Kb + Tt) . (:S{(3)b x X 'x' = + {(3b+ K3b + TK2t. Tn + ~ /Crt .18. page 64.. indicatrix of the tangent to the curve x = x(s). .2:.24.25. (4)]  5 {(ds. 4 4. = (K2 + r2)/K2. Show that along a regular curve x = x(s) of class ~ 4. d (T) If x = x(s) is a general helix. page 70. Show that the t?rsi0!l of the binormal indicatrix curve • = b(s) we have of a sufficiently regular IS r3 = r(K2 TK  + r2) KT • From We use Theorem 4. Conversely. then everywhere on the curve either K = 0 or TlK is constant so that x(4)] O.5. to find T3. From Problem 4.78 CURVATURE AND TORSION [CHAP.. b = Tn b Then bXb Tn + Tn = Tn + T ! (b X t) t) + {«b Xn)] = Tn + T[(b T2b X t) + (b X t)] = Tn + T[r(nX =.. then we can conclude that constant and therefore x = x(s) is a general helix. [x 'x' = [x 'x' KIT = = SPHERICAL INDICATRICES 4. if x(4)] 0 and if there are no points of inflection so that {(~ 0.18. t+ [x X'X(4)] = o. ~  T{(3n+ + T{(3n (!T{(2)t 'x"x X x(4) (K2t+~n+T{(b)'[(!{(3)b+(:sT{(2)tJ Thus [•• ••• XXX (4)] =XXX· [. Let Xl = t(s) denote the spherical tangent vector to' Xl = t(s) is which gives the required result. applying Problem 4. .23. [ •• ••• xxx (4)] K 5!!:_ ds (.
] Ibxbl = 2 T3(TKICT) T4(1C2 T2) + Supplementary Problems 4.ICT) [bOb OJ. .. xa 0. Show that ICT = Iiobi. Show that x = tel + tt2e2 + !t3ea meet at a 4. Show that a curve is a straight line if all tangent lines are parallel.sin t)el IICI (1 + 4 sin4 t/2)1/2/(1 + 4 sin2 t/2)3/2 Ans... Show that a curve is a straight line if x' and x" are linearly dependent for all t. Ans. f(t) = A sin t + B cos t + C.. Ans. Show that As_O lim t. A./2. co < k < = = = eo (cos t)el + + 4. 4] CURVATURE AND TORSION 79 + .29. along the binormal indicatrix Tl is Ka = (1C2 + T2)/1C2• KT Show that the torsion along the tangent indicatrix is = TIC  ° 1C(1C2 + T2) • ° . = = + (1  cos t)e2 + tea. page 70: If x = x(s) == O. 4. is a plane curve. X2 k. 4. t::.3(TK. Show that the osculating planes at any three points on the curve x point lying in the plane determined by these three points..sin t)el + (1  cos t)~ + tes.s > o. 4.TICD) = 2TT(Tt Thus + ICb) + = 3T2H + (2T.(J = O.•• !T2(Tt+lCb) 2TT(Tt+"b) T2(H + Kb) 2TT(Tt + ICb) + T2(Tt + ICTD+ Kb . (4/3.30.40. Show that a curve is a general helix iff the tangent indicatrix is a circle. then T Prove the converse of Theorem 4.35.t2 ea lies in a plane.CHAP.36..27.1C + .2K)b (TD + T2b  ICTt) • [3T2Tt + (2TTIC + KT2)b] ... Ans.t2e2 4.28.32. 4..31.38. = x(t) is a plane curve if and only if [x'x"xl11] = O.34. 4.2(H+Tt+Kb+lCb) and bxb . Show that the curvature of a curve C is parallel to the tangent to the 4. Show that the tangent to the tangent indicatrix binormal indicatrix at corresponding points.39. Ans. 4. 0) = line to the curve x = (1+ t)el . x tel 1+ + t. = xl(t)el + x2(t)e2 the curvature is 4. 4. B.41. 4. Show that the curve Find the most general function f(t) so that the curve x = a(cos t)el + a(sin t)e2 a plane curve.3[3ICT and finally + 2ICT + TK] = . 4.37. C constant = + f(t)ea will be 4.t1 +te2 . xl = . Find the intersection of the Xlx2 plane and the tangent (1 + ta)ea at t 1.4.26. Find the torsion along the curve T 1/(1 + 4 sin+ t/2) = x = (t .(J be the angle between the unit tangents Show that along the plane curve x t(s + t::..42. 4. Let t::.s) and t(s). Find the intersection of the Xlx2 plane and the normal plane to the curve x (sin t)e2 + tes at the point t = rr/2. Find the curvature along the' curve x (t .33. 1/3.. 4. ds(bXb) d· .43.
1) Tn The above equations are called the SerretFrenet equations of a curve. b = n (5. n~.+n ++ b b Ob the coefficients of t. = Ot .ob* = b· (T*n*) + (Tn)'b* 80 T(bon* + n b") e I . bs) also coincide. have already been derived. We will prove that if C and C* are two curves in space such that K(S) = K*(S) and 7(S) = 7*(S) for all s. Let C* then be rotated about this point so that at So the triads(t~. nand b satisfy . then C and C* are the same except for their position in space.t*) + (Kt+7b)on* = nO(K*t*+T*b*) + t+n") + T(nob* + bon*) and _! (b b*) ds 0 bob* + i. (4. b form the matrix ( ~) o ~ ~ T 0 INTRINSIC EQUATIONS As a first consequence of the Frenet equations we will show that a curve is completely determined by its curvature and torsion as functions of a natural parameter. no. using the first and third equations. Now by differentiating the product t· t* and using the Frenet equations.given two such curves.14). = xes). equations en as Ob t = Ot + + n = Kt On .6) and (4. This gives.1. we obtain ds{t·t*) Also. They are basic in the development of the theory of curves and should be committed to memory. ds (n. To obtain the second we simply differentiate n b x t. b~) and (to. the vectors t.n*) d d t· t* + t· t* non* + non* K(n·t* t· K*n* + Kn t* 0 = K(ton* + n.Chapter The Theory of Curves FRENET EQUATIONS Along a curve x 5 Theorem 5. For. let C* be translated so that for some S = So the corresponding points on C* and C are made to coincide. The first and third equations. n. it = bxt+bxt = T(nxt)+bx(Kn) = (T)(b)+K(t) = Kt+Tb Observe that if we write the Frenet .
t·t* + n n" e = constant to' t~ = no' n~ = b+b" = 3 bo' b~ = 1. no = n~. tc == 0 and T == O. a curve x x with the prescribed curvature and torsion.since = t. bo = b~.3. have the property that 1 ~ t· t* = cos 4(t. page 63). t=t*. Finally. so that hence for all s. nand b. Thus at So.1. Example 5. But at So. therefore. for they completely define the curve.= p = 1114 constant oF 0. Fundamental existence and uniqueness theorem for space curves. A curve is defined uniquely by its curvature natural parameter. . b of the Frenet equations.2 + T2) and its pitch is equal to 2'ITH/(tc2 It is a righthanded helix if T > 0 and lefthanded if T < O. Hence if t·t* + n'n* + b'b* = 3. r =r(S) which give the curvature and torsion of a curve as functions of S are called the natural or intrinsic equations of a curve. page 64. x(so) = x*(so). that the intrinsic straight line are. n=n* and b=b*. except for position in space. and hence. the curves C and C* coincide. say t and t*. Let K(S) and r(S) be arbitrary continuous functions on a ~ s ~ b. and Theorem 4. T = constant "" 0 This helix lies on a circular cylinder of radius Itcl/(. since t=dx/ds=t*=dx*/ds. that is. n'n* = 1. given arbitrary continuous functions K and T. then t·t* = 1. ds(t·t* d + n+ n" r + b'b*) = t·t* + n'n* + b b" But at So.4 and 4. and + Now two unit vectors. page 66.. (b) equations of a The equations circle of radius .2. Integrating. f tds + C The answer is in the affirmative and is given by Theorem 5.3.1: (a) It follows from Theorem 4. Then there exists.. THE FUNDAMENTAL EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREM We observe that the Frenet equations form a system of three vector differential equations of the first order in t. n. whether or not there exist solutions t. It is reasonable to ask. The equations K and torsion as functions of a = K(S). one and only one space curve C for which K(S) is the curvature. to = t~. b'b* =1 Thus for all s. are the intrinsic equation of a (c) The intrinsic equations of a circular helix (see Examples 4. T = 0. + T2). r(S) is the torsion and s is a natural parameter along C. 5] THE THEORY OF CURVES 81 0 adding the above.3. it follows that x(s) = x*(s) + constant. Hence x(s) = x*(s) for all s.9) are "= constant oF 0. This proves Theorem 5. (see Example 4. t*) ~ 1.CHAP.
A Treatise on the Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces. 'T' 0. as shown in Fig. Differentiating. integration However.e.5) Observe that a change in the constant of integration in (5. which has been thoroughly investigated. Eisenhart.4) defines a translation in cp and hence a rotation of the curve about the origin.) If we choose CI = 7r/4. set . A change in the constant of integration in (5.5) defines a translation of the curve. For. 8 > 0 are the intrinsic equations of a logarithmic spiral. cp Having determined x = f «ds + C1 + (sin cp(s»e2] ds (5··n cp.. it = Kt Thus t and n above are solutions if ~ = or t T ~Zl to Fig. C2 = 0. then ~ ¥= 0 for all s. obtaining K x f «cos cp)e1+ (sin cp)e2) dcp :: + C2 = f K(~) «cos cp)el + (sin cp)e2) cp d + C2 (5. solutions to the Frenet equations cannot be obtained by integration. i. for reducing the system to that of a first order differential equation. called the Riccati equation. t = (cos cp)e1+ (sin cp)e2 Also.2). 51. 5 The uniqueness of a curve with given torsion and curvature has already been proved (Theorem 5. It follows that I( = = . P. I( x = f K(~) ((cos ¢)el + (sin ¢)e2)d¢ + C2 f I( /<I>C1) ((cos ¢)el + (sin ¢)e2)d¢ + C2 cos ¢)e2 + C2 !e(<I>C1) (cos </> + sin </»el (sin ¢ + !e(<I>C. Then ¢ = logs + CI. This allows us to introduce cp = cp(s) as a parameter in (5. and set x ¢ 7r/4 = 8.82 THE THEORY OF CURVES [CHAP. Note that if ¥= 0 for all s. Ginn and Co. Then T == 0. if of the Frenet equations is always possible. 51 K.we obtain from (5. in the case of a plane curve. is the logarithmic spiral r = (1/V2 )e8• . A method is available. let cp denote the angle that t makes with the Xl axis.2) ft ds + C2 = f [(cos cp(s)e1 + C2 (5. The details may be found in L. we can write n = (sincp)el + (cos e)e. since n is orthogonal to t. we obtain = _!_e8[(cos 8)el + (sin 8)e2] V2 which.5). A proof of the existence of such a curve is given in Appendix 1. 1909.3) t = ~[(. This gives s = e<l>C1 and = l/s = e(<I>C1). in polar coordinates. In general. = = 1/s. For.6) Example 5.sin cp)e1+ (cos cp)e2] = ~n and it = ~[(coscp)el + (sincp)e2] = ~t But when = 0 the Frenet equations reduce i = «n. (5.2) (5. however.2: The equations 1/8.
and i(O) :::::t(O) = K(O)n(O) = Koe2• Also. 52(a). and we suppose that a basis (el' e2. If C is now represented by x = x(s). b) at P. Since Xl is of first order in 8. If in addition TO # 0. n. as shown in Fig. the triad (t. Observe further that if "0 # 0. If TO < 0. and the projection onto the binormal is of third order in 8. in the canonical representation at P. we can write In terms of the components of x(s) this becomes The above equations are called the canonical representation of C at P. the curve pierces the osculating plane at P. Normal Plane Rectifying Plane Rectifying Plane Normal Plane Osculating Plane Osculating Plane TO> 0 TO <0 (b) (a) Fig. as shown in Fig. Finally. we suppose that a natural parameter is chosen along C so that s = 0 at P. we see that f~r the most part a curve lies along its tangent line. The projection of x onto the principal normal line is the component x2 and is of second order in 8.CHAP. We suppose that the. 52(b). If TO > 0.which is like s3. b) rotates as a lefthanded screw about P. since Xa.3: Its leading terms As shown below. changes sign across P. since the component X2. the curve lies on one side of the rectifying plane. i(O)::::: t(O) = ei. n. since C is of class x(s) s= = d• dst = d dsKn = Kn + Kn = K(Kt+Tb) + Kn K2t + Kn + KTb 3. 5] THE THEORY OF CURVES 83 CANONICAL REPRESENTATION OF A CURVE Let P be an arbitrary point on a curve C.curve is positioned so that P is at the origin. does not change sign across P. since x we have Finally. ea) is chosen to coincide with (t. . Example 5. then (t. b) rotates as a rtghthanded screw about P. 52 . which is like 82. conveniently describe the behavior of C near P . then x(O) = 0. n. the projection of x onto the tangent line is given by the vector xlel.
s)t.Ko'TOs3 and assume KO > 0. 'To > O. the tangent vector = dx* ds = i + kt + kt . we show that the curvature of the involute satisfies Thus =F K* 0 for K =F O. A curve C* which lies on the tangent surface of C and intersects the tangent lines orthogonally is called an involute of C. = = = (a) (b) (c) Fig. where C* crosses the tangent line at x(s). = (1 + k)t + kKn C* is orthogonal to the tangent vector t on C. one for each e. 5 Consider the leading terms of the canonical representation Zl of a curve. For in Problem 5. dx* dx dt • ds ds (cs)ds t (cs)t (cs)Kn = + = = and hence dx*/ds = 0 where K = O. Thus there exists an infinite family of involutes. Thus we assume that along C.x* . on an involute. page 97.x(s) is proportional to t(s). then .. . If C is given by x = x(s) and if. Thus C* will have a representation of the form x* x(s) + k(s) t(s). The projection onto the normal plane is like the curve x~ ~('T~/Ko)x~ shown in Fig. 53(c). X2 = !K082. Note that x* is not regular where x has a point of inflection. shown in Fig. K =F O. For. as shown in Fig. 53(a). From this it also follows that K* =F 0 along the involute of C. By eliminating 8. 53 INVOLUTES The tangent lines to a curve C generate a surface called the tangent surface of C. Moreover.15. x* = x + (c . . c = constant. we see that in the neighborhood of a point the projection of the curve onto the osculating plane (X1X2 plane) is like the parabola Z2 !KOX~.84 Example 5.4: THE THEORY OF CURVES [CHAP. in the first two equations. x* is a point on an involute C*. Xa = i. = 8. 54 Integrating gives k = s + c. dx*' ds • t = (1 + k)(t· t) + kK(n' t) = 1 +k = • 0 Fig. The projection onto the rectifying plane is like the cubic xa !KO'TOX~ shown in Fig. 53(b). that is. 54.
in particular.. ~~ = a(sin t)el + a(cos t)e2 + bea.t cost) + y cos tje2 + byea X3 Note.s) . since x* = x for k = 0. as shown in Fig. . Consequently the distance between the two involutes cf : x* = x + (e. If. and C~ : x* = x. Fig.. + (C2 .5: Along the helix x (b) = a(cos t)el + a(sin t)e2 + btea. it follows that Ikl is the distance between the point x* on the tangent line and the point x on C.B)I = IC1. C* 8=0 (a) Fig. then the curve generatedby unrolling the string will be the involute x* = x + (CoB)t. t Also. or.Thus the involutes are the curves + [asint+a(cs)(a2+b2)1/2cost]e2 x + (C8)t [acosta(c8)(a2+b2)1I2sintjel + (e t 8)(a2 s(a2 + b2)1/2b]e3 + b2)1/2. 56.c21 It I = 1 It also follows from the above that an involute is generated by unrolling a taut string which has been wrapped along C. 5·6 . /2( a(sin 1 t)e1 + a( cos t)e2 + bea) dt (a2 + b2)1/2t. that the involute is a plane curve.s)t . 55 Example 5. remains constant for all s and equal to I(cl . 55(a). as shown in Fig. Idx*ldkl That is. . as shown in Fig. 5] THE THEORY OF CURVES 85 When the tangent line to a curve x then = x(s) at x is given by x* = x + kt. x* 8 = Jot y I~~I c(a2 = ~~ = = II ~~= I + [bt I~~I we have = (a2 + b2) 1/2 (a2 + b2) .(C2 . confined to the plane = by. setting = + b2)1/2 and using = x* = a[(cos t + t sin t) .CHAP. 00 <k< 00. 55(b). k is a natural parameter.. Also. a > 0.y sin t]el + a[(sin t . the string is of length Co and if a natural parameter e is chosen along C such that B is the distance from the fixed end of the string.s)t of C.
as shown in Fig. it is proportional there exists k such that . 58 . Differentiating the above. T  {3aa~ a?+{32 .{3T)2 + (~+ m)2 = (K2/K4)(1 + y2). dx* ds = X • • • Fig. x* = x + an + {3b gives dx*.(3T)= k«.{3T)2 + (~+m)2 = O.{3T)2 + (~+ m)2 # 0 along C. one for each choice of c: = x + ~n + ~cot (f  d« + c) b For differentiating Note that we must assume that (0: . 58.If C is given by x = x(s) and if x*(s) is the point of contact on the evolute to the tangent line which intersects C at i(s). It follows that a (0: . 5 If a curve C is an involute of a curve C*. Hence given C. then evolutes are x* T =0 and its = x + !n + r b " y e "" = constant . solving for Integrating T. since b constant. and (~+Ta) = l/K and. Hence = k{3 Now. In fact.6: If C is a plane curve. then T = 0. x* xes) is orthogonal to t(s) and so it is a linear combination of n(s) and b(s). We observe further that. . its evolutes are the curves whose tangent lines intersect C orthogonally. Thus we have an infinite family of evolutes. As shown in Fig.{3T)n+ ({3 m)b + so that C* is not regular where (0: . 1.a(~ + Ta) _ a =0 0 or. a = y{3. = = Fig. we have {3= (1/K) cot [f T ds + cJ . then x*(s) (c* = x(s) + a(S) n(s) + (3(s)b(s) For. (3(a . Example 5. Thus for plane curves C we assume that K# O.{3T)n (~+ m)b + to x* . eliminating k in the last two equations.a« = 0.!ic ds t1f!_ a gives {3= a cot [f x* T ds + cJ. In particular if C is a plane curve. for y 0 the evolute lies in the same plane as C.86 EVOLUTES THE THEORY OF CURVES [CHAP.(3T). since dx*/ds is also tangent to C*. the osculating plane of C. • ds = (a .x = an + {3b. 57. then by definition C* is an evolute of C. 57 + ~n + an + f3b + f3b = t + ~n + a{Kt + Tb) + f3b= (1~ aK)t f3Tn + (0: . it is the only evolute of C in the same plane and is called the plane euoluie of C. Since = 1/K. y = constant and (a . the other evolutes lie on a cylinder whose generating lines are perpendicular to the plane of C and pass through the plane evolute of C.
.. X2. we suppose now S is the limiting position. Now consider the function f(t) Clearly. X2(t). it follows that there exist I'(t. a surface S is given by F(Xl. .. where such that Xo.(l) =0 such that f"(t~') = f"(t~') = .CHAP.. X2. . t~~. Xl = x(t1). of sufficiently high class.. t~'. . as Xl. f'(t~l) = 0 But then again from Rolle's theorem. it seems that the planes which intersect a curve C at a point x and also contain the tangent line at x have a higher degree of "contact" with C at x than the planes not containing the tangent line. Also. Xnl approach Xo... .. ... we find that there exist to. f(to) f(t1) = F(Xl(t). = l(nl)(t~~l1) =0 Now suppose we consider the limit as xi. t::l. . Xa(to» F(Xl(tl) X2(t1). the numbers tf. = Continuing in this manner. is given by x = xl(t)el + x2(t)e2 + x3(t)e3.. f"(t. . . . .. . = /<nll(to) = 0 Thus we are led to the following definition: A curve x xl(t)el + x2(t)e2 + x3(t)ea has npoint contact with a surface F(Xl. Then . of a family of surfaces each of which intersects C at Xo and n . Xnl = X(tnl) in a neighborhood of xo. That is.. = .. .. .'.. Xa) at the point corresponding to t = to if the function = =0 satisfies I(to) = I'(to) = F(Xl(t). X2. and that C and S intersect not only at a single point Xo = x(to) but also at n .. and hence in the limit I(to) = /'(to) = I"(to) = .. the one with greatest contact seems to be the osculating plane. there exist t~'. Xnl approach xe. tL t.1 points in a neighborhood of Xo. X2. . . where .. .. As Xl. 5) THE THEORY OF CURVES 87 THEORY OF CONTACT Intuitively.. t~'. X2(tO). Xa) = 0. !enl.1 other points. we suppose C.. Xnl approach xo.. .. xr. In order to investigate the degree to which a curve C can make contact with a surface in general. We note that the above definition is independent of the parameterization For suppose x = xi (0) ei + x~(0) e2 + x! (0) ea is another representation of the curve._1)all in a neighborhood of to such that f(to) = f'(t~) = f"(t~') = . t~l.. . X3(t» = = F(Xl(tO). X2. = t<nl)(to) = f(t) Xa(t» 0 but f(n)(to) c/= 0 of the curve. of all planes containing the tangent line at x. Xa(tl» = = 0 0 since C and S intersect at tL t~.. . From Rolle's theorem.. X2(t).. t~~l1) approach to.) = I'(t~) = . = ...
= t(sO)' N = 0 if and only if N is orthogonal to t(so). i. and since . Now.. let a curve C of sufficiently high class be given by x Namely. .xo) • N x(s) • N and its derivatives /'(s) /"(s) Clearly.f= 0 or g(n)(to) 0/= O. Now consider the function = = x(so) on a curve /(s) = = /'(80) (x(s) . i = 1. and let a curve r be given as the intersection of two surfaces F(Xl.7: x = (t')i {m(t(O» t'(Oo) 0/= + Cd(iD(t(O» + '" + t(i> {'(t(O» = IW(t(Oo» = 0. = The degree of contact between two curves in space is defined in a similar way. the unit tangent at xo. the plane has at least 3point contact with the curve iff N is orthogonal to t(so) and n(so).2. all planes containing the tangent line ·have at least 3point contact with the curve.. iff the plane is the osculating plane (x . which is the required result. Thus a plane has at least 2point contact with a curve iff it contains the tangent line.e.e. . X3) Then C has npoint contact with r at the point corresponding to t {(t) get) F(Xl(t). . t' t'(t(O» = Xi(t(O». = g(nl)(tO) =0 = 0 but t<n)(tO). the principal normal at xo. i = 1. X2. 5 X!(O) and g(O) g'(O) g"(O) F(x'l' (0).88 THE THEORY OF CURVES [CHAP. X3(t» = to if the functions satisfy {(to) g(to) {'(to) = {"(to) g'(tO) = g"(lo) = . i. . X3) G(Xl.. = f<nl)(tO) = . n1.xo) • b(so) = 0 at Xo. X3(t» X2(t). . G(Xl(t). = 0.. = Xl(t) er + X2(t) es + Xa(t) 0 0 e.. X2. Accordingly C has npoint contact with r iff C has npoint contact with one of the surfaces defining r and at least npoint contact with the other. We note also that at a point of inflection.xo) • N O. N = (x(so)  xo) • N = O. X3(t(O))) {(t(O» xi (0» = F(Xl(t(O». (t')2 {"(t(O» + t'' 1'(t(O» and lower order derivatives In general. (0). /(so) t(s) • N «(s) n(s) • N t(s). gm(O) will be a linear combination of jW(t(O» gW(O) But if IW(to) i = 1. where «(so) 0. = x(s) The equation of an arbitrary plane with unit normal N passing through the point Xo is (x . then /"(so) = I«so) n(so) • N = 0 iff N is orthogonal to n(so). X2(t). Example 5.nl and I(n)(to) = l(n)(t(Oo». Thus if I«so) =F 0.3 X2(t(O». then g(i)(Oo) 0. x.f= 0.. . We have further that if «(so) =F 0. g(n)(oo) 0/= 0.
Finally. as shown in Fig. Now. It lies on the osculating plane.xo) • to O. Note that this circle is unique. In order to investigate osculating surfaces in more detail we suppose C.8: We wish to determine a circle r which has at least 3"point contact with a curve x x(s) at a point xo x(so). We consider again the . the vectors yo . Similarly. is called the osculating circle to C at x. Le. 5] THE THEORY OF CURVES 89 Example 5. the osculating plane is the one with greatest contact. lies on the normal plane.Yo)  lxo.Yo)• x(s) 2(x(s) .Xo all lie on the normal plane and have a constant projection l/Ko onto DO' = = = = = = = = Fig. of sufficiently high class. the intersection of such a sphere and the osculating plane at Xo. Continuing. which. given a family of surfaces S~ which intersect a curve C at a point x. we have I"(so) 2Ko(xo Yo)• DO+ 2 0 iff KO(Yo xo) • DO ~ 1. a member So of S~ is called an osculating surface of the family S~ to C if the degree of contact of C with So at x is greater than or equal to the degree of contact of C with any other of the surfaces S~. Namely. since KO =F 0. In general. a sphere has at least 2point contact iff its center.Xo onto DOequals l/Ko. for although there exist an infinite number of spheres of at least 3point contact at Xo. Notice that a sphere with at least 3point contact does not exist at a point of inflection. is given by x = Xl(t) er + X2(t) ea + Xa(t) es. a member To of a family of curves T~ which intersect C at x is called an osculating curve of the family T~ to C if the degree of contact of C with To at x is greater than or equal to the degree of contact of C with any other of the curves r~. and its radius is equal to the radius of curvature p = 1I1KI at x. OSCULATING CURVES AND SURFACES We recall that of all planes intersecting a curve at a point. which has at least 3point contact with a curve C at x.Yo)• to 0 iff (Yo.Yo)• t(s) = + 2(x(s) .CHAP. Our remarks above suggest that we define r as the intersection of a sphere with at least 3point contact with x x(s) at Xo and a plane with at least 3point contact with x x(s) at xo. is the only plane with at least three point contact at Xo. The center of the osculating circle is called the center of curvature. Thus a sphere has at least 3point contact iff its center is on the normal plane and the projection of the vector Yo. I'(so) 2(xo . will be a circle r of at least 3point contact at Xo. 59.Yol2  lxo . and S~ is an nl parameter family of surfaces given by and that C and SA intersect at the point corresponding to t function = to.Yo)• t(s) 2t(s)· t(s) = 2K(S)(X(S) . 59 The circle determined in the above example. and its position is y = x + (lIK)n. its center is on the principal normal line on the side of the curvature vector to C at x.Yol2 I'(s) I"(s) 2(x(s) . Now the equation of an arbitrary sphere with center at Yo and passing through Xo is = = = = We consider the functions I(s) lx(s) . where KO O.Yol2 = (x(s) .Yo)• (x(s) .Yo)• n(s) + 2 Clearly I(so) O.
.. .Yol2 = (x(s) .Yo)• n(s)  + 2 K(S)T(S)(X(s) .YO)[K(S)t(S) T(s)b(s)] + 2 K2(S) (x(s) . We consider the functions /(s) /'(s) Ix(s) .Yo)• n(s) + + 2 K(S) t(s) • n(s) + 2 K(S)(X(S) Yo)• n(s)  2 K(S) (x(s) .Yo)• n(s) + 2 2 K(S) (x(s) . /(so) o. Also..9: The family of all planes passing through the point corresponding to xo x(so) on the curve x x(s) is a 2parameter family of surfaces (x . 510. . 5 Clearly f(to. anl) = 0 will have at least npoint contact with C at x..10: The family of all spheres through Xo on the curve x the center Yo) family of spheres It = x(s) is a three parameter (the components of If we assume KO and TO are different from zero. no.. aI. the osculation sphere of this family will be unique and have at least 4point contact with the curve at Xo. al' a2.Yo)• t(s) 2 K(S) (x(s) . it has at least 3point contact with the curve at xo. ••• .1 equations in the n .7. a solution al = aI' a2 = a2. aI..xo) • N O. The center and radius of this sphere are determined as follows.yo)  Ixo. and then clearly the surface f(xl.Yo)• n(s) 2 K(S) (x(s) . bo are 0.Xo with respect to the vectors to. . .Yl2  Ixo. if KO # 0 and TO # 0 there exists a unique osculating sphere with at least 4point contact with the curve. Now consider the equations iJ iJt f(to. using both of these conditions. anI) iJtCn 0 0 0 e=:» 1) f(to. In principle. . KO/K~TO respectively.(s) /"'(s) 2t(s) = 2 K(S) (x(s) . . .Yo)• t(s) • t(s) /. anI) This is a system of n . /'(so) 0 iff (Yoxo)·to 0.Yo)• b(s) Clearly.. .90 THE THEORY OF CURVES [CHAP. .. anI. and /"(so) 0 iff (yo . anI) = 0. Example 5.. 510 . It is clear that the radius of this sphere is Fig.1 unknowns al.. I/Ko. A similar argument holds for curves.YOl2 2(x(s) . . we have in addition that /'''(so) = 0 iff = = = = = 2Ko/Ko  2KoTO(Yoxo) • bo  = 0 or Thus as shown in Fig. . anI = anI will exist. and any other plane in this case has less than 3point contact at xo.) If KO # 0. aI. aI.Yo)• t(s) = + 2(x(s) . the osculating plane at Xo is the unique osculating plane of this family. (The three components of N are related by the equation INI = 1. As has been shown in Example 5.. . But the osculating surface of the family has contact with C at x of degree greater than or equal the degree of contact of any other member of the family. Finally.Yo)• (x(s) . since it is assumed that the family of surfaces intersects C at x(to). Thus in general. whose center Yo is such that the components of the vector Yo. anI) iJ2 iJt2f(to.xo)· no l/Ko. = = = Example 5.. the osculating surface (curve) of an n 1 parameter family of surfaces (curves) which intersect a curve C at a point x has at least npoint contact with C at x.. X2' X3.Yo)• i(s) 2(x(s) .
Xa(t» satisfies f(to) = x + pn + pITb = f'(to) = . so that in general a member of the family.. 5] THE THEORY OF CURVES 91 The sphere determined in the example above is called the osculating sphere to C at x. . aI. then it follows by an argument similar to the one on page 87 that the function f(t) = F(Xl(t). page 64. X3) = 0. Ix'i = [sinhs x' X x" (tla) + 1]1/2 = cosh (tla) (tla» ea = (1/a)(cosh (tla» el' = (1/a)(cosh From Theorem 4. a2. UnI) = 0 is an n 1 parameter family of surfaces which intersect a curve x(t) = Xl(t) ei + X2(t) ez + X3(t) ~a at the point corresponding to t = to.(tla) + a2 = a2 coshs (tla) = a/(8Z + a2). Example 5. can be found which in addition intersects the curve at the n .1 parameter family can be made to satisfy n . K 1 + n K b K K2T In terms of IT and the Finally. Since it is a plane curve.CHAP. corresponding to t. tnI in a neighborhood of to. suppose again that F(Xl. the osculating sphere is the limit of the spheres which pass through x and three neighboring points on C as they approach x.11: The osculating circle to a curve C at a point x is the limit of the circles which pass through x and two neighboring points on C as they approach x. ••• .1 points. say. = f<nl)(to) = 0 That is. .1 conditions. for > 0. the limit surface S has at least npoint contact argument holds for an n . It remains to find as a function of We compute x' = x" sinh (tla)el + e2.. x FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM Determine the intrinsic equations of the catenary = a(cosh (t/a» el T + tee. X2(t). == O.as t1. X3.. surface (curve) of an n 1 parameter family of surfaces contact with C at x.2. Now consider the limit . The center of the sphere is called the center of spherical curvature and its position is y = y x It is sometimes convenient to introduce the radius of torsion IT = 1/T. K2 = 8 (x' X x") • (x' (x'· x')3 X x") _ (1/a2) cosh'' (tla) (sinhs (tla) + 1)3 1 a2 cosh+ (tla) a sinh (tla) Also Hence Eliminating t gives K = 82 fto Ix'i + a2 dt = ft cosh (tla) dt 0 = a2 sinh.1 neighboring points on C as they approach with the curve at to. then it is the limit of those surfaces through n . INTRINSIC 5. K a = constant 8.1 parameter family of curves. A similar Thus in general if the osculating (curves) is unique and has npoint (curves) of the family which pass x.1. which is the required result. EQUATIONS. . If a limit surface S exists and is given by F(Xl. Solved Problems . Note that in principle an n . . tnl approach to. . radius of curvature p = l/H the above becomes.... X2. Similarly. X2.
ro ro + 2rl ' For a hypocycloid.2B2 1 :::: 1 or A2 82 + B2 p2 :::: 1 Observe that A 4rl(rO + rl) 4rl(rO +rl) where A :::: and B'which is the required result. the unit vector u its axis.. ro () in the equation for ..cos (rO/r1)o] (x' X x") • (x' X x") (x' • x')3 (ro + 2rl)2 (ro + 2rl)2 8ri(ro + rl)2[1 . 5. B > A (see Problem 3. = constant. and a = 4(t. Also from Problem 4.92 5.28. 511.cos (rO/r1)o]2 1 x/·x' 2(ro + rl)2 [(1  ro + r1 ) sin 0 sin ( rl0 + cos 0 cos (ro + rl 0 rl ))J 2(ro + rl)2[1 .2.21. u). "IT = tan a. the curve is a general helix. thus a = 17/4.= l/a</>. From Problem 4. since "IT = 1 'T = V2/(s2 + 4) = . Now let x = X(8) be a natural representation of the helix.3. 5 Determine the intrinsic equations of the epicycloid x [(ro+rl) We compute cosO x' ds: do rl cos(r o ~ r10)Jel + [(ro+rl) sinO  rl sin(ro ~ r10)] es x" dx' do x' X x" + cos 0 cos (ro + rl r1 0 ))] ea (x' X x") • (x' X x") (ro + r1)4(ro ~ + 2r1)2 [1 . It follows from equation (5. as shown in Fig. = " = (1/2as)l!2.2 and 82 gives 'IT!2 I Idxl o d 0 de =  A2 82 + . To find the intrinsic equations of the projection x* xes) .cos (rO!rl)e] Also 8 :::: Eliminating 4rl(rO+rl) cos (rO/2rl)e.21. we compute Show that the curve whose intrinsic equations are K = V2/(s2 + 4). > B. page 77.6) that the curve is x = a f </>[(cos </»el + (sin </»e2) d</> a(cos </> </>in </»el +s a(sin </> </>os </»e2 c 5. . a > 0. Determine the curve whose intrinsic equations are K = (1/2as)1!2. Integrating gives </> (2s/a)1I2 = or T > + ° a¢>2/2. is a general helix on a cylinder whose cross section is a catenary.4. = 0. s We set if.. 8:::: so that .(X(8)' u)u onto the plane through the origin and perpendicular to u. THE THEORY OF CURVES [CHAP. page 60).
(XYo)' (x Yo) = 1 .again. 511 Hence . Ix' n] [sin allxl tion of n so that X' n sin a) [x].. Also. Finally. = a...(cos a)u = t . We have X' t (cos a) Ixl..2x' t = 0 and [x](ic sin a This differential equation for" .Yo)• b =.27• Thus the components of x .(t.. the following equation is satisfied T is Let x = x(s) lie on the sphere with center Yo and radius a.CHAP. 2(xYo)·i: o or or (xyo)·t = 0 Note it follows that ". icl.6.. Using (x .1 that the projection is a catenary.. Show that if the position vector x of a plane curve x = x(s) makes a constant angle ex with the tangent t = t(8).5.. icl.u/V2 II d. page 72. bare 0.Yo) Then for all s. (x(s) .2 Differentiating. then x = X(8) is a logarithmic spiral. It follows from Problem 5.* V2/(s*2 + 2) is the intrinsic equation of the projection. kx» n  .. where with respect to t. differentiating again. since n L t.n + . we have. thus (cos a) x· t lXf or l+"x'n cos2a = 0. giving C "= 1 (cota)S+ . Differentiating the first gives = = ( = and we can choose the direc = Differentiating Since 7 .Yo) • n = 1/".6.Yo Hence But on the sphere.27b ic = 5.* = "/sin2 a = 2V2/(s2 + 4) Fig.2 can be solved by separating variables. n = "t. n.2 COS a) = 0 or ic = (cot a)..27• x 7'" 0.S* A natural = [(t . 0 and (x . 5] THE THEORY OF CURVES 93 as dx* t . = 5. Show that for a curve lying on a sphere of radius a and such that the torsion never 0. we have . Differentiating again.u/V2)]1I2 = 1h!2 parameter s* along the projection is 0 = J' I :s* I d ds = s/V2 From Problem 4.Yo) • (x(s) .u)u = t .Yo)• t == 0. 1/". Yo (x .u/V2)' (t .
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