P. 1
Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction Of Touchless Fingerprint Image Using Gabor And Pyramidal Method

Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction Of Touchless Fingerprint Image Using Gabor And Pyramidal Method

|Views: 374|Likes:
Published by ijcsis
Touch based sensing techniques generate lot of errors in fingerprint minutiae extraction. The solution for this problem is touchless fingerprint technology. They do not receive any contact between the sensor & finger. Although they reduce the problems of touch based finger prints, other difficulties explore
such as a view difference problem and a limited usable area due to perspective distortion. To solve this problem, proposed method for touchless fingerprint image enhancement and minutiae extraction is introduced. Image enhancement is mostly required preprocessing system for finger based biometric system. Normally the touchless device is having a single camera and two planer mirrors which reflecting side views of a finger. From this we get three images normally frontal, left and right finger. Experimental result shows that the enhanced images increase the biometric accuracy.
Touch based sensing techniques generate lot of errors in fingerprint minutiae extraction. The solution for this problem is touchless fingerprint technology. They do not receive any contact between the sensor & finger. Although they reduce the problems of touch based finger prints, other difficulties explore
such as a view difference problem and a limited usable area due to perspective distortion. To solve this problem, proposed method for touchless fingerprint image enhancement and minutiae extraction is introduced. Image enhancement is mostly required preprocessing system for finger based biometric system. Normally the touchless device is having a single camera and two planer mirrors which reflecting side views of a finger. From this we get three images normally frontal, left and right finger. Experimental result shows that the enhanced images increase the biometric accuracy.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Apr 09, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/01/2011

pdf

text

original

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.

3, March 2011

Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction of Touch less Fingerprint Image Using Gabor and Pyramidal Method

A.John Christopher Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil
Abstract - Touch based sensing techniques generate lot of errors in fingerprint minutiae extraction. The solution for this problem is touchless fingerprint technology. They do not receive any contact between the sensor & finger. Although they reduce the problems of touch based finger prints, other difficulties explore such as a view difference problem and a limited usable area due to perspective distortion. To solve this problem, proposed method for touchless fingerprint image enhancement and minutiae extraction is introduced. Image enhancement is mostly required preprocessing system for finger based biometric system. Normally the touchless device is having a single camera and two planer mirrors which reflecting side views of a finger. From this we get three images normally frontal, left and right finger. Experimental result shows that the enhanced images increase the biometric accuracy. Index Terms - pyramidal method, Gabor, touchless fingerprint, thinning, normalization, finger enhancement, adaptive histogram.

Dr.T.Jebarajan, Principal, V.V. College of Engineering., Tisayanvilai
deformation, slippage, smearing or sensor noise. Some of the touch based are shown in fig.1. A new generation of touchless live scan devices that generate three various representation of fingerprint is appearing in the market. This new sensing technology addresses many of the problems stated above [3]. From wear and tear of surface coating, to overcome these kinds of problems, a touchless fingerprint sensing technology has been proposed that does not require any contact between a sensor and a finger. Thus, the fingers and ridge information cannot be changed or distorted as it will be free of skin deformation. Also, it can capture fingerprint images consistently because it is not affected by different skin conditions or latent fingerprints.

I ‐ INTRODUCTION 
A fingerprint is composed of ridges and valleys. Ridges have various kinds of discontinuity such as ridge bifurification, ridge endings, short ridges, islands and ridge cross over’s. Among this discontinuity, ridge bifurification and ridge ending are commonly used in fingerprint identification/verification system and are called minutiae [1].For the processing of fingerprint images, two stages are of pivotal importance for the success of biometric reorganization: image enhancement and minutiae extraction. The traditional fingerprint processing technologies are applied immediately after sensing. But a better thing is an optional image enhancement in fingerprint images. In realistic scenarios though the quality of a fingerprint image may suffer from various impairments, caused by scores, cuts, moist or dry skin, sensor noise, blur, wrong handling of sensor, weak ridge and valley pattern of the given fingerprint, etc. The task of the fingerprint enhancement is to counteract the aforesaid quality impairments and to reconstruct the actual fingerprint pattern as trace to it original as possible. [2] Fingerprints are traditionally captured based on contact of the finger on paper or a platen. This often results in partial or degraded images due to improper finger placement, skin

Fig. 1: Distorted images acquired from a touch-based sensor.

Recently, several companies and research groups have developed touchless fingerprint sensors and recognition systems [4]–[6]. TST Group developed a touchless imaging sensor (BiRD III) which uses a complementary metal– organic–semiconductor (CMOS) camera, and red and green light sources to acquire fingerprint images [4]. Song et al. [5] proposed a sensing system with a single charged-coupled device (CCD) camera and double ring-type blue illuminators to capture high contrast images. Also, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation proposed another touchless approach

52

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

transmitting the light through the finger [6], acquiring fingerprint patterns under the surface of skin using light with a wavelength of 660 nm. However, such sensing systems [4]– [6] have an inherent problem as they use only a single capturing device, such as CMOS or CCD cameras. when capturing an image using a single camera, the geometrical resolution of the fingerprint image decreases from the fingerprint center towards the side area [7]. Therefore, false features may be obtained in the side area and it reduces the valid and useful region for authentication. Moreover, if there is a view difference between images due to finger rolling, it reduces the common area between fingerprints and degrades system performance. To solve this problem, 3-D touchless sensing systems using more than one view have been explored [8]–[11]. TBS [8] used five cameras placed around a finger to capture nail-to-nail fingerprint images and generated a 3-D fingerprint image using the shape-fromsilhouette method. They then unwrapped the 3-D finger image onto a 2-D image by using parametric and nonparametric models to make rolled-equivalent images [9]. Fatehpuria et al. [10] proposed a 3-D touchless device using multiple cameras and structured light illumination (SLI). The structured light patterns are projected onto a finger to obtain its 3-D shape information and 2-D unfolded images are generated by applying “Springs algorithm” and some post processing steps. Also, the Hand Shot ID system was developed to acquire a 3-D shape of a hand with fingers by stitching images from 36 cameras [11]. Although all these methods attempted to solve the problems in touch-based sensors and acquire expanded fingerprint images with less skin deformation, they did not raise much interest in the market because of much higher costs compared to conventional touch-based sensors. Considering the above observations, we adopt a new touchless sensing scheme using a single camera and a set of mirrors. The mirrors work as virtual cameras, thus enabling the capture of an expanded view of a fingerprint at one time without using multiple cameras. The device consists of a single camera, two planar mirrors, light-emitting diode (LED)-based illuminators, and a lens. Two planar mirrors are used to reflect the left and right side view of a finger. In this paper, we proposed a new method to enhance the touchless finger print and to extract the minutiae data.

can capture three different views of a fingerprint using only one Camera and also avoid the synchronization problem existing in multiple camera-based systems. In addition, to obtain high-quality fingerprint images, we need to consider several optical components in order to design the device.

(a)

Fig. 2: Proposed device. Prototype of the device. (b) Schematic view of the device.

The specifications of the optical components are as follows: 1) Camera and lens: We use a 1/3-in progressive scan type CCD with 1024 x 768 active pixels, where the pixel size is 4.65 x 4.65 m. This camera offers a sufficient frame rate of 29 Hz, thus avoiding image blurring caused by typical finger motion. Also, we use simple equations [see (1) and (2)] to design an adequate lens for our system.

      M =

q     p 1 1 1        = +          f p q

(1) 

(2)

II – SYSTEM DESIGN   
To overcome the view difference problem and the limitation of a single view, some touchless fingerprinting systems capture several different views of a finger by using multiple cameras. However, using multiple cameras increases the cost and size of a system. Thus, we adopt a new sensing system which captures three different views (frontal, right, and left) at one time by using a single camera and two planar mirrors. Figs. 2(a) and (b) show the prototype and schematic view of the device. As shown in Fig. 2, two mirrors are placed next to the finger and reflect the right and left side views of the finger. Then, the frontal view and two mirrorreflected views are captured by a single camera simultaneously. A mirror-reflected image is regarded as the “flipped” image taken by a virtual camera placed at a different direction compared to the real one. Therefore, we

Where f is the lens focal length, p and q are the lensto-object and lens-to-image distances, respectively, and M is the optical magnification. Normally, the required image resolution for touch-based sensors is 500 dpi. Therefore, to ensure a 500-dpi spatial resolution in the fingerprint area and to cover three view fingerprints, the optical magnification parameter M, the lens to image distance, and field of view (FOV) are determined as 0.1, 170 mm, and 50 x 38 mm, respectively. By doing this, we can capture three view images with 500-dpi resolution at one time. Also, the depth of field (DOF) of the lens ranges from -2.6 to +2.6 mm at a given working distance and it normally covers the half depth of a finger.

2)

Illumination: Considering the reflectance of human skin to various light sources, we used ring-shaped white LED illuminators and a band pass filter which can transmit green light to enhance the ridge-tovalley contrast. Also, the illuminators are placed perpendicular to the finger to remove the shadowing effect. Diffusers are used to illuminate a finger uniformly.

53

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

Foreground separation  Normalization  Gabor filtering  Pyramidal method  Thinning  Minutiae extraction 

Fig. 3: Overall flowchart of the proposed method

3) Mirror: Two planar mirrors are positioned next to
the left and right side of the finger and the mirror size is determined to cover the maximum thumb size. To provide enough overlapping area between frontal- and side-view images, the angles of the mirrors are determined 15 empirically. Also, the mirrors can be used as pegs to place a user’s finger firmly on the device.

III – PROPOSED METHOD 
In this section, we explain the Enhancement method for synthesizing an expanded fingerprint image from frontal- and side-view images. The overall scheme of the method is presented in Fig. 3 The method is mainly composed of six stages (foreground separation, normalisation, Gabor filtering, pyramidal method, thinning, minutiae extraction). In foreground separation we will do the morphological operation, in normalisation we pre-process the image etc. A) Foreground separation Using morphological operation we use the erosion followed by dilation, this can be done up to required time. Mathematical morphology is a method of processing digital images on the basis of shape. A discussion of this topic is beyond the scope of this manual. A suggested reference is: Haralick, Sternberg, and Zhuang, "Image Analysis Using Mathematical Morphology," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. PAMI-9, No. 4, July, 1987, pp. 532-550. Much of this discussion is taken from that article. Briefly, the DILATE function returns the dilation of image by the structuring element Structure. This operator is commonly known as "fill", "expand", or "grow." It

can be used to fill "holes" of a size equal to or smaller than the structuring element. Used with binary images, where each pixel is either 1 or 0, dilation is similar to convolution. Over each pixel of the image, the origin of the structuring element is overlaid. If the image pixel is nonzero, each pixel of the structuring element is added to the result using the "or" operator. Used with greyscale images, which are always converted to byte type, the DILATE function is accomplished by taking the maximum of a set of sums. It can be used to conveniently implement the neighbourhood maximum operator with the shape of the neighbourhood given by the structuring element. Used with greyscale images, which are always converted to byte type, the ERODE function is accomplished by taking the minimum of a set of differences. It can be used to conveniently implement the neighbourhood minimum operator with the shape of the neighbourhood given by the structuring element. B) Normalisation The process of removing the effects of the sensor noise and gray-level background due to finger pressure differences. The objective of this stage is decrease the dynamic range with gray scale between ridges and valleys of the image. Normalization factor is calculated according to the mean and the variance of the image. Each and every pixel in the fingerprint image has to be processed to find the median value. The average value of all the pixels is calculated i.e, the median value. By comparing the median value with the current pixel the replacement can be performed. Normalization facilitates have the subsequent processing steps. Let G (i, j) denote the normalized gray-level value at pixel (i, j). The normalized image is defined as follows:

(3) Where, M 0 and VAR0 denote the desired mean and variance value, respectively. Most fingerprint images on a live-scan input device are usually of poor quality. The fingerprint image is smoothed with an average or median filter. C) Gabor filtering A Gabor filter is a linear filter used in image processing for edge detection. Frequency and orientation representations of Gabor filter are similar to those of human visual system, and it has been found to be particularly appropriate for texture representation and discrimination. In the spatial domain, a 2D Gabor filter is a Gaussian kernel function modulated by a sinusoidal plane wave. The

54

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

Gabor filters are self-similar - all filters can be generated from one mother wavelet by dilation and rotation. Its impulse response is defined by a harmonic function multiplied by a Gaussian function. Because of the multiplication-convolution property (Convolution theorem), the Fourier transform of a Gabor filter's impulse response is the convolution of the Fourier transform of the harmonic function and the Fourier transform of the Gaussian function.

Reduce the image size by a factor k for three times. This is also outlined on the upper left hand side of Table 1. To create images containing only band limited signals of the original image, we expand the three images by factor and subtract each of them from the next lower level.
E) Thinning

g ( x, y; λ,θ ,ϕ,σ , γ )

(4)

Where x ' = x cos θ + y sin θ and
F)

The THIN function returns the "skeleton" of a bilevel image. The skeleton of an object in an image is a set of lines that reflect the shape of the object. The set of skeletal pixels can be considered to be the medial axis of the object. For a much more extensive discussion of skeletons and thinning algorithms, see Algorithms for Graphics and Image Processing, Theo Pavlidis, Computer Science Press, 1982. The THIN function is adapted from Algorithm 9.1 (the classical thinning algorithm).On input, the bi-level image is a rectangular array in which pixels that compose the object have a nonzero value. All other pixels are zero. The result is a byte type image in which skeletal pixels are set to 2 and all other pixels are zero.
Minutiae extraction

y = − x sin θ + y cos θ
'

In this equation, λ represents the wavelength of the cosine factor, θ represents the orientation of the normal to the parallel stripes of a Gabor function, φ is the phase offset, σ is the sigma of the Gaussian envelope and γ is the spatial aspect ratio, and specifies the ellipticity of the support of the Gabor function. D) Pyramidal method Pyramid decomposition requires resizing (scaling, or other geometric transformation). To create our Gaussian and Laplacian like pyramids, we define the reduce(I,K) and expand(I,K) operations, which decrease and increase an image in size by the factor K, respectively. During reduce, the image is initially low-pass filtered to prevent aliasing using a Gaussian kernel.2. The latter’s standard deviation depends on the resizing factor, which here follows the lower bound approximation of the corresponding . We initially ideal low-pass filter reduce the original fingerprint image FP by a factor of in order to exclude the highest frequencies. In a further step, we
Table - 1 Pyramidal building process

A feature extractor finds the ridge endings and ridge bifurcations from the input fingerprint images. If ridges can be perfectly located in an input fingerprint image, then minutiae extraction is just a trivial task of extracting singular points in a thinned ridge map. However, in practice, it is not always possible to obtain a perfect ridge map. The performance of currently available minutiae extraction algorithms depends heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images. Due to a number of factors (aberrant formations of epidermal ridges of fingerprints, postnatal marks, occupational marks, problems with acquisition devices, etc.), fingerprint images may not always have well-defined ridge structures. A reliable minutiae extraction algorithm is critical to the performance of an automatic identity authentication system using fingerprints.

Fig. 4: Types of Ridge Patterns

a)

Pyramidal decomposition Laplacian-like L1=g1-expand(g2,k) L2=g2-expand(g3,k) Fig. 5: Minutiae points

Gaussian-like G1=reduce(fp,k0) G2=reduce(g1.k)

55

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

Minutiae are extracted from the thinned image by using the Crossing Number algorithm.

checking methods compare the foreground size of the fingers. Here foreground means the good quality regions of the finger print. The foreground size measures are tabulated as follows:

(5) Where Pi 0 or 1 in the 3*3 Neighbor of P Characteristic of CN CN 0 2 4 Character Isolated point End point Bifurcation point
Fig. 8: Minutiae Table - 2 Average increasing rate of Foreground size in terms of each measurement

Quality measurement Standard deviation [12]

Average increase rate of foreground size 28.65% 33.72% 30.81%

IV – EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 
For the experimental results we acquired 100 set of finger print images, each set contain frontal, left and right view images. One of the used images set is shown in the Fig: 6 and the enhanced image is also shown in the Fig: 7. The minutiae extraction results also expressed in Fig: 8. The most definite indicator of touchless image quality is the number of true minutiae additionally extracted.

Coherence [13] Gradient – based method [14]

However we can expect that our enhanced image can be making high performance when view difference image are matched. The Table-2 shows the result of our enhanced image.

V – CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 
This paper proposes a new method for touchless fingerprint sensing images. To get the better minutiae extraction, the three fingerprints (frontal, left, right) are enhanced using Gabor and pyramidal method. For experimental results, the enhanced fingerprints are having better enhanced ridges and the valleys. Also minutiae extraction is handled. The results are analysed and described in tables and graph format. In this paper we limits the research work up to minutiae extraction, this research can be continued on mosaicing of the three enhanced images. Feature work can be done on the same concept. According to the result, it is concluded that the proposed system generate better enhancement on touchless fingerprint than the existing methods.

Fig. 6: Input images

REFERENCES 
[1] [2] D. Lee, K. Choi, and J. Kim, “A robust fingerprint matching algorithm using local alignment,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 803–806. Hartwig Fronthaler, Klaus Kollreider, and Josef Bigun ,Local Features for Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction in Fingerprints, IEEE Transactions On Image Processing, VOL. 17, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 Yi Chen1, Geppy Parziale2, Eva Diaz-Santana2, and Anil K Jain, “3d Touchless Fingerprints: Compatibility With Legacy Rolled Images” Michigan State University Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 2006 Biometrics Symposium, TST Group Aug. 03, 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.tstbiometrics.com

Fig. 7: Enhanced images Human experts prove that the more true minutiae extracted from the enhanced image. The touchless fingers are better than the conventional touch based fingers, that conclusion can be deviate from the results. The finger print quality

[3]

[4]

56

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

[5]

[6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

[11] [12]

[13] [14]

Y. Song, C. Lee, and J. Kim, “A new scheme for touchless fingerprint recognition system,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems, 2004, pp. 524– 527. Mitsubishi Touchless Fingerprint Sensor Aug. 03, 2009[Online].Available: http://global.mitsubishielectric.com N. K. Ratha and V. Govindaraju, Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Algorithms and Systems. New York: Springer, 2008 TBS Touchless Fingerprint Imaging Aug. 03, 2009 [Online].Available: http://www.tbsinc.com/ Y. Chen, G. Parziale, E. Diaz-Santana, and A. K. Jain, “3D touchless fingerprints: Compatibility with legacy rolled images,” in Proc. Biometric Consortium Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2006. A. Fatehpuria, D. L. Lau, and L. G. Hassebrook, “Acquiring a 2D rolled equivalent fingerprint image from a non-contact 3-D finger,” in SPIE Defense and Security Symp. Biometric Technology for Human Identification III, Orlando, FL, 2006, vol. 6202, pp. 62020C-1–62020C-8. Aug. 03, 2009 [Online]. Available: http://privacy.cs.cmu.edu/dataprivacy/ projects/handshot /index.html L. Hong, Y.Wan, and A. K. Jain, “Fingerprint image enhancement: Algorithm and performance evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach Intell., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 777–789, Aug. 1998. E. Lim, X. Jiang, and W. Yau, “Fingerprint quality and validity analysis,”in IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing (ICIP), Sep. 2002, vol. 1,pp. 469–472. S. Lee, H. Choi, and J. Kim, “Fingerprint quality index using gradientcomponents,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 3, no. 4, pp.792–800, Dec. 2008.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ntH8s03ujk&feature=relat ed

57

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->