te ra eb s el su C n Ce 0!

01 2

Stephanie Baum Candice DeForest Janelle Maluenda Jessica Pauletto Courtney Shepard

Presented to: U.S. Census Bureau Created by: Chapman University PRSSA 2010 Bateman Team

Party Plan

Table of Contents
This is why we Celebrate!
Executive Summary Situation Analysis

.......................................................1 ..................................................1 .............................................3

The Party Stage! Party Planning!
Secondary Research ..............................................2

Primary Research Target Audiences

VIP Guest List! Cake or Ice Cream?
Challenges and Opportunities

Party Theme! Party Favors!
Key Messages

..........................................5 .........................................5 ..........................................6

You’re Invited!
Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Evaluation/Results

...........................................6 ............................................8 .............................................9 ................................................10

After-Party! Appendix
Budget .......................................................1 A B C

...........................................................2 ............................................................30 ................................................................57

This is why we Celebrate! - Executive Summary
Celebrations hold great meaning. We celebrate personal accomplishments, birthdays, marriages, holidays and historical events. As public relations advocates of one of the most important events in American history, we found no better way than to promote the U.S. Census 2010. We formally invite you to read all about Chapman University’s biggest party of the decade— Celebrate Census 2010. We celebrated at three venues: Chapman University and two nearby communities: Santa Ana College (SAC) and Hispanics residing in the City of Santa Ana. Leading up to each celebration, we hosted a series of “pre-party” events to educate our key publics before celebrating what they had learned. We appeared at basketball games, hosted information booths, transformed Chapman’s campus into a fact-filled party setting with balloons and posters and used social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Blogger) as our noisemakers between our team and the public. At each of our three events, we celebrated through song, music and dance—as vocalist and team member, Jessica Pauletto, wrote and performed two Census songs, which were both educational and representative of our campaign. At Chapman, Pauletto and her band sang in the campus piazza as students were greeted with Census facts, pizza and balloons. The event included a speech by Dean of Students Jerry Price and the appearance of Chapman’s cheerleading squad and mascot, Pete the Panther. After the event we took photos of students holding “RSVP” signs—a digital promise to participate in the Census. Our Santa Ana College (SAC) celebration took place in the student lounge, which we decorated with posters and balloons. The event featured speeches by Miss California Latina, Vivian Valadez; three Census Bureau representatives; Associated Student Government President Alex Flores and a performance by Pauletto. Students received free pizza, Census memorabilia and collateral, and promised their participation to the Census 2010. The celebration in the City of Santa Ana took a slightly different approach, as our team brought the party to Libería Martinez—the largest seller of Spanish books in the United States. We invited local children, ages 6-13, and their parents to a live book reading and craft workshop. We wrote and illustrated a book that told the story of the Census through the eyes of a first grader. Guests enjoyed pizza, music and a vibrant atmosphere. Parents were provided collateral information and exchanged opinions about Census participation. To target an older market, we appeared at the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) transit forum where fact sheets were distributed, guests were verbally educated and video testimonials featured guests’ newfound knowledge. When color, laughter and music are paired with learning, it is a rewarding and memorable exchange that promoted understanding and participation.

The Party Stage! - Situation Analysis

The Census is a decennial event that requires a new, far-reaching public relations campaign. During its long intermission, residents adapt new living situations, new financial circumstances and new responsibilities—all which yield different motivations and behaviors when considering whether or not to complete the next Census form. Our team encountered nomadic living situations, Census unawareness, language barriers and fear. Our team brought the party to three demographics that most displayed these characteristics.

Chapman University is a private liberal arts university in Orange, California Chapman’s mission statement emphasizes the importance of personalized education and becoming global citizens. Most of the 4,293 undergraduate students are burdened with loans, grants and financial aid forms in order to offset the near $36,000 a year tuition. Therefore, the quest was to inform our student body that their participation directly affects federal financial aid. With five student residence halls and two apartment complexes, our team had to communicate how, when and where to fill out a Census form.


Most importantly, today’s students were between the ages of eight and 12 during the 2000 Census, when it was their parents’ responsibility to include them in the Census. We had to convey the vital fact that students are accountable for their own Census forms since 20 % of the 54 students we interviewed believed that the task was up to their parents.
Santa Ana College (SAC) is located in Santa Ana, California, less than five miles from Chapman University. SAC is the largest community college in Orange County, with more than 31,000 students. SAC presented some similar challenges to those of Chapman; however, the importance of money was more of an issue. Vice president of Associated Student Government Alex Flores told us that most SAC students work several jobs and must pay for their own tuition. Unlike Chapman, which has a small commuter population, SAC is an entirely commuter campus; therefore we defined the roles of each student in Census participation in regards to each living situation. Approximately 68 % of SAC’s students are Latino; therefore, the language barrier required Spanish translations for all collateral. The City of Santa Ana, California is home to 340,000 people, making it Orange County’s most populated city. A total of 76.1 % is Latino and 53.3 % is foreign-born. Unlike the students of Chapman and SAC who have access to computers, our surveys showed that many Latino citizens in the Santa Ana community do not own computers. When asked where they get their news online, 25 % of our subjects used traditional news sites and 40 % did not answer the question. Therefore, our team had to leave the realm of social media and connect with citizens face-to-face.

“Definiteness of purpose with positive mental attitude is the starting point of all Chapman University: We studied approximately 15 online resources, worthwhile including articles, reports, surveys and studies to develop a stronger achievement.” understanding of the Chapman student population. The Chapman - Napoleon Hill University Associated Students report that almost half of on-campus (American Author, groups are professional, government and service oriented; to involve 1883-1970) them in Census activities we needed to empower students to take national responsibility for this decennial count. After reading on collegesearch.com that 89% of first year students live in on-campus housing and that university students are considered one of the hardest to count populations, we decided reaching out to students on campus, in between classes and offering free food and Census information in a fun manner would be most effective. The non-profit organization, “Campus Speech” educated us of the value of grassroots campaigns for student movements. The site lists chalking, speaking engagements and active participation in activities as ways to educate students of government issues. And finally, to decide what channel of communication would be most effective to reach students, we turned to social networking usage studies including that of Whittemore School of Business and Economics; 96% of students are on Facebook; thus the Celebrate Census Facebook fan page would host all images, links and collateral material for students.

Party Planning! - Secondary Research

Santa Ana College: We reviewed 18 online sources and blogs to learn of the school's recent financial struggles. The Collegeboard website reports that of the more than 31,000 students, 68% are Latino; this made SAC a great way to connect Chapman University and the Hispanic population of the City of Santa Ana. Local political activist, Art Pedroza, identified SAC President Alex Flores as a leader in “building a new Santa Ana”. The opportunities Census offers to schools and communities resonated with the mission of Alex and his cabinet, thus we selected him as a key partnership for reaching out to Santa Ana.


The Rancho Santiago College District reported that the November 2009 student led financial protest had a successful turn out so we began to investigate the significance of funding in the minds of students. StateUniversity.com identifies SAC as a “commuter campus”, which communicated that our campaign must cater to the needs of the student on the go. City of Santa Ana: We reviewed 32 online sources to better understand the diverse, complex com munity of Santa Ana. The Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce states that Santa Ana is not only the largest city, but “has become the financial and governmental center of Orange County.” At the same time, staggering statistics such as the 76% Latino community, almost 80% of which do not speak English and 53% of which are foreign born told us we needed an innovative friendly campaign to cater to the families that make up Santa Ana. Orange County political blog discusses the fear of immigrants and participating in Census surveys, more specifically because of recent Santa Ana’s ICE immigrations raids. Our campaign needed to combat this fear and build a trusting relationship with residents. When searching for the premier location to host a family friendly event, we read on BeachCalifornia.com that downtown Santa Ana is home to the largest distributor of Spanish books: Libreria Martinez. A Chapman University press release identifies owner Rueben Martinez as “active in politics and a community cultural leader”. Martinez is noted as a “trusted friend” by Orange County Register’s Yvette Cabrera: the perfect spokesperson for a Census campaign.

Party Planning! - Primary Research

“It is vain to talk of the interest of the community, without Our secondary research gave us a strong grasp of general information understanding what about our target audiences. We evaluated the secondary research is the interest of the to develop a primary research program. We distributed 80 surveys, individual.” hosted one focus group and conducted five professional interviews - Jeremy Bentham to further investigate our target audiences' unique attitudes and (Philosopher 1748personal interests in regard to the Census, as well as what communi- 1832) cation channels would be most effective for the campaign. Chapman University: A survey of 54 Chapman students concluded that 89% of students were aware of the existence of the Census; but 20% believed it was the responsibility of parents to complete the survey. We began to develop a plan that focused on the idea of empowering students to participate in the Census themselves. Because 94% of students read news online, we devoted a great deal of energy to the social media websites to connect to Chapman students. 63% of students identified tuition and loans as a number one cause of concern, followed by hiring opportunities and an improved quality of life. This helped us to create posters and materials that pinpointed what issues would resonate with students. Our theories were further supported by an interview with Ted Nguyen, Orange County social media expert, “The best way to reach students is to empower them to take advantage of opportunities.” Jerry Amante, Mayor of Tustin, Orange County, Calif. informed us that: “It is important for students to get involved in the Census.” Santa Ana College (SAC): A focus group of eight members of SAC Associated Student Government (ASG) informed us that students are not interested in government matters. National campaigns such as “Rock the Vote” have failed multiple times. However, anything that promotes financial support yields student attention. ASG president, Alex Flores, said:


“Students are afraid to get involved with the Census because they have illegal parents at home.” We created Spanish brochures specifically targeted at students, to encourage them to educate parents about the confidentiality of the Census. ASG director of student activities, Annabel Vargas, stated: “Anything with music and free food will get the students going.” During this focus group we also learned that SAC’s student government is the most influential on campus organization. Richard Santana, ASG Vice President suggested, “If we could find somebody famous to tell the students to do it, they would do it”. Our team used this knowledge to seek out the support of Miss California Latina. Our team held an information booth for three hours to inform students about the Census; however, not a single student was fully aware of the Census’ benefits. 91% of students surveyed identified tuition and loans as a number one cause of concern, followed by hospitals, childcare and an improved quality of life. “Santa Ana students are really busy,” said Bulmaro Rivera, Census Bureau Partnership specialist. “They come by, ask about a job and leave. They want to be hired”. With this knowledge we invited a Census job specialist to attend our event and speak about the job opportunities Census offers. Santa Ana Community: A survey of 35 Santa Ana residents riding public transportation, shopping at welfare marts and thrift stores concluded that 86% were aware of the existence of the Census; but 14% believed the Census to be a way for the government to misuse personal information. A majority (91%) of residents surveyed identified education as a number one Census related concern, followed by hospitals, childcare and an improved quality of life. Our survey taught us that more than half of the Santa Ana residents trust the information of friends and family more than media. We concluded that contacting individuals and engaging in intimate discussion would be more effective than broadcasting our message for the general public. An interview with Cynthia Pena, from Census Bureau Partnership taught us, “the growing Santa Ana population needs to know that Census data is protected”. When our interviews exposed that 40% of Santa Ana residents are only educated up to high school level, we knew that our campaign needed to be done in a casual, informal and conversational manner.

VIP Guest List! - Target Audiences
Chapman University
Student population (Single unattached mobiles) During the 2008-09 academic year, the cost of on-campus living and tuition for a Chapman undergraduate student was approximately $47,000 per year, with 85 % of students as scholarships or other financial aid recipients. Student population (Single unattached mobiles)

Santa Ana College (SAC)

City of Santa Ana, Calif.
Latino population (Ethnic Enclave I and II)

One semester of tuition costs approximately $808, and 83% of students receive some type of financial aid, scholarship or grant. In recent years, budget cuts have forced SAC to cut back on classes and eliminate an entire winter intersession. Because of these cutbacks, we believed that SAC students would have an interest in the Census, and become motivated with the data’s effect on their education, community and future job opportunities.

Santa Ana is ranked seventh among the top ten cities in the United States with 100,000 or more Latino residents and approximately 80% of the city’s residents do not speak English as their primary language at home. The U.S. Census Bureau notes that Latinos have typically been difficult to engage in Census participation because they fear deportation and are uninformed.


Cake or Ice Cream? - Challenges & Opporunities
Santa Ana College Chapman University
Challenges: SAC is a large campus (32,000), social media has proved to be an ineffective communication tool in the past and has a widely Spanish speaking audience. Opportunities: We can influence more people to participate in the Census, utilize word-of-mouth marketing and encourage students to be liaisons between our team and the Latino community.

Challenges: Students have dispersed living situations, are unaware of individual responsibility to complete a Census form, unresponsive to an event initiated by the government and believe their individual participation does not make a difference. Opportunities: We can utilize social media, collaborate with an on-campus leader to educate students, develop a fun and exciting theme and celebrate the Census throughout February 2010 as well as appeal to students’ desire to stand up for oneself and participate in a historical event

City of Santa Ana

Challenges: We face a language and translation barrier, anti-Census groups and general fear of information disclosure and confusions about how to fill out a Census form. Opportunities: We can communicate messages to children who can then relay the information to their parents, appeal to families using a trusted community leader as a spokesperson and collaborate with local businesses to distribute informational material.

Party Theme!
We elected a celebration theme because we wanted to position the Census as a positive, fun, and empowering event for each of our target audiences. The theme lacks the weighty and intimidating perceptions of those attached to government initiatives. We created a red balloon logo as a tangible image that symbolizes the voice of the individual, and is representative of a party. As an emblem of self-empowerment, it climbs high into the air and makes a presence against the grandeur of a blue sky. Similarly, each resident in the United States may feel insignificant in the ultimate Census count; however, like the red balloon, every one person makes a presence and a difference. The red, white and blue color scheme is patriotic and epitomizes the purpose of the Census—to count each American citizen. Aside from patriotism, the color red is an already established Census color, and is also an element at Chapman (Cardinal and Grey) and Santa Ana College (Red and Black). Therefore, the branding of the color red links our campaign to the American flag, both schools’ colors, and to the real Census 2010 campaign, making it universal and recognizable among the community.


Party Favors! - Key Messages
Chapman: Celebrate the opportunity to participate in this historical event as
independents to improve grants, loans and job opportunities.

Santa Ana College: Celebrate the opportunity to improve Pell Grants, Free Santa Ana: Celebrate the opportunity to help our city earn its share of
funding for hospitals, schools, job opportunities and community projects.

Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), reduce class size, accommodate faculty, bring back winter Inter-session and increase job opportunities.

You’re Invited! - Goal, Objectives & Tactics
Goal: To Inform, Educate and Celebrate the United States Census 2010 at
Chapman University, Santa Ana College and the City of Santa Ana, Calif.

Objective 1

Rationale: Students are most responsive to faces that

To expand awareness of the Census and encourage the commitment of at least 100 Chapman students to participate in the Census during February 2010.

they recognize; therefore, instead of displaying pictures of Census Bureau workers holding fact sheets, we will use Chapman students as our own advocates and endorsers. By emphasizing the Census’ effect on federal aid packages, our team will stimulate the student body to participate.

Strategy 1: Create a unique theme that is eye-catching, understandable, and memorable.
Tactic 1: Develop “Celebrate Census 2010” as a campain theme. Tactic 2: Use a red balloon as an iconic image throughout the campaign. Tactic 3: Create the slogan, “Follow the Red Balloon,” to encourage students to look for and recognize fliers, news and events about the campaign. Tactic 4: Place the Celebrate Census 2010 logo on basketball “game day” fliers to hand out to fans and make public announcements about the campaign during time-outs.


Strategy 2: Create a minimum of two social media tools.

Tactic 1: Create a Facebook fan page: “CelebrateCensus2010”. Tactic 2: Create a Twitter account: “@MyRedBalloon”. Tactic 3: Post videos and interviews on YouTube: “MyRedBalloon videos”. Tactic 4: Blog about Census facts and events: MyRedBalloon.blogspot.com.

Strategy 3: Create at least two forms of collateral materials to decorate the campus

as a month-long celebration while educating students about the Census. Tactic 1: Create fliers and posters with Census facts. Tactic 2: Tie physical red balloons on fences, trees, lampposts, benches and trashcans. Tactic 3: Chalk pictures of balloons and the twitter account on walkways in heavily trafficked areas.

Strategy 4: Inform students that participation in Census 2010 directly affects student
loans, financial aid, grants and job recruitment. Tactic 1: Update daily Census updates/facts to Facebook and twitter. Tactic 2: Collaborate with at least two student organizations to implement a minimum of one informational on-campus booth in a high-traffic area from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. to hand out promotional materials. Tactic 3: Put Census facts on candy to give out at basketball games. Tactic 4: “Dorm storm”—place fliers under all doors in at least 1 residence hall. Tactic 5: Place “invites” on car dashboards in the parking structure that inform students of our upcoming Chapman event. Tactic 6: Interest at least one media outlet in covering the campaign.

Strategy 5: Position the Census as an exciting event in which students want to

participate. Tactic 1: Take photos of students holding signs that say, “I RSVP to participate in the U.S. Census 2010” and post on Facebook. Tactic 2: Use key messages: “Shortest ballot in U.S. history…10 questions, 10 minutes Gives each student a voice.” Tactic 3: Write songs about the Census as well as record a music video and perform live on campus. The songs will incorporate Census facts, unite with our party theme and explain the significance of the red balloon icon. This form of guerilla marketing will entice students to listen and absorb the information on a cerebral and subconscious level. The song will be matched with illustrations and photos from our information booths and stream on YouTube, Facebook and Twitter. Tactic 4: Host a balloon release to signify each student’s RSVP to participate in the Census and that every person matters. Tactic 5: Find a distinguished and recognizable spokesperson to further our messages.


Rationale: After conducting a focus group with Santa

Objective 2

To collaborate with at least one student organization at Santa Ana College (SAC) in order to inform and receive a commitment from at least 100 students during February 2010.

Ana Associated Student Government (ASG), the biggest concern of the students is money. Many students support themselves and/or take care of family members. “Put up a sign that says, ‘free,’ or ‘save money,’ and students will come,” said Alex Flores, ASG vice president of Santa Ana. Students also display a high amount of pride and a hard-working character. In recent years budget cuts have forced SAC to cut back on classes, and eliminate an entire winter intersession. After discussing the categories of most interest and events that students are most responsive to, we emphasized these components in our campaign—saving money, free items, live performances, music and food. We crafted our campaign to serve the concerns and characteristics of this demographic given to us through research.

Strategy 1: Inform students that participation in Census 2010 directly affects Pell

Grants, FAFSA, class sizes, tuition and job recruitment. Tactic 1: Collaborate with student organizations to distribute facts and statistics. Tactic 2: Work with one local political figure to arrange a Census forum or speak on behalf of the U.S. Census.

Strategy 2: Educate students about who is responsible for filling out the survey.

Tactic 1: Set up a Welcome Back Booth with informational materials. Tactic 2: Create a creative logo and message to attract students who are walking by in between classes.

Strategy 3: Instruct students on how to correctly fill out the Census form.

Tactic 1: Collaborate with student organizations to educate the Associated Student Government (ASG). Tactic 2: Have a Spanish copy of all collateral material.

Strategy 4: Ensure students that the Census is not something to fear.
Tactic 1: Insure students that all information is kept confidential by law. Tactic 2: The survey is quick and easy—“10 questions, 10 minutes”.


Objective 3

Rationale: According to the Census 2010 Toolkit for

To identify key challenges among the Latino community in Santa Ana, Calif. in order to eradicate fear and prompt participation from at least 100 Latino residents during February 2010.

reaching Latinos, it is difficult to receive participation from this demographic because some Latinos do not read or speak English. Additionally, they do not see the benefits of participating and fear that a government agency will use their personal information against them. Therefore, our team made it our mission to remedy these fears and bridge the language gap. According to our surveys, only 20 % of Santa Ana citizens were aware that participation in the Census would help raise money for the community. The three most important concerns were schools, hospitals and childcare. If the Census can be represented and understood from a child’s perspective, then it will translate to adults. Two studies show that three year-old children have the ability to recognize brand logos (Fischer, 1991), and the influence of brand loyalty can begin at age two (McNeal, 1992).

Strategy 1: Assure residents that participation in Census 2010 is safe, confidential and
information is not shared with CIA, immigration, or any other government agency. Tactic 1: Collaborate with the “Complete Count Committee of Santa Ana” to distribute informational materials outside of the Welfare office, schools, thrift stores and markets. Tactic 2: Position the Census as a “snapshot” of the United States, meaning that it has little to do with citizenship, but is more concerned about the exact number of people in the United States on April 1, 2010. Tactic 3: Emphasize the legal boundaries of the Census Bureau workers and the ramifications of exploited information.

Strategy 2: Educate residents about the impact that the Census has on schools,

hospitals and family finances. Tactic 1: To collaborate with at least one local “celebrity” or spokesperson to increase interest, gain attention and generate buzz about the Census. Tactic 2: Appear at the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) transit forum to educate influential people and allow them to carry on the message.

Strategy 3: Educate children about the Census who will then relay information to their
parents—when and where the Census forms will arrive and how they should be filled out. Tactic 1: Create a children’s book that depicts the Census through the eyes of a first grader. Tactic 2: Partner with Liberia Martinez—the largest Latino bookstore in the nation—and hold a book reading, craft workshop and information session for parents and children.


After Party! - Evaluation
Objective 1: To expand awareness of the Census and encourage the commitment of at least 100 Chapman
students to participate in the Census during February 2010. Outcome: Confetti Finale! Throughout our celebration, we acquired a following of 537 guests through social media, face-to-face conversation and event attendees. Additionally, we distributed over 600 fact sheets, event invitations and brochures that encouraged participation in the Census. Overall, our celebration affected over 1,000 Chapman Students, 25 % of the student body, which exceed our goal by 900 guests. According to our survey results alone, we increased Census awareness by 62 %. The Celebrate Census 2010 Facebook fan page acquired 248 fans and 104 photo RSVPs to participate in the Census. We received 85 followers on Twitter and 189 tweets. Two hundred FAQ fliers were given to students and 100 balloons were released by students and faculty to signify each RSVP to participate. Our on-campus event motivated 100 students to fill out surveys, which generated the following results: Question Yes No
1. Prior to stopping at our event, were you aware of the upcoming 2010 Census?..................79 2. Prior to stopping at our event, did you know that it is required by law that you fill out your Census form?......................................................................................................34 3. Now that you have attended our event, do you think the Census is important to you, as a college student?..................................................................................................95 4. Now that you are aware, will you fill out your 2010 Census form and encourage others to do it too?.................................................................................................................96 21 66 5 4

Objective 2: To collaborate with at least one student organization at Santa Ana College (SAC) in order to

inform and receive a commitment from at least 100 students during February 2010. Outcome: Confetti Finale! Our team distributed fliers and handouts to 200 students and faculty during SAC’s welcome back week. We positioned our booth in a high trafficked area on campus for two hours to receive the maximum amount of impressions. Music and live performances influenced guests to take fact sheets, dance, and celebrate their importance in the Census. In conversation with students, we instilled Census knowledge and encouraged students to relay information to their friends and families. Associated Student Government President Alex Flores and his fellow affiliates proactively spread awareness to the 32,000 student population through classroom announcements, fliers and intercom broadcasts. During our final celebration on Feb. 25, 2010, 30 guests gave their photo RSVPs, including Miss California Latina, associated student government leaders and U.S. Census Bureau representatives. Our event generated interested about the Census and positive shift in attitudes regarding participation.

Objective 3: To identify key challenges among the Latino community in Santa Ana, Calif. in order to eradicate

fear and prompt participation from at least 100 Latino residents during February 2010. Outcome: Confetti Finale! Nine guests at the transit forum RSVP’d to participate in video clips that were posted to our Twitter account. This included the Mayor of Tustin, (Jerry Amante) and Ted Nguyen (OCTA). One Hundred bilingual brochures and FAQ handouts were given to residents of the City of Santa Ana. The bookstore celebration attracted 12 children and five parent guests. Prior to the book reading, one out of 10 Census-related questions were answered correctly. Children were engaged in art and literature and by the end of the party all guests were able to answer all 10 questions correctly. Additionally, they agreed to encourage their family members and friends that participation in the Census is vital to the community. We were able to simplify the idea of the Census in a way that was intriguing to children and generated human interest. Throughout our celebration in the Latino community, we found that face-to-face communication was the most effective way of persuasion. Guests asked questions and were inspired to learn more information. Celebrate Census 2010 was built upon personal engagement, communication, and individual empowerment. The energy of each event generated overwhelming responses from the community. We received outstanding statistics; however the human satisfaction and individual expressions that we experienced were immeasurable. Because of our campiagn, we affected a total of 3,414 people who can make a large significance in the Census 2010.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.